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1.
Angiol Sosud Khir ; 27(3): 159-164, 2021.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34528601

RESUMO

Myocardial infarction is the leading cause of mortality during peripheral artery surgery. The review summarizes the data on cardiac event risk stratification in angiosurgical patients by preoperative stress testing. The prognostic value of positive and negative results is described. Stress testing with physical activity or pharmacological agents is rarely indicated in patients at low risk of major adverse cardiovascular events. Stress testing may be used in patients at increased risk of myocardial infarction (functional activity less than <4 metabolic equivalents), and if the test results should change the approaches to perioperative therapy, anesthesia or the volume of surgical intervention and, in rare situations, to perform coronary revascularization.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios , Teste de Esforço , Humanos , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/efeitos adversos
2.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(9)2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34518188

RESUMO

A 48-year-old man presented to the emergency department (ED) with exertional chest pressure associated with palpitations and lightheadedness. He was found to have non-sustained ventricular tachycardia (NSVT) in the ED, which resolved spontaneously. Given his history of hyperlipidaemia, unknown family history due to being adopted and episode of NSVT in the ED, he underwent cardiac catheterisation, which showed non-obstructive coronary artery disease and distal left anterior descending artery myocardial bridge (MB). The patient subsequently underwent ECG treadmill stress test with reproduction of chest pressure and NSVT. The patient was referred to cardiac surgery for definitive management of symptomatic MB and underwent resection of MB.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Taquicardia Ventricular , Artérias , Cateterismo Cardíaco , Teste de Esforço , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Taquicardia Ventricular/diagnóstico , Taquicardia Ventricular/etiologia
3.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 117(2): 309-316, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495225

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although maximal and submaximal walking are recommended for patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD), performing these exercises may induce different physiological responses. OBJECTIVES: To compare the acute effects of maximal and submaximal walking on post-exercise cardiovascular function, regulation, and associated pathophysiological processes in patients with symptomatic PAD. METHODS: Thirty male patients underwent 2 sessions: maximal walking (Gardner's protocol) and submaximal walking (15 bouts of 2 minutes of walking separated by 2 minutes of upright rest). In each session, blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), cardiac autonomic modulation (HR variability), forearm and calf blood flows (BF), vasodilatory capacity (reactive hyperemia), nitric oxide (NO), oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation), and inflammation (four markers) were measured pre- and post-walking. ANOVAs were employed, and p < 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: Systolic and mean BP decreased after the submaximal session, but they increased after the maximal session (interactions, p < 0.001 for both). Diastolic BP did not change after the submaximal session (p > 0.05), and it increased after maximal walking (interaction, p < 0.001). HR, sympathovagal balance, and BF increased similarly after both sessions (moment, p < 0.001, p = 0.04, and p < 0.001, respectively), while vasodilatory capacity, NO, and oxidative stress remained unchanged (p > 0.05). Vascular and intercellular adhesion molecules increased similarly after both maximal and submaximal walking sessions (moment, p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with symptomatic PAD, submaximal, but not maximal walking reduced post-exercise BP, while maximal walking maintained elevated cardiac overload during the recovery period. On the other hand, maximal and submaximal walking sessions similarly increased post-exercise HR, cardiac sympathovagal balance, and inflammation, while they did not change post-exercise NO bioavailability and oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Doença Arterial Periférica , Caminhada , Pressão Sanguínea , Teste de Esforço , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Claudicação Intermitente , Masculino
4.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(17)2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502615

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to develop a simple submaximal walk test protocol and equation using heart rate (HR) response variables to predict maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max). A total of 60 healthy adults were recruited to test the validity of 3 min walk tests (3MWT). VO2max and HR responses during the 3MWTs were measured. Multiple regression analysis was used to develop prediction equations. As a result, HR response variables including resting HR and HR during walking and recovery at two different cadences were significantly correlated with VO2max. The equations developed using multiple regression analyses were able to predict VO2max values (r = 0.75-0.84; r2 = 0.57-0.70; standard error of estimate (SEE) = 4.80-5.25 mL/kg/min). The equation that predicted VO2max the best was at the cadence of 120 steps per minute, which included sex; age; height; weight; body mass index; resting HR; HR at 1 min, 2 min and 3 min; HR recovery at 1 min and 2 min; and other HR variables calculated based on these measured HR variables (r = 0.84; r2 = 0.70; SEE = 4.80 mL/kg/min). In conclusion, the 3MWT developed in this study is a safe and practical submaximal exercise protocol for healthy adults to predict VO2max accurately, even compared to the well-established submaximal exercise protocols, and merits further investigation.


Assuntos
Teste de Esforço , Consumo de Oxigênio , Adulto , Exercício Físico , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Teste de Caminhada , Caminhada
5.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(17)2021 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502844

RESUMO

(1) Background: Insects, which serve as model systems for many disciplines with their unique advantages, have not been extensively studied in gait research because of the lack of appropriate tools and insect models to properly study the insect gaits. (2) Methods: In this study, we present a gait analysis of grasshoppers with a closed-loop custom-designed motorized insect treadmill with an optical recording system for quantitative gait analysis. We used the eastern lubber grasshopper, a flightless and large-bodied species, as our insect model. Gait kinematics were recorded and analyzed by making three grasshoppers walk on the treadmill with various speeds from 0.1 to 1.5 m/s. (3) Results: Stance duty factor was measured as 70-95% and decreased as walking speed increased. As the walking speed increased, the number of contact legs decreased, and diagonal arrangement of contact was observed at walking speed of 1.1 cm/s. (4) Conclusions: This pilot study of gait analysis of grasshoppers using the custom-designed motorized insect treadmill with the optical recording system demonstrates the feasibility of quantitative, repeatable, and real-time insect gait analysis.


Assuntos
Análise da Marcha , Gafanhotos , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Teste de Esforço , Marcha , Projetos Piloto , Caminhada
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17798, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493765

RESUMO

There is increasing evidence of cardiac involvement post-SARS-CoV-2 infections in symptomatic as well as in oligo- and asymptomatic athletes. This study aimed to characterize the possible early effects of SARS-CoV-2 infections on myocardial morphology and cardiopulmonary function in athletes. Eight male elite handball players (27 ± 3.5 y) with past SARS-CoV-2 infection were compared with four uninfected teammates (22 ± 2.6 y). Infected athletes were examined 19 ± 7 days after the first positive PCR test. Echocardiographic assessment of the global longitudinal strain under resting conditions was not significantly changed (- 17.7% vs. - 18.1%). However, magnetic resonance imaging showed minor signs of acute inflammation/oedema in all infected athletes (T2-mapping: + 4.1 ms, p = 0.034) without reaching the Lake-Louis criteria. Spiroergometric analysis showed a significant reduction in VO2max (- 292 ml/min, - 7.0%), oxygen pulse (- 2.4 ml/beat, - 10.4%), and respiratory minute volume (VE) (- 18.9 l/min, - 13.8%) in athletes with a history of SARS-CoV2 infection (p < 0.05, respectively). The parameters were unchanged in the uninfected teammates. SARS-CoV2 infection caused impairment of cardiopulmonary performance during physical effort in elite athletes. It seems reasonable to screen athletes after SARS-CoV2 infection with spiroergometry to identify performance limitations and to guide the return to competition.


Assuntos
Atletas/estatística & dados numéricos , Desempenho Atlético/estatística & dados numéricos , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Coração/fisiopatologia , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Infecções Assintomáticas , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/virologia , Teste de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19/estatística & dados numéricos , Ecocardiografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Teste de Esforço/estatística & dados numéricos , Alemanha , Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Espirometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360298

RESUMO

This investigation examined relationships between a Special Weapons and Tactics-specific fitness test (SORT) and an obstacle course (OC) used for qualification in fourteen male SWAT members from three local, regional police departments. The SORT included: squat, pushup, and lunge in 60 s; pullup hold; sled drag; and Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test L1. The obstacle course included: 25 m sprint (repeated); window ascent; scale under a wall; 25 m serpentine run (repeated), body drag (20 m, repeated). Pearson coefficients examined SORT and OC relationships (p ≤ 0.05); intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC2,1) assessed agreement of SORT trials. Repeated measures ANOVA evaluated differences in SORT metrics across time. Coefficients of variation (COV) examined SORT scoring consistency. The YoYo test was related to all SORT assessments (r = -0.803-0.894), except sled drag. The remaining SORT metrics were related to ≥two tests. SORT COVs ranged from 0.77-13.26% for trials 1-2 but decreased between trials 2-3 (0.95-8.97%). The OC was associated with YoYo, lunges, squats and sled drag (r = -0.790, -0.730, -0.766, and 0.802, respectively). No differences (p > 0.05) existed across SORT trials for event scores. The SORT battery appears to be a valid and reliable testing measure to assess SWAT occupational specific fitness.


Assuntos
Resistência Física , Aptidão Física , Exercício Físico , Teste de Esforço , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360362

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During a soccer game, the most diversified stimuli occur all the time, the physical condition level plays a determinant role, and there may be variations according to the competitive level. In this sense, the present study aimed to verify differences in body composition, lower limbs power, and anaerobic power, comparing senior soccer players of different competitive levels. METHODS: Participants were 81 players belonging to six soccer teams, aged between 18 and 35 years, with a mean age of 23.14 ± 4.23 years, who were divided into three distinct competitive levels: Elite, Sub-Elite and Non-Elite. The players performed bioimpedance evaluations on a tetrapolarInbody270 scale (body composition), the Countermovement Jump (CMJ) through the ChronoJump (lower limbs power), and Running Anaerobic Sprint Test (RAST) (anaerobic power). RESULTS: Based on the competitive level analysis, we verified that the players present body composition values similar to each other regardless of the competitive level in which they play. Concerning the performance evaluations, we verified that the elite players present higher values of highest jump (p = 0.012; d = 0.76, moderate; and p = 0.022; d = 0.71, moderate) and maximum force produced (p = 0.05; d = 0.64, moderate; and p = 0.002; d = 1.00, moderate), together with higher values of anaerobic power (p < 0.001; d = 2.43, very large; and p < 0.001; d = 2.22, very large), compared to the others. CONCLUSIONS: We can thus conclude that there is a homogeneity regarding the body composition of soccer players, regardless of their competitive level; in turn, elite players show better performance indicators in all variables.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Futebol , Adolescente , Adulto , Anaerobiose , Composição Corporal , Teste de Esforço , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior , Portugal , Adulto Jovem
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360424

RESUMO

Downhill running has an important effect on performance in trail running competitions, but it is less studied than uphill running. The purpose of this study was to investigate the cardiorespiratory response during 15 min of downhill running (DR) and to evaluate the neuromuscular consequences in a group of trail runners. Before and after a 15-min DR trial (slope: -25%) at ~60% of maximal oxygen consumption (V̇O2max), we evaluated maximal voluntary contraction torque (MVCt) and muscle contractility in a group of seventeen trail running athletes. Additionally, during the DR trial, we measured V̇O2 and heart rate (HR). V̇O2 and HR increased as a function of time, reaching +19.8 ± 15.9% (p < 0.001; ES: 0.49, medium) and +15.3 ± 9.9% (p < 0.001; ES: 0.55, large), respectively, in the last minute of DR. Post-exercise, the MVCt decreased (-22.2 ± 12.0%; p < 0.001; ES = 0.55, large) with respect to the pre-exercise value. All the parameters related to muscle contractility were impaired after DR: the torque evoked by a potentiated high frequency doublet decreased (-28.5 ± 12.7%; p < 0.001; ES: 0.61, large), as did the torque response from the single-pulse stimulation (St, -41.6 ± 13.6%; p < 0.001; ES: 0.70, large) and the M-wave (-11.8 ± 12.1%; p < 0.001; ES: 0.22, small). We found that after 15 min of DR, athletes had a decreased MVCt, which was ascribed mainly to peripheral rather than central alterations. Additionally, during low-intensity DR exercise, muscle fatigue and exercise-induced muscle damage may contribute to the development of O2 and HR drift.


Assuntos
Corrida , Teste de Esforço , Humanos , Contração Muscular , Fadiga Muscular , Músculo Esquelético , Consumo de Oxigênio
10.
J Strength Cond Res ; 35(8): 2165-2169, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34398076

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Rider, BC, Conger, SA, Ditzenberger, GL, Besteman, SS, Bouret, CM, and Coughlin, AM. Examining the accuracy of the Polar A360 monitor. J Strength Cond Res 35(8): 2165-2169, 2021-The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of the Polar A360 heart rate (HR) monitor during periods of rest, walking/running, and active/passive recovery from exercise. Thirty collegiate athletes (women n = 15 and men n = 15) wore an A360 monitor and a previously validated chest HR monitor (Polar RS400) that served as the criterion measurement across a range of resting and walking/running intensities. First, subjects rested in a supine, seated, and standing position. Next, each subject walked on a treadmill at 1.6 kilometers per hour (kph). Speed was increased by 1.6 kph every 2 minutes until volitional fatigue. Then, subjects walked at 4.8 kph followed by a seated recovery stage. Heart rate was recorded in 30-second increments. Total mean difference in HR readings, percent accuracy, and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) analysis established the level of agreement between devices. Bland-Altman plots and a regression were used to examine the agreement between devices. The A360 demonstrated a strong correlation with the RS400 (r2 = 0.98) across time points. The analysis of variance with repeated measures indicated an overall significant difference (p < 0.001) between devices. The A360 significantly underestimated HR during the 6.4-kph speed only (p < 0.05) (effect size 0.26). The greatest percent accuracy occurred during rest (91%) and recovery (90%). An ICC of 0.98 (SEM: 0.35) demonstrates a strong level of agreement between devices. The A360 is accurate at rest and during various walking and running speeds and thus is a device that can be used with confidence by athletes for specific training purposes. Future research should examine accuracy during weight training and other sport-specific activities.


Assuntos
Teste de Esforço , Caminhada , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Monitores de Aptidão Física , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Monitorização Fisiológica
11.
J Bodyw Mov Ther ; 27: 134-140, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391224

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A better understanding of gait kinematics during the 6-min walk test (6MWT) may facilitate the development of rehabilitation strategies for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). AIM: To evaluate gait kinematics during the 6MWT in patients with COPD. METHOD: Thirty-six patients with COPD and 19 healthy controls underwent a full-body kinematic analysis during the 6MWT. Data were collected using a system with four infrared cameras to capture the movement of a spherical marker covered with retroreflective tape attached to a helmet worn during the test. RESULTS: The walking distances measured by the assessor and by kinematics analysis were lower in the group of patients (P = 0.036 and P = 0.013, respectively). Moreover, the walking distances measured by kinematics analysis were greater than those measured by the assessor for both groups (P < 0.001). In the kinematics analysis of the complete test, the mean and maximum speeds were higher for the controls than for the patients (P = 0.007 and P = 0.044, respectively). In the half-turn analysis, acceleration, speed, and deceleration peaks (maximal absolute values) were lower for the patients than for the controls (P = 0.002, P = 0.012 and P = 0.006, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with COPD show worse functional capacity due to lower gait speed and acceleration-deceleration peaks after turnings as compared to healthy individuals during the 6MWT. Assessors can accurately predict the 6MWD measured by kinematics, though they underestimate this distance.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Caminhada , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Teste de Esforço , Tolerância ao Exercício , Marcha , Humanos , Teste de Caminhada
12.
J Bodyw Mov Ther ; 27: 157-164, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391227

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the validity of the 30-seconds sit-to-stand test (STS-30) and its reliability in hemodialysis patients. METHODS: Patients receiving hemodialysis treatment three times a week for at least six months were evaluated using STS-30, Incremental Shuttle Walking Test, and health-related quality of life by KDQOL-SF questionnaire. The data obtained from the Incremental Shuttle Walking Test were divided into tertiles, and the STS-30 results were compared among tertiles. The accuracy of the STS-30 to identify low exercise capacity was evaluated. A second STS-30 was performed after 6 to 8-weeks for the reliability analyses using Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC). Minimal detectable change scores were calculated. RESULTS: Sixty-three individuals (66.7% men) aged 48.3 years (95%CI 44.6-51.9) were evaluated. There were significant correlations between STS-30, exercise capacity (r = 0.72), and physical domains of health-related quality of life (0.30 ≤ r ≤ 0.51). Tertile 1 of the Incremental Shuttle Walking Test was different from tertiles 2 and 3 for STS-30 [difference of 3.4 repetitions (95%CI 1.5-5.4) and 4.7 repetitions (95%CI 2.8-6.7), respectively]. The value of 12 repetitions was the cut-off points for stratification of individuals with low exercise capacity. The STS-30 had a high test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.93) and the minimal detectable change was 2.1 repetitions. CONCLUSION: The STS-30 is a reliable test, associated with exercise capacity and physical domains of health-related quality of life. Thus, is a valid method for functional evaluation in hemodialysis patients.


Assuntos
Estado Funcional , Qualidade de Vida , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Diálise Renal , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
13.
J Bodyw Mov Ther ; 27: 207-215, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391235

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Altered movement patterns during weight-bearing activities have been associated with knee injuries and can be clinically assessed using the lateral step-down test (LSD). It is possible that verbal feedback can improve movement patterns, but it remains unknown whether verbal feedback can improve movement quality during the LSD. PURPOSE: To investigate whether verbal feedback can immediately improve visual movement quality and trunk, pelvis and lower limb kinematics in healthy females during the LSD. METHODS: 34 healthy females were assessed visually and with 3D kinematics while performing the LSD. Participants were divided into Good Movement Group (GG; n = 18) and Poor Movement Group (PG; n = 16) based on the LSD score. The feedback involved verbal instructions aimed at improving trunk, pelvis, hip and knee alignment during the test. Lower limb flexibility and strength were assessed for group comparisons and to investigate associations between all variables. Data analyses were performed using repeated-measures two-way ANOVAs and Spearman correlation tests. RESULTS: Feedback immediately improved movement quality, especially in participants of the GG [mean difference (MD) = 2.2 points; P < 0.001]. The PG showed greater pelvic drop (MD = 5.1°; P = 0.012), greater hip adduction (MD = 5.4°; P = 0.028) and less hip flexion (MD = 8.4°; P = 0.016) than the GG. Quality of movement had positive correlations with pelvic drop (r = 0.39; P = 0.02), hip adduction (r = 0.45; P = 0.01) and hip flexion (r = 0.49; P < 0.01) kinematics. CONCLUSIONS: Verbal feedback improved movement quality during the LSD in healthy females. Females with worst movement quality showed greater pelvic drop and hip adduction, which are often found in individuals with knee disorders.


Assuntos
Teste de Esforço , Movimento , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Humanos , Joelho , Articulação do Joelho
14.
J Bodyw Mov Ther ; 27: 9-15, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391318

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The effectiveness of different forms of cryotherapy and combined compression (cryo-compression) commonly used in sport to enhance recovery following exercise are not fully understood. Therefore, the exploration of protocols that use contemporary cryo-compression is warranted. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of using a cryo-compression device to recover hamstrings eccentric strength following a fatiguing exercise. METHODS: Eighteen healthy male adult footballers were randomly allocated to receive cryo-compression or rest following a lower limb fatiguing protocol. Cryo-compression was applied for 15-min, target temperature of 10 °C, and high intermittent pressure (5-75 mm Hg) using the Game Ready® device. Rest consisted of 15-min in a prone position on a plinth. To induce hamstring fatigue, participants performed the Yo-Yo intermittent fatigue test (IFT). Skin surface temperature (Tsk) and hamstring eccentric strength measures were taken at three time points; pre-IFT, immediately post-fatigue test (IPFT), and immediately post-intervention (IPI) (rest or Game Ready®). Participants returned one week later and performed the Yo-Yo IFT again and were exposed to the opposite intervention and data collection. RESULTS: Significant decreases in Tsk over the posterior thigh were reported for all timepoints compared to pre cryo-compression temperatures (p=<0.05). Overall data displayed no significant main effects for timepoint or condition for PT or AvT (p=<0.05). There was no timepoint × condition interaction for PT or AvT (p=<0.05). Collapse of the data by condition (CC/R) demonstrated no significant effect for time for PT or AvT (p=>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: No significant changes in HES occurred after exposure to cryo-compression or rest applied immediately following the Yo-Yo IFT. Further investigations to maximise beneficial application of contemporary cryo-compression applications in sport are required. Multiple measures of performance over rewarming periods, within competitive training schedules after sport-specific training are required to develop optimal cooling protocols for recovery.


Assuntos
Músculos Isquiossurais , Força Muscular , Adulto , Exercício Físico , Teste de Esforço , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético , Coxa da Perna
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444184

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reports have indicated a negative trend in cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in the general population. However, trends in relation to different occupational groups are missing. Therefore, the aim of our study was to examine the trends in CRF during the last 20 years, and to provide a prognosis of future trends in CRF, in different occupational groups of Swedish workers. METHODS: Data from 516,122 health profile assessments performed between 2001 to 2020 were included. CRF was assessed as maximal oxygen consumption and was estimated from a submaximal cycling test. Analyses include CRF as a weighted average, standardized proportions with low CRF (<32 mL/min/kg), adjusted annual change in CRF, and forecasting of future trends in CRF. RESULTS: There was a decrease in CRF over the study period, with the largest decrease in both absolute and relative CRF seen for individuals working in administrative and customer service (-10.1% and -9.4%) and mechanical manufacturing (-6.5% and -7.8%) occupations. The greatest annual decrease was seen in transport occupations (-1.62 mL/min/kg, 95% CI -0.190 to -0.134). Men and younger individuals had in generally a more pronounced decrease in CRF. The proportion with a low CRF increased, with the greatest increase noted for blue-collar and low-skilled occupations (range: +19% to +27% relative change). The forecast analyses predicted a continuing downward trend of CRF. CONCLUSION: CRF has declined in most occupational groups in Sweden over the last two decades, with a more pronounced decline in blue-collar and low-skilled occupational groups.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória , Teste de Esforço , Previsões , Humanos , Masculino , Ocupações , Consumo de Oxigênio , Suécia
16.
Percept Mot Skills ; 128(5): 2097-2116, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34338055

RESUMO

Little is known about motor competence and the longitudinal development of motor performance among youth with cystic fibrosis (CF). In this study, we assessed aspects of motor performance in different age groups of young patients with CF and compared them with a healthy reference group of same aged children. We also examined the development of motor performance among different age groups of these children with CF, using The Deutscher Motorik Test (DMT) to assess attributes of health-related and motor performance-related fitness. We used an incremental ergometer cycle test to determine maximal exercise capacity (expressed as peak workload). We evaluated and recorded habitual physical activity (PA) as measured by the number of steps per day and the time spent in different PA intensities (expressed in metabolic equivalents). In total, 31 children and adolescents with CF agreed to participate (13 girls,18 boys) aged 6-17 years (M = 11.3, SD =3.3 years); they had a mean one second forced expiratory volume (expressed as a percentage of predicted value [% pred]) of 87.2% (SD = 22.3%). We found their values of health-related and motor performance-related fitness to be significantly lower (p < 0.05) than those of their healthy peer participants. In contrast to the reference group, participants with CF up to 14 years of age showed a linear improvement in these values and in their PA, followed by a plateau or even a nonsignificant decrease after age 14. These findings have important implications for the development and prescription of exercise programs for children with CF. Besides aerobic and strength exercises, we recommend that neuromuscular training be integrated into exercise programs to improve the coordinative abilities of youth with CF. More attention should be paid to vulnerable older adolescents to ensure their long-term motivation to maintain exercise participation.


Assuntos
Fibrose Cística , Adolescente , Criança , Exercício Físico , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Masculino , Aptidão Física
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444039

RESUMO

The study aimed to evaluate the association between the changes in ventilatory variables (tidal volume (Vt), respiratory rate (RR) and lung ventilation (V.E)) and deoxygenation of m.intescostales (∆SmO2-m.intercostales) during a maximal incremental exercise in 19 male high-level competitive marathon runners. The ventilatory variables and oxygen consumption (V.O2) were recorded breath-by-breath by exhaled gas analysis. A near-infrared spectroscopy device (MOXY®) located in the right-hemithorax allowed the recording of SmO2-m.intercostales. To explore changes in oxygen levels in muscles with high demand during exercise, a second MOXY® records SmO2-m.vastus laterallis. The triphasic model of exercise intensity was used for evaluating changes in SmO2 in both muscle groups. We found that ∆SmO2-m.intercostales correlated with V.O2-peak (r = 0.65; p = 0.002) and the increase of V.E (r = 0.78; p = 0.001), RR (r = 0.54; p = 0.001), but not Vt (p = 0.210). The interaction of factors (muscles × exercise-phases) in SmO2 expressed as an arbitrary unit (a.u) was significant (p = 0.005). At VT1 there was no difference (p = 0.177), but SmO2-m.intercostales was higher at VT2 (p < 0.001) and V.O2-peak (p < 0.001). In high-level competitive marathon runners, the m.intercostales deoxygenation during incremental exercise is directly associated with the aerobic capacity and increased lung ventilation and respiratory rate, but not tidal volume. Moreover, it shows less deoxygenation than m.vastus laterallis at intensities above the aerobic ventilatory threshold.


Assuntos
Teste de Esforço , Músculos Intercostais , Humanos , Pulmão , Masculino , Corrida de Maratona , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Consumo de Oxigênio , Respiração
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444044

RESUMO

The objective of this preliminary study was to determine the reproducibility of lower limbs skin temperature after cold stress test using the Game Ready system. Skin temperature of fourteen participants was measured before and after cold stress test using the Game Ready system and it was repeated the protocol in four times: at 9:00, at 11:00, at 19:00, and at 9:00 h of the posterior day. To assess skin temperature recovery after cold stress test, a logarithmic equation for each region was calculated, and constant (ß0) and slope (ß1) coefficients were obtained. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), standard error (SE), and within-subject coefficient of variation (CV) were determined. No differences were observed between measurement times in any of the regions for the logarithmic coefficients (p > 0.38). Anterior thigh (ß0 ICC 0.33-0.47; ß1 ICC 0.31-0.43) and posterior knee (ß0 ICC 0.42-0.58; ß1 ICC 0.28-0.57) were the regions with the lower ICCs, and the other regions presented values with a fair and good reproducibility (ICC > 0.41). Posterior leg was the region with the better reproducibility (ß0 ICC 0.68-0.78; ß1 ICC 0.59-0.74; SE 3-4%; within-subject CV 7-12%). In conclusion, cold stress test using Game Ready system showed a fair and good reproducibility, especially when the posterior leg was the region assessed.


Assuntos
Resposta ao Choque Frio , Temperatura Cutânea , Temperatura Baixa , Teste de Esforço , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(31): e26861, 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397862

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) can improve clinical indicators in patients with cardiovascular diseases. The literature reports a 20% reduction in all-cause mortality and a 27% reduction in heart-disease mortality following CR. Although its clinical efficacy has been established, there is uncertainty whether center-based (CBCR) is more effective than home-based (HBCR) programs in acute and subacute phases. We aimed to verify significant differences in their effectiveness for the improvement of cardiopulmonary function by analyzing cardiopulmonary exercise (CPX) with laboratory tests following both CR programs.A single-center cohort study of 37 patients, recently diagnosed with underlying cardiovascular diseases, underwent CBCR(18) and HBCR(19). CBCR group performed a supervised exercise regimen at the CR center, for 1 hour, 2 to 3 days a week, for a total of 12 to18 weeks. HBCR group completed a self-monitored exercise program at home under the same guidelines as CBCR. Participants were evaluated by CPX with laboratory tests at 1- and 6-month, following the respective programs.There was no statistical significance in clinical characteristics and laboratory findings. Pre-post treatment comparison showed significant improvement in VO2/kg, minute ventilation/carbon dioxide production slope, breathing reserve, tidal volume (VT), heart rate recovery, oxygen consumption per heart rate, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), LDL/HDL ratio, total cholesterol, ejection fraction (EF) (P < .05). CBCR approach showed greater improvement with significance in VO2/kg, metabolic equivalents, and EF on between groups analysis (P < .05).The time effect of CPX test and laboratory data showed improvement in cardiopulmonary function and serum indicators for both groups. VO2/kg, metabolic equivalents, and EF were among the variables that showed significant differences between groups. In the acute and subacute phases of 1 to 6 months, the CBCR group showed a greater cardiac output improvement than the HBCR group.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Reabilitação Cardíaca , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Terapia por Exercício , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar/estatística & dados numéricos , Centros de Reabilitação/estatística & dados numéricos , Reabilitação Cardíaca/métodos , Reabilitação Cardíaca/normas , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/terapia , Pesquisa Comparativa da Efetividade , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Terapia por Exercício/organização & administração , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Testes de Função Respiratória/métodos , Testes de Função Respiratória/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(16)2021 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450739

RESUMO

Stroke causes neurological pathologies, including gait pathologies, which are diagnosed by gait analysis. However, existing gait analysis devices are difficult to use in situ or are disrupted by external conditions. To overcome these drawbacks, a flexible capacitance sensor was developed in this study. To date, a performance comparison of flexible sensors with different dimensions has not been carried out. The aim of this study was to provide optimized sensor dimension information for gait analysis. To accomplish this, sensors with seven different dimensions were fabricated. The dimensions of the sensors were based on the average body size and movement range of 20- to 59-year-old adults. The sensors were characterized by 100 oscillations. The minimum hysteresis error was 8%. After that, four subjects were equipped with the sensor and walked on a treadmill at a speed of 3.6 km/h. All walking processes were filmed at 50 fps and analyzed in Kinovea. The RMS error was calculated using the same frame rate of the video and the sampling rate of the signal from the sensor. The smallest RMS error between the sensor data and the ankle angle was 3.13° using the 49 × 8 mm sensor. In this study, we confirm the dimensions of the sensor with the highest gait analysis accuracy; therefore, the results can be used to make decisions regarding sensor dimensions.


Assuntos
Análise da Marcha , Caminhada , Adulto , Articulação do Tornozelo , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Teste de Esforço , Marcha , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
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