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1.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0230930, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32267870

RESUMO

Human epidemiological studies have shown that paternal aging as one of the risk factors for neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism, in offspring. A recent study has suggested that factors other than de novo mutations due to aging can influence the biology of offspring. Here, we focused on epigenetic alterations in sperm that can influence developmental programs in offspring. In this study, we qualitatively and semiquantitatively evaluated histone modification patterns in male germline cells throughout spermatogenesis based on immunostaining of testes taken from young (3 months old) and aged (12 months old) mice. Although localization patterns were not obviously changed between young and aged testes, some histone modification showed differences in their intensity. Among histone modifications that repress gene expression, histone H3 lysine 9 trimethylation (H3K9me3) was decreased in the male germline cells of the aged testis, while H3K27me2/3 was increased. The intensity of H3K27 acetylation (ac), an active mark, was lower/higher depending on the stages in the aged testis. Interestingly, H3K27ac was detected on the putative sex chromosomes of round spermatids, while other chromosomes were occupied by a repressive mark, H3K27me3. Among other histone modifications that activate gene expression, H3K4me2 was drastically decreased in the male germline cells of the aged testis. In contrast, H3K79me3 was increased in M-phase spermatocytes, where it accumulates on the sex chromosomes. Therefore, aging induced alterations in the amount of histone modifications and in the differences of patterns for each modification. Moreover, histone modifications on the sex chromosomes and on other chromosomes seems to be differentially regulated by aging. These findings will help elucidate the epigenetic mechanisms underlying the influence of paternal aging on offspring development.


Assuntos
Histonas/genética , Meiose/genética , Espermatócitos/fisiologia , Espermatogênese/genética , Testículo/fisiologia , Acetilação , Animais , Epigênese Genética/genética , Epigenômica/métodos , Expressão Gênica/genética , Código das Histonas/genética , Humanos , Lisina/genética , Masculino , Metilação , Camundongos , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional/genética , Cromossomos Sexuais/genética , Espermátides/fisiologia
2.
Environ Pollut ; 259: 113911, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923814

RESUMO

Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a common environmental endocrine disrupting chemical that may induce male reproductive disorders. Exposure to DEHP at a prepubertal stage could lead to prepubertal testicular injury, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we exposed Sprague-Dawley rats to 0, 250, and 500 mg DEHP per kg body weight per day at the prepuberty stage from postnatal day 22 (PND 22) to PND 35 by oral gavage. Testicular injury and oxidative stress were evaluated, and the levels of 6-methyladenosine (m6A) modification and expression of modulator genes for RNA methylation were measured in testes. Furthermore, m6A modification of the important antioxidant transcription factor Nrf2 was analyzed using methylated RNA immunoprecipitation qPCR. Our results show that DEHP worsened testicular histology, decreased testosterone concentrations, downregulated expression of spermatogenesis inducers, enhanced oxidative stress, inhibited the Nrf2-mediated antioxidant pathway, and increased apoptosis in testes. Additionally, DEHP increased global levels of m6A RNA modification and altered the expression of two important RNA methylation modulator genes, FTO and YTHDC2. Moreover, m6A modification of Nrf2 mRNA increased upon DEHP exposure. Overall, these findings link oxidative stress imbalance with epigenetic effects of DEHP toxicity and provide insight into the testicular toxicity of DEHP from the new perspective of m6A modification.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Dietilexilftalato/toxicidade , Animais , Masculino , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Ácidos Ftálicos , RNA/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/fisiologia
3.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(3): 3401-3412, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31840221

RESUMO

Mercury (Hg) is a heavy metal toxicant, causing several adverse reactions to animals and humans including reproductive dysfunction. The potential protective role of Ziziphus spina-christi leaf extract (ZSCLE) against testicular impairments associated with mercury chloride (HgCl2) exposure in rats was investigated in the current study. Four experimental groups were employed as follows (n = 7): group I served as control, group II was gavaged with ZSCLE (300 mg/kg), group III was administered with HgCl2 (0.4 mg/kg), and group IV was preadministered with ZSCLE 1 h before HgCl2. All groups were treated daily for 28 days. The exposure to HgCl2 caused a marked increase in Hg concentration in the testicular tissue, which was accompanied with a decrease in testis index. A reproductive impairment was recorded following HgCl2 exposure as verified through the decrease in levels of testosterone, luteinizing, and follicle-stimulating hormones. HgCl2 was found to enhance the development of oxidative damage in the testicular tissue as presented by the imbalance between pro-oxidants and antioxidant molecules. In addition, excessive release of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1ß was recorded in response to HgCl2 intoxication. Furthermore, a disturbance in the apoptotic proteins in favor of the pro-apoptotic proteins was also observed following HgCl2 intoxication. However, ZSCLE administration along with HgCl2 abolished significantly the molecular, biochemical, and histopathological alterations induced by HgCl2 intoxication. Our findings suggest that ZSCLE could be used to mitigate reproductive dysfunction associated with HgCl2 exposure.


Assuntos
Substâncias Perigosas/toxicidade , Cloreto de Mercúrio/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Ziziphus , Animais , Antioxidantes , Masculino , Mercúrio , Estresse Oxidativo , Ratos , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/fisiologia
4.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(5): 5009-5017, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31845274

RESUMO

Nandrolone decanoate (ND) is a commonly used anabolic-androgenic steroid. These drugs are illegally self-administered by athletes to enhance their sports performance. However, their abuse could influence the testicular function and fertility. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the possible protective effects of Cynara scolymus leaf extract (CLE) on ND-induced testicular dysfunction in rats. Five groups of adult male rats (10 rats each) were used. Group I rats received only saline and served as controls. Group II rats were injected with a vehicle once weekly, while group III rats received intramuscular injections of ND (20 mg/kg/week for 60 days). Group IV rats orally received 1 g/kg/day of CLE and group V rats received ND and CLE at the aforementioned doses. The results revealed that ND has a negative impact on the testicular function as evidenced by the significant increases (p ≤ 0.05) in testicular malondialdehyde concentration and serum non-prostatic acid phosphatase activity, as well as the significant decreases in serum testosterone levels, testicular weight, glutathione concentration, catalase enzyme activity, and total antioxidant capacity. These results were accompanied by considerable alterations of sperm characters and histopathological studies of the testicular tissue. However, co-treatment with CLE extract significantly alleviated (p ≤ 0.05) almost all ND-induced pathological alterations. In conclusion, co-treatment of ND-intoxicated rats with CLE ameliorated the toxic effects of ND on the testicular structure and function, probably due to its antioxidant activity.


Assuntos
Anabolizantes , Cynara scolymus , Nandrolona , Testículo/fisiologia , Anabolizantes/isolamento & purificação , Anabolizantes/metabolismo , Animais , Cynara scolymus/química , Masculino , Decanoato de Nandrolona , Extratos Vegetais , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Espermatozoides
5.
Theriogenology ; 142: 355-362, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711704

RESUMO

In numerous studies it has been suggested that targeting mitochondria with specific compounds could efficiently inhibit various conditions associated with oxidative stress. The treatment of aged roosters with compounds such as coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), may improve their reproductive performance by providing protection from oxidative stress. Therefore, this study was performed to assess the effect of supplemental dietary CoQ10 on the testicular function and fertility of aged broiler breeder roosters. A total of 36 roosters)47 weeks of age) were randomly divided into dietary treatments containing either 0, 300 or 600 mg CoQ10/kg diet. Three birds were allocated to each of four replicate groups in each dietary treatment. Between 47 and 54 weeks of age, ejaculates were obtained weekly from the three roosters in each replicate group. Samples in a replicate were pooled and analyzed as a single sample. Between 51 and 54 weeks of age, seminal plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC), alanine amino transferase (ALAT) and aspartate amino transferase (ASAT) levels were assessed. Fertility, hatchability, and sperm penetration (SP) rates were likewise evaluated. Seminal volume, sperm concentration, sperm plasma membrane functionality, sperm plasma membrane integrity, seminiferous tubule diameter and seminiferous epithelium thickness exhibited quadratic increases in response to increasing levels of dietary CoQ10. Respectively, the 429.19, 433.33, 464.50, 613.50, 392.78 and 447.99 mg/kg dietary concentrations of CoQ10 provided the best results for each of the aforementioned variables. Also, other seminal traits, as well as testosterone concentration, fertility, and SP rates, displayed linear increases in response to the increasing levels of CoQ10. Dietary supplementation of CoQ10 linearly decreased seminal plasma ALAT and ASAT and linearly increased seminal plasma TAC. In conclusion, CoQ10 supplementation in the diet (a minimum of 300 mg CoQ10/kg diet) has the potential to improve the reproductive performance of aged broiler breeder roosters.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ubiquinona/análogos & derivados , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Análise do Sêmen/veterinária , Testículo/fisiologia , Ubiquinona/administração & dosagem , Ubiquinona/farmacologia
6.
Theriogenology ; 142: 414-420, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711707

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential reproductive, antioxidant and metabolic effects of kisspeptin-10 (KP-10) on Ossimi rams. Twelve Ossimi rams (1.5-2 years old) were divided randomly into two groups (six per group). The first one served as a control group, while the second one served as a treated group. Rams of the treated group were injected once weekly with KP-10 (5 µg/kg body weight) for one month. There were no significant differences in all measured parameters between rams of control group at pre-treatment period and those at post-treatment period. However, most examined parameters in the same rams in the treated group were affected by injection of KP-10 when comparing pre-treatment values in treated group with its post-treatment values. At the pre-treatment period, there were no significant differences between the treated and control groups regarding semen pH, mass motility, sperm concentration/mL, live and dead spermatozoa, total sperm abnormality, testosterone and oxidative stress and metabolic parameters. However, all semen characteristics were significantly improved in the treated group compared with the control group at the post-treatment period and in the treated group at the post-treatment period compared with that at the pre-treatment period. In addition, scrotal circumference, ejaculate volume and total sperm concentration/ejaculate showed higher significant improvements when comparing the treated group with the control one at the post-treatment period than when comparing the two groups at the pre-treatment period and also when comparing the treated group at the post-treatment period with that at the pre-treatment period. Serum testosterone, total antioxidant capacity, lipid peroxides, nitric oxide, total protein, albumin, glucose and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels significantly increased when comparing the treated group with the control one at the post-treatment period and also when comparing the treated group at the post-treatment period with that at the pre-treatment period. In conclusion, KP-10 led to potential improvement in the reproductive efficacy and metabolic capacity of Ossimi ram.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Kisspeptinas/farmacologia , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovinos , Animais , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Masculino , Reprodução/fisiologia , Escroto/efeitos dos fármacos , Escroto/fisiologia , Sêmen/efeitos dos fármacos , Sêmen/fisiologia , Análise do Sêmen/veterinária , Ovinos/fisiologia , Carneiro Doméstico , Motilidade Espermática/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/fisiologia
7.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226558, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31835274

RESUMO

Diphylla ecaudata is a hematophagous bat endemic of South America, with food preference for bird blood. Given the lack of information about the reproductive activity of this species, this study aimed to describe the testicular morphology and histomorphometry of D. ecaudata in order to understand its reproductive biology, specially spermatogenesis. The animals were collected in Lajes city, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Following euthanasia, the testes were histologically processed for morphological, morphometric, ultrastructural and immunohistochemical analyses. Their average body weight was 24.64g, with a gonadosomatic index of 0.49%, tubulesomatic index of 0.47%, and a total of 32.20m of seminiferous tubules per gram of testis. The pre-meiotic, meiotic, and post-meiotic phases accounted for 56.20%, 9.30%, and 34.50% of the seminiferous epithelium cycle, respectively. The ultrastructure of spermiogenesis was similar to that described in other mammals and the perforatorium was not observed in the sperm. Androgen receptors were detected in Sertoli cell nuclei and Leydig cell cytoplasm, while aromatase enzyme was detected only in Sertoli cell nuclei. FGF2 and BCL-2 activities were detected in the cytoplasm of zygotene and pachytene primary spermatocytes, as well as round and elongated spermatids. D. ecaudata showed testicular pattern similar to other mammals and characteristics common to other bat species. This species stood out for its high efficiency of Sertoli cells, which presented high capacity to support germ cells, besides the highest sperm production rates among those already recorded. This study is the first step towards the knowledge of D. ecaudata reproduction and the first description of its spermatogenesis.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Quirópteros/fisiologia , Espermatogênese , Testículo/fisiologia , Animais , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/citologia , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/metabolismo , Masculino , Túbulos Seminíferos/citologia , Túbulos Seminíferos/metabolismo , Células de Sertoli/citologia , Células de Sertoli/metabolismo , Testículo/anatomia & histologia
8.
Anim Reprod Sci ; 211: 106224, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785625

RESUMO

The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the damage caused by cryopreservation on sperm DNA and estimate the percentage of cell apoptosis in tissue after thawing. Testicles of cats were sectioned into of 0.3 cm3 and 0.5 cm3 fragments and evaluated for DNA damage using acridine orange and semi-quantitatively through histo-morphological and immunohistochemical methods (caspase-3). Other fragments were placed in cryotubes with diluent containing either 3% glycerol or 3% propanediol, and were cryopreserved. Evaluation using acridine orange indicated there was a difference with use of propanediol and glycerol on DNA damage in 0.5 cm3fragments, with the latter being more effective than the former for cryopreservation. Results from histomorphological evaluations indicated there was a greater cell integrity among germ cells that were not cryopreserved, based on criteria assessed (detachment of cells from basal membrane, retraction of seminiferous tubule epithelium, visibility of the spermatogonia nucleoli and nuclear spermatogonia condensation), for both sizes of fragments. The values for these variables decreased after cryopreservation, with there being no differences as a result of size of fragment stored or between cryoprotectants used (P > 0.05). The staining for caspase-3 differed for the cytoplasm, nuclei and germ cells. Assessment of these staining patterns indicated the fresh fragments had an amount of cell damage and there was a similar amount of damage detected in cryopreserved fragments. This finding indicated that there was considerable efficacy in preserving the tissue fragments with use of the freezing protocols that were evaluated in this study.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Gatos , Criopreservação/veterinária , Fragmentação do DNA , Testículo/fisiologia , Preservação de Tecido/veterinária , Animais , Masculino , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Preservação de Tecido/métodos
9.
Anim Reprod Sci ; 211: 106223, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785642

RESUMO

The present study was conducted to assess the testicular structure and germ cell ultrastructure of Hypophthalmus marginatus during spermatogenesis. Semen and sections of the mid-region of the testis were collected, processed, and analyzed using optical and electron microscopy. Macroscopically, the testes of H. marginatus were filiform, and the testicular parenchyma was composed of spermatogenic cells that proliferated, organized within spermatic cysts. During spermiogenesis, spermatids had no nuclear rotation. The proximal centriole was perpendicular to the distal centriole, characteristic of type III spermiogenesis. Spermatozoa were released into the lumen of the seminiferous tubules and had an ovoid head without an acrosome, condensed nucleus, and shallow nuclear fossa. The midpiece was short, with a single long flagellum. The flagellum had the typical axoneme structure, with nine pairs of peripheral and a central pair of microtubules. The thin end piece comprised only peripheral microtubules. Spermatogenesis in H. marginatus features filiform testes, cystic spermatogenesis, and type III spermiogenesis.


Assuntos
Peixes-Gato/anatomia & histologia , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Células-Tronco/fisiologia , Testículo/ultraestrutura , Animais , Peixes-Gato/fisiologia , Masculino , Espermatogênese/fisiologia , Testículo/citologia , Testículo/fisiologia
10.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 24(1): 62, 2019 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31759394

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mercury has been documented as an industrial risk that posed a serious danger to human health. Mercury exposure results in oxidative stress that may lead to the pathogenesis of male reproductive dysfunction. The present study investigated the ameliorating potential of Chenopodium album L. and vitamin C against mercuric chloride-induced oxidative deterioration of reproductive functions in adult male rats. METHODS: Group 1 (control) received saline. Group 2 received Mercury (0.15 mg/kg b.w, i.p) dissolved in distilled water. Groups 3 and 4 were given oral gavage of vitamin C (200 mg/kg b.w) and the ethanolic extract of C. album (200 mg/kg b.w) respectively, along with Mercury (0.15 mg/kg b.w, i.p). Group 5 was treated only with C. album (200 mg/kg b.w). After 30 days of the treatment, the rats were dissected and their testicular tissue and the cauda epididymis were used for biochemical analysis while blood plasma was used for protein determination. RESULTS: The applied dose-treatment of Mercury-induced oxidative stress in the testis and cauda epididymis tissues of the rats was apparent by a noteworthy decrease in total protein, CAT, SOD, POD, and GST values while there was increase in ROS and TBARS levels. Furthermore, Mercury decreases daily sperm production and enhanced sperm DNA damage as noticeable by an increase in the head and tail length of comets and decrease in intact DNA. There was no significant effect on the body weight and the weight of the reproductive tissues. Treatment with C. album significantly ameliorated the total protein, ROS, and TBARS content. Similarly, the level of CAT, SOD, POD, and GST was significantly improved and the daily sperm production was significantly increased. Furthermore, C. album administration significantly protected Mercury-induced sperm DNA damage. The results of the extract treatment group were compared with those of vitamin C in detoxifying the oxidative stress and restoring the sperm parameters. CONCLUSION: C. album showed protection against Mercury-induced oxidative stress by ameliorating antioxidant enzyme activity, daily sperm production, and DNA damage in rat testes. This suggests that C. album could be beneficial against toxicity induced by an environmental toxicant.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico/uso terapêutico , Chenopodium album/química , Cloreto de Mercúrio/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ácido Ascórbico/administração & dosagem , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Masculino , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Espermatogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/metabolismo , Testículo/fisiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(33): 34575-34583, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31650475

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to investigate whether curcumin (CUR) can ameliorate cadmium-induced reproductive toxicity and its mechanism. A total of 48 male mice were equally divided into 4 groups: control, CdCl2 (2 mg/kg, intraperitoneally inject) curcumin (50 mg/kg, intraperitoneally inject), co-treatment with curcumin (50 mg/kg), and CdCl2 (2 mg/kg) for 10 days. The results demonstrated that CdCl2 reduces sperm motility, decreases the sperm density and serum testosterone content, and significantly improves the rate of sperm deformity. CdCl2 increased the level of testicular total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity, and glutathione (GSH), and CdCl2 declined the level of malondialdehyde (MDA). However, the semen quality of the mice in the curcumin intervention group was improved. Moreover, the testosterone content and antioxidant capacity were increased. In the Cd group mice, the expression of testicular Nrf2, as well as the mRNA and protein expressions of the downstream target molecules, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCS) of Nrf2 declined, while the above genetic expressions elevated significantly in the curcumin intervention group. Our results suggested that curcumin could protect against Cd-induced testicular injury via activating the Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cádmio/toxicidade , Curcumina/farmacologia , Testículo/fisiologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição de Proteínas de Ligação GA/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Camundongos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Análise do Sêmen , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Motilidade Espermática/efeitos dos fármacos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/metabolismo , Testosterona/metabolismo
12.
Genetics ; 213(4): 1317-1327, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31645361

RESUMO

Anti-Müllerian hormone (Amh, or Müllerian-inhibiting substance, Mis), a member of TGF-ß superfamily, has been well documented in some vertebrates as initiator or key regulator in sexual development, and particularly in fish. However, its functional role has not yet been identified in reptiles. Here, we characterized the Amh gene in the Chinese soft-shelled turtle Pelodiscus sinensis, a typical reptilian species exhibiting ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes. The messenger RNA of Amh was initially expressed in male embryonic gonads by stage 15, preceding gonadal sex differentiation, and exhibited a male-specific expression pattern throughout embryogenesis. Moreover, Amh was rapidly upregulated during female-to-male sex reversal induced by aromatase inhibitor letrozole. Most importantly, Amh loss of function by RNA interference led to complete feminization of genetic male (ZZ) gonads, suppression of the testicular marker Sox9, and upregulation of the ovarian regulator Cyp19a1 Conversely, overexpression of Amh in ZW embryos resulted in female-to-male sex reversal, characterized by the formation of a testis structure, ectopic activation of Sox9, and a remarkable decline in Cyp19a1 Collectively, these findings provide the first solid evidence that Amh is both necessary and sufficient to drive testicular development in a reptilian species, P. sinensis, highlighting the significance of the TGF-ß pathway in reptilian sex determination.


Assuntos
Hormônio Antimülleriano/metabolismo , Processos de Determinação Sexual/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais , Testículo/fisiologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Tartarugas/fisiologia , Animais , Hormônio Antimülleriano/genética , Embrião não Mamífero/fisiologia , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Masculino , Fenótipo , Caracteres Sexuais , Processos de Determinação Sexual/genética , Diferenciação Sexual/genética , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Tartarugas/embriologia , Tartarugas/genética , Regulação para Cima/genética
13.
Nat Rev Endocrinol ; 15(12): 713-730, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31611649

RESUMO

Extended travel in deep space poses potential hazards to the reproductive function of female and male astronauts, including exposure to cosmic radiation, microgravity, increased gravity (hypergravity), psychological stress, physical stress and circadian rhythm disruptions. This Review focuses on the effects of microgravity, hypergravity and cosmic radiation. Cosmic radiation contains protons, helium nuclei and high charge and energy (HZE) particles. Studies performed on Earth in which rodents were exposed to experimentally generated HZE particles have demonstrated a high sensitivity of ovarian follicles and spermatogenic cells to HZE particles. Exposure to microgravity during space flight and to simulated microgravity on Earth disrupts spermatogenesis and testicular testosterone synthesis in rodents, whereas the male reproductive system seems to adapt to exposure to moderate hypergravity. A few studies have investigated the effects of microgravity on female reproduction, with findings of disrupted oestrous cycling and in vitro follicle development being cause for concern. Many remaining data gaps need to be addressed, including the effects of microgravity, hypergravity and space radiation on the male and female reproductive tracts, hypothalamic-pituitary regulation of reproduction and prenatal development of the reproductive system as well as the combined effects of the multiple reproductive hazards encountered in space.


Assuntos
Radiação Cósmica/efeitos adversos , Hipergravidade/efeitos adversos , Reprodução/fisiologia , Voo Espacial , Ausência de Peso/efeitos adversos , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ovário/fisiologia , Ovário/efeitos da radiação , Reprodução/efeitos da radiação , Voo Espacial/métodos , Testículo/fisiologia , Testículo/efeitos da radiação
14.
Reprod Domest Anim ; 54 Suppl 4: 54-58, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31625233

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to develop a non-invasive procedure to stimulate ejaculation in median and small lizards for semen collection. After semen collection, we applied a battery of tests to assess the motility (wave and progressive), viability (eosin-nigrosin stain), morphology (normal/abnormal), sperm concentration and ejaculate number, seminal volume and colour. We obtained this fluid from all males of the four species of sceloporine lizards (n = 30) and one species of Mexican horned lizards (n = 7). We found that semen from all males had a liquid-like consistency and a milky-white appearance. Ejaculate volume and sperm concentration varied among the males and the species studied. We also observed that although the mobility, viability and normal sperm morphology showed a wide variability, their average value in each species was high. We conclude that "genital papilla pressure" was an efficient and non-invasive semen obtaining method for small- and medium-sized lizards that does not imply damage to donors and could be used in other lizard species.


Assuntos
Lagartos/fisiologia , Sêmen , Testículo/fisiologia , Coleta de Tecidos e Órgãos/veterinária , Animais , Ejaculação/fisiologia , Masculino , Motilidade Espermática , Espermatozoides/citologia , Coleta de Tecidos e Órgãos/métodos
15.
Insect Biochem Mol Biol ; 113: 103207, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421206

RESUMO

The fat body is distributed throughout the body of insects, playing the essential role in intermediary metabolism and nutrient storage. However, the function of differentiation of fat bodies adhering to different tissues remains largely unknown. Here, we identified a fat body-like tissue (FLT) surrounding testis follicles and described its features at morphological, cellular and molecular levels. The FLT is morphologically distinguished with the abdominal fat body (FB) and dominated by diploid cells instead of polyploid cells. The transcriptomic analysis demonstrated that the FLT and FB have dramatically different gene expression profiles. Moreover, genes in the cell cycle pathway, which include both DNA replication- and cell division-related genes, were successively active during development of the FLT, suggesting that FLT cells possibly undergo a mitotic cycle rather than an endocycle. Deprivation of the FLT resulted in distortion of the testis follicles, disappearance of sperm bundles, reduction of total sperm number and increase of dead sperm, indicating a critical role of the FLT in the spermatogenesis in testis follicles. The special functional differentiation of the two similar tissues suggested that FLT-FB cells are able to establish a promising system to study mitotic-to-endocycle transition.


Assuntos
Corpo Adiposo/fisiologia , Locusta migratoria/fisiologia , Espermatogênese , Animais , Corpo Adiposo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Locusta migratoria/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Testículo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Testículo/fisiologia
16.
Anim Reprod Sci ; 208: 106113, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405472

RESUMO

Testicular volume (TV) is one of the most important traits used in evaluation of the reproductive capacity of male animals. The levelled-container used in the present study was found to be reliable instrument to measure TV, based on a water displacement method. Sperm-associated antigen 11 (SPAG11) is an important gene that affects male reproductive performance. An objective of the present study, therefore, was to determine if single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a fragment of the SPAG11 gene could be used to determine associations with values of testicular biometric variables in Boer goats. Primers were designed to amplify the full length of the first two exons of SPAG11. The targeted fragment was generated using a molecular cloning technique. As the result, four SNPs, [g.1256A > G(ss19199134542), g.1270C > T(ss19199134541), g.1325A > G(ss19199134540) and g.1327 G > A (ss19199134543)], were detected using a single-base extension (SBE) method. Two of these SNPs were synonymous (ss19199134540 and ss19199134542). The other two SNPs were nonsynonymous, thus, there were changes in amino acid in the resulting protein: threonine to isoleucine (for ss19199134541) and arginine to glutamine (for ss19199134543). The SNP ss19199134543 was the only locus detected that was associated with TV (P = 0.002). None of the testes dimensions nor TW were associated with detected SPAG11 gene SNPs. Most likely, the ss19199134543 locus affects tissue structures adjacent to the testes, causing the change in TV. In conclusion, among the studied testicular biometric variables, TV had the greatest potential for preselecting of bucks with desirable semen quality. The use of the levelled-container as a TV measurement approach was an accurate and reliable method.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Superfície/genética , Biometria/métodos , Glicoproteínas/genética , Cabras , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Testículo/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Biometria/instrumentação , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Masculino , Testículo/fisiologia
17.
Elife ; 82019 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418408

RESUMO

The testis is a peculiar tissue in many respects. It shows patterns of rapid gene evolution and provides a hotspot for the origination of genetic novelties such as de novo genes, duplications and mutations. To investigate the expression patterns of genetic novelties across cell types, we performed single-cell RNA-sequencing of adult Drosophila testis. We found that new genes were expressed in various cell types, the patterns of which may be influenced by their mode of origination. In particular, lineage-specific de novo genes are commonly expressed in early spermatocytes, while young duplicated genes are often bimodally expressed. Analysis of germline substitutions suggests that spermatogenesis is a highly reparative process, with the mutational load of germ cells decreasing as spermatogenesis progresses. By elucidating the distribution of genetic novelties across spermatogenesis, this study provides a deeper understanding of how the testis maintains its core reproductive function while being a hotbed of evolutionary innovation.


Assuntos
Drosophila , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , RNA-Seq , Análise de Célula Única , Espermatócitos/fisiologia , Testículo/fisiologia , Animais , Masculino , Mutação , Espermatócitos/patologia , Espermatogênese , Testículo/patologia , Transcrição Genética
18.
Reprod Biol ; 19(3): 299-302, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31405603

RESUMO

We conducted a single-center cross-sectional study to determine whether scrotal-testicular tissue oxygen saturation (S-T StO2) measured by finger-mounted near-infrared spectroscopy is useful for the evaluation of testicular function. S-T StO2 was significantly higher in patients with nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA, p< 0.05), and showed a positive correlation with luteinizing hormone levels (LH) even in participants without NOA (r = 0.34, p< 0.05), suggesting that elevated S-T StO2 is associated with a reduction in testicular function.


Assuntos
Oximetria/instrumentação , Oximetria/métodos , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Escroto/fisiologia , Testículo/fisiologia , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino
19.
J Morphol ; 280(10): 1452-1461, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313860

RESUMO

Salamanders possess kidneys with two distinct regions: a caudal pelvic portion and cranial genital portion. Nephrons of the pelvic region are responsible for urine formation and transport. Nephrons of the genital region transport sperm from testes to Wolffian ducts; however, nephrons of the genital region possess all the same functional regions found in pelvic kidney nephrons that are involved with urine formation and transport (renal corpuscles, proximal tubules, distal tubules, and collecting ducts). Morphological similarities between pelvic and genital regions stimulated past researchers to hypothesize that nephrons of genital kidneys possess dual function; that is, sperm transport and urine formation/transport. Considering size of glomeruli is directly related to the total amount of blood plasma filtered into the Bowman's space, we tested the hypothesis that nephrons of genital kidneys have reduced urine formation function by comparing glomerular size between nephrons of pelvic and genital kidney regions in Eurycea longicauda with general histological techniques. Light microscopy analysis revealed that glomeruli of pelvic kidneys were significantly larger than those measured from genital kidneys. Transmission electron microscopy analysis also revealed modifications in genital kidney nephrons when compared to pelvic kidney nephrons that suggested a decrease in urine formation function in genital kidneys. Such modifications included a decrease in basal and lateral plasma membrane folding in genital kidney proximal and distal tubules compared to that of pelvic kidney proximal and distal tubules. Genital kidney proximal tubules were also ciliated, which was not observed in pelvic kidney proximal tubules. In conclusion, although structurally similar at the histological level, it appears that nephrons of genital kidneys have decreased urine formation function based on glomerular size comparison and nephron ultrastructure.


Assuntos
Néfrons/ultraestrutura , Transporte Espermático , Urodelos/fisiologia , Animais , Masculino , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Néfrons/fisiologia , Testículo/fisiologia , Urodelos/anatomia & histologia
20.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 597, 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331264

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impossibility of closing the life cycle of the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) in captivity troubles the future of this critically endangered species. In addition, the European eel is a highly valued and demanded resource, thus the successful closing of its life cycle would have a substantial economic and ecological impact. With the aim of obtaining the highest gamete quality, the study of the effects of environmental factors, such as temperature, on reproductive performance may prove valuable. This is especially true for the exposure to cold water, which has been reported to improve sexual development in multiple other Actinopterygii species. RESULTS: European eel males treated with cold seawater (10 °C, T10) for 2 weeks showed an increase in the proliferation and differentiation of spermatogonial cells until the differentiated spermatogonial type A cell stage, and elevated testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone plasma levels. Transcriptomes from the tissues of the brain-pituitary-gonad (BPG) axis of T10 samples revealed a differential gene expression profile compared to the other experimental groups, with clustering in a principal component analysis and in heat maps of all differentially expressed genes. Furthermore, a functional analysis of differentially expressed genes revealed enriched gene ontology terms involved in the regulation of circadian rhythm, histone modification, meiotic nuclear division, and others. CONCLUSIONS: Cold seawater treatment had a clear effect on the activity of the BPG-axis of European eel males. In particular, our cold seawater treatment induces the synchronization and increased proliferation and differentiation of specific spermatogonial cells. In the transcriptomic results, genes related to thermoception were observed. This thermoception may have caused the observed effects through epigenetic mechanisms, since all analysed tissues further revealed differentially expressed genes involved in histone modification. The presented results support our hypothesis that a low temperature seawater treatment induces an early sexual developmental stage in European eels. This hypothesis is logical given that the average temperature experienced by eels in the early stages of their oceanic reproductive migration is highly similar to that of this cold seawater treatment. Further studies are needed to test whether a cold seawater treatment can improve the response of European eels to artificial hormonal treatment, as the results suggest.


Assuntos
Anguilla/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Temperatura Baixa , Hipófise/efeitos dos fármacos , Água do Mar/química , Maturidade Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Anguilla/genética , Anguilla/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Masculino , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Hipófise/metabolismo , Hipófise/fisiologia , Testículo/metabolismo , Testículo/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos
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