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1.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; 216(6): 1634-1640, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33852335

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE. Knowledge of normal testicular 18F-FDG PET/CT (FDG PET/CT) SUVs is crucial for accurate examination interpretation. The objective of this study was to establish normal testicular SUV ranges among adult men receiving health care in North America. MATERIALS AND METHODS. A retrospective review of an institutional electronic database identified adult men undergoing pretreatment clinical FDG PET/CT examinations from March 15, 2013, through March 15, 2018. An FDG PET/CT image review of 700 testicles in 350 male patients was performed. Data collected included testicular SUVmax, SUVmean, and visual PET pattern of uptake. RESULTS. Testicular SUVmean and SUVmax values (mean ± SD) by age group were as follows: 3.1 ± 0.7 and 3.8 ± 0.9 for the age group of 18-30 years; 3.2 ± 0.6 and 4.0 ± 0.8, 31-40 years; 3.1 ± 0.4 and 3.8 ± 0.5, 41-50 years; 3.0 ± 0.5 and 3.7 ± 0.7, 51-60 years; 2.9 ± 0.5 and 3.5 ± 0.7, 61-70 years; 2.8 ± 0.5 and 3.5 ± 0.7, 71-80 years; and 2.6 ± 0.5 and 3.3 ± 0.6, more than 80 years. A statistically significant difference exists between age groups for testicular SUVmean (p ≤ .001) and SUVmax (p < .001), with SUVs peaking in the 4th decade of life and subsequently declining with age. A small but significant negative correlation exists between blood glucose level and testicular SUVmean (r = -0.12). CONCLUSION. This study reports the largest currently known cohort of SUVs in normal testicles and may guide clinical interpretation of testicular FDG activity. Discrepancies in normal SUVs may exist because of differences in patient demographics and PET technology.


Assuntos
Fluordesoxiglucose F18/farmacocinética , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada/métodos , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/farmacocinética , Testículo/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valores de Referência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Testículo/diagnóstico por imagem , Testículo/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 214: 112121, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33721578

RESUMO

Perfluorooctane sulfonate is related to male reproductive dysfunction in rats and humans. However, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Here, we reported the effects of short-term exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate on the regeneration of Leydig cells in vivo and investigated possible mechanisms in vitro. After adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were gavaged perfluorooctane sulfonate (0, 5 or 10 mg/kg/day) for 7 days and then injected intraperitoneally ethane dimethane sulfonate next day to eliminate Leydig cells, the Leydig cell regeneration process was monitored. Perfluorooctane sulfonate significantly lowered serum testosterone levels, reduced the number of regenerated Leydig cells, down-regulated the expression of Lhcgr, Scarb1, Star, Cyp11a1, Hsd3b1, Cyp17a1, and Dhh) and their proteins at doses of 5 and 10 mg/kg 35 and 56 days after ethane dimethane sulfonate. Using a 3D seminiferous tubule culture system to study the development of stem Leydig cells, we found that perfluorooctane sulfonate inhibited stem Leydig cell proliferation and differentiation and hedgehog signaling pathway. In conclusion, a short-term exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate can inhibit the development of stem Leydig cells into the Leydig cell lineage via direct suppression of hedgehog signaling pathway and indirect inhibition of desert hedgehog section by Sertoli cells.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/toxicidade , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Hedgehog/metabolismo , Masculino , Mesilatos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Regeneração , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/citologia , Testículo/metabolismo , Testículo/fisiologia , Testosterona/sangue
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(4)2021 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33671837

RESUMO

Zinc (Zn), the second-most necessary trace element, is abundant in the human body. The human body lacks the capacity to store Zn; hence, the dietary intake of Zn is essential for various functions and metabolism. The uptake of Zn during its transport through the body is important for proper development of the three major accessory sex glands: the testis, epididymis, and prostate. It plays key roles in the initial stages of germ cell development and spermatogenesis, sperm cell development and maturation, ejaculation, liquefaction, the binding of spermatozoa and prostasomes, capacitation, and fertilization. The prostate releases more Zn into the seminal plasma during ejaculation, and it plays a significant role in sperm release and motility. During the maternal, labor, perinatal, and neonatal periods, the part of Zn is vital. The average dietary intake of Zn is in the range of 8-12 mg/day in developing countries during the maternal period. Globally, the dietary intake of Zn varies for pregnant and lactating mothers, but the average Zn intake is in the range of 9.6-11.2 mg/day. The absence of Zn and the consequences of this have been discussed using critical evidence. The events and functions of Zn related to successful fertilization have been summarized in detail. Briefly, our current review emphasizes the role of Zn at each stage of human reproduction, from the spermatogenesis process to childbirth. The role of Zn and its supplementation in in vitro fertilization (IVF) opens opportunities for future studies on reproductive biology.


Assuntos
Genitália Feminina/fisiologia , Espermatogênese/fisiologia , Zinco/fisiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Humanos , Infertilidade/dietoterapia , Masculino , Gravidez , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Testículo/fisiologia , Zinco/farmacologia
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(2)2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33467648

RESUMO

Bi-dimensional culture systems have represented the most used method to study cell biology outside the body for over a century. Although they convey useful information, such systems may lose tissue-specific architecture, biomechanical effectors, and biochemical cues deriving from the native extracellular matrix, with significant alterations in several cellular functions and processes. Notably, the introduction of three-dimensional (3D) platforms that are able to re-create in vitro the structures of the native tissue, have overcome some of these issues, since they better mimic the in vivo milieu and reduce the gap between the cell culture ambient and the tissue environment. 3D culture systems are currently used in a broad range of studies, from cancer and stem cell biology, to drug testing and discovery. Here, we describe the mechanisms used by cells to perceive and respond to biomechanical cues and the main signaling pathways involved. We provide an overall perspective of the most recent 3D technologies. Given the breadth of the subject, we concentrate on the use of hydrogels, bioreactors, 3D printing and bioprinting, nanofiber-based scaffolds, and preparation of a decellularized bio-matrix. In addition, we report the possibility to combine the use of 3D cultures with functionalized nanoparticles to obtain highly predictive in vitro models for use in the nanomedicine field.


Assuntos
Bioimpressão/métodos , Impressão Tridimensional , Regeneração , Engenharia Tecidual/tendências , Tecidos Suporte/química , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Reatores Biológicos , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Técnicas de Cultura , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrogéis/química , Masculino , Nanofibras , Nanopartículas , Ovário/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais , Testículo/fisiologia
5.
Nutrients ; 13(1)2021 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33477418

RESUMO

Diets could play an important role in testicular function, but studies on how adherence to the dietary patterns influences human testicular function in Asian countries are scarce. Herein, we examined the association between testosterone-related dietary patterns and testicular function among adult men in Taiwan. This cross-sectional study recruited 3283 men who attended a private medical screening program from 2009 to 2015. Testosterone-related dietary pattern was generated by the reduced rank regression (RRR) method. The association between adherence to quartile of dietary pattern scores with sex hormones (testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and estradiol (E2)) and sperm quality (sperm concentration (SC), total sperm motility (TSM), progressive motility (PRM), and normal sperm morphology (NSM)) were examined by multivariable linear regression. Hemoglobin (ß = 0.57, p < 0.001), hematocrit (ß = 0.17, p = 0.002), triglyceride (ß = -0.84, p < 0.001), HDL-cholesterol (ß = 3.58, p < 0.001), total cholesterol to HDL-cholesterol ratio (ß = -0.78, p < 0.001), and uric acid (ß = -10.77, p < 0.001) were highly correlated with testosterone levels. Therefore, these biomarkers were used to construct a testosterone-related dietary pattern. Highest adherence (Q4) to dietary pattern scores were negatively associated with lower testosterone in the pooled analysis (ß = -0.89, p = 0.037) and normal-weight men (ß = -1.48, p = 0.019). Likewise, men in the Q4 of the dietary pattern had lower SC (ß = -5.55, p = 0.001) and NSM (ß = -2.22, p = 0.007) regardless of their nutritional status. Our study suggesting that testosterone-related dietary pattern (rich in preserved vegetables or processed meat or fish, deep-fried foods, innards organs, rice or flour products cooked in oil, and dipping sauce, but low in milk, dairy products, legumes, or beans, and dark or leafy vegetables) was associated with a poor testicular function.


Assuntos
Dieta , Testículo/fisiologia , Testosterona/sangue , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/sangue , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Hormônio Luteinizante/sangue , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Estado Nutricional , Análise do Sêmen , Contagem de Espermatozoides , Motilidade Espermática , Taiwan
6.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(1): 91, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33415493

RESUMO

Body size and testicular measurements were found to be important parameters for the evaluation of the breeding quality. A study was therefore carried out on Arabia bucks (n = 180) to record normal testicular characteristics and to evaluate the effect of age on body (BCS, BW, WH, CG, AC, CS, and BL) and testicular (SC, TW, EW, TL, TD, and TL) measurements. Animals were classified into three age classes (less than or equal to 12 months, from 12 to 24 months, and over 24 months). The BW, BCS, testicular, and body measurements of the 3rd age group were significantly higher than those of age groups 1 and 2 (p < 0.01). Male age had a significant effect (p < 0.01) on BW, BCS, and body measurements. Indeed, the parameters of the 3rd age group were significantly higher than those of the 1st and 2nd age groups (p < 0.01). The same was true for testicular measurements (SC, TL, TW, EW, and EL) except for testicular diameter (TD) where the results of the first two age groups had no significant difference. The highest correlation coefficients were recorded between BW and all body (r = 0.7-0.9) and testicular traits (r = 0.72-0.85), BCS and body measurements (r = 0.73-0.89), and scrotal circumference and testicular measurements (r = 0.77-0.85). In conclusion, it was found that the use of BCS is readily measurable in live animals and is expected to be the best indicator of testicular and epididymal measurements. These results, particularly the predictive models developed, could be useful in the selection of males for reproduction.


Assuntos
Tamanho Corporal , Peso Corporal , Cabras/fisiologia , Testículo/fisiologia , Fatores Etários , Argélia , Animais , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão/fisiologia
7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 207: 111563, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33254417

RESUMO

Exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) has been hypothesized as a cause of declining sheep reproductive efficiency. Understanding the long-term effects of EDCs such as heavy metals on reproductive health requires investigation in 'real life' of sheep that are reared in industrial areas. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of long-term exposure of Kermani rams to high levels of environmental heavy metals probably emitted from a copper smelter at KhatoonAbad in ShahreBabak, Kerman province. Testicular characteristics were determined in randomly-selected rams (3-4 years old) at 4 directions (south, north, east, and west) and 4 distances (10, 20, 30, and 40 km) from the smelter. Testicular trace element contents, size, serum testosterone, histological attributes and seminal characteristics, except semen volume, were affected by both the direction and the distance from the smelter (P < 0.05). Testicular contents of Pb, Cd, Cr, and Ni, and sperm abnormalities were higher at 10 km south from the smelter and lower at 40 km west. Other parameters were higher at 40 km west and lower at 10 km south. Interestingly, the testicular contents of Cu at 10 km south were lower and associated with higher sperm abnormalities in the rams reared closer to the smelter. The highest weight, length and circumference of the testis were found at 40 km west. The lowest concentration of testosterone was observed at 10 km south, being 92.6% lower than the highest values obtained at 40 km west. The diameter of seminiferous tubules and epithelial height at 10 km south were 8.9% and 27.5% lower than the highest values obtained at 40 km west. A positive correlation between Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni contents in the testis with sperm abnormalities, and a negative correlation between these elements with the other parameters were found. It was concluded that long-term exposure to heavy metals might have been a cause of decreased fertility in rams and probably other living species in this region.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Cobre/toxicidade , Masculino , Reprodução , Análise do Sêmen/veterinária , Ovinos , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Testículo/fisiologia , Testosterona/sangue , Testes de Toxicidade Crônica , Oligoelementos/metabolismo
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(39): 24195-24204, 2020 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32929012

RESUMO

Spermatogonial stem cell transplantation (SSCT) is an experimental technique for transfer of germline between donor and recipient males that could be used as a tool for biomedical research, preservation of endangered species, and dissemination of desirable genetics in food animal populations. To fully realize these potentials, recipient males must be devoid of endogenous germline but possess normal testicular architecture and somatic cell function capable of supporting allogeneic donor stem cell engraftment and regeneration of spermatogenesis. Here we show that male mice, pigs, goats, and cattle harboring knockout alleles of the NANOS2 gene generated by CRISPR-Cas9 editing have testes that are germline ablated but otherwise structurally normal. In adult pigs and goats, SSCT with allogeneic donor stem cells led to sustained donor-derived spermatogenesis. With prepubertal mice, allogeneic SSCT resulted in attainment of natural fertility. Collectively, these advancements represent a major step toward realizing the enormous potential of surrogate sires as a tool for dissemination and regeneration of germplasm in all mammalian species.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Germinativas Adultas/transplante , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/fisiologia , Espermatogênese , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Cabras , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Suínos , Testículo/anatomia & histologia , Testículo/fisiologia , Transplante Homólogo
9.
Reprod Biomed Online ; 41(5): 903-906, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32826162

RESUMO

RESEARCH QUESTION: Can the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus induce testis damage and dysfunction? DESIGN: This is the description of the case of a young man presenting with heavy testicular pain as the first symptom of COVID-19 infection. A review of the literature is also presented. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 may enter into the host cell by binding to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2. This receptor seems to be widely expressed in different testicular cell types, making possible the occurrence of orchitis in male patients with COVID-19 infection. From a review of the literature, it seems that there is currently no evidence of sexual transmission of SARS-CoV-2; however, the possibility of virus-induced testis damage and dysfunction cannot be excluded. CONCLUSIONS: Further studies are necessary on the pathological effect of SARS-CoV-2 in the male reproductive system and to ensure a proper andrological follow-up for male patients.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Dor Pélvica/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Doenças Testiculares/diagnóstico , Testículo/virologia , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Dor Pélvica/epidemiologia , Dor Pélvica/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Doenças Testiculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Testiculares/virologia , Testículo/patologia , Testículo/fisiologia
10.
Aquat Toxicol ; 225: 105553, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32622090

RESUMO

Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can induce abnormalities in organisms via alteration of molecular pathways and subsequent disruption of endocrine functions. Bisphenol A (BPA) and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) are ubiquitous EDCs in the environment. Many aquatic organisms, including fish, are often exposed to varying concentrations of BPA and EE2 throughout their lifespan. Both BPA and EE2 can activate estrogenic signaling pathways and cause adverse effects on reproduction via alteration of pathways associated with steroidogenesis. However, transcriptional pathways that are affected by chronic exposure to these two ubiquitous environmental estrogens during embryonic, larval, and juvenile stages are not clearly understood. In the present study, we examined transcriptional alterations in the testis of medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) chronically exposed to a low concentration of BPA or EE2. Medaka were exposed to BPA (10 µg/L) or EE2 (0.01 µg/L) from 8 h post-fertilization (as embryos) to adulthood 50 days post fertilization (dpf), and transcriptional alterations in the testis were examined by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). Transcriptomic profiling revealed 651 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between BPA-exposed and control testes, while 1475 DEGs were found between EE2-exposed and control testes. Gene ontology (GO) analysis showed a significant enrichment of "intracellular receptor signaling pathway", "response to steroid hormone" and "hormone-mediated signaling pathway" in the BPA-induced DEGs, and of "cilium organization", "microtubule-based process" and "organelle assembly" in the EE2-induced DEGs. Pathway analysis showed significant enrichment of "integrin signaling pathway" in both treatment groups, and of "cadherin signaling pathway", "Alzheimer disease-presenilin pathway" in EE2-induced DEGs. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and insertion-deletion (Indel) analysis found no significant differences in mutation rates with either BPA or EE2 treatments. Taken together, global gene expression differences in testes of medaka during early stages of gametogenesis were responsive to chronic BPA and EE2 exposure.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Etinilestradiol/toxicidade , Oryzias/fisiologia , Fenóis/toxicidade , Testículo/fisiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Disruptores Endócrinos/metabolismo , Estrogênios/metabolismo , Etinilestradiol/metabolismo , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0230930, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32267870

RESUMO

Human epidemiological studies have shown that paternal aging as one of the risk factors for neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism, in offspring. A recent study has suggested that factors other than de novo mutations due to aging can influence the biology of offspring. Here, we focused on epigenetic alterations in sperm that can influence developmental programs in offspring. In this study, we qualitatively and semiquantitatively evaluated histone modification patterns in male germline cells throughout spermatogenesis based on immunostaining of testes taken from young (3 months old) and aged (12 months old) mice. Although localization patterns were not obviously changed between young and aged testes, some histone modification showed differences in their intensity. Among histone modifications that repress gene expression, histone H3 lysine 9 trimethylation (H3K9me3) was decreased in the male germline cells of the aged testis, while H3K27me2/3 was increased. The intensity of H3K27 acetylation (ac), an active mark, was lower/higher depending on the stages in the aged testis. Interestingly, H3K27ac was detected on the putative sex chromosomes of round spermatids, while other chromosomes were occupied by a repressive mark, H3K27me3. Among other histone modifications that activate gene expression, H3K4me2 was drastically decreased in the male germline cells of the aged testis. In contrast, H3K79me3 was increased in M-phase spermatocytes, where it accumulates on the sex chromosomes. Therefore, aging induced alterations in the amount of histone modifications and in the differences of patterns for each modification. Moreover, histone modifications on the sex chromosomes and on other chromosomes seems to be differentially regulated by aging. These findings will help elucidate the epigenetic mechanisms underlying the influence of paternal aging on offspring development.


Assuntos
Histonas/genética , Meiose/genética , Espermatócitos/fisiologia , Espermatogênese/genética , Testículo/fisiologia , Acetilação , Animais , Epigênese Genética/genética , Epigenômica/métodos , Expressão Gênica/genética , Código das Histonas/genética , Humanos , Lisina/genética , Masculino , Metilação , Camundongos , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional/genética , Cromossomos Sexuais/genética , Espermátides/fisiologia
12.
Fertil Steril ; 113(4): 865-875, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32164925

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between psychological stress and male factor infertility as well as testicular function (semen quality, serum reproductive hormones) and erectile dysfunction. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: University Hospital-based research center. PATIENTS: Men with impaired semen quality were included from infertile couples, and men with naturally conceived pregnant partners were used as a reference population. INTERVENTIONS: Participants completed a questionnaire on health and lifestyle, including a 14-item questionnaire about self-rated psychological stress symptoms and stressful life event (SLEs), had a physical examination performed, delivered a semen sample and had a blood sample drawn. MAIN OUTCOMES: Differences in stress scores (calculated from self-reported stress symptoms) and SLEs between infertile and fertile men were assessed in crude and fully adjusted linear regression models. Secondary outcomes were semen quality, serum reproductive hormones, and erectile dysfunction. RESULTS: Of 423 men, 176 (41.6%) experienced at least one SLE in the 3 months prior to inclusion (50.4%/36.9%: infertile/fertile men, P = .03); ß-coefficient and 95% confidence interval for the difference between the groups on the transformed scale in fully adjusted linear regression models was 0.18 (0.06, 0.30). However, there were no differences in psychological stress symptoms between the two groups (ß-coefficient and 95% confidence interval) on the transformed scale (0.14; -0.02, 0.30). No association between stress (self-reported stress symptoms and SLEs) and testicular function or with erectile dysfunction was found in any of the men. CONCLUSION: Infertile men reported a higher number of SLEs than fertile men but did not report more psychological stress symptoms. Distress and SLEs were not associated with reduced male reproductive function.


Assuntos
Infertilidade Masculina/diagnóstico , Infertilidade Masculina/psicologia , Análise do Sêmen/métodos , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Testículo/fisiologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Infertilidade Masculina/sangue , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Psicológico/sangue , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32197832

RESUMO

This chapter discusses the mechanisms of action of hormonal male contraception, which suppresses the hypothalamic-pituitary-testis axis. When the intratesticular concentration of testosterone is subsequently suppressed to adequately low concentrations, spermatogenesis is arrested. Androgens are a necessary hormonal male contraceptive component because they not only suppress the hypothalamic-pituitary-testis axis, but also provide the male hormone necessary to maintain peripheral androgen functions. Past studies using testosterone alone and testosterone combined with progestins demonstrated contraceptive efficacy in the female partner at rates similar to combined hormonal female methods. Newer hormonal male contraceptive formulations and the alternative routes of administration are discussed, along with potential barriers, challenges, and opportunities for hormonal male contraceptive development. Novel methods that are safe, effective, reversible, user-friendly, and coitus-independent are intrinsic to equitably meet the various needs and limitations of an increasingly diverse population.


Assuntos
Androgênios , Anticoncepcionais Masculinos , Serviços de Planejamento Familiar/tendências , Vasectomia/métodos , Anticoncepção , Anticoncepcionais Masculinos/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/fisiologia , Masculino , Espermatogênese/fisiologia , Testículo/fisiologia , Testosterona/efeitos adversos
15.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(2): e1921610, 2020 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32083688

RESUMO

Importance: Diet may play a role in testicular function, but data on how adherence to different diet patterns influences human testicular function are scarce. Objective: To determine whether adherence to specific dietary patterns is associated with testicular function in young men. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study included 2935 young Danish men unselected regarding fertility status who were enrolled from April 1, 2008, through May 31, 2017. Data were analyzed from July 1, 2017, to January 30, 2019. Exposures: Dietary patterns identified with principal component analysis based on responses to a validated food frequency questionnaire. Main Outcomes and Measures: Standard semen quality assessment; serum concentrations of testosterone, free testosterone, estradiol, inhibin B, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and sex hormone-binding globulin; and testicular volume measured with ultrasonography. Results: Among the 2935 participants included in the analysis, median age was 19 (interquartile range, 19-20) years and 2290 (78.0%) had normal body mass index. The 4 dietary patterns identified included Western, prudent, open-sandwich (a traditional Danish eating pattern), and vegetarianlike. The greatest adherence to the prudent pattern was associated with the highest total sperm count (median, 167 [95% CI, 146-183] million), followed by adherence to vegetarianlike (median, 151 [95% CI, 134-168] million) and open-sandwich (median, 146 [95% CI, 131-163] million) patterns. Adherence to the Western pattern was associated with the lowest total sperm count (median, 122 [95% CI, 109-138] million), which was significantly lower than sperm count in the other 3 diet patterns. After adjusting for confounders, the median total sperm count for men in the highest quintile of adherence to the Western pattern was 26 million lower (95% CI, -42 to -9 million) than for men in the lowest quintile of adherence to this pattern. Conversely, the median total sperm count of men in the highest quintile of adherence to the prudent pattern was 43 million (95% CI, 23-63 million) higher than that of men in the lowest quintile. Men with the highest adherence to the Western pattern had a lower median ratio of inhibin B to follicle-stimulating hormone (-12 [95% CI, -20 to -3]) and higher median ratio of free testosterone to luteinizing hormone (10 [95% CI, 2-19]) compared with men with lowest adherence to this pattern. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study, adherence to generally healthy diet patterns was associated with better semen quality, with potentially more favorable fertility potential among adult men.


Assuntos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Hormônios Gonadais/sangue , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Testículo , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Análise do Sêmen , Globulina de Ligação a Hormônio Sexual/análise , Testículo/diagnóstico por imagem , Testículo/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 1697, 2020 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32015446

RESUMO

Gonads are the only edible part of the sea urchin and have great potential as a health-promoting food for human consumption. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are important necessary nutrients that determine not only the nutritional value of sea urchins but guarantee their normal growth and reproduction. However, the information on the molecular mechanisms of PUFA biosynthesis and metabolism in this species remains elusive. In this study, we used Strongylocentrotus intermedius as our model species and conducted integrated metabolomic and transcriptomic analyses of potentially critical genes involved in PUFA biosynthesis and metabolism during gonad growth and development, mainly focusing on eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). We found six differentially accumulated metabolites associated with PUFA in the metabolomic analysis. More differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were related to PUFA in testis than ovary (1823 DEGs in testis and 1499 DEGs in ovary). We verified 12 DEGs by RNA-Seq results and found that Aldh7a1, Ecm3, Fads2, and Hsd17b12 genes had similar expression patterns in EPA concentration during gonad growth and development. In contrast, the other DEGs were downregulated and we inferred that EPA or PUFA may be metabolized as energy during certain periods. Our metabolic and genetic data will facilitate a better understanding of PUFA regulation networks during gonad growth and development in S. intermedius.


Assuntos
Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Ovário/fisiologia , Ouriços-do-Mar , Testículo/fisiologia , Animais , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/biossíntese , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Masculino , Metaboloma , Metabolômica , Transcriptoma
17.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 1703, 2020 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32015477

RESUMO

The nuclear hormone receptor Dax1 functions during development as a testes-determining gene. However, the phenotype of male mice lacking Dax1 is strain-dependent due to the background-specific abundance of male-determining Sry gene-transcripts. We hypothesised that inter-individual variation in Sry mRNA-abundance would result in a spectrum of phenotypes even within-strain. We found that while all XY C57BL/6J mice lacking Dax1 presented as phenotypic females, there was a marked inter-individual variability in measures of fertility. Indeed, we report rare occasions where sex-reversed mice had measures of fertility comparable to those in control females. On two occasions, these sex-reversed XY mice were able to give birth to live offspring following mating to stud-males. As such, this work documents within-strain variability in phenotypes of XY mice lacking Dax1, and reports for the first time a complete sex-reversal capable of achieving live birth in these mice.


Assuntos
Receptor Nuclear Órfão DAX-1/genética , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento Sexual/genética , Processos de Determinação Sexual/fisiologia , Proteína da Região Y Determinante do Sexo/genética , Testículo/fisiologia , Animais , Variação Biológica Individual , Feminino , Fertilidade , Patrimônio Genético , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Parto , Fenótipo
18.
Reprod Domest Anim ; 55(4): 429-437, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31916315

RESUMO

Although stem cell therapy is a promising alternative for treatment of degenerative diseases, there are just few reports on the use of stem cells therapy in horse's reproductive system. This study aims to evaluate the effect of intratesticular injection of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) in healthy stallions, and its outcome on seminal parameters and fertility. In Experiment 1, 24 stallions were divided into treatment group (TG) and control group (CG). In the TG, an intratesticular application of MSC was performed, and in the CG, only PBS was used. Measurements of testicular volume, surface temperature and Doppler ultrasonography were performed 24 and 48 hr after treatments. Fifteen days after application, the testicles were removed and submitted to histological analysis. In Experiment 2, 3 fertile stallions received similarly treatment with MSCs. Physical examination and sperm analysis were performed weekly during 60 days after treatment, and at the end, semen from one of them was used for artificial inseminations of 6 healthy mares. In Experiment 1, clinical examinations showed no signals of acute inflammation on both groups according to the analysed variables (p > .05). Also, no signal of chronic inflammation was observed on histological evaluation. In Experiment 2, stallions presented no physical alterations or changes in sperm parameters, and a satisfactory fertility rate (83%; 5/6) was observed after AI. The results support the hypothesis that intratesticular application of bone marrow MSCs is a safe procedure, and this could be a promising alternative to treat testicular degenerative conditions.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/veterinária , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Testículo , Tolerância ao Transplante , Animais , Feminino , Fertilidade , Cavalos , Inseminação Artificial/veterinária , Masculino , Análise do Sêmen , Testículo/anatomia & histologia , Testículo/fisiologia , Transplante Homólogo/veterinária
19.
Environ Pollut ; 259: 113911, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923814

RESUMO

Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a common environmental endocrine disrupting chemical that may induce male reproductive disorders. Exposure to DEHP at a prepubertal stage could lead to prepubertal testicular injury, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we exposed Sprague-Dawley rats to 0, 250, and 500 mg DEHP per kg body weight per day at the prepuberty stage from postnatal day 22 (PND 22) to PND 35 by oral gavage. Testicular injury and oxidative stress were evaluated, and the levels of 6-methyladenosine (m6A) modification and expression of modulator genes for RNA methylation were measured in testes. Furthermore, m6A modification of the important antioxidant transcription factor Nrf2 was analyzed using methylated RNA immunoprecipitation qPCR. Our results show that DEHP worsened testicular histology, decreased testosterone concentrations, downregulated expression of spermatogenesis inducers, enhanced oxidative stress, inhibited the Nrf2-mediated antioxidant pathway, and increased apoptosis in testes. Additionally, DEHP increased global levels of m6A RNA modification and altered the expression of two important RNA methylation modulator genes, FTO and YTHDC2. Moreover, m6A modification of Nrf2 mRNA increased upon DEHP exposure. Overall, these findings link oxidative stress imbalance with epigenetic effects of DEHP toxicity and provide insight into the testicular toxicity of DEHP from the new perspective of m6A modification.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Dietilexilftalato/toxicidade , Animais , Masculino , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Ácidos Ftálicos , RNA/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/fisiologia
20.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(3): 3401-3412, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31840221

RESUMO

Mercury (Hg) is a heavy metal toxicant, causing several adverse reactions to animals and humans including reproductive dysfunction. The potential protective role of Ziziphus spina-christi leaf extract (ZSCLE) against testicular impairments associated with mercury chloride (HgCl2) exposure in rats was investigated in the current study. Four experimental groups were employed as follows (n = 7): group I served as control, group II was gavaged with ZSCLE (300 mg/kg), group III was administered with HgCl2 (0.4 mg/kg), and group IV was preadministered with ZSCLE 1 h before HgCl2. All groups were treated daily for 28 days. The exposure to HgCl2 caused a marked increase in Hg concentration in the testicular tissue, which was accompanied with a decrease in testis index. A reproductive impairment was recorded following HgCl2 exposure as verified through the decrease in levels of testosterone, luteinizing, and follicle-stimulating hormones. HgCl2 was found to enhance the development of oxidative damage in the testicular tissue as presented by the imbalance between pro-oxidants and antioxidant molecules. In addition, excessive release of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1ß was recorded in response to HgCl2 intoxication. Furthermore, a disturbance in the apoptotic proteins in favor of the pro-apoptotic proteins was also observed following HgCl2 intoxication. However, ZSCLE administration along with HgCl2 abolished significantly the molecular, biochemical, and histopathological alterations induced by HgCl2 intoxication. Our findings suggest that ZSCLE could be used to mitigate reproductive dysfunction associated with HgCl2 exposure.


Assuntos
Substâncias Perigosas/toxicidade , Cloreto de Mercúrio/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Ziziphus , Animais , Antioxidantes , Masculino , Mercúrio , Estresse Oxidativo , Ratos , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/fisiologia
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