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1.
Proc Biol Sci ; 290(1990): 20221569, 2023 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36629099

RESUMO

While cooperative interactions among kin are a key building block in the societies of group-living species, their importance for species with more variable social environments is unclear. North American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) defend individual territories in dynamic neighbourhoods and are known to benefit from living among familiar conspecifics, but not relatives. However, kin-directed behaviours may be restricted to specific genealogical relationships or strongly mediated by geographical distance, masking their influence at broader scales. Using distance between territories as a proxy for the ability of individuals to interact, we estimated the influence of primary kin (parents, offspring, siblings) on the annual survival and reproductive success of red squirrels. This approach revealed associations between fitness and access to kin, but only for certain genealogical relationships and fitness components. For example, females had enhanced annual survival when living closer to their daughters, though the reverse was not true. Most surprising was the finding that males had higher annual reproductive success when living closer to their father, suggesting possible recognition and cooperation among fathers and sons. Together, these findings point to unexpected nuance in the fitness consequences of kinship dynamics for a species that is territorial and largely solitary.


Assuntos
Irmãos , Territorialidade , Humanos , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Sciuridae , Reprodução , Meio Social , Comportamento Social
2.
Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc ; 97(1): 326-342, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34609054

RESUMO

Birdsong has been the subject of broad research from a variety of sub-disciplines and has taught us much about the evolution, function, and mechanisms driving animal communication and cognition. Typically, birdsong refers to the specialized vocalizations produced by oscines. Historically, much of the research on birdsong was conducted in north temperate regions (specifically in Europe and North America) leading to multiple biases. Due to these historic biases these vocalizations are generally considered to be highly sexually dimorphic, heavily shaped by sexual selection and essential for courtship and territoriality. Song is also typically defined as a learned trait shaped by cultural evolution. Together, this framework focuses research specifically on males, particularly during the north temperate breeding season - reflecting and thereby reinforcing this framework. The physiological underpinnings of song often emphasize the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (associated with breeding changes) and the song control system (underlying vocal learning). Over the years there has been great debate over which features of song are essential to the definition of birdsong, which features apply broadly to contexts outside males in the north temperate region, and over the importance of having a definition at all. Importantly, the definitions we use can both guide and limit the progress of research. Here, we describe the history of these definitions, and how these definitions have directed and restricted research to focus on male song in sexually selected contexts. Additionally, we highlight the gaps in our scientific knowledge, especially with respect to the function and physiological mechanisms underlying song in females and in winter, as well as in non-seasonally breeding species. Furthermore, we highlight the problems with using complexity and learning as dichotomous variables to categorize songs and calls. Across species, no one characteristic of song - sexual dimorphism, seasonality, complexity, sexual selection, learning - consistently delineates song from other songbird vocal communication. We provide recommendations for next steps to build an inclusive information framework that will allow researchers to explore nuances in animal communication and promote comparative research. Specifically, we recommend that researchers should operationalize the axis of variation most relevant to their study/species by identifying their specific question and the variable(s) of focus (e.g. seasonality). Researchers should also identify the axis (axes) of variation (e.g. degree of control by testosterone) most relevant to their study and use language consistent with the question and axis (axes) of variation (e.g. control by testosterone in the seasonal vocal production of birds).


Assuntos
Aves/fisiologia , Vocalização Animal , Comunicação Animal , Animais , Feminino , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Masculino , Territorialidade , Vocalização Animal/fisiologia
3.
Proc Biol Sci ; 289(1986): 20221602, 2022 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36350218

RESUMO

There is growing evidence that individuals actively assess the match between their phenotype and their environment when making habitat choice decisions (so-called matching habitat choice). However, to our knowledge, no studies have considered how the social environment may interact with social phenotype in determining habitat choice, despite habitat choice being an inherently social process and growing evidence for individual variation in sociability. We conducted an experiment using wild great and blue tits to understand how birds integrate their social phenotype and social environment when choosing where and how to feed. We used programmable feeders to (i) record social interactions and estimate social phenotype, and (ii) experimentally manipulate the local density experienced by birds of differing social phenotype. By tracking feeder usage, we estimated how social environment and social phenotype predicted feeder choice and feeding behaviour. Both social environment and social phenotype predicted feeder usage, but a bird's decision to remain in a particular social environment did not depend on their social phenotype. By contrast, for feeding behaviour, responses to the social environment depended on social phenotype. Our results provide rare evidence of matching habitat choice and shed light on the dependence of habitat choice on between-individual differences in social phenotype.


Assuntos
Aves Canoras , Animais , Fenótipo , Meio Social , Territorialidade , Comportamento Alimentar
4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 20239, 2022 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36424460

RESUMO

One concern of the Anthropocene is the effects of human activities on animal welfare, revealing the urgency to mitigate impacts of rearing environments. Body tactile stimulation (TS), like massage therapy, has emerged as an enrichment method to counteract stress and anxiety in vertebrates. In the current study, we evaluated the effects of long-term TS on four-member groups of male Nile tilapia, a worldwide reared species whose socially aggressive behavior is an essential source of stress. We placed a rectangular PVC frame fitted with vertical plastic sticks sided with silicone bristles in the center of aquarium to enable the fish to receive body TS when passing through the bristles. A similar apparatus without bristles was used as the control. Fish subjected to TS for 21 days showed a gradual lowering of overt fights over time, but with no reduction in cortisol or androgen levels. Nevertheless, TS improved the specific growth rate, maintained balanced length/weight gain, and increased feed efficiency, probably owing to the lowered energy expenditure during fights. Thus, we show for the first time that long-term TS provided by a simple device can be used as a tool to improve the welfare and productive performance of territorial fish.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos , Animais , Humanos , Masculino , Ciclídeos/fisiologia , Agressão/fisiologia , Territorialidade , Tato , Aumento de Peso
5.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0256618, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36449452

RESUMO

Gray Wolves (Canis lupus) are territorial, group living carnivores that live in packs typically consisting of a dominant breeding pair and their offspring. Breeding tenures are relatively short and competitive, with vacancies usually occurring following a breeder's death, and are often filled by unrelated immigrants or by relatives of the previous breeder. The frequency and conditions of active breeder displacements are poorly understood. Position changes in the dominance hierarchy are common yet rarely documented in detail. We describe a male breeding position turnover in a wolf pack by males from a neighboring pack in mid-summer 2016 in Yellowstone National Park. Over the course of two months, three males from the Mollie's pack displaced the breeding male of the neighboring Wapiti Lake pack, joined the pack's two adult females, and subsequently raised the previous male's four approximately three-month old pups. In the five years following the displacement (2017 to 2021), at least one of the intruding males has successfully bred with the dominant female and most years with a subordinate female (who was one of the pups at the time of displacement). The pack reared pups to adulthood each year. Male breeding displacements are likely influenced by male-male competition and female mate choice. These changes are the result of individuals competing to improve breeding position and may lead to increased pack stability and greater reproductive success. We report in detail on the behavior of a closely observed breeding displacement and we discuss the adaptive benefits of the change.


Assuntos
Cervos , Lobos , Feminino , Masculino , Animais , Parques Recreativos , Territorialidade , Reprodução
6.
Behav Processes ; 203: 104764, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36243379

RESUMO

Birdsong exhibits syntactical patterns, wherein singers from a variety of species perform vocal sequences that follow set rules with respect to the order of vocal units (e.g., song types or syllables). However, little is known with certainty regarding the degree to which such patterns contribute to the two main functions of birdsong, mate attraction and territorial defense. The present study investigates the role of syntactical patterns in the songs of the hermit Hermit Thrush (Catharus guttatus), which delivers its song types in a semi-predictable order that cycles up and down the frequency spectrum. A within-subjects playback experiment was conducted to assess the strength of territorial response among males exposed to conspecific song stimuli with and without species-typical patterns. The magnitude of territorial response did not differ with between the two stimulus types, suggesting that the syntactical patterns within Hermit Thrush song do not contribute to territorial defense and aggression. Implications for overall understanding of birdsong syntax, as well as future studies with this species, are discussed.


Assuntos
Aves Canoras , Vocalização Animal , Humanos , Masculino , Animais , Vocalização Animal/fisiologia , Aves Canoras/fisiologia , Territorialidade , Agressão
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 15594, 2022 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36114203

RESUMO

Olfactory communication is common in felids. We observed two scent-markings, urine spraying and scraping the ground with hind paws during excretion, of 25 captive cheetahs. We analyzed the association of sniffing with the timing of urine spraying and scraping, and differences in these behaviors based on sex, age, and captive environment to understand the olfactory communication among cheetahs. Both scent-markings were strongly associated with sniffing, especially scraping, and the presence or absence of scent was thought to be a trigger. Both behaviors were observed only in adults; scraping was observed only in males. To our knowledge, this study was first to confirm the discharge of secretions from the anal glands during scraping. The frequencies of both behaviors were significantly higher in males kept in shared enclosures containing other individuals than in males kept in monopolized enclosures, while there was no difference in the frequencies among females. Female cheetahs are solitary and have non-exclusive home range, whereas male cheetahs are either solitary or live in coalition groups and there are territorial and non-territorial males. Our results could be attributed to the differences in sociality between the sexes and effect of the living environment.


Assuntos
Acinonyx , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Odorantes , Feromônios , Olfato , Territorialidade
8.
Elife ; 112022 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36102799

RESUMO

Conflicts with conspecific outsiders are common in group-living species, from ants to primates, and are argued to be an important selective force in social evolution. However, whilst an extensive empirical literature exists on the behaviour exhibited during and immediately after interactions with rivals, only very few observational studies have considered the cumulative fitness consequences of outgroup conflict. Using a cooperatively breeding fish, the daffodil cichlid (Neolamprologus pulcher), we conducted the first experimental test of the effects of chronic outgroup conflict on reproductive investment and output. 'Intruded' groups received long-term simulated territorial intrusions by neighbours that generated consistent group-defence behaviour; matched 'Control' groups (each the same size and with the same neighbours as an Intruded group) received no intrusions in the same period. Intruded groups had longer inter-clutch intervals and produced eggs with increasingly less protein than Control groups. Despite the lower egg investment, Intruded groups provided more parental care and achieved similar hatching success to Control groups. Ultimately, however, Intruded groups had fewer and smaller surviving offspring than Control groups at 1-month post-hatching. We therefore provide experimental evidence that outgroup conflict can decrease fitness via cumulative effects on reproductive success, confirming the selective potential of this empirically neglected aspect of sociality.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos , Territorialidade , Animais , Reprodução , Comportamento Social
9.
Horm Behav ; 145: 105241, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35964525

RESUMO

Most animals encounter social challenges throughout their lives as they compete for resources. Individual responses to such challenges can depend on social status, sex, and community-level attributes, yet most of our knowledge of the behavioral and physiological mechanisms by which individuals respond to challenges has come from dyadic interactions between a resource holder and a challenger (usually both males). To incorporate differences in individual behavior that are influenced by surrounding group members, we use naturalistic communities of the cichlid fish, Astatotilapia burtoni, and examine resident dominant male responses to a territorial intrusion within the social group. We measured behavior and steroid hormones (testosterone and cortisol), and neural activity in key brain regions implicated in regulating territorial and social dominance behavior. In response to a male intruder, resident dominant males shifted from border defense to overt attack behavior, accompanied by decreased basolateral amygdala activity. These differences were context dependent - resident dominant males only exhibited increased border defense when the intruder secured dominance. Neither subordinate males nor females changed their behavior in response to a territorial intrusion in their community. However, neural activity in both hippocampus and lateral septum of subordinates increased when the intruder failed to establish dominance. Our results demonstrate how a social challenge results in multi-faceted behavioral, hormonal, and neural changes, depending on social status, sex, and the outcome of an intruder challenge. Taken together, our work provides novel insights into the mechanisms through which individual group members display context- and status-appropriate challenge responses in dynamic social groups.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Ciclídeos/fisiologia , Feminino , Hidrocortisona , Masculino , Status Social , Territorialidade , Testosterona
10.
Zoology (Jena) ; 154: 126043, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36027693

RESUMO

Acoustic communication of animals often contains two types of vocalizations: loud sounds for long-range and soft sounds for short-range signalling. Brood parasitic common cuckoos (Cuculus canorus) are suitable study objects for research on acoustic signalling as they have a simple acoustic repertoire, of which the loud territorial advertisement calls of males, the "cu-coo", is the most famous type. Although a distinct group of soft calls has also been reported in early naturalists' works, no systematic studies compared them acoustically. Even the classification of these soft calls is lacking. Here we surveyed these neglected types of calls, and evaluated them through bioacustic analyses. Specifically, we compared the following soft calls: single gowk, guo, and the series of gowk calls. The advertisement call ("cu-coo") was used as the referent for these comparisons. As the male's gowk series call most typically contains 3-5 elements with decreasing volume (disappearing at the end), we compared the first two elements of this call. Our analyses revealed great acoustic similarities between three call types (gowk series call 1st note, gowk series call 2nd note, and single gowk call), and the distinctiveness of the other call type (guo) from this group. Structurally the gowk cannot be regarded as a separate call from a male's gowk series call, and the only difference is that the series call contains a set of the gowk calls. Our classification of cuckoo calls offers the possibility for further research into their functional importance and communicative role in male-male or female-male social contexts.


Assuntos
Cobre , Vocalização Animal , Acústica , Animais , Aves , Feminino , Masculino , Territorialidade
11.
Behav Processes ; 202: 104735, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35995314

RESUMO

Agonistic conflict is ubiquitous throughout taxa, although the intensity of aggression observed is often highly variable across contexts. For socially monogamous species, a coordinated effort by both pair members can improve the chances of successfully warding off challengers and reinforce pair bonds. However, the intensity of aggression exerted by any one pair member may vary with respect to contextual factors, including the intensity of their mate's aggression. Thus, experimentally exploring how individuals respond to potential rivals via multiple assays with varying social contexts can advance our basic understanding of how aggression varies in socially monogamous systems. We used simulated territorial intrusion and mirror image simulation assays to explore this issue in white-shouldered fairywrens (Malurus alboscapulatus moretoni) of Papua New Guinea. While males tended to be more responsive than females during simulated territorial intrusions, females were more aggressive towards their mirrored reflection than males. Further, individual females that were most aggressive in mirror image simulations were the least aggressive during simulated territorial intrusions, whereas males were inconsistent. These results suggest that female behavioral phenotypes appear to be flexible, relative to context. We discuss how multiple commonly used measurements of aggression might in fact measure different types of responses.


Assuntos
Aves Canoras , Agressão/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Ligação do Par , Aves Canoras/fisiologia , Territorialidade , Testosterona
12.
Ecol Lett ; 25(10): 2167-2176, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35986619

RESUMO

Theorists have identified several mechanisms through which species that compete exploitatively for resources could coexist. By contrast, under the current theory, interference competitors could coexist only in rare circumstances. Yet, some types of interference competition, such as interspecific territoriality, are common. This mismatch between theory and nature inspired us to model interference competition in an eco-evolutionary framework. We based the model on the life cycle of territorial birds and ran simulations to examine whether natural selection could rescue a superior interference competitor from extinction without driving a superior exploitative competitor extinct. We found that coexistence between interference competitors can occur over a wide range of ecologically plausible scenarios, and up to the highest levels of resource overlap. An important caveat is that coexistence requires the species to co-evolve. Reductions in population size and levels of genetic variation could destabilise coexistence between interference competitors, and thereby increase extinction rates over current estimates.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Territorialidade , Dinâmica Populacional , Seleção Genética
13.
Behav Processes ; 202: 104741, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36038024

RESUMO

Animals can eavesdrop on other competitors during territorial defense disputes to better choose rivals weaker than themselves and increase the chances of monopolizing resources. In dragonflies, males often compete for access to water bodies, which attract sexually receptive females to mate and lay eggs. During the breeding season, satellite males can observe fights between territory owners and intruders and, therefore, obtain information about potential rivals through visual cues. Consequently, weaker competitors may face more intense competition than stronger ones when defending a territory. In this study, we conducted field experiments with the dragonfly Erythrodiplax fusca to investigate whether eavesdropping on territorial disputes, using visual cues, affects the intensity of competition that territory owners face. We recorded the number of intruders that engage in disputes against males that recently occupied territories in two groups: the "eavesdropping" group (i.e., individuals with access to rivals' prior information) and the control group (i.e., competitors with no access to prior information). The number of intruders was greater in the eavesdropping group compared to the control group. This effect depended on the interaction between the size of the territory owners and the presence of eavesdropping. The number of intruders decreased with increase in the size of the owners in the presence of eavesdropping, but this relationship did not occur in the control group. We discuss the implications of our findings for the male decision-making process to initiate agonistic disputes and how investigating eavesdropping behavior can improve current models of conflict resolution in animals.


Assuntos
Odonatos , Agressão , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Masculino , Territorialidade , Água
14.
Proc Biol Sci ; 289(1978): 20220680, 2022 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35858056

RESUMO

The spatial distribution of cooperating individuals plays a strategic role in territorial interactions of many group-living animals, and can indicate group cohesion. Vocalizations are commonly used to judge the distribution of signallers, but the spatial resolution of sounds is poor. Many species therefore accompany calls with movement; however, little is known about the role of audio-visual perception in natural interactions. We studied the effect of angular separation on the efficacy of multimodal duets in the Australian magpie-lark, Grallina cyanoleuca. We tested specifically whether conspicuous wing movements, which typically accompany duets, affect responses to auditory angular separation. Multimodal playbacks of duets using robotic models and speakers showed that birds relied primarily on acoustic cues when visual and auditory angular separations were congruent, but used both modalities to judge separation between the signallers when modalities were spatially incongruent. The visual component modified the effect of acoustic separation: robotic models that were apart weakened the response when speakers were together, while models that were together strengthened responses when speakers were apart. Our results show that responses are stronger when signallers are together, and suggest that males were are able to bind information cross-modally on the senders' spatial location, which is consistent with a multisensory illusion.


Assuntos
Ilusões , Passeriformes , Aves Canoras , Estimulação Acústica , Animais , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Austrália , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa , Aves Canoras/fisiologia , Territorialidade , Percepção Visual/fisiologia
16.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0266129, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35802713

RESUMO

The earth's geomagnetic field (GMF) is known to influence the behaviour of a wide range of species, but remains one of the most enigmatic of animal senses. Animals are known to utilize the GMF for a wide range of survival capabilities such as navigation and orienteering, migration, territoriality, homing, etc. Despite a lot of study in this regard on vertebrates, little is known about the effects of GMF on felids. Hence, we analyzed the body alignment of the Indian Leopard during defecation, and walking along the trails in the Jhalana Reserve Forest in India. Using circular statistics, we found that the leopards aligned their bodies on the north-south axis during defecation (mean azimuth -176.4°), while no such preference was found when walking (mean azimuth 52.9°). Thus we prove that leopards are sensitive to the GMF during basic physiological activities and in this context show similar behaviour to other vertebrates studied to date.


Assuntos
Panthera , Animais , Florestas , Fator de Maturação da Glia , Fenômenos Magnéticos , Panthera/fisiologia , Territorialidade
17.
Am Nat ; 200(2): E77-E92, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35905399

RESUMO

AbstractMany animals use signals to recognize familiar individuals but risk making mistakes because the signal properties of different individuals often overlap. Furthermore, outcomes of correct and incorrect decisions yield different fitness payoffs, and animals incur these payoffs at different frequencies depending on interaction rates. To understand how signal variation, payoffs, and interaction rates shape recognition decision rules, we studied male golden rocket frogs, which recognize the calls of territory neighbors and are less aggressive to neighbors than to strangers. We first quantified patterns of individual variation in call properties and predicted optimal discrimination thresholds using signal variation. We then measured thresholds for discriminating between neighbors and strangers using a habituation-discrimination field playback experiment. Territorial males discriminated between calls differing by 9%-12% in temporal properties, slightly higher than the predicted thresholds (5%-10%). Finally, we used a signal detection theory model to explore payoff and interaction rate parameters and found that the empirical threshold matched those predicted under ecologically realistic assumptions of infrequent encounters with strangers and relatively costly missed detections of strangers. We demonstrate that receivers group continuous variation in vocalizations into discrete social categories and that signal detection theory can be applied to understand evolved decision rules.


Assuntos
Territorialidade , Vocalização Animal , Agressão , Animais , Anuros , Masculino , Reconhecimento Psicológico
18.
Br J Sociol ; 73(4): 685-698, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35842905

RESUMO

This paper presents a critical examination of a vexed issue relating to how educational systems respond to diversity, inclusion, and social justice. Whilst there are unique factors specific to the various educational sectors; that is, to early years, schools, colleges, higher education and to the life-long learning sector, this paper explores education and diversity in its broadest sense and recognizes that issues are as much cross-sector as they are within-sector. Further still, this paper shifts across disciplinary epistemic boundaries making use of Foucault's tools and the work of Deleuze and Guattari. Given this broader context, this paper primarily traverses the borders of schooling and higher education. It utilizes the notion of scales of justice and draws upon the work of Fraser and explores how this can offer insights into issues not only in relation to redistribution and recognition, but also to representation. It intentionally, draws upon (critical) disability studies literature; and the often-forgotten discrimination known as disability. It acknowledges the various paradigms and terminological descriptors associated with disabled people, how these are intentionally, I argue, produced and re-produced, subject to a process of misframing, misrecognition and maldistribution through various territorialized and often segregated educational spaces. In response, this paper offers a reading of dis/ability which moves through theoretical and conceptual understandings and advances the notion of deterritorialization in order to escape, engage and identify larger patterns of inequality. It offers different insights, provides an alternative mapping that can raise different critical questions about disability, also to issues of diversity, inclusion, and social justice.


Assuntos
Justiça Social , Territorialidade , Humanos , Instituições Acadêmicas
19.
Behav Processes ; 200: 104706, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35839943

RESUMO

Territorial animals show less aggression during intrusion by neighbours than by strangers, a phenomenon known as the "dear enemy effect". Recent studies have shown that the dear enemy effect is variable in some birds throughout the breeding season. However, there is limited research on changes in dear enemy effects in songbirds during the breeding season. In this study, we monitored dusky warblers (Phylloscopus fuscatus) throughout their breeding stages, conducting playback experiments simulating incursions by neighbours and strangers during their egg-laying and incubation/nestling periods, and recording physical responses and song responses from territory owners. The results showed that male dusky warblers responded similarly to neighbours and strangers during the female egg-laying period, but there was a significantly stronger response to strangers than to neighbours during the incubation/nestling period. This suggests that male dusky warblers adjust the intensity of their defences against neighbours according to the reproductive status of their own mate. This may be because neighbouring males threaten the paternity of territorial males during the egg-laying period, so territorial males demote the 'dear enemy' friendly relationships with their neighbours to defend their mate and paternity. In contrast, during the non-reproductive period of females, when neighbours are less of a threat to the paternity of territorial males, lowering defences against neighbouring males allow them to devote more time and energy to activities that improve their fitness, such as foraging and seeking extra-pair mating.


Assuntos
Passeriformes , Aves Canoras , Agressão/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Passeriformes/fisiologia , Reprodução , Aves Canoras/fisiologia , Territorialidade
20.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 377(1851): 20210151, 2022 05 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35369753

RESUMO

Group territory defence poses a collective action problem: individuals can free-ride, benefiting without paying the costs. Individual heterogeneity has been proposed to solve such problems, as individuals high in reproductive success, rank, fighting ability or motivation may benefit from defending territories even if others free-ride. To test this hypothesis, we analysed 30 years of data from chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in the Kasekela community, Gombe National Park, Tanzania (1978-2007). We examined the extent to which individual participation in patrols varied according to correlates of reproductive success (mating rate, rank, age), fighting ability (hunting), motivation (scores from personality ratings), costs of defecting (the number of adult males in the community) and gregariousness (sighting frequency). By contrast to expectations from collective action theory, males participated in patrols at consistently high rates (mean ± s.d. = 74.5 ± 11.1% of patrols, n = 23 males). The best predictors of patrol participation were sighting frequency, age and hunting participation. Current and former alpha males did not participate at a higher rate than males that never achieved alpha status. These findings suggest that the temptation to free-ride is low, and that a mutualistic mechanism such as group augmentation may better explain individual participation in group territorial behaviour. This article is part of the theme issue 'Intergroup conflict across taxa'.


Assuntos
Pan troglodytes , Territorialidade , Animais , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação , Personalidade , Reprodução
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