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1.
Ecol Lett ; 23(2): 221-230, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733032

RESUMO

Many interspecifically territorial species interfere with each other reproductively, and in some cases, aggression towards heterospecifics may be an adaptive response to interspecific mate competition. This hypothesis was recently formalised in an agonistic character displacement (ACD) model which predicts that species should evolve to defend territories against heterospecific rivals above a threshold level of reproductive interference. To test this prediction, we parameterised the model with field estimates of reproductive interference for 32 sympatric damselfly populations and ran evolutionary simulations. Asymmetries in reproductive interference made the outcome inherently unpredictable in some cases, but 80% of the model's stable outcomes matched levels of heterospecific aggression in the field, significantly exceeding chance expectations. In addition to bolstering the evidence for ACD, this paper introduces a new, predictive approach to testing character displacement theory that, if applied to other systems, could help in resolving long-standing questions about the importance of character displacement processes in nature.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Territorialidade , Agressão , Reprodução , Simpatria
2.
Trab. educ. saúde ; 18(supl.1): e0025183, 2020.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1094563

RESUMO

Resumo Neste artigo, discutem-se as diferenciações sociais apresentadas como desafios aos agentes comunitários de saúde no seu trabalho cotidiano. O estudo consistiu em analisar as configurações sociais construídas no território adscrito, com base na ação dos agentes. Destacam-se as ferramentas analíticas que permitem compreender os diferentes padrões de estratificação social entre grupos pertencentes a um mesmo ambiente socioeconômico. O método de pesquisa adotado baseou-se na abordagem qualitativa por meio de dez entrevistas semiestruturadas e acompanhamento em uma clínica da família do município do Rio de Janeiro em 2016 e 2017, valendo-se de técnicas socioetnográficas. Os resultados apontam para a existência de dificuldades que impedem a adesão da população adscrita aos serviços ofertados pela clínica da família, assim como para a identificação de grupos com diferenças de poder e prestígio. Reitera-se a questão sobre como as equipes de saúde lidam com configurações sociais específicas. Conclui-se que as relações estabelecidas no espaço que circunscreve as unidades de saúde da família necessitam ser constantemente monitoradas, para identificar possíveis diferenças na adesão decorrentes das configurações sociais específicas da população adscrita aos serviços de saúde.


Abstract The article discusses the social differentiations presented as challenges to the community health agents in their daily work. The study consisted of analyzing the social configurations built in the assigned territory, based on the agents' action. We highlight the analytical tools that allow us to understand the different patterns of social stratification between groups belonging to the same socioeconomic environment. The research method adopted was based on the qualitative approach through ten semi-structured interviews and follow-up with a family clinic in Rio de Janeiro, in 2016 and 2017 using socio-ethnographic techniques. The results point to the existence of difficulties that prevent the adherence of the population to the services offered by the family clinic, as well as the identification of groups with differences in power and prestige. The question is reiterated about how health teams deal with specific social configurations. It is concluded that the relationships established in the space which circumscribes family health units need to be constantly monitored to identify possible differences in adherence resulting from the specific social configurations of the population enrolled in health services.


Resumen En el artículo discutimos las diferenciaciones sociales presentadas como desafíos para el agente comunitario de salud en su trabajo diario. El estudio consistió en analizar las configuraciones sociales construidas en el territorio adscrito, a partir de la acción de los agentes comunitarios de salud. Se destacan las herramientas analíticas que permiten comprender los distintos padrones de estratificación social entre grupos que pertenecen al mismo entorno socioeconómico. El método de investigación adoptado se basó en el enfoque cualitativo por medio de diez entrevistas semiestructuradas y seguimiento junto a una clínica de la familia, de la municipalidad del Rio de Janeiro, en 2016 y 2017, utilizando técnicas socio-etnográficas. Los resultados apuntan a la existencia de dificultades que impiden la adhesión de la población adscrita a los servicios ofertados por la clínica de la familia, así como la identificación de grupos con diferencias de poder y prestigio. Se reitera la cuestión de cómo los equipos de salud tratan con entornos sociales específicos. Se concluye que las relaciones establecidas en el espacio que circunscribe las unidades de salud de la familia necesitan ser constantemente monitorizadas para identificar posibles diferencias en la adhesión resultantes de las configuraciones sociales específicas de la población adscrita a los servicios de salud.


Assuntos
Humanos , Territorialidade , Trabalho , Saúde , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Território Sociocultural
3.
Insect Sci ; 27(1): 122-132, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29659142

RESUMO

Although the Neotropical territorially dominant arboreal ant Azteca chartifex Forel is very aggressive towards any intruder, its populous colonies tolerate the close presence of the fierce polistine wasp Polybia rejecta (F.). In French Guiana, 83.33% of the 48 P. rejecta nests recorded were found side by side with those of A. chartifex. This nesting association results in mutual protection from predators (i.e., the wasps protected from army ants; the ants protected from birds). We conducted field studies, laboratory-based behavioral experiments and chemical analyses to elucidate the mechanisms allowing the persistence of this association. Due to differences in the cuticular profiles of the two species, we eliminated the possibility of chemical mimicry. Also, analyses of the carton nests did not reveal traces of marking on the envelopes. Because ant forager flows were not perturbed by extracts from the wasps' Dufour's and venom glands, we rejected any hypothetical action of repulsive chemicals. Nevertheless, we noted that the wasps "scraped" the surface of the upper part of their nest envelope using their mandibles, likely removing the ants' scent trails, and an experiment showed that ant foragers were perturbed by the removal of their scent trails. This leads us to use the term "erasure hypothesis." Thus, this nesting association persists thanks to a relative tolerance by the ants towards wasp presence and the behavior of the wasps that allows them to "contain" their associated ants through the elimination of their scent trails, direct attacks, "wing-buzzing" behavior and ejecting the ants.


Assuntos
Formigas/fisiologia , Comportamento de Nidação , Vespas/fisiologia , Agressão , Animais , Guiana Francesa , Territorialidade , Árvores
4.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 39(2,n.esp): 74-86, ago.-nov. 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-1050374

RESUMO

Este artigo busca problematizar a noção de território na saúde mental por meio da experiência de trabalhadores, usuários e pesquisadores no município de Santa Maria-RS. Trabalhamos com pesquisa de documentos do campo da saúde e da saúde mental, buscando identificar o modo que a noção de território é apresentada nesses textos. Descrevemos e analisamos uma experiência desenvolvida por diversos atores sociais envolvidos na experiência ocorrida em Santa Maria, a partir de dois movimentos. O primeiro é o de usuários em direção à academia, e o segundo, o do cuidado em saúde do serviço de referência para além dos muros. A experiência de trânsito dos diferentes atores sociais em vivências de multiterritorialidades revelou-se um importante vetor de mudança subjetiva e institucional. Vimos em ambos a emergência de uma reivindicação por um direito mais extenso do que o simples acesso aos serviços públicos de saúde. Buscava-se também um "direito à cidade", ou mesmo um trânsito além dela. Enfim, uma busca pela ampliação da experiência de multiterritorialidade e as transformações decorrentes dela...(AU)


This article seeks to problematize the notion of territory in mental health through the experience of workers, users, and researchers in the field of mental health in the municipality of Santa Maria/RS. We work with the research of documents of the field of health and mental health, trying to identify the way that the notion of territory is presented in these texts. We describe and analyze an experience developed by several social actors involved in the experience that occurred in Santa Maria / RS, from two movements. The first is that of users towards academia, and the second is that of the health care of the referral service beyond the walls. The experience of transit of the different social actors in multi-territorial experiences has proved to be an important vector of subjective and institutional change. We have seen in both movements the emergence of a claim for a more extensive right than simple access to public health services. A "right to the city," or even a transit beyond it. Finally, a search for the amplification of the multi territoriality experience and the transformations arising from it...(AU)


Este artículo busca problematizar la noción de territorio en la salud mental por medio de la experiencia de trabajadores, usuarios e investigadores en el municipio de Santa Maria/RS. Trabajamos con la investigación de documentos del campo de la salud y de la salud mental, buscando identificar el modo que la noción de territorio es presentada en esos textos. Describimos y analizamos una experiencia desarrollada por diversos actores sociales involucrados en la experiencia ocurrida en Santa Maria/RS, a partir de dos movimientos. El primero es de los usuarios hacia la academia, y el segundo es del cuidado en salud del servicio de referencia más allá de los muros. La experiencia de tránsito de los diferentes actores sociales en vivencias de multiterritorialidades se ha revelado un importante vector de cambio subjetivo e institucional. Vimos en ambos la emergencia de una reivindicación por un derecho más extenso que el simple acceso a los servicios públicos de salud. Se buscaba también un "derecho a la ciudad", o incluso un tránsito más allá de ella. En fin, una búsqueda por la ampliación de la experiencia de multiterritorialidad, y las transformaciones resultantes de ella...(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto , Política Pública , Territorialidade , Saúde Mental , Pessoalidade , Desinstitucionalização , Grupos Minoritários , Serviço Social , Serviços Comunitários de Saúde Mental , Funções Essenciais da Saúde Pública , Direitos Humanos
6.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 39(2,n.esp): 100-111, ago.-nov. 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-1025628

RESUMO

Neste artigo temos como objetivo discutir como podemos promover outras formas de ocupação e produção do território acadêmico frente a questões emergentes na pesquisa em Psicologia em territórios urbanos. Apresentamos um debate teórico sobre como pesquisas relacionadas a territórios e territorialidades têm modificado teórica e epistemologicamente nosso campo de saber e suas formas de construção. Buscando inspiração nas derivas situacionistas damos ênfase à experiência produzida pelos corpos e afetos de quem pesquisa percorrendo a cidade. O caminhar pelos territórios urbanos como alternativa metodológica nos conduz a argumentar que nossos corpos compõem o processo de pesquisa tornando possíveis e ordenando a construção do conhecimento. Seguimos nossa reflexão sugerindo a pesquisaexperiência como estratégia de produção, de narrativa e problematização do conhecimento a partir de um corpo singular afetado pelos encontros ocorridos nos territórios: experienciar é o ponto de partida para um segundo momento, fundamental, quando se desloca a experiência para o território acadêmico e com ferramentas teórico-políticas coloca-se em análise a relação territorialidades-subjetividades....(AU)


In this article we will discuss how we can promote other forms of occupation and production of academic territory in the face of emerging issues in psychology research in urban territories. We present a theoretical debate on how research related to territories and territorialities has theoretically and epistemologically changed our field of knowledge and its forms of construction. Inspired by situationist dérive, we emphasize the experience produced by the bodies and affections of those who investigate the city. Walking through urban territories as a methodological alternative leads us to argue that our bodies make up the research process, making possible and ordering the construction of knowledge. We continue our reflection suggesting experience-based research as a production strategy, of narrative and problematization of knowledge from a singular body affected by the encounters that occurred in the territories: living experience is the starting point for a second moment, fundamental, when the experience is shifted to the academic territory and, with theoretical-political tools, the relationship territorialities-subjectivities is analyzed....(AU)


En este artículo tenemos como objetivo discutir cómo podemos promover otras formas de ocupación y producción del territorio académico ante cuestiones emergentes en la investigación en psicología en territorios urbanos. Presentamos un debate teórico sobre cómo las investigaciones relacionadas a territorios y territorialidades han cambiado teórica y epistemológicamente nuestro campo de conocimiento y sus formas de construcción. Al buscar inspiración en las derivas situacionistas, enfatizamos la experiencia producida por los cuerpos y afectos de quienes investigan recorriendo la ciudad. Caminar por los territorios urbanos como alternativa metodológica nos lleva a argumentar que nuestros cuerpos componen el proceso de investigación, haciendo posible y ordenando la construcción del conocimiento. Seguimos nuestra reflexión sugiriendo la investigación-experiencia como estrategia de producción, de narrativa y problematización del conocimiento a partir de un cuerpo singular afectado por los encuentros ocurridos en los territorios: vivir la experiencia es el punto de partida para un segundo momento, fundamental, cuando la experiencia se desplaza hacia el territorio académico y, con herramientas teórico políticas, se analiza la relación territorialidades-subjetividades....(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Psicologia , Psicologia Social , Pesquisa , Territorialidade , Área Urbana , Afeto , Aparência Física
7.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4437, 2019 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570726

RESUMO

Motherhood is characterized by dramatic changes in brain and behavior, but less is known about fatherhood. Here we report that male sticklebacks-a small fish in which fathers provide care-experience dramatic changes in neurogenomic state as they become fathers. Some genes are unique to different stages of paternal care, some genes are shared across stages, and some genes are added to the previously acquired neurogenomic state. Comparative genomic analysis suggests that some of these neurogenomic dynamics resemble changes associated with pregnancy and reproduction in mammalian mothers. Moreover, gene regulatory analysis identifies transcription factors that are regulated in opposite directions in response to a territorial challenge versus during paternal care. Altogether these results show that some of the molecular mechanisms of parental care might be deeply conserved and might not be sex-specific, and suggest that tradeoffs between opposing social behaviors are managed at the gene regulatory level.


Assuntos
Agressão/fisiologia , Pai , Genética Comportamental , Comportamento Paterno/fisiologia , Smegmamorpha/fisiologia , Territorialidade , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Evolução Molecular , Genômica , Masculino , Camundongos , Reprodução , Smegmamorpha/genética , Comportamento Social , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
8.
Behav Processes ; 168: 103954, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491436

RESUMO

Birds use many different signaling modalities (e.g. vocalizations, displays) to transmit information about their motivation to defend valuable resources. A handful of taxa use "props", inedible objects scavenged from the environment, in signaling. Several species of motmots (Coraciiformes) hold a leaf in their bill in a display that observational evidence suggests is agonistic. We used a simulated intruder experiment to test this display's agonistic signaling function using data from both members of pairs of russet-crowned motmots (Momotus mexicanus). If the display is agonistic, we expected territory-holding pairs to respond more strongly toward taxidermic mounts displaying a leaf. Our results showed that resident pairs reacted differently to the leaf display depending on the intruder's sex. Display of a leaf by the intruder increased the closeness of the pairs' approach when the model was male, but increased the probability of the territorial defenders displaying a leaf themselves when the model was female. Pairs spent more time responding to male models regardless of leaf display. Our results suggest that the leaf display is an agonistic signal, that territory owners react differently to the leaf display depending on the sex of the intruder performing it, and that the participation of both sexes in territorial defense-which is common among tropical resident birds-extends to this unusual signaling modality.


Assuntos
Comportamento Agonístico , Aves , Comportamento Ritualístico , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Motivação , Folhas de Planta , Territorialidade
9.
Oecologia ; 191(2): 359-368, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473811

RESUMO

Successful territory defence is a prerequisite for reproduction across many taxa, and often highly sensitive to the actions of territorial neighbours. Nevertheless, to date, assessments of the significance of the behaviour of heterospecific neighbours have been infrequent and taxonomically restricted. In this field study, I examined the importance of both heterospecific and conspecific neighbours in a biparental fish, the convict cichlid, Amatitlania siquia. This was done by assessing the colonisation rates of vacant territories, the rates of aggression by the territory holders, and the overall rates of aggression towards intruders, in treatments that controlled the proximity of both neighbour types. Convict cichlid pairs colonised vacant nesting resources (territory locations) at similar rates independent of the proximity of heterospecific (moga, Hypsophrys nicaraguensis) or conspecific neighbours. However, a model of sympatric cichlid intruder was subjected to considerably higher overall levels of aggression when mogas were nearby. In contrast, the proximity of conspecifics did not have a significant effect on the overall aggression towards the intruder. These results suggest that previously demonstrated higher survival of convict cichlid broods in close proximity of mogas may be driven by aggression towards shared enemies. No conclusive evidence was found regarding whether mogas also influence convict cichlids' investment into anti-intruder aggression: the results show a marginally non-significant trend, and a moderately large effect size, to the direction of a lower investment in mogas', but not conspecifics', proximity. More generally, heterospecific neighbours may provide protective benefits in a wider range of ecological settings than commonly considered.


Assuntos
Agressão , Ciclídeos , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Simpatria , Territorialidade
10.
Folia Primatol (Basel) ; 90(5): 361-378, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416068

RESUMO

It has been proposed that primates use advertisement calls exclusively to negotiate spacing, but the function of female calls has rarely been studied. Here, we investigated the function of male and female advertisement calls in the northern giant mouse lemur (Mirza zaza),a non-gregarious nocturnal primate from north-western Madagascar. We recorded advertisement calls and associated behaviours of 35 M. zaza individuals at the Duke University Lemur Center. We found that females of M. zazaexclusively use their advertisement calls to advertise oestrus. In contrast, male advertisement calls appeared to be used in a spacing context. These findings show that primates can use their advertisement calls for both spacing and mate attraction, and that the sexes may differ in how they use these calls. The novel find of females of M. zazaattracting mates with loud advertisement calls contrasts with many non-primate taxa, where acoustic mate attraction is usually a function of male advertisement calls, and with other primates, where females use visual and olfactory cues to attract males. The loud female advertisement calls of M. zaza likely ensure mating success during the short receptive phase in this non-gregariously foraging, nocturnal primate.


Assuntos
Cheirogaleidae/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Territorialidade , Vocalização Animal , Animais , Feminino , Madagáscar , Masculino
11.
J Fish Biol ; 95(4): 1151-1155, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365123

RESUMO

The site fidelity of ballan wrasse Labrus bergylta was studied using photo-identification and external tagging. Five male individuals were observed to defend the same small territory composed of a few rocks during several reproductive seasons spanning 2 to 15 years. These results provide one of the strongest indications of long-term very fine-scale site fidelity in marine fishes.


Assuntos
Peixes/fisiologia , Territorialidade , Animais , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo
12.
BMC Evol Biol ; 19(1): 115, 2019 06 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170910

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many species of social insects have large-scale mating and dispersal flights and their populations are therefore often relatively homogenous. In contrast, dispersal on the wing appears to be uncommon in most species of the ant genus Cardiocondyla, because its males are wingless and the winged queens mate in their natal nests before dispersing on foot. Here we examine the population structure of C. venustula from South Africa. This species is of particular interest for the analysis of life history evolution in Cardiocondyla, as it occupies a phylogenetic position between tropical species with multi-queen (polygynous) colonies and fighting males and a Palearctic clade with single-queen colonies and mutually peaceful males. Males of C. venustula exhibit an intermediate strategy between lethal fighting and complete tolerance - they mostly engage in non-lethal fights and defend small territories inside their natal nests. We investigated how this reproductive behavior influences colony and population structure by analyzing samples on two geographic scales in South Africa: a small 40 × 40m2 plot and a larger area with distances up to 5 km between sampling sites in Rietvlei Nature Reserve near Pretoria. RESULTS: Colonies were found to be facultatively polygynous and queens appear to mate only with a single male. The extraordinarily high inbreeding coefficient suggests regular sib-mating. Budding by workers and young queens is the predominant mode of colony-founding and leads to high population viscosity. In addition, some queens appear to found colonies independently or through adoption into foreign nests. CONCLUSION: While C. venustula resembles tropical Cardiocondyla in queen number and mating frequency, it differs by the absence of winged disperser males. Dispersal by solitary, mated queens on foot or by short flights and their adoption by alien colonies might promote gene flow between colonies and counteract prolonged inbreeding. The abundance of suitable habitat and the high density of nests facilitate the spread of this species by budding and together with the apparent resistance against inbreeding make it a highly successful pioneer species and invader of degraded and man-made habitats.


Assuntos
Formigas/fisiologia , Territorialidade , Alelos , Animais , Formigas/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Feminino , Haplótipos/genética , Heterozigoto , Masculino , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Filogenia , Dinâmica Populacional , Comportamento Sexual Animal , África do Sul
13.
Zoolog Sci ; 36(3): 173-181, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31251485

RESUMO

We studied seasonal and diurnal variation of singing activity in a single-song repertoire species, the savannah sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis), to explore the possible functions of the song. We observed a total of 47 territorial males (11 over three years, 28 over two years) on a daily basis. For all paired and unpaired males, and across all stages of the breeding season, we recorded total number of songs produced (singing persistence), the number of instances of aggression per 10-minute period in each focal male, and the number of songs per 3-minute period (singing intensity). Male savannah sparrows showed different singing activity in different behavioural contexts: 1) unpaired males sang more persistently, but less intensely than paired males; 2) paired males markedly reduced their singing persistence, but showed higher singing intensity, especially in the evening; 3) singing intensity of paired males peaked during the egg-laying period. The different patterns of singing activity in relation to time of day, nuptial status, and female breeding stage suggest that though the birds each possess only a single song type, the differential activities may play important roles in intra- and inter-sexual communication systems: it is argued that 1) intense singing by paired males in the evening plays a role in territory defense, while persistent singing by unpaired males in the morning plays a role in mate attraction; 2) especially high evening singing activity during the egg-laying period may relate to changed female behavior at the nest associated with the onset of incubation.


Assuntos
Ritmo Circadiano , Estações do Ano , Pardais/fisiologia , Vocalização Animal , Animais , Masculino , Reprodução , Territorialidade , Fatores de Tempo
14.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0216549, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31075125

RESUMO

The Caucasian lynx, Lynx lynx dinniki, has one of the southernmost distributions in the Eurasian lynx range, covering Anatolian Turkey, the Caucasus and Iran. Little is known about the biology and the genetic status of this subspecies. To collect baseline genetic, ecological and behavioural data and benefit future conservation of L. l. dinniki, we monitored 11 lynx territories (396 km2) in northwestern Anatolia. We assessed genetic diversity of this population by non-invasively collecting 171 faecal samples and trapped and sampled 12 lynx individuals using box traps. We observed high allelic variation at 11 nuclear microsatellite markers, and found no signs of inbreeding despite the potential isolation of this population. We obtained similar numbers of distinct genotypes from the two sampling sources. Our results indicated that first order female relatives occupy neighbouring territories (female philopatry) and that territorial male lynx were highly unrelated to each other and to female territorial lynx, suggesting long distance male dispersal. Particular male and female resident territorial lynx and their offspring (kittens and subadults) were more likely to be trapped than resident floaters or dispersing (unrelated) lynx. Conversely, we obtained more data for unrelated lynx and higher numbers of territorials using non-invasive sampling (faeces). When invasive and non-invasive samples were analysed separately, the spatial organisation of lynx (in terms of female philopatry and females and males occupying permanent ranges) affected measures of genetic diversity in such a way that estimates of genetic diversity were reduced if only invasive samples were considered. It appears that, at small spatial scales, invasive sampling using box traps may underestimate the genetic diversity in carnivores with permanent ranges and philopatry such as the Eurasian lynx. As non-invasive sampling can also provide additional data on diet and spatial organisation, we advocate the use of such samples for conservation genetic studies of vulnerable, endangered or data deficient territorial species.


Assuntos
Fezes/química , Técnicas de Genotipagem/veterinária , Lynx/genética , Territorialidade , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Feminino , Variação Genética , Lynx/fisiologia , Masculino , Repetições de Microssatélites , Turquia
15.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(3)2019 03 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30875862

RESUMO

The question as to how early life experiences are stored on a molecular level and affect traits later in life is highly topical in ecology, medicine, and epigenetics. In this study, we use a fish model to investigate whether DNA methylation mediates early life experiences and predetermines a territorial male reproductive phenotype. In fish, adult reproductive phenotypes frequently depend on previous life experiences and are often associated with distinct morphological traits. DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism which is both sensitive to environmental conditions and stably inherited across cell divisions. We therefore investigate early life predisposition in the round goby Neogobius melanostomus by growth back-calculations and then study DNA methylation by MBD-Seq in the brain region controlling vertebrate reproductive behavior, the hypothalamus. We find a link between the territorial reproductive phenotype and high growth rates in the first year of life. However, hypothalamic DNA methylation patterns reflect the current behavioral status independently of early life experiences. Together, our data suggest a non-predetermination scenario in the round goby, in which indeterminate males progress to a non-territorial status in the spawning season, and in which some males then assume a specialized territorial phenotype if current conditions are favorable.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Hipotálamo/química , Perciformes/fisiologia , Territorialidade , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Epigênese Genética , Masculino , Perciformes/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Reprodução , Análise de Sequência de DNA/veterinária
16.
Rev. bras. promoç. saúde (Impr.) ; 32: 1-10, 28/03/2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048901

RESUMO

Objetivo: Analisar potencialidades, desafios e limitações de um território para a construção de ações de promoção da saúde, a partir da percepção dos psicólogos que trabalham em uma região. Métodos: Pesquisa qualitativa, realizada em maio de 2018, com 15 psicólogos que trabalham no território da região Sul de São Paulo, Brasil. A coleta de dados ocorreu através de quatro grupos focais. Os dados foram analisados pela análise de conteúdo, emergindo três categorias temáticas: Potencialidades do território para ações de promoção da saúde; Desafios e limitações para desenvolver ações de promoção da saúde no território; A psicologia promotora de saúde no território. Resultados: Como potencialidades destacam-se a diversidade cultural e a possibilidade de atuação via arte. Os desafios e limitações destacados foram a atuação em rede e a falta de suporte na atuação. Há a necessidade de atuação ampliada e contextualizada, além da constante capacitação. Conclusão: Reconhecer a potencialidade no território engloba o profissional ampliar seus horizontes de atuação e constituir espaços de produção subjetiva e coletiva. Incide também reconhecer as limitações do local, com dificuldades de oferta e articulação de serviços e descaso aos direitos básicos daquela comunidade. Assim, sugere-se uma visão voltada para a capacitação continuada e a legitimidade de seu trabalho nesse contexto da atenção primaria. (AU)


Assuntos
Psicologia , Territorialidade , Meio Ambiente , Promoção da Saúde
17.
Licere (Online) ; 22(1): 122-147, mar.2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-997233

RESUMO

Este trabalho é um recorte da tese de doutorado intitulada Cultura e Lazer na vida cotidiana do povo Akwe-Xerente. Este texto busca uma discussão entre lazer e experiência cultural, aproximando do modo de vida e de constituição da territorialidade e alteridade Akwe-Xerente. Uma aproximação com a antropologia permitiu que a metodologia fosse construída a partir do diálogo entre a pesquisa bibliográfica e de campo; em uma perspectiva etnográfica foi desenvolvida a observação participante e realizadas entrevistas. Através do "olhar de perto e de dentro" buscamos a compreensão do que os indígenas vivenciam que se aproxima das perspectivas de lazer lançadas até o momento. Assim, o objetivo é apresentar as práticas culturais de lazer do povo Akwe-Xerente, mais especificamente o Dasipê e a utilização das tecnologias, trazendo para a discussão questões que permeiam a alteridade e territorialidade deste povo. Estas práticas culturais de lazer fazem parte da vida cotidiana e participam da força geradora que define essa cultura. A tessitura deste habitar é composta por fios da tradição e outros fios da modernidade, revelando o processo híbrido da experiência cultural.


This project work is a cut of the doctoral thesis entitled Culture and Leisure in the daily life of the Akwe-Xerente people. This text seeks a discussion between leisure and cultural experience, approaching the way of life and the constitution of territoriality and distinctiveness from Akwe-Xerente.Through an approach with anthropology, the methodology was constructed from the dialogue between bliographical and field research, from an ethnographic perspective. The present study constitutes a dialogue of the understanding of leisure as dimension of culture and complex social practice, based on the analysis of the daily life of the Akwe-Xerente people, by means of what is revealed as alterity and territoriality of this people. Through the "close and inward look" we seek to understand what indigenous people experience that approaches the perspectives of leisure that have been released so far,considering the way of life of this people, describing the relationships that are established with time, work, nature, traditional knowledge,the knowledge of the surrounding society and how all these elements bring perspectives of dialogue with the field of study of leisure.


Assuntos
Cultura , Grupos Populacionais , Atividades de Lazer , Territorialidade , Cultura Indígena
18.
Behav Processes ; 162: 119-129, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30753885

RESUMO

Territorial battles among ants exhibit temporal and spatial patterns that self-organize, arising spontaneously from distributed decisions by large numbers of individuals. We describe agent-based models of inter-group fights in ants and show that two behavioral mechanisms that are rarely quantified have large effects on the dynamics of intraspecific battles; specifically, the pattern of search by unengaged ants, and assessment of relative numbers. In the absence of assessment, recruitment by both colonies rises to steady averages. Alternatively, if ants tend to lay trails only when they detect that their nestmates outnumber opponents, fights can be rapidly resolved as one colony ceases recruiting. If ants tend to lay trails when their nestmates are locally outnumbered, the position of the battle may oscillate. We show that the collective ability of fighting ants to accurately compare group sizes may be high even if each ant has limited perception and memory. However, amplification of small initial numerical advantages can lead to priority effects favoring the first colony to recruit even if it is the smaller colony.


Assuntos
Formigas , Comportamento Animal , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Territorialidade , Animais
19.
Horm Behav ; 110: 10-18, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30735664

RESUMO

In many passerine birds, testosterone stimulates song and aggression but inhibits paternal care, but few studies have explored whether such effects can be reversed with testosterone blockers. We explored the effect of testosterone blockers on song, aggression and paternal care of Lapland longspurs (Calcarius lapponicus), an arctic passerine with a short breeding season. Twenty-one "blocker males" received implants containing an androgen receptor blocker and an aromatase inhibitor, compared to 27 control males with empty or no implants. Song, aggression and other behaviors were evaluated with simulated territorial intrusions (STI) during mate-guarding, and with focal observations (without STI) during mate-guarding and incubation. Nests were monitored and nestlings weighed as an indirect measure of paternal care. During STI, blocker males exhibited similar song rates, significantly lower aggression, and were significantly less likely to be found on territory than control males. Focal observations revealed no differences in spontaneous song, aggression, foraging, preening, or flight activity. Blocker males' nestlings had greater body mass on day 5 after hatching, but this difference disappeared by fledging, and both groups fledged similar numbers of young. Two blocker males exhibited unusual paternal care: incubation and brooding of young, or feeding of nestlings at another male's nest. In sum, testosterone blockers affected aggression but not song, contrasting with results from previously published testosterone implant studies. Effects on paternal care were concordant with testosterone implant studies. These patterns may be related to rapid behavioral changes characteristic of the short breeding season of the Arctic.


Assuntos
Agressão/efeitos dos fármacos , Antagonistas de Receptores de Andrógenos/farmacologia , Comportamento de Nidação/efeitos dos fármacos , Passeriformes/fisiologia , Comportamento Paterno/efeitos dos fármacos , Testosterona/antagonistas & inibidores , Vocalização Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Regiões Árticas , Masculino , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Estações do Ano , Territorialidade , Testosterona/farmacologia
20.
J Parasitol ; 105(1): 135-142, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30807731

RESUMO

Bluegill sunfish ( Lepomis macrochirus) are an important North American sport fish distributed across the United States and Canada. These fish are sexually dimorphic, with males being larger and more brightly colored than females. Additionally, there are 2 male morphotypes, dominant, brightly colored α-males, and ß-males, which resemble females in both appearance and behavior. The 2 male morphotypes differ significantly in terms of mating behavior, territoriality, and diet. These behavioral and feeding differences may result in α-males harboring greater parasite diversity and parasite loads compared to ß-males. This was tested by collecting, necropsying, and identifying parasites from 636 L. macrochirus sampled from 9 ponds in northwest Virginia and comparing parasite species richness and parasite load in the male morphotypes. The parasite infracommunities infecting the male morphotypes differed significantly between them at 7 of the 9 sample sites. When compared to ß-males, α-males consistently had greater parasite species richness as well as greater abundance for a majority of both trophically and non-trophically transmitted parasite species sampled in this study. The separation of male morphotypes must be accounted for in studies of L. macrochirus parasites due to sex bias differences between males and females being masked when male morphotypes are combined.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/parasitologia , Perciformes/parasitologia , Análise de Variância , Animais , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Dieta/veterinária , Dominação-Subordinação , Feminino , Masculino , Perciformes/anatomia & histologia , Perciformes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Perciformes/fisiologia , Tanques , Caracteres Sexuais , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Territorialidade , Virginia
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