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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 7248, 2021 12 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34903755

RESUMO

The coexistence of closely-related species in sympatry is puzzling because ecological niche proximity imposes strong competition and reproductive interference. A striking example is the widespread wing pattern convergence of several blue-banded Morpho butterfly species with overlapping ranges of distribution. Here we perform a series of field experiments using flying Morpho dummies placed in a natural habitat. We show that similarity in wing colour pattern indeed leads to interspecific territoriality and courtship among sympatric species. In spite of such behavioural interference, demographic inference from genomic data shows that sympatric closely-related Morpho species are genetically isolated. Mark-recapture experiments in the two most closely-related species unravel a strong temporal segregation in patrolling activity of males. Such divergence in phenology reduces the costs of reproductive interference while simultaneously preserving the benefits of convergence in non-reproductive traits in response to common ecological pressures. Henceforth, the evolution of multiple traits may favour species diversification in sympatry by partitioning niche in different dimensions.


Assuntos
Borboletas/genética , Especiação Genética , Simpatria , Animais , Mimetismo Biológico , Borboletas/classificação , Corte , Ecossistema , Masculino , Isolamento Reprodutivo , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Territorialidade , Asas de Animais
2.
Oecologia ; 197(3): 615-631, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34716493

RESUMO

The evolution of territoriality reflects the balance between the benefit and cost of monopolising a resource. While the benefit of territoriality is generally intuitive (improved access to resources), our understanding of its cost is less clear. This paper combines: 1. a review of hypotheses and meta-analytic benchmarking of costs across diverse taxa; and 2. a new empirical test of hypotheses using a longitudinal study of free-living male territorial lizards. The cost of territoriality was best described as a culmination of multiple factors, but especially costs resulting from the time required to maintain a territory (identified by the meta-analysis) or those exacerbated by a territory that is large in size (identified by the empirical test). The meta-analysis showed that physiological costs such as energetic expenditure or stress were largely negligible in impact on territory holders. Species that used territories to monopolise access to mates appeared to incur the greatest costs, whereas those defending food resources experienced the least. The single largest gap in our current understanding revealed by the literature review is the potential cost associated with increased predation. There is also a clear need for multiple costs to be evaluated concurrently in a single species. The empirical component of this study showcases a powerful analytical framework for evaluating a range of hypotheses using correlational data obtained in the field. More broadly, this paper highlights key factors that should be considered in any investigation that attempts to account for the evolutionary origin or ecological variation in territorial behaviour within and between species.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Territorialidade , Animais , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino
3.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0242586, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34478443

RESUMO

Road ecology has traditionally focused on the impact of in-situ and functional roads on wildlife. However, road construction also poses a major, yet understudied, threat and the implications for key aspects of animal behaviour are unknown. Badgers (Meles meles) have been implicated in the transmission of tuberculosis to cattle. There are concerns that environmental disturbances, including major road construction, can disrupt badger territoriality, promoting the spread of the disease to cattle. To address these knowledge gaps the ranging behaviour of a medium-density Irish badger population was monitored using GPS-tracking collars before, during, and after a major road realignment project that bisected the study area. We estimated badgers' home range sizes, nightly distances travelled, and the distance and frequency of extra-territorial excursions during each phase of the study and quantified any changes to these parameters. We show that road construction had a very limited effect on ranging behaviour. A small increase in nightly distance during road construction did not translate into an increase in home range size, nor an increase in the distance or frequency of extra-territorial excursions during road construction. In addition, suitable mitigation measures to prevent badger deaths appeared to ensure that normal patterns of ranging behaviour continued once the new road was in place. We recommend that continuous badger-proof fencing be placed along the entire length of new major roads, in combination with appropriately sited underpasses. Our analysis supports the view that road construction did not cause badgers to change their ranging behaviour in ways likely to increase the spread of tuberculosis.


Assuntos
Mustelidae , Territorialidade , Animais , Bovinos , Reservatórios de Doenças , Mycobacterium bovis , Tuberculose Bovina
4.
Biol Lett ; 17(8): 20210201, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343439

RESUMO

In many species, males can rapidly adjust their ejaculate performance in response to changing levels of sperm competition, an ability that is probably mediated by seminal fluid adaptive plasticity. In the black goby, Gobius niger, territorial males attach viscous ejaculate trails to the nest roof, from which sperm are slowly released into the water during the long-lasting spawning events. Sneaker males release their sperm in the vicinity of the nest, and territorial males try to keep them at a distance by patrolling their territory. We show here that territorial males' ejaculate trails released a higher proportion of their sperm in the presence of a single sneaker, but this proportion decreased when there were three sneakers, an effect that is most likely mediated by a change in the seminal fluid composition. Field observations showed that when multiple sneaking attempts occurred, territorial males spent more time outside the nest, suggesting that ejaculation rate and territory defence are traded-off. Altogether, these results suggest that the adjustment of sperm release from the ejaculate may be strategic, guaranteeing a more continuous concentration of the territorial male's sperm in the nest, although at a lower level, when he is engaged in prolonged territory defence outside the nest.


Assuntos
Perciformes , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Animais , Masculino , Espermatozoides , Territorialidade
5.
Behav Processes ; 191: 104472, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34363910

RESUMO

Duetting is a coordinated form of acoustic communication with participants uttering calls or songs simultaneously and/or sequentially. Duetting is often observed in pair-bonded species, with mated females and males both contributing to the communal vocal output. We observed duetting between the sexes in the common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus), an obligate brood parasitic species without known pair formation. Specifically, female cuckoos use their sex-specific bubbling calls for duetting, while male cuckoos use a 3-note variant ("cu-cu-coo") of their typical and well-known 2-note ("cu-coo") territorial advertisement calls. The maximum frequency of the elements in the male's 3-note variants was higher relative to the 2-note calls, while durations of both the elements and the inter-element intervals were shorter. The vast majority (95 %) of the 3-note calling was detected together with the bubbling call, implying an intersexual duetting function, with the female calls preceding these male calls in 67 % of cases. The two call types in duetting followed each other rapidly (mean response time of females was 1.30 ± 0.71 SD s, and 0.76 ± 0.53 SD s in males), and typically overlapped with each other (95 %). Frequently (90 %), the male call was repeated 2-3 times, whereas the female call was repeated less frequently (9%). Our results are consistent with a main function of duetting in intersexual communication and coordination between female and male cuckoos.


Assuntos
Cobre , Vocalização Animal , Acústica , Animais , Aves , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Territorialidade
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14148, 2021 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34239020

RESUMO

In reintroduction projects, an analysis of dispersal, exploratory movements and territorial behavior of the species concerned offers valuable information on the adaptive management of threatened species and provides a basis for the management of future reintroductions. This is the case of the Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) an endemic and endangered species reintroduced in Extremadura (Spain) in 2014. We analysed spatial data from 32 individuals just after their reintroduction. Our findings show exploratory movements sufficient to colonise and connect population nuclei within a radius of about 50 km of the reintroduction area. No significant differences were found in the exploratory movements capacity or in any directionality of males and females. Our results showed an effect of sex on the sizes of the territories established, as well as an inverse relationship between them and the time elapsed since release. No effects of rabbit abundance and lynx density on the size of territories are occurring during the early stages of reintroduction. On average, the territories of reintroduced individuals were less stable than those previously described in natural populations. Findings indicate that the reintroduced population has successfully been established but it takes more than 5 years to stabilize the territories in the area. Exploratory movements of reintroduced lynx can be large and in any direction, even when there is still a lot of high quality habitat available, which should be taken into account when reintroducing species, especially terrestrial carnivores.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Lynx/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Espanha , Territorialidade
7.
J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci ; 60(5): 506-509, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34301345

RESUMO

The Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) is a solitary and naturally territorial animal, with female hamsters being more aggressive than males. This behavior makes handling difficult because they are usually housed in groups, which can lead to aggressive behavior. The objective of this study was to refine the management of Syrian hamsters in order to minimize aggressiveness, reduce the animal injuries, and lessen the risk of accidents among laboratory animal technicians due to the hamster aggression during handling. The experiment was conducted at the Center for Animals Experimentation, Oswaldo Cruz Institute. Four groups of hamsters were observed by video recording: group 1 (group-housed males, 6 to 8 wk of age), group 2 (group-housed females 6 to 8 wk of age), group 3 (group-housed female, 3 to 4 wk of age), and group 4 (individually housed females, 6 to 8 wk of age). Group 1 animals were less aggressive and agitated both during housing and during handling by the animal technician as compared with groups 2 and 3. Groups 2 and 3 showed greater agitation and aggression. Marked reduction in the level of aggressiveness and agitation was observed in group 4 as compared with all other groups evaluated during handling by the animal technician. Male hamsters housed in groups of 4 and females housed individually have reduced risks of accident during handling, thereby averting distress and consequent physiologic alterations. Avoiding these risks is essential to obtaining reliable experimental results.


Assuntos
Agressão , Habitação , Animais , Cricetinae , Feminino , Masculino , Mesocricetus , Territorialidade
8.
Ecol Lett ; 24(9): 1750-1761, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34196091

RESUMO

Convergence in communication appears rare compared with other forms of adaptation. This is puzzling, given communication is acutely dependent on the environment and expected to converge in form when animals communicate in similar habitats. We uncover deep-time convergence in territorial communication between two groups of tropical lizards separated by over 140 million years of evolution: the Southeast Asian Draco and Caribbean Anolis. These groups have repeatedly converged in multiple aspects of display along common environmental gradients. Robot playbacks to free-ranging lizards confirmed that the most prominent convergence in display is adaptive, as it improves signal detection. We then provide evidence from a sample of the literature to further show that convergent adaptation among highly divergent animal groups is almost certainly widespread in nature. Signal evolution is therefore curbed towards the same set of adaptive solutions, especially when animals are challenged with the problem of communicating effectively in noisy environments.


Assuntos
Lagartos , Adaptação Fisiológica , Adaptação Psicológica , Comunicação Animal , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Filogenia , Territorialidade
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14673, 2021 07 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34282175

RESUMO

Intraspecies violence, including lethal interactions, is a relatively common phenomenon in mammals. Contrarily, interspecies violence has mainly been investigated in the context of predation and received most research attention in carnivores. Here, we provide the first information of two lethal coalitionary attacks of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) on another hominid species, western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla), that occur sympatrically in the Loango National Park in Gabon. In both events, the chimpanzees significantly outnumbered the gorillas and victims were infant gorillas. We discuss these observations in light of the two most widely accepted theoretical explanations for interspecific lethal violence, predation and competition, and combinations of the two-intraguild predation and interspecific killing. Given these events meet conditions proposed to trigger coalitional killing of neighbours in chimpanzees, we also discuss them in light of chimpanzees' intraspecific interactions and territorial nature. Our findings may spur further research into the complexity of interspecies interactions. In addition, they may aid in combining field data from extant models with the Pliocene hominid fossil record to better understand behavioural adaptations and interspecific killing in the hominin lineage.


Assuntos
Agressão/fisiologia , Gorilla gorilla , Pan troglodytes/fisiologia , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Animais Selvagens , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Feminino , Gabão , Masculino , Comportamento Predatório/fisiologia , Comportamento Social , Territorialidade , Violência/psicologia
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 793: 148534, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34182458

RESUMO

Accidents on power lines are the leading cause of mortality for many raptor species. In order to prioritise corrective measures, much effort has been focused on identifying the factors associated with collision and electrocution risk. However, most studies lack of precise data about the use of pylons and its underlying driving factors, often relying on biased information based on recorded fatalities. Here, we used multiple years of high-resolution data from 49-GPS tagged Canarian Egyptian Vultures (Neophron percnopterus majorensis) to overcome these typical biases. Birds of our target population use electric pylons extensively for perching (diurnal) and roosting (nocturnal), so accidents with these infrastructures are nowadays the main cause of mortality. Predictive models of pylon intensity of use were fitted for diurnal and nocturnal behaviour, accounting for power line, environmental, and individual vulture's features. Using these measures as a proxy for mortality risk, our model predictions were validated with out-of-sample data of actual mortality recorded during 17 years. Vultures used more pylons during daytime, but those chosen at night were used more intensively. In both time periods, the intensity of use of pylons was determined by similar drivers: vultures avoided pylons close to roads and territories of conspecifics, preferentially used pylons located in areas with higher abundance of food resources, and spread their use during the breeding season. Individuals used pylons unevenly according to their sex, age, and territorial status, indicating that site-specific mitigation measures may affect different fractions of the population. Our modelling procedures predicted actual mortality reasonably well, showing that prioritising mitigation measures on relatively few pylons (6%) could drastically reduce accidents (50%). Our findings demonstrate that combining knowledge on fine-scale individual behaviour and pylon type and distribution is key to target cost-effective conservation actions aimed at effectively reducing avian mortality on power lines.


Assuntos
Falconiformes , Aves Predatórias , Animais , Aves , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Humanos , Territorialidade
11.
Integr Comp Biol ; 61(2): 736-748, 2021 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34113992

RESUMO

Hummingbirds have two main foraging strategies: territoriality (defending a patch of flowers) and traplining (foraging over routine circuits of isolated patches). Species are often classified as employing one or the other. Not only have these strategies been inconsistently defined within the behavioral literature, but this simple framework also neglects the substantial evidence for flexible foraging behavior displayed by hummingbirds. Despite these limitations, research on hummingbird foraging has explored the distinct avenues of selection that proponents of either strategy presumably face: trapliners maximizing foraging efficiency, and territorialists favoring speed and maneuverability for resource defense. In earlier studies, these functions were primarily examined through wing disc loading (ratio of body weight to the circular area swept out by the wings, WDL) and predicted hovering costs, with trapliners expected to exhibit lower WDL than territorialists and thus lower hovering costs. While these pioneering models continue to play a role in current research, early studies were constrained by modest technology, and the original expectations regarding WDL have not held up when applied across complex hummingbird assemblages. Current technological advances have allowed for innovative research on the biomechanics/energetics of hummingbird flight, such as allometric scaling relationships (e.g., wing area-flight performance) and the link between high burst lifting performance and territoriality. Providing a predictive framework based on these relationships will allow us to reexamine previous hypotheses, and explore the biomechanical trade-offs to different foraging strategies, which may yield divergent routes of selection for quintessential territoriality and traplining. With a biomechanical and morphofunctional lens, here we examine the locomotor and energetic facets that dictate hummingbird foraging, and provide (a) predictions regarding the behavioral, biomechanical, and morphofunctional associations with territoriality and traplining; and (b) proposed methods of testing them. By pursuing these knowledge gaps, future research could use a variety of traits to help clarify the operational definitions of territoriality and traplining, to better apply them in the field.


Assuntos
Comportamento Apetitivo , Aves , Voo Animal , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Aves/fisiologia , Territorialidade , Asas de Animais
12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 12408, 2021 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34117320

RESUMO

Among marine invertebrates, polychaete worms form symbiotic associations showing a wide variety of host use patterns. Most commonly, they live solitary on hosts, likely resulting from territorial behavior, yet little is known of the precise nature of the involved interactions. Based on field and laboratory observations, we described the symbiotic association between Ophthalmonoe pettibonae and Chaetopterus cf. appendiculatus from Nhatrang Bay (Vietnam). Then, by experimentally manipulating the competitor-to-resource ratio, we analyzed symbiont behavior and we assessed whether the 1:1 uniform distribution observed in nature could be driven by agonistic territorial behavior. Hosts and symbiont populations had low densities, lacked size relationships and showed higher prevalence when denser. Symbiont behavior included territoriality, expressed through conspecific recognition and intraspecific aggressive interactions (pursuit and escaping, hiding, choosing position, aggressive fighting, and targeting a specific bite zone). Our experiments proved that territoriality led to host monopolization by a single symbiont, provided the first empirical evidence that symbiont body injuries were caused during territorial contests, and allowed us to first suggest that a marine symbiotic invertebrate may control a territory extending beyond its host, even including neighboring hosts. Overall, this is the first report of such a complex symbiotic behavior for an annelid polychaete.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Poliquetos/fisiologia , Simbiose , Territorialidade , Animais , Vietnã
13.
Am J Primatol ; 83(8): e23292, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34170034

RESUMO

The home ranges of odd-nosed colobines as reported by a number of studies can vary greatly both within and between taxa. Evaluating Pygathrix, particularly within the context of the odd-nosed colobines, has proven challenging due to the comparable dearth of published data on all three species-Pygathrix nigripes, Pygathrix cinerea, and Pygathrix nemaeus. This dearth has also proven challenging when assessing territoriality within Pygathrix and contextualizing this behavior to odd-nosed colobines. For this study, we set out to assess home range, daily path length, and territoriality in a population of P. nemaeus at Son Tra Nature Reserve in Vietnam. We collected a total of 259 h of behavioral data using 10-min focal follows with 1-min instantaneous scans, including GPS recordings for each follow. We collected phenology and weather data, which were then used with Pearson's correlations to test whether ecological factors influenced variation in ranging or daily path length at both the monthly and seasonal levels. Finally, we used the Mitani-Rodman defendability index to assess territoriality in P. nemaeus. We found that our population of P. nemaeus had a home range of 36.00 ha with a core area of 8.02 ha and an average daily path length of 509.11 ± 244.87 m. Daily path length was correlated to precipitation such that daily path lengths were shorter during increases in rainfall (r(17) = 0.52, p = .03). These measures resulted in a defendability index of 0.75, suggesting that the population of P. nemaus on Son Tra does not travel far enough each day to actively defend territorial borders.


Assuntos
Presbytini , Animais , Comportamento de Retorno ao Território Vital , Núcleo Familiar , Territorialidade , Vietnã
14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 9742, 2021 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33963209

RESUMO

The odonates are insects that have a wide range of reproductive, ritualized territorial, and aggressive behaviors. Changes in behavior are the first response of most odonate species to environmental alterations. In this context, the primary objective of the present study was to assess the effects of environmental alterations resulting from shifts in land use on different aspects of the behavioral diversity of adult odonates. Fieldwork was conducted at 92 low-order streams in two different regions of the Brazilian Amazon. To address our main objective, we measured 29 abiotic variables at each stream, together with five morphological and five behavioral traits of the resident odonates. The results indicate a loss of behaviors at sites impacted by anthropogenic changes, as well as variation in some morphological/behavioral traits under specific environmental conditions. We highlight the importance of considering behavioral traits in the development of conservation strategies, given that species with a unique behavioral repertoire may suffer specific types of extinction pressure.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Biodiversidade , Odonatos/fisiologia , Territorialidade , Animais , Brasil
15.
Integr Comp Biol ; 61(1): 249-268, 2021 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33963407

RESUMO

Intra- and inter-sexual communications are vital to the survival and reproductive success of animals. In species that cycle in and out of breeding or other physiological condition, sensory function can be modulated to optimize communication at crucial times. Little is known, however, about how widespread this sensory plasticity is across taxa, whether it occurs in multiple senses or both sexes within a species, and what potential modulatory substances and substrates are involved. Thus, studying modulation of sensory communication in a single species can provide valuable insights for understanding how sensory abilities can be altered to optimize detection of salient signals in different sensory channels and social contexts. The African cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni uses multimodal communication in social contexts such as courtship, territoriality, and parental care and shows plasticity in sensory abilities. In this review, we synthesize what is known about how visual, acoustic, and chemosensory communication is used in A. burtoni in inter- and intra-specific social contexts, how sensory funtion is modulated by an individual's reproductive, metabolic, and social state, and discuss evidence for plasticity in potential modulators that may contribute to changes in sensory abilities and behaviors. Sensory plasticity in females is primarily associated with the natural reproductive cycle and functions to improve detection of courtship signals (visual, auditory, chemosensory, and likely mechanosensory) from high-quality males for reproduction. Plasticity in male sensory abilities seems to function in altering their ability to detect the status of other males in the service of territory ownership and future reproductive opportunities. Changes in different classes of potential modulators or their receptors (steroids, neuropeptides, and biogenic amines) occur at both peripheral sensory organs (eye, inner ear, and olfactory epithelium) and central visual, olfactory, and auditory processing regions, suggesting complex mechanisms contributing to plasticity of sensory function. This type of sensory plasticity revealed in males and females of A. burtoni is likely more widespread among diverse animals than currently realized, and future studies should take an integrative and comparative approach to better understand the proximate and ultimate mechanisms modulating communication abilities across taxa.


Assuntos
Comunicação Animal , Ciclídeos , Reprodução , Animais , Percepção Auditiva , Ciclídeos/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Olfato , Territorialidade
16.
Anim Cogn ; 24(6): 1165-1169, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33973095

RESUMO

The stability of individual acoustic features is fundamental in social species, and more importantly in monogamous and territorial species, showing long-term fidelity both to the partner and the breeding site. In this study, the stability over time of two discrete vocal types was investigated in the African penguin (Spheniscus demersus), a monogamous and territorial seabird. Contact calls and ecstatic display songs were recorded from an ex situ colony in 2017 and in 2020. For each vocalisation, we measured 14 spectral and temporal acoustic parameters related to both source and filter components. Two separate leave-one-out cross-validated Discriminant Function Analyses (DFA) were then performed, generating the discriminant functions from the vocalisations collected in 2017 to classify those recorded in 2020. The DFA correctly classified 62% of the contact calls (10 subjects) and 80.9% of the ecstatic display songs (seven subjects) according to the correct emitter, showing that acoustic cues to individuality encoded in both vocal types remained unchanged over four consecutive breeding seasons. We suggest that, in this monogamous and territorial bird species, individual acoustic stability could be selected for to identify groupmates and neighbours over the years and to help couples to reunite in consecutive breeding seasons, increasing individual fitness.


Assuntos
Spheniscidae , Vocalização Animal , Acústica , Animais , Sinais (Psicologia) , Territorialidade
17.
Horm Behav ; 133: 104995, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34000663

RESUMO

Our understanding of the proximate and ultimate mechanisms shaping competitive reproductive phenotypes primarily stems from research on male-male competition for mates, even though competition is widespread in both sexes. We evaluate the hypothesis that the restricted nature of a resource required for reproduction, i.e. nest site, is a key variable driving territorial competition and testosterone secretion in female and male birds. Obligate secondary cavity-nesting has evolved repeatedly across avian lineages, providing a useful comparative context to explore how competition over limited nest cavities shapes aggression and its underlying mechanisms across species. Although evidence from one or another cavity-nesting species suggests that territorial aggression is adaptive in both females and males, this has not yet been tested in a comparative framework. We predicted that cavity-nesting generates more robust territorial aggression, in comparison to close relatives with less restrictive nesting strategies. Our focal species were two obligate secondary cavity-nesting species and two related species with more flexible nesting strategies in the same avian family: tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) vs. barn swallow (Hirundo rustica); Eastern bluebird (Sialia sialis) vs. American robin (Turdus migratorius). We assayed conspecific aggression using simulated territorial intrusion and found that cavity-nesting species displayed greater territorial aggression than their close relatives. This pattern held for both females and males. Because territorial aggression is often associated with elevated testosterone, we also hypothesized that cavity-nesting species would exhibit higher testosterone levels in circulation. However, cavity-nesting species did not have higher testosterone in circulation for either sex, despite some correlative evidence that testosterone is associated with higher rates of physical attack in female tree swallows. Our focus on a context that is relevant to both sexes - competition over essential breeding resources - provides a useful framework for co-consideration of proximate and ultimate drivers of reproductive competition in females and males.


Assuntos
Agressão , Andorinhas , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Comportamento de Nidação , Territorialidade , Testosterona
18.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 9236, 2021 04 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33927232

RESUMO

Camera-trapping and capture-recapture models are the most widely used tools for estimating densities of wild felids that have unique coat patterns, such as Eurasian lynx. However, studies dealing with this species are predominantly on a short-term basis and our knowledge of temporal trends and population persistence is still scarce. By using systematic camera-trapping and spatial capture-recapture models, we estimated lynx densities and evaluated density fluctuations, apparent survival, transition rate and individual's turnover during five consecutive seasons at three different sites situated in the Czech-Slovak-Polish borderland at the periphery of the Western Carpathians. Our density estimates vary between 0.26 and 1.85 lynx/100 km2 suitable habitat and represent the lowest and the highest lynx densities reported from the Carpathians. We recorded 1.5-4.1-fold changes in asynchronous fluctuated densities among all study sites and seasons. Furthermore, we detected high individual's turnover (on average 46.3 ± 8.06% in all independent lynx and 37.6 ± 4.22% in adults) as well as low persistence of adults (only 3 out of 29 individuals detected in all seasons). The overall apparent survival rate was 0.63 ± 0.055 and overall transition rate between sites was 0.03 ± 0.019. Transition rate of males was significantly higher than in females, suggesting male-biased dispersal and female philopatry. Fluctuating densities and high turnover rates, in combination with documented lynx mortality, indicate that the population in our region faces several human-induced mortalities, such as poaching or lynx-vehicle collisions. These factors might restrict population growth and limit the dispersion of lynx to other subsequent areas, thus undermining the favourable conservation status of the Carpathian population. Moreover, our study demonstrates that long-term camera-trapping surveys are needed for evaluation of population trends and for reliable estimates of demographic parameters of wild territorial felids, and can be further used for establishing successful management and conservation measures.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Identificação Animal/métodos , Lynx/fisiologia , Fotografação/métodos , Distribuição Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Ecossistema , Europa Oriental , Feminino , Masculino , Densidade Demográfica , Estações do Ano , Inquéritos e Questionários , Territorialidade
19.
Behav Processes ; 188: 104408, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33895252

RESUMO

A wide range of animal species accumulate objects in, on, and/or around structures they build. Sometimes, these accumulations serve specific functions (e.g. structural or isolating features) or are purely incidental, while in other cases the materials are deliberately displayed to serve signalling purposes (extended phenotype signals). In this pilot study, we employed systematic in situ observations and camera trapping to describe for the first time that both partners of a territorial shorebird, the black-faced sheathbill (Chionis minor ssp minor) collect, carry, and arrange colourful marine shells and dry twigs within and around their nest cavity. Our observations expand the taxonomic breadth of avian extended phenotype signals, by showing that at least one species within a largely understudied group i.e., Charadriiformes, exhibits nest-decoration behaviour. Multiple manipulative experiments are needed to explore further the signalling function of these decorations, which opens new exciting avenues for animal communication and cognition research.


Assuntos
Charadriiformes , Animais , Regiões Antárticas , Aves , Comportamento de Nidação , Projetos Piloto , Territorialidade
20.
Proc Biol Sci ; 288(1946): 20210108, 2021 03 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33653139

RESUMO

As an outcome of natural selection, animals are probably adapted to select territories economically by maximizing benefits and minimizing costs of territory ownership. Theory and empirical precedent indicate that a primary benefit of many territories is exclusive access to food resources, and primary costs of defending and using space are associated with competition, travel and mortality risk. A recently developed mechanistic model for economical territory selection provided numerous empirically testable predictions. We tested these predictions using location data from grey wolves (Canis lupus) in Montana, USA. As predicted, territories were smaller in areas with greater densities of prey, competitors and low-use roads, and for groups of greater size. Territory size increased before decreasing curvilinearly with greater terrain ruggedness and harvest mortalities. Our study provides evidence for the economical selection of territories as a causal mechanism underlying ecological patterns observed in a cooperative carnivore. Results demonstrate how a wide range of environmental and social conditions will influence economical behaviour and resulting space use. We expect similar responses would be observed in numerous territorial species. A mechanistic approach enables understanding how and why animals select particular territories. This knowledge can be used to enhance conservation efforts and more successfully predict effects of conservation actions.


Assuntos
Carnívoros , Lobos , Animais , Montana , Seleção Genética , Territorialidade
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