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1.
Am J Cardiol ; 132: 100-105, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762962

RESUMO

There are no studies evaluating comprehensive predictors of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) outcomes encompassing frailty assessments in a South-East Asian cohort. In this longitudinal single-center cohort, all patients who underwent TAVI in a tertiary cardiac center and comprehensively assessed for frailty at baseline were included in a registry. The primary outcome was to investigate frailty indices predictive of prolonged index hospitalization after TAVI. Seventy-six patients with a mean age of 77.6 ± 8.5 years were included. Mean Society of Thoracic Society Predicted Risk of Mortality score was 5.2 ± 3.0, with 11 (14.5%) patients classified as high-risk (Society of Thoracic Society Predicted Risk of Mortality >8). Mean and median index hospitalization duration were 9.2 ± 5.6 and 7 [4.5 to 9.5] days, respectively. Univariate analysis demonstrated that lower hemoglobin (Hb) (p <0.01), longer 5-meter walk test (5MWT) (p <0.01), lower dominant hand grip strength (p <0.01), the use of transaortic access (p = 0.01), new atrial fibrillation post-TAVI (p <0.01), and lower postprocedural Hb (p <0.01) were associated with longer index hospitalization duration. Multivariate linear regression demonstrated preoperative Hb, preoperative atrial fibrillation and 5MWT were independent baseline predictors of index hospitalization duration (p <0.05). Additionally, a 5MWT cutoff of 11 seconds (0.45 m/s) had a high specificity (88.6%) in predicting prolonged index hospitalization duration. In conclusion, this is the first comprehensive frailty assessment in a South-East Asian cohort demonstrating 5MWT to be a significant predictor of prolonged index hospitalization. This simple and effective frailty assessment index may be considered to optimize patient selection for TAVI.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Hospitalização/tendências , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Sistema de Registros , Medição de Risco/métodos , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter/métodos , Teste de Caminhada/métodos , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Período Pós-Operatório , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Singapura/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(21): e20271, 2020 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32481305

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) is the final stage of various cardiac diseases with poor prognosis. The integrated traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and western medicine therapy has been considered as a prospective therapeutic strategy for chronic heart failure (CHF). There have been small clinical trials and experimental studies to demonstrate the efficacy of Shenfu Qiangxin Pills (SFQX) for treating CHF, however, there is still a lack of further high-quality trial. This paper describes the protocol for the clinical assessment of SFQX in CHF (heart-kidney Yang deficiency syndrome) patients. METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, multi-center trial will assess the efficacy and safety of SFQX in the treatment of CHF. 352 patients with CHF (heart-kidney Yang deficiency syndrome) from 22 hospitals in China will be enrolled. Besides their standardized western medicine, patients will be randomized to receive treatment of either SFQX or placebo for 12 weeks. The primary outcome is the plasma N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide levels, which will be measured uniformly by the central laboratory. The secondary outcomes include composite endpoint events (hospitalization due to worsening HF, all-cause mortality, other serious cardiovascular events), echocardiography indicators, grades of the New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional classification, the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) results, Minnesota Living With Heart Failure Questionnaire and TCM syndrome scores. DISCUSSION: The integrated TCM and western medicine therapy has developed into a treatment model in China. The rigorous design of the trial will assure an objective and scientific assessment of the efficacy and safety of SFQX in the treatment of CHF. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR2000028777 (registered on January 3, 2020).


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Deficiência da Energia Yang/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Doença Crônica , Método Duplo-Cego , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/efeitos adversos , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Ecocardiografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Coração/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/sangue , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Hospitalização/tendências , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/métodos , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/sangue , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico/efeitos dos fármacos , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/sangue , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Placebos/administração & dosagem , Segurança , Resultado do Tratamento , Teste de Caminhada/métodos , Teste de Caminhada/estatística & dados numéricos , Deficiência da Energia Yang/complicações
3.
Rehabilitación (Madr., Ed. impr.) ; 54(2): 79-86, abr.-jun. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-196645

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: El patrón de la marcha se ve alterado en los sujetos con amputación de la extremidad inferior. Para su evaluación es importante el uso de escalas de observación de la marcha con una buena validez de contenido. OBJETIVOS: Diseñar una escala de observación de la marcha atendiendo a las principales alteraciones de la marcha de los sujetos con amputación y analizar su validez de contenido. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Para obtener una versión de la escala se conformó un comité de expertos. El mismo comité se ocupó de la evaluación de la escala. Se calculó el índice de validez de contenido (IVC), tanto para cada ítem como para la escala global. RESULTADOS: Se seleccionaron las principales alteraciones cinemáticas y espaciotemporales para el desarrollo de los ítems. La escala se compone de 2secciones y 25 ítems, con una puntuación máxima de 35 puntos. Se obtuvo una puntuación global IVC de 0,90, y un índice de validez para la mayoría de los ítems con valores superiores a 0,78. CONCLUSIÓN: La Escala observacional de la marcha del sujeto con amputación de la extremidad inferior ha mostrado una validez de contenido excelente de acuerdo con el IVC obtenido. Futuros estudios deben evaluar su fiabilidad y validez de constructo


INTRODUCTION: Gait pattern is altered in persons with lower extremity amputation. To assess gait pattern, it is important to use observational gait scales with a good content validity. OBJECTIVES: To design an observational gait scale and to analyze its content validity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An expert committee was formed to obtain a version of the scale. The same committee was responsible for evaluating the scale. The content validity index (CVI) was calculated, both for each item and for the global scale. RESULTS: The main kinematic and spatiotemporal alterations were selected to design the items. The scale consists of 2sections and 25 items, with a maximum score of 35 points. An overall CVI score of 0.90 was obtained, and an index of validity for most items with values higher than 0.78. CONCLUSION: The Observational gait scale for persons with amputation of the lower extremity showed excellent content validity according to the CVI obtained. Future studies should evaluate its reliability and construct validity


Assuntos
Humanos , Amputação/reabilitação , Extremidade Inferior/lesões , Teste de Caminhada/métodos , Análise da Marcha/instrumentação , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Psicometria/instrumentação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Membros Artificiais/estatística & dados numéricos
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(19): e20010, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32384457

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Long-term oxygen therapy is reported to improve hypoxemia and survival in patients with respiratory failure. The demand oxygen delivery system (DODS) saves oxygen and extends the usable time of an oxygen cylinder 2- to 3-fold. A portable oxygen concentrator with an auto-DODS has been developed to switch its sensitivity among 3 levels (standard, high, and extra high) and to supply pulsed-flow oxygen when it detects apnea. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of this newly developed portable oxygen concentrator with auto-DODS compared to the efficacy of conventional DODS in oxygenation. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Twenty-six patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or interstitial pneumonia will be randomized to use auto-DODS or conventional DODS at rest and during a 6-minute walk test. Primary endpoints are mean oxygen saturation (SpO2) at rest and during the 6-minute walk test. Secondary endpoints are the ratios of the times during which the oxygen concentrator operates at each sensitivity mode (standard, high, and extra high) and at a constant pulse rate to the examination time, the ratio of the times during which SpO2 fall below 90% to the examination time, the lowest value of SpO2 during the examination time, the mean and highest pulse rates during the examination time, 6-minute walking distance, recovery time, Borg scale, comfort, and reliability, which are measured by a numerical rating scale and a questionnaire, respectively. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and was registered on Aug 23, 2019 (https://jrct.niph.go.jp/en-latest-detail/jRCTs052190041). The results of the study will be presented at academic conferences and submitted to a peer-reviewed journal. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: jRCTs052190041.


Assuntos
Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/complicações , Oxigenoterapia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/complicações , Insuficiência Respiratória , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nebulizadores e Vaporizadores , Oximetria/métodos , Oxigenoterapia/instrumentação , Oxigenoterapia/métodos , Preferência do Paciente , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Insuficiência Respiratória/etiologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/metabolismo , Insuficiência Respiratória/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Teste de Caminhada/métodos
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(19): e20031, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32384462

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It has not been determined that demand valve oxygen therapy is effective for nocturnal hypoxia. A portable oxygen concentrator with an auto-demand oxygen delivery system (auto-DODS; standard, high, and extra high) has recently been developed to improve oxygenation and comfort. This oxygen concentrator can supply a pulsed flow when it detects apnoea. The aim of this study is to demonstrate that this newly developed portable oxygen concentrator with an auto-demand function is non-inferior to a continuous-flow oxygen concentrator for nocturnal hypoxemia. METHODS: Twenty patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or interstitial pneumonia will be randomized to receive a portable oxygen concentrator with an auto-DODS or a continuous-flow oxygen concentrator during sleep. The primary endpoint is mean oxygen saturation (SpO2) during the total sleep time. The secondary endpoints are the ratios of time that the oxygen concentrator spends in each sensitivity mode (standard, high, and extra-high) and at a constant pulse rate to the total sleep time, the total time and ratio of time for which SpO2 is less than 90% during the total sleep time, the lowest value of SpO2 during the total sleep time, the mean and highest pulse rate during the total sleep time, the apnoea index during the total sleep time, the total sleep duration itself, and comfort and reliability as measured by numerical rating scale and questionnaires. DISCUSSION: If the auto-DODS demonstrates non-inferiority to continuous flow in oxygenation during sleep, the auto-DODS can be used even at night, and the patient will need only 1 device. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was registered on Aug 23, 2019 (jRCTs052190042).


Assuntos
Hipóxia , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/complicações , Nebulizadores e Vaporizadores , Oxigenoterapia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/complicações , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Humanos , Hipóxia/sangue , Hipóxia/diagnóstico , Hipóxia/etiologia , Hipóxia/terapia , Masculino , Oximetria/métodos , Oxigenoterapia/instrumentação , Oxigenoterapia/métodos , Polissonografia/métodos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Teste de Caminhada/métodos
6.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0224187, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437458

RESUMO

Recovery from perturbations during walking is primarily mediated by reactive control strategies that coordinate multiple body segments to maintain balance. Balance control is often impaired in clinical populations who walk with spatiotemporally asymmetric gait, and, as a result, rehabilitation efforts often seek to reduce asymmetries in these populations. Previous work has demonstrated that the presence of spatiotemporal asymmetries during walking does not impair the control of whole-body dynamics during perturbation recovery. However, it remains to be seen how the neuromotor system adjusts intersegmental coordination patterns to maintain invariant whole-body dynamics. Here, we determined if the neuromotor system generates stereotypical coordination patterns irrespective of the level of asymmetry or if the neuromotor system allows for variance in intersegmental coordination patterns to stabilize whole-body dynamics in the sagittal plane. Nineteen healthy participants walked on a dual-belt treadmill at a range of step length asymmetries, and they responded to unpredictable, slip-like perturbations. We used principal component analysis of segmental angular momenta to characterize intersegmental coordination patterns before, during, and after imposed perturbations. We found that two principal components were sufficient to explain ~ 95% of the variance in segmental angular momentum during both steady-state walking and responses to perturbations. Our results also revealed that walking with asymmetric step lengths led to changes in intersegmental coordination patterns during the perturbation and during subsequent recovery steps without affecting whole-body angular momentum. These results suggest that the nervous system allows for variance in segment-level coordination patterns to maintain invariant control of whole-body angular momentum during walking. Future studies exploring how these segmental coordination patterns change in individuals with asymmetries that result from neuromotor impairments can provide further insight into how the healthy and impaired nervous system regulates dynamic balance during walking.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Biomecânicos/fisiologia , Marcha/fisiologia , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Análise da Marcha/métodos , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Teste de Caminhada/métodos , Adulto Jovem
7.
Geriatr Gerontol Int ; 20(7): 680-684, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32432835

RESUMO

AIMS: This study examined the effects of the starting position, distance and ending point on walking speed in older adults with both the usual and maximum walking speeds. METHODS: In total, 101 older community-dwellers aged between 60 and 74 years were included in this cross-sectional study. Participants were instructed to walk two distances (i.e., 10 and 25 m) at usual and maximum speeds twice. The paired t-test was used to examine the effects of starting positions (static start vs. dynamic start) and ending points (known vs. unknown ending point) on walking speed. Analysis of variance was used to explore walking speed differences among 4, 6, 8, 10, 15, 20 and 25 m walking tests. RESULTS: Differences in walking speed between static start and dynamic start became larger with a decrease in the walking distance (Cohen's d: 4 m > 6 m > 10 m), and differences were larger in tests at the maximum walking speed (Cohen's d = 0.28-0.85) compared with those at usual walking speed (Cohen's d = 0.21-0.67). The walking speed increased with distance, but no significant changes were found among 10, 15, 20 and 25 m tests at the usual speed. Trivial speed differences were observed in walking speed between known (mean = 1.23-1.82 m/s) and unknown ending points (mean = 1.27-1.86 m/s; Cohen's d < 0.20). CONCLUSIONS: Test parameters, particularly the starting position and walk distance, do influence walking speed measured in the short-distance walking speed test among older adults. Geriatr Gerontol Int ••; ••: ••-•• Geriatr Gerontol Int 2020; ••: ••-••.


Assuntos
Teste de Caminhada/métodos , Velocidade de Caminhada/fisiologia , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Vida Independente , Masculino
8.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 60(5): 786-793, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32438791

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A moderate 1-km treadmill walk test (1k-TWT) has been demonstrated to be a valid tool for estimating peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) in outpatients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). The results obtained by the 1k-TWT predict survival and hospitalization in men and women with CVD. We aimed to examine whether shorter versions of the full 1k-TWT equally assess VO2peak in outpatients with CVD. METHODS: One hundred eighteen outpatients with CVD, aged 70±9 years, referred to an exercise-based secondary prevention program, performed a moderate and perceptually-regulated (11-13/20 on the Borg Scale) 1k-TWT. Age, height, weight, heart rate, time to walk 100-m, 200-m, 300-m, and 400-m, and the full 1000-m, were entered into equations to estimate VO2peak. RESULTS: The minimal distance providing similar VO2peak results of the full 1k-TWT was 200-m: 23.0±5.3 mL/kg/min and 23.0±5.5 mL/kg/min, respectively. The concordance correlation coefficient between the two was 0.97 (95%CI 0.96 to 0.98, P<0.0001). The slope and the intercept of the relationship between the values obtained by the 200-m and the full 1k-TWT were not different from the line of identity. Bland-Altman analysis did not show systematic or proportional error. CONCLUSIONS: A moderate 200-m treadmill-walk is a reliable method for estimating VO2peak in elderly outpatients with CVD. A 200-m walk enables quick and easy cardiorespiratory fitness assessment, with low costs and low burden for health professionals and patients. These findings have practical implications for the transition of patients from clinically-based programs to fitness facilities or self-guided exercise programs.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Teste de Caminhada/métodos , Idoso , Reabilitação Cardíaca/métodos , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
9.
Muscle Nerve ; 62(1): 95-102, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32314404

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is a multisystemic neuromuscular disease that causes balance problems. The objective of this study was to assess the construct validity of the Mini-BESTest among adults with DM1. METHODS: Fifty-nine individuals with late-onset or adult phenotypes of DM1 were recruited. Participants performed the Mini-BESTest, 10-Meter Walk Test (10mWT), 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT), and Timed Up & Go (TUG) and were questioned on their tendency to lose balance and whether they fell in the past month. RESULTS: Scores on the Mini-BESTest were significantly different between phenotypes and CTG repeat numbers (P < .02). Significant correlations were found with the 10mWT, 6MWT, and the TUG (r = 0.77-0.84; P < .001). A cutoff score of 21.5 was found to identify fallers with 90% posttest accuracy. DISCUSSION: The Mini-BESTest demonstrates evidence of construct validity when assessing balance in the DM1 population.


Assuntos
Distrofia Miotônica/diagnóstico , Distrofia Miotônica/fisiopatologia , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Teste de Caminhada/normas , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Teste de Caminhada/métodos
10.
Arch Phys Med Rehabil ; 101(7): 1183-1189, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32272105

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To establish reference values for the 2-minute walk test (2-MWT) distance and gait speed in people with a lower limb amputation (LLA) who are prosthetic ambulators. Also, to describe the differences in distance and gait speed between sexes, causes of amputation, levels of amputation, health risk classification, functional levels, and age groups. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: National meeting for people with lower limb amputation. PARTICIPANTS: A convenience sample of unilateral people (N=101; 47 men, 54 women; mean age ± SD, 50.9±14.3 y) with an LLA; 48 had a transtibial amputation and 53 had a transfemoral amputation. Participants were classified as either limited community ambulators, community ambulators, or those who exceed basic ambulation skills (K2, n=7; K3, n=70; K4, n=24). INTERVENTION: Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: 2-MWT performance (ie, distance and gait speed). RESULTS: The mean ± SD 2-MWT distance and gait speed for the entire sample was 143.8±37.5 meters (range, 49-259 m) and 72.1±18.8 meters per minute (range, 25-130 m/min), respectively. Men walked farther (distance: men, 154.2±34.2 m; women, 134.4±38.1 m) and faster (gait speed: men, 77.3±17.1 m/min; women, 67.4±19.1 m/min) than women (P<.05). The mean ± SD 2-MWT distance for K4, K3, and K2 level participants was 177.9±31.1 meters, 138.4±28.5 meters, and 81.7±26.9 meters, respectively. Functional level K4 participants performed better than K3 participants (P<.05), and K3 participants performed better than K2 participants (P<.05). People with transtibial amputation walked farther than those with transfemoral amputation (152.9±43.0 m vs 135.6±43.0 m) (P<.05). The distance and speed ambulated by those participants classified in the very high health risk group was worse than those categorized as being at an increased high health risk group (P<.05) and the no increase health risk group (P<.05). The performance of participants older than 70 years old was inferior to the performance of all younger age groups. CONCLUSIONS: Reference values for the 2-MWT distance and gait speed were established in people with LLA who are prosthetic ambulators. Significant differences in the 2-MWT performance were found between sexes, causes of amputation, levels of amputation, health risk classification, functional levels, and age groups.


Assuntos
Amputação/reabilitação , Amputados/reabilitação , Membros Artificiais , Extremidade Inferior/cirurgia , Teste de Caminhada/estatística & dados numéricos , Velocidade de Caminhada/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Amputação/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Fêmur/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Limitação da Mobilidade , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Ajuste de Prótese/métodos , Qualidade de Vida , Tíbia/cirurgia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos , Teste de Caminhada/métodos , Caminhada/fisiologia
11.
Respir Investig ; 58(4): 255-261, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111517

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The main limitation of the six-minute walk test (6-MWT) is that not all pulmonary function testing facilities have an indoor flat, 30-m-long corridor. Therefore, this study aimed 1) to evaluate the correlation and agreement of the distances walked in 30-m- vs. 15-m-long corridors by subjects with chronic lung diseases (CLD group) and 2) to compare the levels of oxygen saturation (nSpO2), blood pressure (BP), heart rate recovery at minute one post-exercise (HRR1), and Borg scale scores for dyspnea and fatigue between the two distances walked. METHODS: A prospective, cross-sectional study was conducted at the National Institute of Respiratory Diseases in Mexico City. Subjects with chronic lung diseases and healthy adults were invited to participate. The distance of the 6-MWT was randomly assigned based on whether the first test was in the 15-m or 30-m corridor. RESULTS: Ninety individuals were included; the correlation in meters walked between the two corridors was r = 0.96 in CLD; the 95% limits of agreement for the 6-MWT ranged from -73 to +37 m. Most subjects walked further in the 30-m corridor (82%); however, the percent predicted values for the CLD group were 3.5% lower for the 15-m corridor than the 30-m corridor. Only 10.5% of the subjects with CLD would have been falsely classified as having a normal 6-MWT (false negative). No significant differences in the nSpO2, Borg scale, BP or HRR1 were found between the two 6-MWT corridor lengths. CONCLUSION: The 6-MWT can be performed using a 15-m corridor in subjects with CLD, and the results for the distance walked, HRR1, nSpO2, and Borg scale scores are similar to between the 15-m and 30-m corridors.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Teste de Caminhada/métodos , Caminhada/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
12.
Monaldi Arch Chest Dis ; 90(1)2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32072798

RESUMO

Non-anemic iron deficiency has been studied in heart failure, but studies are lacking in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The potential clinical implications of association of iron deficiency with the severity of COPD warrant research in this direction. This was an observational, cross-sectional study on patients with COPD to compare disease severity, functional status and quality of life in non-anemic patients with COPD between two groups - iron deficient and non-iron deficient. Stable non-anemic COPD with no cause of bleeding were evaluated for serum iron levels, ferritin levels, TIBC, 6MWD, SGRQ, spirometry, and CAT questionnaire. The study patients were divided into iron replete (IR) and iron deficient (ID) groups. A total of 79 patients were studied, out of which 72 were men and seven were women. The mean age was 61.5±8.42 years. Of these, 36 (45.5%; 95% CI, 34.3-56.8%) had iron deficiency. Mean 6-minute-walk distance was significantly shorter in ID (354.28±82.4 meters vs 432.5±47.21 meters; p=0.001). A number of exacerbations in a year were more in ID group (p=0.003), and more patients in ID had at least two exacerbations of COPD within a year (p=0.001). However, the resting pO2, SaO2, and SpO2 levels did not differ significantly between the two groups (p=0.15 and p=0.52, respectively). Also, there was no significant difference in the distribution of patients of a different class of airflow limitations between the two groups. Non-anemic iron deficiency (NAID) is an ignored, yet easily correctable comorbidity in COPD. Patients with iron deficiency have a more severe grade of COPD, had lesser exercise capacity and more exacerbations in a year as compared to non-iron deficient patients. So, foraying into the avenue of iron supplementation, which has shown promising results in improving functional capacity in heart failure and pulmonary hypertension, may well lead to revolutionary changes in the treatment of COPD.


Assuntos
Anemia Ferropriva/complicações , Ferro/deficiência , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/metabolismo , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Anemia Ferropriva/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Progressão da Doença , Tolerância ao Exercício/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Ferro/sangue , Ferro/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Espirometria/métodos , Teste de Caminhada/métodos
13.
Monaldi Arch Chest Dis ; 90(1)2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32072801

RESUMO

The six-minute walk test (6MWT) is a useful tool to predict outcomes in patients with advanced lung diseases. Greater distance walked has been shown to have more favorable prognostic value compared to other recorded variables.  We reviewed the medical records of 164 patients with advanced lung disease who underwent lung transplant evaluation. Results of the 6MWT (distance walked, oxygen required, and mean gait speed) were recorded and analyzed with respect to mortality. 6MWT mean oxygen (O2) flow via nasal cannula was 3.5 ± 3.7 L/min. The distance walked in meters (m) and % predicted were inversely associated with mortality, OR: 0.995 (0.992-0.998) and 0.970 (0.950-0.990), respectively. Patients who walked < 200 meters (OR: 2.1 (1.1-4.0)) or < 45% of predicted, OR: 2.7 (1.2-5.7) had higher mortality. O2 flow during the test had a direct association with mortality (OR: 1.1 (1.0-1.2). In multivariate analysis, O2 flow > 3.5 L/min remained predictive of mortality, OR: 1.1 (1.0-1.2). Mean gait speed was higher in patient who lived compared with patients who died (mean 0.83 ± 0.35 m/mim vs mean 0.69 ± 0.33 m/min, respectively, p= 0.03). Gait speed was a predictor of survival, OR 3.4 (1.1, 10.6). O2 flow during the 6MWT was an independent predictor of mortality in patients with advanced lung disease. The patients that required more than 3.5 L/m of O2 had a higher mortality. Faster gait speed during the 6MWT was also associated with better survival.


Assuntos
Pneumopatias/mortalidade , Oxigenoterapia/estatística & dados numéricos , Teste de Caminhada/métodos , Velocidade de Caminhada/fisiologia , Cânula , Feminino , Florida/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pneumopatias/fisiopatologia , Pneumopatias/cirurgia , Transplante de Pulmão/normas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Testes de Função Respiratória/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida
14.
Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg ; 30(4): 559-564, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32068846

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The American College of Chest Physicians guidelines recommend low-technology exercise tests in the functional evaluation of patients with lung cancer considered for resectional surgery. However, the 6-min walk test (6MWT) is not included, because the data on its clinical value are inconsistent. Our goal was to evaluate the 6MWT in assessing the risk of cardiopulmonary complications in candidates for lung resection. METHODS: We performed a retrospective assessment of clinical data and pulmonary function test results in 947 patients, mean age 65.3 (standard deviation 9.5) years, who underwent a single lobectomy for lung cancer. In 555 patients with predicted postoperative values ≤60%, the 6MWT was performed. The 6-min walking distance (6MWD) and the distance-saturation product (DSP), which is the product of the 6MWD in metres, and the lowest oxygen saturation registered during the test were assessed. RESULTS: A total of 363 patients with predicted postoperative values <60% and a 6MWT distance (6MWD) ≥400 m or DSP ≥ 350 m% had a lower rate of cardiopulmonary complications than patients with shorter 6MWD or lower DSP values [odds ratio (OR) 0.53, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.35-0.81] and 0.47 (95% CI 0.30-0.73), respectively. This result was also true for patients with predicted postoperative values <40%, ORs 0.33 (95% CI 0.14-0.79) and 0.25 (95% CI 0.10-0.61), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The 6MWT is useful in the assessment of operative risk in patients undergoing a single lobectomy for lung cancer. It helps to stratify the operative risk, which is lower in patients with 6MWD ≥400 m or DSP ≥350 m% than in patients with a shorter 6MWD or lower DSP values.


Assuntos
Tolerância ao Exercício/fisiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/fisiopatologia , Pneumonectomia/métodos , Teste de Caminhada/métodos , Caminhada/fisiologia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/cirurgia , Masculino , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Testes de Função Respiratória , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
Phys Ther ; 100(3): 416-428, 2020 03 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32043132

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Individuals with cancer experience loss of function and disability due to disease and cancer-related treatments. Physical fitness and frailty influence treatment plans and may predict cancer outcomes. Outcome measures currently used may not provide sufficiently comprehensive assessment of physical performance. OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study are to: (1) describe the development of a functional measure, the Bellarmine Norton Assessment Tool (BNAT), for individuals with cancer; and (2) assess the relationship between the BNAT and the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) Performance Status, a commonly used classification system by oncologists. DESIGN: This was a prospective cohort correlation study. METHODS: The BNAT encompasses 1 self-reported physical activity question and 4 objective tests: 2-Minute Step Test, 30-Second Sit to Stand, Timed Arm Curl, and Timed Up and Go. The BNAT score and its components were compared with ECOG Performance Status scores assigned by oncologists and analyzed for correlation and agreement. RESULTS: A total of 103 male and female individuals (ages 33-87 years) with various cancer diagnoses participated. The mean (SD) ECOG Performance Status score was 0.95 (0.87), range 0 to 3, and the mean BNAT score was 14.9 (4.3), range 5 to 24. Spearman agreement association of BNAT and ECOG Performance Status scores revealed a significant moderate negative relationship (r = -0.568). LIMITATIONS: The BNAT was compared with the ECOG Performance Status, a commonly used but subjective measure. Additionally, a common data set was used for both deriving and evaluating the BNAT performance scale. CONCLUSIONS: There was a moderate negative linear relationship of BNAT to ECOG Performance Status scores across all participants. Utilization of the BNAT may reflect overall physical performance and provide comprehensive and meaningful detail to influence therapeutic decisions.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer , Neoplasias/fisiopatologia , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Atividades Cotidianas , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Braço/fisiologia , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Locomoção , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/complicações , Estudos Prospectivos , Autorrelato , Postura Sentada , Posição Ortostática , Teste de Caminhada/métodos
16.
Gait Posture ; 77: 171-174, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32058280

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Walking speed influences a variety of typical outcome measures in gait analysis. Many researchers use a participant's preferred walking speed (PWS) during gait analysis with a goal of trying to capture how a participant would typically walk. However, the best practices for estimating PWS and the impact of laboratory size and walk distance are still unclear. RESEARCH QUESTION: Is measured PWS consistent across different distances and between two laboratory sites? METHODS: Participants walked overground at a "comfortable speed" for six different conditions with either dynamic (4, 6, 10, and 400 m) or static (4 and 10 m) starts and stops at two different data collection sites. Repeated measures ANOVA with Bonferroni corrections were used to test for differences between conditions and sites. RESULTS: Participants walked significantly faster in the 4, 6, and 10 m dynamic conditions than in the 400 m condition. On average, participants walked slower in the static trials than the dynamic trials of the same distance. There was a significant interaction of lab and condition and so results were examined within each lab. Across both labs, we found that the 4 and 10 m dynamic conditions were not different than the 6 m dynamic condition at both sites, while other tests did not provide consistent results at both sites. SIGNIFICANCE: We recommend researchers use a 6 m distance with acceleration and deceleration zones to reliably test for PWS across different laboratories. Given some of the differences found between conditions that varied by site, we also emphasize the need to report the test environment and methods used to estimate PWS in all future studies so that the methods can be replicated between studies.


Assuntos
Teste de Caminhada/métodos , Velocidade de Caminhada/fisiologia , Aceleração , Adulto , Desaceleração , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
17.
Fisioterapia (Madr., Ed. impr.) ; 42(1): 24-32, ene.-feb. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-187812

RESUMO

Introducción: La enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica (EPOC), se caracteriza por la limitación al flujo aéreo crónica que genera síntomas como disnea, tos y sibilancias. La GOLD 2018 plantea estrategias de tratamiento farmacológico. Sin embargo, la adherencia es baja. Las diferencias entre pacientes adherentes y no adherentes no están claramente establecidas, debido a que podría existir una relación inversa entre la adherencia y las exacerbaciones. Objetivo: Determinar las diferencias entre pacientes adherentes y no adherentes al tratamiento farmacológico propuesto por la GOLD 2018 en variables clínicas, índices CODEX, COTE y BODE. Métodos: Estudio de tipo transversal, se incluyeron 126 pacientes con diagnóstico de EPOC entre enero y septiembre de 2018. Divididos en dos grupos: adherentes (EPOC-A) y no adherentes (EPOC-NA) teniendo en cuenta el tratamiento farmacológico de la GOLD 2018. Resultados: Setenta y nueve pacientes (EPOC-NA) y 50 (EPOC-A), el 61% pertenecían al género masculino y el 39% restante al género femenino. La edad promedio fue de 70,62 ± (8,290), la evaluación de aspectos de la GOLD, la mayoría de los pacientes adherentes pertenecen al grupo D y los no adherentes al grupo B; obteniéndose un valor p=0,004. En cuanto a los días hospitalizados, los pacientes adherentes permanecieron más días hospitalizados con una media de 11,32 ± (13,39) respecto a los no adherentes que tenían menos días 7,68 ± (13,13); valor p=0,031. Conclusión: Los pacientes adherentes al tratamiento farmacológico de la GOLD 2018 visitan más urgencias y presentan mayor número de exacerbaciones, lo cual se refleja en un aumento en la probabilidad de muerte


Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by the chronic limitation of airflow that generates symptoms such as dyspnoea, coughing, and wheezing. The GOLD 2018 proposes pharmacological treatment strategies. However, adherence is low. The differences between adherent and non-adherent patients are not clearly established, although there could be an inverse relationship between adherence and exacerbations. Objective: To determine the differences between adherent and non-adherent patients to the pharmacological treatment proposed by GOLD 2018 in clinical variables, as well as the CODEX, COTE, and BODE indices. Methods: Cross-sectional study was conducted on 126 patients diagnosed with COPD between January and September 2018. They were divided into two groups: adherent (COPD-A) and non-adherent (COPD-NA), taking into account the pharmacological treatment of GOLD 2018. Results: The groups included 79 patients inCOPD-NA, and 50 in COPD-A), of which 61% were males and 39% females. The mean age was 70.62 ± (8.29. The majority of adherent patients belonged to GOLD group D, and the non-adherent to GOLD group B (P=.004). As regards days hospitalised, the adherent patients spent more days in hospital, with a mean of 11.32 ± (13.39) days, compared to non-adherent patients with fewer days 7.68 ± (13.13); P =.031. Conclusion: Patients adhering to the pharmacological treatment of GOLD 2018 make more emergency department visits and present with a greater number of exacerbations, and is reflected in an increase in the probability of mortality


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Cooperação e Adesão ao Tratamento , Atividade Motora , Comorbidade , Teste de Caminhada/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/reabilitação , Espirometria/métodos
18.
Fisioterapia (Madr., Ed. impr.) ; 42(1): 33-38, ene.-feb. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-187813

RESUMO

Antecedentes y objetivo: Los programas de ejercicio físico grupales para el adulto mayor son ofrecidos usualmente por los servicios de salud comunitaria, los cuales pueden generar diferentes estímulos en la capacidad física y cognitiva de la población. El objetivo del estudio fue comparar el desempeño en actividades de simple y de doble tarea, equilibrio postural y funciones cognitivas en adultas mayores que participan de diferentes modalidades de ejercicios grupales. Materiales y métodos: Fueron evaluadas 41 adultas mayores pertenecientes a 3 programas de ejercicio (G1=grupo de caminata, G2=grupo de entrenamiento funcional y G3=grupo de danza). Para determinar el nivel de actividad física fue utilizado el International Physical Activity Questionnaire adaptado, para el equilibrio se utilizó el test de apoyo unipodal, para evaluación cognitiva el miniexamen del estado mental y para la evaluación del desempeño en actividades de tarea simple y doble fue contabilizado el número de repeticiones realizando actividades motoras y cognitivas durante 30seg. Para el análisis estadístico, ANOVA de un factor y Kruskal-Wallis fueron utilizadas para la comparación de las variables. El coeficiente de Spearman se utilizó para evaluar la correlación entre las variables. Resultados: Los grupos no fueron diferentes en edad ni índice de masa corporal (IMC), G1 (n=13; edad=62,5±2,9 años; IMC=28,49±6,4kg/m2), G2 (n=13; edad: 64,2±5,9 años; IMC=26,6±4,2kg/m2) y G3 (n=15; edad=66,6±6,05 años; IMC=29,4±8,4kg/m2); p>0,05. El G2 presentó un mayor número de repeticiones de la tarea simple, doble motora y doble motora-cognitiva comparado con el G1 y G3 (p<0,004). Fueron encontradas correlaciones entre la tarea simple, doble motora y doble motora-cognitiva (0,56>r<0,80; p<0,05). Conclusión: Las adultas mayores que practican entrenamiento funcional tienen mejor rendimiento en tareas motoras-cognitivas en comparación con a aquellas que practican danza y caminata


Background and objective: Physical exercise programmes for groups of older people are usually offered by community health services, which can generate different stimulus in the physical and cognitive capacity in this population. The objective of this study was to compare the performance of simple and dual task activities, postural balance and cognitive functions in older adults who took part in different types of group exercises. Materials and methods: A total of 41 older women took part in 3 exercise programmes were evaluated (G1=walking group, G2=functional training group, and G3=dancing group). To determine the level of physical activity the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Balance was assessed using the unipedal stance test, the cognitive capacity was tested using the mini mental status examination, and the performing of the simple/dual tasks was assessed according to the number of repetitions made during cognitive and motor activities for 30seconds For the statistical analysis, One-way ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis were used to compare the variables. The Spearman coefficient was used to evaluate the correlation between the variables. Results: There were no differences in age and body mass index (BMI) between the groups, G1 (n=13; age=62.5±2.9 years; BMI=28.49±6.4Kg/m2), G2 (n=13; age: 64.2±5 years; BMI=26.6±4.2Kg/m2), and G3 (n=15; age=66.6±6.05 years; BMI=29.4±8.4Kg/m2), P>.05. G2 showed a better performance in simple, dual motor, and dual motor-cognitive tasks compared to G1 and G3 (P>.004). Correlations were observed between simple, dual motor, and dual motor-cognitive tasks (0.56>r<0.80; P>.05). Conclusion: Older women who practice functional training have better performance in cognitive-motor tasks compared to those who dance and walk


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cognição/fisiologia , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Disfunção Cognitiva/reabilitação , Análise de Variância , Índice de Massa Corporal , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Antropometria , Caminhada , Teste de Caminhada/métodos , Terapia através da Dança
19.
Fisioter. Pesqui. (Online) ; 27(1): 57-63, jan.-mar. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1090419

RESUMO

RESUMO O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar e comparar respostas metabólicas, cardiovasculares e ventilatórias do incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT) e do Glittre activities of daily living test (Glittre-ADL test). Trata-se de um estudo transversal, realizado com indivíduos saudáveis. A capacidade funcional (CF) foi avaliada pela distância percorrida e consumo de oxigênio pico (VO2pico) no ISWT e pelo tempo gasto e VO2 no Glittre-ADL test. Trinta indivíduos percorreram 656,67 (IC95%:608,8-704,5) metros no ISWT e executaram o Glittre-ADL test em 2,4 (IC95%:2,2-2,6) minutos. O VO2 pico do ISWT foi 27,8 (IC95%25,6-29,9) versus 22,2 (IC95%20,5-24,1)mL×kg−1×min−1 (p<0,001) no estado estável (EE) do Glittre-ADL test. As correlações entre distância percorrida no ISWT e o tempo gasto no Glittre-ADL test, o VO2pico do ISWT e o VO2 no EE do Glittre-ADL test e a FC no pico do ISWT e no EE do Glittre-ADL test foram de moderada a alta magnitude. O Glittre-ADL test apresenta menores respostas metabólicas, cardiovasculares e ventilatórias se comparado ao ISWT.


RESUMEN El presente estudio tuvo el objetivo de evaluar y comparar las respuestas metabólicas, cardiovasculares y ventilatorias de incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT) y de Glittre activities of daily living test (Glittre-ADL test). Es un estudio transversal realizado con individuos sanos. La capacidad funcional (CF) se evaluó utilizando la distancia recorrida y consumo máximo de oxígeno (VO2máx) en el ISWT y el tiempo empleado y VO2 en el Glittre-ADL test. Treinta individuos caminaron 656,67 (IC95%:608,8-704,5) metros en el ISWT y realizaron el Glittre-ADL test en 2,4 (IC95%:2,2-2,6) minutos. El VO2 máx del ISWT fue de 27,8 (IC95%25,6-29,9) versus 22,2 (IC95%20,5-24,1)mL×kg−1×min−1 (p<0,001) en el estado estable (EE) del Glittre-ADL test. Las correlaciones entre la distancia recorrida en el ISWT y el tiempo empleado en el Glittre-ADL test, el VO2máx del ISWT y el VO2 en el EE de Glittre-ADL test y la FC en el máximo del ISWT y en el EE de Glittre-ADL test fueron de moderada a alta magnitud. El Glittre-ADL test presenta respuestas metabólicas, cardiovasculares y ventilatorias más bajas en comparación con el ISWT.


ABSTRACT The aim of the study was to assess and compare the cardiovascular, ventilatory and metabolic responses of the Incremental Shuttle Walk test (ISWT) and Glittre Activities of Daily Living test (Glittre-ADL test). This is a cross-sectional study with individuals. The functional capacity (FC) was evaluated by distance and peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) in the ISWT and time spent and VO2 in Glittre-ADL test. Thirty individuals went through 656.67 (CI95%:608.8-704.5) meters at the ISWT and performed the Glittre-ADL test in 2.4 (CI95%:2.2-2.6) minutes. The peak VO2 of the ISWT was 27.8 (CI95%25.6-29.9) vs. 22.2 (CI95%20.5-24.1) mL×kg−1×min−1 (p<0.001) in the steady state (SS) of the Glittre-ADL test. Correlations between distance traveled in the ISWT and the time spent in Glittre-ADL test, VO2 peak of ISWT and VO2 in SS of Glittre-ADL test and HR at the ISWT peak and at the Glittre-ADL test SS were moderate to high magnitude. The Glittre-ADL test has lower metabolic, cardiovascular and ventilatory responses compared to ISWT, despite correlations between variables.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Teste de Caminhada/métodos , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Testes de Função Respiratória , Espirometria , Atividades Cotidianas , Estudos Transversais , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia
20.
Eur J Phys Rehabil Med ; 56(1): 88-103, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31742368

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Fatigability, a change in performance according to tasks and circumstances, can contribute to walking limitations in daily life. Walking-related fatigability (WF) has been assessed subjectively, but current knowledge on best objective measurement methods is limited. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of objective clinical measurement methods assessing WF in different populations. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Articles were searched in Pubmed and Web Of Science by two independent raters. Studies were included when meeting inclusion criteria of measuring WF objectively in a clinical setting, with no exclusion towards any population. Case studies and reviews were not included in the review (systematic review registration number: PROSPERO - CRD42017074121). In total, 28 articles were included. The study populations were older adults (N.=7), multiple sclerosis (N.=14), spinal muscle atrophy (N.=3), osteoarthritis (N.=3), interstitial lung diseases (N.=1), and myasthenia gravis (N.=1). Data about patient characteristics, walking task, WF formula and interpretation (cut-off values and/or psychometric properties) got extracted from included literature. Every included article got checked for quality and risk of bias. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: WF was mostly measured during longer walking test such as six-minute walking test (6MWT) and 500 or 400-m walking test, by comparing the first and last minute or lap for spatiotemporal or kinematic changes in well-defined formulas. No gold standard is however available yet given different tasks or outcome measures across study populations. CONCLUSIONS: Longer walking test were most often used, with a preference towards the 6MWT, thereby comparing the changes over the last and first part of the test. Psychometric properties need more documentation before inclusion as experimental outcome.


Assuntos
Fadiga/fisiopatologia , Teste de Caminhada/métodos , Caminhada , Humanos , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Psicometria
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