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1.
Plant Mol Biol ; 100(6): 635-645, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31147815

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Rice WSL6 is involved in chloroplast ribosome biogenesis and is essential for early chloroplast development. Construction of the genetic translation system is a prerequisite for chloroplast development in plants. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this process is largely unknown. Here, we isolated a white stripe leaf6 (wsl6) mutant in rice. The mutant seedlings displayed white-striped leaves that were more severe under low-temperature conditions. Transmission electron microscopy analysis showed that the wsl6 mutant was defective in early chloroplast development. Map-based cloning revealed that WSL6 encodes an Era-type guanosine-5'-triphosphate (GTP)-binding protein located in chloroplasts. Immunoblotting and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analyses demonstrated an absence of 70S ribosomes in wsl6 chloroplasts. Further research showed that WSL6 binds to the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) subunit of chloroplast ribosome 30S. In summary, these results show that WSL6 is essential for chloroplast ribosome biogenesis during early chloroplast development in rice.


Assuntos
Cloroplastos/fisiologia , Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Oryza/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Clonagem Molecular , Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Teste de Complementação Genética , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Mutação , Oryza/fisiologia , Fenótipo , Pigmentação , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Biossíntese de Proteínas , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Temperatura Ambiente
2.
Plant Mol Biol ; 100(6): 647-658, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154655

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Found a trans-splicing of PHYTOENE SYNTHASE 1 alters tomato fruit color by map-based cloning, functional complementation and RACE providing an insight into fruit color development. Color is an important fruit quality trait and a major determinant of the economic value of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Fruit color inheritance in a yellow-fruited cherry tomato (cv. No. 22), named yellow-fruited tomato 2 (yft2), was shown to be controlled by a single recessive gene, YFT2. The YFT2 gene was mapped in a 95.7 kb region on chromosome 3, and the candidate gene, PHYTOENE SYNTHASE 1 (PSY1), was confirmed by functional complementation analysis. Constitutive over expression of PSY1 in yft2 increased the accumulation of carotenoids and resulted in a red fruit color, while no causal mutation was detected in the YFT2 allele of yft2, compared with red-fruited SL1995 cherry tomato or cultivated variety (cv. M82). Expression of YFT2 3' region in yft2 was significantly lower than in SL1995, and further studies revealed a difference in YFT2 post-transcriptional processing in yft2 compared with SL1995 and cv. M82, resulting in a longer YFT2 transcript. The alternatively trans-spliced allele of YFT2 in yft2 is predicted to encode a novel LT-YFT2 protein of 432 amino acid (AA) residues, compared to the 412 AA YFT2 protein of SL1995. The trans-spliced event also resulted in significantly down regulated expression of YFT2 in yft2 tomato, and the YFT2 allele suppressed expression of the downstream genes involved in the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway and carotenoids synthesis by a mechanism of the feed-forward regulation. In conclusion, we found that trans-splicing of YFT2 alters tomato fruit color, providing new insights into fruit color development.


Assuntos
Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Pigmentação/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Processamento Alternativo , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Clonagem Molecular , Cor , DNA Complementar/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Genes Recessivos , Teste de Complementação Genética , Genótipo , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Mutação , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Trans-Splicing
3.
Curr Microbiol ; 76(7): 879-887, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31089795

RESUMO

The goal of this study was to elucidate the role of the outer membrane protein A (ompA) gene of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines in bacterial pustule pathogenesis of soybean. An ompA mutant of X. axonopodis pv. glycines KU-P-SW005 was shown to significantly decrease cellulase, pectate lyase, and polysaccharide production. The production of these proteins in the ompA mutant was approximately five times lower than that of the wildtype. The ompA mutant also exhibited modified biofilm development. More importantly, the mutant reduced disease severity to the soybean. Ten days after inoculation, the virulence rating of the susceptible soybean cv. SJ4 inoculated with the ompA mutant was 11.23%, compared with 87.98% for the complemented ompA mutant. Production of cellulase, pectate lyase, polysaccharide was restored, biofilm, and pustule numbers were restored in the complemented ompA mutant that did not differ from the wild type. Taken together, these data suggest that OmpA-mediated invasion plays an important role in protein secretion during pathogenesis to soybean.


Assuntos
Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Soja/microbiologia , Xanthomonas axonopodis/genética , Xanthomonas axonopodis/patogenicidade , Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Celulase/metabolismo , Teste de Complementação Genética , Mutação , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia , Polissacarídeo-Liase/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/metabolismo , Virulência/genética
4.
Fungal Biol ; 123(5): 423-430, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31053331

RESUMO

Plant pathogens employ effectors as molecular weapons to manipulate host immunity and facilitate colonization. Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense is the agent of wilt disease in banana plantlets and four races of the pathogen have been identified based on the cultivar specificity. A total of 9 SIX genes have been detected in the genome of Foc TR4 and 6 genes detected in Foc1. Among these SIX genes, SIX2 and SIX8 are only detected in Foc TR4, not identified in Foc1. Expression profiles analysis revealed that SIX genes of Foc TR4 are highly induced after inoculation to Cavendish banana plantlets. Virulence analysis of the SIX2 and SIX8 knock-out mutants showed that SIX8 is required for the virulence of Foc TR4 while SIX2 has no obvious functions. Over expression of SIX8-FLAG proteins in the SIX8 knock-out mutant partly restored the virulence. Western blot analysis suggested that SIX8 could be secreted into the extracellular space and a signal peptide resided the N-terminal polypeptide sequence. This study provides some clues for further research on mechanism of SIX8 in regulating virulence of Foc TR4.


Assuntos
Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Fusarium/patogenicidade , Musa/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Fusarium/genética , Fusarium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Teste de Complementação Genética , Fatores de Virulência/genética
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(9)2019 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31083521

RESUMO

ADP-ribosylation factor-guanine nucleotide exchange factors (ARF-GEFs) act as key regulators of vesicle trafficking in all eukaryotes. In Arabidopsis, there are eight ARF-GEFs, including three members of the GBF1 subfamily and five members of the BIG subfamily. These ARF-GEFs have different subcellular localizations and regulate different trafficking pathways. Until now, the roles of these BIG-subfamily ARF-GEFs have not been fully revealed. Here, analysis of the BIGs expression patterns showed that BIG3 and BIG5 have similar expression patterns. big5-1 displayed a dwarf growth and big3-1 big5-1 double mutant showed more severe defects, indicating functional redundancy between BIG3 and BIG5. Moreover, both big5-1 and big3-1 big5-1 exhibited a reduced sensitivity to Brassinosteroid (BR) treatment. Brefeldin A (BFA)-induced BR receptor Brassinosteroid insensitive 1 (BRI1) aggregation was reduced in big5-1 mutant, indicating that the action of BIG5 is required for BRI1 recycling. Furthermore, BR-induced dephosphorylation of transcription factor BZR1 was decreased in big3-1 big5-1 double mutants. The introduction of the gain-of-function of BZR1 mutant BZR1-1D in big3-1 big5-1 mutants can partially rescue the big3-1 big5-1 growth defects. Our findings revealed that BIG5 functions redundantly with BIG3 in plant growth and gravitropism, and BIG5 participates in BR signal transduction pathway through regulating BRI1 trafficking.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/fisiologia , Gravitropismo , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Brassinosteroides/farmacologia , Teste de Complementação Genética , Gravitropismo/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Inflorescência/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflorescência/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mutação/genética , Fenótipo , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Transporte Proteico/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Mol Biol (Mosk) ; 53(2): 274-281, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31099777

RESUMO

Expression of Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteasomal genes is regulated in a coordinated manner by a system that includes the ScRpn4 transcription factor and its binding site known as PACE. Earlier we showed that, Rpn4-like proteins from the biotechnologically important yeast species Komagataella pfaffii (Pichia pastoris), Yarrowia lipolytica, and Debaryomyces hansenii are capable of complementing the RPN4 deletion in S. cerevisiae in spite of their low structural similarity to ScRpn4. The opportunistic yeast pathogen Candida glabrata has a gene coding for a Rpn4-like protein, which has not been characterized experimentally yet. The С. glabrata ortholog ScRpn4 was expressed heterologously and found to restore the stress resistance and expression of proteasomal genes in a mutant S. cerevisiae strain with a RPN4 deletion. This complementation required the unique N-terminal region of CgRpn4. The results indicate that CgRpn4 acts as a transcriptional activator of proteasomal genes. The S. cerevisiae model can be used for further structural and functional analyses of CgRpn4.


Assuntos
Candida glabrata/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/deficiência , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Deleção de Genes , Teste de Complementação Genética , Proteínas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/deficiência , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo
7.
Mol Biotechnol ; 61(6): 442-450, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30980224

RESUMO

Soil salinity imposes a serious threat to the productivity of agricultural crops. Among several other transporters, high-affinity K+ transporter (HKT)'s play an important role in reducing the phytotoxicity of Na+. Expression of Eutrema salsugineum (a halophyte) HKT1;2 is induced upon salt exposure. To elucidate the role of its promoter, we compared the sequences of HKT1;2 promoters from E. salsugineum (1822 bp) and E. botschantzevii (1811 bp) with Arabidopsis thaliana HKT1;1 (846 bp) promoter. In silico analysis predicted several cis-acting regulatory elements (GT-1 elements, core motifs of DRE/CRT, MYC/MYB-recognition sites and ACGT elements). Activities of the three promoters were analyzed by measuring HKT1;1 and/or HKT1;2 transcript level in the Athkt1;1 mutant plants. NaCl tolerance of the transgenics was also assessed. Our results depicted that expressing either AtHKT1;1 or EsHKT1;2 coding regions under the control of AtHKT1;1 promoter, almost reversed the hypersensitivity of the mutant for salt, on contrarily, when AtHKT1;1 coding sequence expressed under either Es or EbHKT1;2 promoters did not. Changes in shoot Na+/K+ concentrations under salt exposure is significantly consistent with the complementation ability of the mutant. The transcript concentration for genes under the control of either of Eutrema promoters, at control level was very less. This may suggest that either an important upstream response motif is missed or that A. thaliana misses a transcriptional regulator that is essential for salt-inducible HKT1 expression in Eutrema.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis/genética , Brassicaceae/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Tolerância ao Sal/genética , Simportadores/genética , Arabidopsis/efeitos dos fármacos , Arabidopsis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Sequência de Bases , Brassicaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Brassicaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brassicaceae/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/metabolismo , Teste de Complementação Genética , Transporte de Íons/efeitos dos fármacos , Mutação , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Brotos de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Brotos de Planta/genética , Brotos de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brotos de Planta/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Potássio/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência , Sódio/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio/farmacologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Simportadores/metabolismo
8.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 103(11): 4539-4548, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30997553

RESUMO

The MtrA-MtrB two-component regulatory system is highly conserved in Actinobacteria and plays crucial roles in cell cycle progression, cell morphology, antibiotic resistance, and osmoprotection. Previously, we revealed that the MtrA protein of Saccharopolyspora erythraea E3 strain (a high erythromycin-producing strain) had a two amino acid (H197 and V198) deletion in the DNA recognition helices of the C-terminal domain compared to the wild type S. erythraea strain NRRL2338. Here, we identified mepA (encoding a membrane protein related to metalloendopeptidases) as an MtrA target gene, and found that deleting the two amino acids in MtrA (MtrAdel) resulted in the loss of its DNA-binding activity for the mepA gene. The mutant MtrAdel lost its regulatory activity and affected various physiological functions consistent with mtrA deletion, including increased erythromycin biosynthesis, enhanced antibiotic resistance, deregulated osmoprotection, and improved transport of substances. The introduction of the wild type mtrA gene into the S. erythraea E3 strain with the mtrAdel gene decreased the erythromycin yield by approximately 50%, confirming that MtrA repressed erythromycin production. These findings demonstrate that MtrA is an important pleiotropic regulator of erythromycin biosynthesis, antibiotic resistance, osmoprotection, and substance transport in S. erythraea and provide new insights for improving erythromycin production. Future studies linking the molecular effects of MtrA to these phenotypes will improve our understanding of the MtrA-MtrB two-component regulatory system in Actinobacteria.


Assuntos
Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/biossíntese , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Eritromicina/biossíntese , Saccharopolyspora/enzimologia , Saccharopolyspora/metabolismo , Deleção de Sequência , Transporte Biológico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Teste de Complementação Genética , Proteínas Mutantes/genética , Proteínas Mutantes/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Saccharopolyspora/crescimento & desenvolvimento
9.
Food Microbiol ; 82: 482-488, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31027809

RESUMO

Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is one of the most common causal agents of foodborne illness linked to fresh leafy vegetables. Here, we investigated the impact of spinach-associated microorganisms on proliferation and biofilm formation of STEC O157:H7 on stainless steel surfaces at temperatures related to produce production and postharvest processing environments. Although a proliferation of inoculated pathogen cells in spinach leaf wash water was detected at all temperatures examined, the impact of spinach-associated microorganisms on the proliferation of E. coli O157:H7 was observed at 10 °C and 26 °C, but not at 4 °C. The inhibition of E. coli O157:H7 growth by spinach-associated microorganisms indicated a competition between the pathogen and spinach indigenous microflora. A significant decrease of the pathogen population in mixed biofilms was observed only at 26 °C for curli-deficient strain MQC43, but not for curli-expressing strain MQC57. Deletion of curli genes in a curli-expressing strain resulted in a phenotype similar to that of MQC43 in mixed biofilms; however, this deficiency was rescued when curli biogenesis was restored in the curli-deletion mutant strain. Our data support that curli confer E. coli O157:H7 a competitive trait in mixed biofilms, presumably through the interaction between STEC and the biofilm-proficient microorganisms associated with spinach leaves.


Assuntos
Biofilmes , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/fisiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica/fisiologia , Spinacia oleracea/microbiologia , Aderência Bacteriana/genética , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Escherichia coli O157/genética , Escherichia coli O157/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Escherichia coli O157/fisiologia , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Teste de Complementação Genética , Interações Microbianas , Microbiota/fisiologia , Mutação , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica/genética , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Aço Inoxidável , Temperatura Ambiente
10.
MBio ; 10(2)2019 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30862746

RESUMO

Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is a toxin-mediated diarrheal disease. Several factors have been identified that influence the production of the two major C. difficile toxins, TcdA and TcdB, but prior published evidence suggested that additional unknown factors were involved in toxin regulation. Previously, we identified a C. difficile regulator, RstA, that promotes sporulation and represses motility and toxin production. We observed that the predicted DNA-binding domain of RstA was required for RstA-dependent repression of toxin genes, motility genes, and rstA transcription. In this study, we further investigated the regulation of toxin and motility gene expression by RstA. DNA pulldown assays confirmed that RstA directly binds the rstA promoter via the predicted DNA-binding domain. Through mutational analysis of the rstA promoter, we identified several nucleotides that are important for RstA-dependent transcriptional regulation. Further, we observed that RstA directly binds and regulates the promoters of the toxin genes tcdA and tcdB, as well as the promoters for the sigD and tcdR genes, which encode regulators of toxin gene expression. Complementation analyses with the Clostridium perfringens RstA ortholog and a multispecies chimeric RstA protein revealed that the C. difficile C-terminal domain is required for RstA DNA-binding activity, suggesting that species-specific signaling controls RstA function. Our data demonstrate that RstA is a transcriptional repressor that autoregulates its own expression and directly inhibits transcription of the two toxin genes and two positive toxin regulators, thereby acting at multiple regulatory points to control toxin production.IMPORTANCE Clostridioides difficile is an anaerobic, gastrointestinal pathogen of humans and other mammals. C. difficile produces two major toxins, TcdA and TcdB, which cause the symptoms of the disease, and forms dormant endospores to survive the aerobic environment outside the host. A recently discovered regulatory factor, RstA, inhibits toxin production and positively influences spore formation. Herein, we determine that RstA directly binds its own promoter DNA to repress its own gene transcription. In addition, our data demonstrate that RstA directly represses toxin gene expression and gene expression of two toxin gene activators, TcdR and SigD, creating a complex regulatory network to tightly control toxin production. This study provides a novel regulatory link between C. difficile sporulation and toxin production. Further, our data suggest that C. difficile toxin production is regulated through a direct, species-specific sensing mechanism.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/biossíntese , Toxinas Bacterianas/biossíntese , Clostridium difficile/genética , Clostridium difficile/fisiologia , Enterotoxinas/biossíntese , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Locomoção , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Clostridium perfringens/genética , Análise Mutacional de DNA , DNA Bacteriano/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Teste de Complementação Genética , Proteínas Mutantes/genética , Proteínas Mutantes/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Ligação Proteica , Proteínas Repressoras/genética
11.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1360, 2019 03 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30911012

RESUMO

TonB-dependent transporters (TBDTs) are ubiquitous outer membrane ß-barrel proteins that import nutrients and bacteriocins across the outer membrane in a proton motive force-dependent manner, by directly connecting to the ExbB/ExbD/TonB system in the inner membrane. Here, we show that the TBDT Oar in Myxococcus xanthus is required for secretion of a protein, protease PopC, to the extracellular milieu. PopC accumulates in the periplasm before secretion across the outer membrane, and the proton motive force has a role in secretion to the extracellular milieu. Reconstitution experiments in Escherichia coli demonstrate that secretion of PopC across the outer membrane not only depends on Oar but also on the ExbB/ExbD/TonB system. Our results indicate that TBDTs and the ExbB/ExbD/TonB system may have roles not only in import processes but also in secretion of proteins.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Myxococcus xanthus/genética , Peptídeo Hidrolases/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Escherichia coli/classificação , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Teste de Complementação Genética , Isoenzimas/genética , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Myxococcus xanthus/classificação , Myxococcus xanthus/metabolismo , Peptídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Periplasma/metabolismo , Filogenia , Força Próton-Motriz
12.
Microb Pathog ; 129: 1-6, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30703474

RESUMO

To persist in the host, Salmonella is known to facultatively parasitize cells to escape the immune response. Intracellular Salmonella enterica can replicate using effector proteins translocated across the Salmonella-containing vacuolar membrane via a type III secretion system (T3SS) encoded by Salmonella pathogenicity island-2 (SPI-2). One of these factors, Salmonella secreted factor L (SseL), is a deubiquitinase that contributes to the virulence of Salmonella Typhimurium in mice by inhibiting the cellular NF-κB inflammatory pathway. However, the nature of its effect on the NF-κB pathway is controversial, and little research has been performed in other animal models. In this study, the SseL of Salmonella Pullorum was studied, and chickens were used as an infection model. An sseL gene deletion strain, a complementation strain and a eukaryotic expression plasmid were used to clarify the means by which SseL regulates Salmonella virulence and the cellular inflammatory response. SseL significantly enhanced the virulence of Salmonella Pullorum in chickens and suppressed activation of the cellular NF-κB pathway, thus inhibiting cellular inflammatory cytokine expression.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Evasão da Resposta Imune , NF-kappa B/antagonistas & inibidores , Salmonelose Animal/patologia , Salmonella enterica/patogenicidade , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Galinhas , Deleção de Genes , Teste de Complementação Genética , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/patologia , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia , Virulência , Fatores de Virulência/genética
13.
MBio ; 10(1)2019 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30723124

RESUMO

Small RNAs (sRNAs) remain an understudied class of regulatory molecules in bacteria in general and in Gram-positive bacteria in particular. In the major human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, hundreds of sRNAs have been identified; however, only a few have been characterized in detail. In this study, we investigate the role of the sRNA Teg41 in S. aureus virulence. We demonstrate that Teg41, an sRNA divergently transcribed from the locus that encodes the cytolytic alpha phenol-soluble modulin (αPSM) peptides, plays a critical role in αPSM production. Overproduction of Teg41 leads to an increase in αPSM levels and a corresponding increase in hemolytic activity from S. aureus cells and cell-free culture supernatants. To identify regions of Teg41 important for its function, we performed an in silico RNA-RNA interaction analysis which predicted an interaction between the 3' end of Teg41 and the αPSM transcript. Deleting a 24-nucleotide region from the S. aureus genome, corresponding to the 3' end of Teg41, led to a 10-fold reduction in αPSM-dependent hemolytic activity and attenuation of virulence in a murine abscess model of infection. Restoration of hemolytic activity in the Teg41Δ3' strain was possible by expressing full-length Teg41 in trans Restoration of hemolytic activity was also possible by expressing the 3' end of Teg41, suggesting that this region of Teg41 is necessary and sufficient for αPSM-dependent hemolysis. Our results show that Teg41 is positively influencing αPSM production, demonstrating for the first time regulation of the αPSM peptides by an sRNA in S. aureus IMPORTANCE The alpha phenol-soluble modulins (αPSMs) are among the most potent toxins produced by Staphylococcus aureus Their biological role during infection has been studied in detail; however, the way they are produced by the bacterial cell is not well understood. In this work, we identify a small RNA molecule called Teg41 that plays an important role in αPSM production by S. aureus Teg41 positively influences αPSM production. The importance of Teg41 is highlighted by the fact that a strain containing a deletion in the 3' end of Teg41 produces significantly less αPSMs and is attenuated for virulence in a mouse abscess model of infection. As the search for new therapeutic strategies to combat S. aureus infection proceeds, Teg41 may represent a novel target.


Assuntos
Toxinas Bacterianas/biossíntese , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , RNA Bacteriano/metabolismo , Pequeno RNA não Traduzido/metabolismo , Staphylococcus aureus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Fatores de Virulência/biossíntese , Abscesso/microbiologia , Abscesso/patologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Teste de Complementação Genética , Hemólise , Humanos , Camundongos , Deleção de Sequência , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/patologia , Virulência
14.
Curr Microbiol ; 76(4): 495-502, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30798378

RESUMO

Bacterial strain 71-2 with phosphate-solubilizing activity was isolated from tobacco rhizosphere and classified as Burkholderia cenocepacia based on sequence analyses of 16S rRNA and recA genes. To learn phosphate-solubilizing mechanisms of 71-2, mutants showing reduced solubilizing phosphate activity were obtained using the EZ-Tn5 transposon. Mutant 71-2-MT51 was reduced in the solubilizing phosphate content to 34.36% as compared with the wild-type strain 71-2. The disrupted gene in 71-2-MT51 was cloned and sequenced, and the putative protein from the gene shared 65.26% identity to protein sequences of enolase from Escherichia coli, which suggests the gene encodes an enzyme of enolase. Complementation analyzing showed that Eno was responsible for phosphate solubilizing for B. cenocepacia strain 71-2. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Eno involved in phosphate solubilizing in B. cenocepacia as well as in other bacteria.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Burkholderia cenocepacia/genética , Burkholderia cenocepacia/metabolismo , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Fosfopiruvato Hidratase/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Burkholderia cenocepacia/classificação , Burkholderia cenocepacia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Teste de Complementação Genética , Mutagênese , Mutação , Fosfopiruvato Hidratase/metabolismo , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Recombinases Rec A/genética , Rizosfera , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Microbiologia do Solo , Tabaco/microbiologia
15.
Curr Microbiol ; 76(4): 510-519, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30805699

RESUMO

Brucellosis is the most common zoonotic disease that caused by intracellular parasitic bacteria Brucella. The survival and replication of Brucella in the host depend on the type IV secretion system (T4SS). The T4SS system of Brucella has many components and secreted proteins. But the mechanism helped Brucella to evade the host defense is still not clear. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of VceA on autophagy and apoptosis in Brucella-infected embryonic trophoblast cells. We constructed the VceA mutant strain (2308ΔVceA) and complementary strain (2308ΔVceA-C) of Brucella abortus 2308 (S2308). The human trophoblast cells (HPT-8 cells) and mice were infected by S2308, 2308ΔVceA and 2308ΔVceA-C. The cell autophagy and apoptosis were detected. The Atg5, LC3-II and Bcl-2 mRNA expression were significantly increased in 2308ΔVceA group than the S2308 group, and mRNA expression of P62 and Caspase-3 were significantly decreased than the S2308 group. Western blotting, qPCR and flow cytometry analysis showed that 2308ΔVceA promoted autophagy and inhibited apoptosis. Mouse immunohistochemistry experiments showed that P62 protein was scattered coloring and Cytochrome C protein was scarcely in 2308ΔVceA group at the myometrium. These results indicated that 2308ΔVceA promoted autophagy and inhibited apoptosis in HPT-8 cells during Brucella infection.


Assuntos
Apoptose/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Brucella abortus/genética , Brucelose/microbiologia , Brucelose/patologia , Trofoblastos/patologia , Sistemas de Secreção Tipo IV/genética , Animais , Autofagia/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Brucella abortus/metabolismo , Brucelose/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Feminino , Teste de Complementação Genética , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Miométrio/metabolismo , Miométrio/patologia , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Deleção de Sequência , Trofoblastos/metabolismo
16.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 103(6): 2701-2713, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30729256

RESUMO

Alishewanella sp. WH16-1 is a heavy metal-resistant bacterium. Previously, a putative YebC family regulator gene, designated ruvR, was associated with Cr(VI) resistance. In this study, comprehensive analyses were performed to study the role of ruvR and its adjunct putative DNA repairing genes, ruvCAB, in the heavy metal resistance of Alishewanella sp. WH16-1. RT-PCR analysis showed that ruvR is cotranscribed with ruvCAB. Gene mutation and complementation experiments indicated that ruvRCAB contributes to Cr(VI), As(III), Sb(III), and Cd(II) resistance in vivo. Random amplification of polymorphic DNA-PCR revealed that ruvCAB is associated with DNA repair mediated by these metals, and the presence of the metals in the cells was confirmed by elemental mapping and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrograph analysis. In addition, qRT-PCR, reporter gene assay, and in vivo and in vitro protein-DNA interaction experiments indicated that RuvR positively regulates the transcription of ruvCAB and is induced by Cr(VI). Finally, site-directed mutagenesis demonstrated that Asp103 is essential for the DNA binding ability of RuvR. The above results suggest that RuvR is involved in Cr(VI) resistance and resistance to other metals and that RuvR positively regulates the expression of ruvCAB. Based on our study and literatures, a model of RuvRCAB detailing bacterial heavy metal resistance is proposed. The RuvRCAB system plays an important role in the ability of Alishewanella sp. WH16-1 to survive in environments with heavy metals.


Assuntos
Alteromonadaceae/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Metais Pesados/farmacologia , Alteromonadaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenômenos Bioquímicos , Cádmio/farmacologia , Cromo/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Teste de Complementação Genética , Mutação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
17.
J Biosci Bioeng ; 128(1): 33-38, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30711353

RESUMO

In this work, we analyzed several genes participating in the rearrangement pathway for xylulose 5-phosphate (Xu5P) in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris (syn. Komagataella phaffii). P. pastoris has two set of genes for fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (FBA1 and FBA2) and transaldolase (TAL1 and TAL2), although there are single-copy genes for fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBP1) and transketolase (TKL1), respectively. Expressions of FBP1 and TAL2 were upregulated by non-fermentative carbon sources, especially methanol was the best inducer for them, and FBA2 was induced only by methanol. On the other hand, FBA1, TAL1 and TKL1 showed constitutive expression. Strain fbp1Δ showed severe growth defect on methanol and non-fermentable carbon sources, and growth rate of strain fba2Δ in methanol medium was slightly decreased. Moreover, Fba2p and Tal2p possessed peroxisome targeting signal type 1 (PTS1), and EGFP-Fba2p and EGFP-Tal2p were found to be localized in peroxisomes. From these findings, it was suggested that Fba2p, Fbp1p and Tal2p participate in the rearrangement pathway for Xu5P in peroxisomes, and that the altered Calvin cycle and non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway involving Tal2p function in a complementary manner.


Assuntos
Frutose-Bifosfato Aldolase/genética , Metanol/metabolismo , Pentosefosfatos/metabolismo , Pichia , Transaldolase/genética , Frutose-Bifosfato Aldolase/metabolismo , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Teste de Complementação Genética , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Peroxissomos/genética , Peroxissomos/metabolismo , Pichia/enzimologia , Pichia/genética , Pichia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pichia/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Transaldolase/metabolismo , Transcetolase/genética , Transcetolase/metabolismo
18.
MBio ; 10(1)2019 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30755512

RESUMO

The enterovirus genus of the picornavirus family includes a large number of important human pathogens such as poliovirus, coxsackievirus, enterovirus A71, and rhinoviruses. Like all other positive-strand RNA viruses, genome replication of enteroviruses occurs on rearranged membranous structures called replication organelles (ROs). Phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase IIIß (PI4KB) is required by all enteroviruses for RO formation. The enteroviral 3A protein recruits PI4KB to ROs, but the exact mechanism remains elusive. Here, we investigated the role of acyl-coenzyme A binding domain containing 3 (ACBD3) in PI4KB recruitment upon enterovirus replication using ACBD3 knockout (ACBD3KO) cells. ACBD3 knockout impaired replication of representative viruses from four enterovirus species and two rhinovirus species. PI4KB recruitment was not observed in the absence of ACBD3. The lack of ACBD3 also affected the localization of individually expressed 3A, causing 3A to localize to the endoplasmic reticulum instead of the Golgi. Reconstitution of wild-type (wt) ACBD3 restored PI4KB recruitment and 3A localization, while an ACBD3 mutant that cannot bind to PI4KB restored 3A localization, but not virus replication. Consistently, reconstitution of a PI4KB mutant that cannot bind ACBD3 failed to restore virus replication in PI4KBKO cells. Finally, by reconstituting ACBD3 mutants lacking specific domains in ACBD3KO cells, we show that acyl-coenzyme A binding (ACB) and charged-amino-acid region (CAR) domains are dispensable for 3A-mediated PI4KB recruitment and efficient enterovirus replication. Altogether, our data provide new insight into the central role of ACBD3 in recruiting PI4KB by enterovirus 3A and reveal the minimal domains of ACBD3 involved in recruiting PI4KB and supporting enterovirus replication.IMPORTANCE Similar to all other positive-strand RNA viruses, enteroviruses reorganize host cellular membranes for efficient genome replication. A host lipid kinase, PI4KB, plays an important role in this membrane rearrangement. The exact mechanism of how enteroviruses recruit PI4KB was unclear. Here, we revealed a role of a Golgi-residing protein, ACBD3, as a mediator of PI4KB recruitment upon enterovirus replication. ACBD3 is responsible for proper localization of enteroviral 3A proteins in host cells, which is important for 3A to recruit PI4KB. By testing ACBD3 and PI4KB mutants that abrogate the ACBD3-PI4KB interaction, we showed that this interaction is crucial for enterovirus replication. The importance of specific domains of ACBD3 was evaluated for the first time, and the domains that are essential for enterovirus replication were identified. Our findings open up a possibility for targeting ACBD3 or its interaction with enteroviruses as a novel strategy for the development of broad-spectrum antienteroviral drugs.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Enterovirus Humano A/fisiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Fosfotransferases (Aceptor do Grupo Álcool)/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Replicação Viral , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Linhagem Celular , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Teste de Complementação Genética , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Ligação Proteica
19.
mSphere ; 4(1)2019 01 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30700512

RESUMO

Copper (Cu) is an essential trace element in all organisms, and Cu acquisition during periods of starvation is important for cell survival and proliferation. Although the Cu starvation-responsive transcription factor Mac1 as well as its targeted Cu transporters have been identified in Aspergillus fumigatus, the molecular mechanisms of Mac1-mediated Cu acquisition have not yet been investigated in Aspergillus We demonstrated that Mac1 and its regulated Cu transporters are required for growth and conidiophore development during Cu starvation in Aspergillus nidulans Moreover, A. nidulans Mac1 (AnMac1) showed highly functional conservation with the A. fumigatus homolog but not with homologs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe Molecular characterization of Mac1 in A. nidulans demonstrated that the "Cu fist" motif (i.e., residues 1 through 40) harboring Cys, RGHR, and GRP residues is required for the Mac1-mediated low-Cu response but not the Cys-rich motifs REP-I and REP-II. Notably, overexpression of either the CtrA2 Cu transporter or the CtrC Cu transporter individually was unable to functionally rescue the defects in the AnMac1 deletion strain, implying that Cu uptake might require both CtrA2 and CtrC during Cu starvation, which is different from results seen with A. fumigatus Findings in this study further suggest that the conserved Mac1-mediated Cu uptake machinery in A. fumigatus and A. nidulans is also species specific.IMPORTANCE Copper is an essential cofactor of enzymes during a variety of biochemical processes. Therefore, Cu acquisition plays critical roles in cell survival and proliferation, especially during Cu starvation. Knowledge of the key motif(s) by which the low-Cu-responsive transcription factor Mac1 senses Cu is important for understanding how Cu uptake is controlled. Findings in this study demonstrated that the Cu fist motif, but not Cys-rich motifs, is essential for Mac1-mediated Cu uptake in Aspergillus In addition, Cu transporters CtrA2 and CtrC are both required for Mac1-mediated Cu uptake during Cu starvation in A. nidulans, indicating that species-specific machinery exists for Cu acquisition in Aspergillus.


Assuntos
Aspergillus nidulans/enzimologia , Aspergillus nidulans/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cobre/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Aspergillus nidulans/genética , Aspergillus nidulans/metabolismo , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Deleção de Genes , Expressão Gênica , Teste de Complementação Genética , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Mutação Puntual , Homologia de Sequência , Oligoelementos/metabolismo
20.
MBio ; 10(1)2019 02 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30782663

RESUMO

Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is a human gammaherpesvirus associated with the development of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). KSHV target cells include endothelial cells, B cells, monocytes, epithelial cells, dendritic cells, macrophages, and fibroblasts. KSHV entry into target cells is a complex multistep process and is initiated by the binding and interaction of viral envelope glycoproteins with the cellular receptors. In the current studies, we have found that EphA4 promotes KSHV glycoprotein H/glycoprotein L (gH/gL)-mediated fusion and infection better than does ephrin A2 (EphA2) in HEK293T cells, indicating that EphA4 is a new KSHV entry receptor. To confirm that epithelial cells express EphA2 and EphA4, we analyzed the expression of EphA2 and EphA4 in epithelial cells, endothelial cells, B cells, monocytes, fibroblasts using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data analysis of existing data sets. We found that these cell types broadly express both EphA2 and EphA4, with the exception of monocytes and B cells. To confirm EphA4 is important for KSHV fusion and infection, we generated EphA2 and EphA4 single- and double-knockout cells. We found that both EphA2 and EphA4 play a role in KSHV fusion and infection, since EphA2-EphA4 double-knockout cells had the greatest decrease in fusion activity and infection compared to single-knockout cells. Fusion and infection of KSHV were rescued in the EphA2-EphA4 double-knockout cells upon overexpression of EphA2 and/or EphA4. EphA2 binds to both Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and KSHV gH/gL; however, EphA4 binds only to KSHV gH/gL. Taken together, our results identify EphA4 as a new entry receptor for KSHV.IMPORTANCE The overall entry mechanism for herpesviruses is not completely known, including those for the human gammaherpesviruses Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). To fully understand the herpesvirus entry process, functional receptors need to be identified. In the current study, we found that EphA4 can also function for a KSHV entry receptor along with EphA2. Interestingly, we found that EphA4 does not function as an entry receptor for EBV, whereas EphA2 does. The discovery of EphA4 as a KSHV entry receptor has important implications for KSHV pathogenesis in humans, may prove useful in understanding the unique pathogenesis of KSHV infection in humans, and may uncover new potential targets that can be used for the development of novel interventional strategies.


Assuntos
Herpesvirus Humano 8/fisiologia , Receptor EphA4/metabolismo , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , Internalização do Vírus , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Efrina-A2/genética , Efrina-A2/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Teste de Complementação Genética , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Receptor EphA4/genética
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