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1.
Sports Biomech ; 19(1): 1-25, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29781788

RESUMO

The use of isometric strength testing, particularly the isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP) has increased dramatically over the last decade. The IMTP and isometric squat (ISqT) provide one aspect of performance monitoring with variables such as peak force and rate of force development being derived from the force-time curve. The reliability of some of these variables is conflicting in the literature, and the reporting of the reliability is not standardised across the research. The majority of research only reports intraclass correlation coefficients with very few studies reporting coefficient of variation and 90% confidence intervals. Additionally, methods used to calculate variables from the force-time curve differ across studies. An aim of muscle strength testing is to provide normative values for specific sports, allowing coaches to distinguish between performance levels or evaluate the effects of training on performance. This narrative review aims to evaluate studies that have researched the reliability and/or reported normative data for both tests. Additionally, the testing protocols and the force-time curve analysis techniques utilised are discussed, concluding with practical applications for coaches on the uses and limitations of these tests. Results demonstrate that peak force is the most reliable measure and can be used to determine maximum strength capabilities.


Assuntos
Teste de Esforço/métodos , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Coxa da Perna/fisiologia , Levantamento de Peso , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Humanos , Contração Isométrica/fisiologia , Valores de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Esportes/fisiologia
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(45): e17880, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31702659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative disease that not only causes knee pain in older adults, but also has an adverse effect on walking. Therefore, intervention for older patients with OA is important. To investigate the immediate effects of kinesiology taping (KT) on the pain and gait function of the older adults with knee OA. METHODS: This study enrolled 10 older adults individuals living in the community who were diagnosed with knee OA. All participants were assessed for knee pain, walking ability, and balance before and after application of knee KT. Knee pain was assessed in resting and walking conditions using the visual analog scale. Walking and balance were assessed using a 10-m walking test and a timed up and go test. RESULTS: In the present study, KT significantly improved gait and balance with reduction in knee pain during walking than non-KT (P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that knee KT has a positive effect on pain reduction and walking and balance ability of the older adults with OA. Therefore, this study suggests that KT can be used as an intervention to relieve knee pain and aid walking and balance ability in the older adult.


Assuntos
Fita Atlética , Marcha/fisiologia , Osteoartrite do Joelho/terapia , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Idoso , Estudos Controlados Antes e Depois , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Escala Visual Analógica
3.
Anticancer Res ; 39(10): 5551-5557, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570449

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Digestive system cancers are the leading cause of cancer mortality and have poor survival particularly in men. The study aimed to assess the association between pre-diagnosis cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and cancer mortality in a pilot sample of men who developed digestive system cancers. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Pre-diagnosis CRF (treadmill exercise test) was assessed in 342 men (68.9±21.8 years) who developed digestive system cancers during 6.7±5 years from baseline evaluation. Cox multivariable hazard models were analyzed for total cancer mortality. RESULTS: During 7.2±5 years follow-up from baseline, 120 participants died from cancer. Compared to low CRF, moderate and high CRF levels were associated with 57% [0.43, 95%CI=0.24-0.74] and 73% [0.27, 95%CI=0.12-0.59] reduced risks for cancer mortality, respectively (p trend=0.002). Survival time from baseline was longer among those with moderate [13.5 (range=12.1-14.9) years] and high [16.1 (range=14.0-18.2) years] compared to low CRF [7.9 (range=5.7-10.1) years]. CONCLUSION: Higher pre-diagnosis CRF is independently associated with lower risk of cancer mortality and longer survival in men who later developed digestive system cancers.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Neoplasias do Sistema Digestório/mortalidade , Neoplasias do Sistema Digestório/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(39): e17105, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574809

RESUMO

We aimed to determine the accuracy and failure of OAK device, an automated screening, for the assessment of fall risk in a prospective cohort of healthy adults aged over 65 years. The algorithm for fall risk assessment of the centers for disease control and prevention (CDC) was used as reference standard. Of the 183 individuals recruited, the CDC algorithm classified 80 as being at moderate/high risk and 103 at low risk of falling. OAK device failure incidence was 4.9% (confidence interval [CI] upper limit 7.7%), below the preset threshold for futility-early termination of the study (i.e., not above 15%). The OAK device showed a sensitivity of 84% and a specificity of 67% (receiver operating characteristic [ROC] area 82%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 76-88%), not reaching the preplanned target sensitivity (not lower than 85%). Diagnostic accuracy was not far from the sensitivity levels similar to those obtained with other fall risk assessment. However, some limitations can be considered.ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02655796.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Idoso , Desenho de Equipamento , Falha de Equipamento , Teste de Esforço/instrumentação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/instrumentação , Estudos Prospectivos , Curva ROC , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
5.
Int J Sports Med ; 40(12): 774-778, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476784

RESUMO

We compared results of Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT) performance of young athletes of two different age categories after correcting body mass (BM) variations by allometric scales. Thirty young judokas (14.2±3.6 years) belonging to two age categories underwent an SJFT: under 15 (U15) years old (12.1±2.4 years; 46.5±15.6 kg; 152.4±11.2 cm) and under 21 years old (U21) (18.2±0.8 years; 77.1±23.5 kg; 174.2±8.9 cm). Allometric exponents of -0.33 and 0.67 were used to correct the influence of BM variations on SJFT performance results. After correction using the -0.33 exponent, U21 showed a higher number of throws (TNT) than U15 (85.5±9.9 and 68.8±12.0, p<0.05, respectively), although the SJFT index had been similar between these groups (67.3±10.1 and 61.7±8.1, p>0.05, respectively). In contrast, TNT normalized by the 0.67 exponent was higher in U15 than U21 (1.55±0.29 and 1.17 ± 0.25, p<0.05, respectively). Likewise, the SJFT index was higher in U15 than in U21 when using the same exponent (1.55±0.29 and 1.17±0.25, p<0.05, respectively). In conclusion, the -0.33 exponent may be useful to remove the influence of BM variations, thus discriminating SJFT performance results in U15 and U21 judokas. Moreover, the 0.67 exponent may overestimate SJFT indices in low-age judokas.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Artes Marciais/fisiologia , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
6.
Int J Sports Med ; 40(12): 779-788, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487749

RESUMO

Static stretching (SS) can increase joint range of motion (ROM), due to neural, morphological, and physio-psychological factors. Periodized training programs (PD) (e. g., strength, power) are adopted to induce greater adaptations while avoiding overtraining. However, the effectiveness of periodized stretch training adaptations are unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the effects of periodized and non-periodized (NP) stretching programs on flexibility, hamstrings stiffness and muscle performance. Sixteen gymnasts were allocated to either periodized or non-periodized SS training and tested pre- and post-8 weeks for countermovement jump height, hip flexors, hip extensors and dorsiflexors ROM, hamstrings stiffness and hamstrings and quadriceps peak torque. Both stretch training groups significantly and similarly increased hip extensor (33.2%), hip flexor (25.2%), and dorsiflexor (23.8%) ROM, hamstrings peak torque (7.9%) and jump height (8.1%) from pre - to post- training. Both groups decreased hamstrings stiffness across the last ten angles (32.1%). PD elicited consistently large magnitude flexibility effect size changes compared to small and moderate magnitude changes for the non-periodized. Therefore, 8-week PD and NP SS programs can decrease young gymnasts' muscle-tendon stiffness and increase muscle performance. However, effect sizes indicate that PD stretch training was more advantageous to increasing flexibility and improving performance.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Ginástica/fisiologia , Exercícios de Alongamento Muscular/métodos , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Criança , Elasticidade , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Feminino , Músculos Isquiotibiais/fisiologia , Articulação do Quadril/fisiologia , Humanos , Músculo Quadríceps/fisiologia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Torque
7.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 155: 107813, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408665

RESUMO

AIMS: To assess cardiac autonomic control and its association with submaximal exercise measured using the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) in subjects with type-2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). METHODS: Cardiac autonomic control was assessed using Ewing's tests and heart rate variability (HRV) in DM2 volunteers (DG, n = 22) and sex-, age- and body mass index-matched non-diabetic controls (CG, n = 22) before, during and after 6MWT. RESULTS: Before the 6MWT, DG presented lower HRV represented by reduced SDNN [median 28.9 ms2 (IQR:18.6-35.4) vs. 45.1 (IQR:39.2-62.67), p < 0.001] and Total Power [median 785 ms2 (IQR:256-1264) vs. 1757 ms2 (IQR:1006-2912), p = 0.004]. Exercise capacity was reduced in DG [maximal predicted distance (%) = 88.4 ±â€¯6.4 vs. 95.2 ±â€¯11.0%, p = 0.018]. DG demonstrated lower global HRV during recovery and lower parasympathetic drive, represented by reduced RMSSD, during all phases of the 6MWT. Moreover, supine HR (r = -0.32), HR orthostatism (ρ = -0.40), SDNN pre-6MWT (ρ = 0.39), TP pre-6MWT (ρ = 0.38), Valsalva ratio (ρ = 0.39) and 30:15 ratio (ρ = 0.38) were all correlated with maximal walked distance. CONCLUSIONS: DM2 subjects presented abnormal HRV during and after submaximal exercise. Furthermore, autonomic control impairment in orthostatism, represented by lower global HRV (SDNN, Total power) and lower Ewing's indexes (Valsalva and 30:15 ratios), was associated with lower exercise capacity.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiopatologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Tolerância ao Exercício/fisiologia , Exercício/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Manobra de Valsalva/fisiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
8.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 59(8): 1311-1318, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31373189

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between select physiological variables and sprint triathlon performance. METHODS: Moderately trained male triathletes (N.=15) performed two graded maximal exercise tests, on a cycle ergometer and a treadmill. Anaerobic capacity was evaluated, on a cycle ergometer and a treadmill. Within two weeks before or after the testing, all triathletes participated in a sprint triathlon race (750 m sea swim, 20 km cycle, 5 km run). RESULTS: The results showed that significant correlations exist between VO2max during cycling (r=-0.811, P<0.05) or running (r=-0.757, P<0.05) and overall triathlon performance. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis, with triathlon performance as the dependent variable and the physiological measures during running as the independent variables, showed that VO2max (mL.min-1.kg-1), Time_CF, CHO_rate @ VT and % body fat yielded the best prediction of performance (R2=0,912). When only the physiological variables from cycling were included into the model, the results showed that VO2max (mL.min-1), VO2max (mL.min-1.kg-1) and PFmax (rpm) explained 88% of the variation in sprint triathlon performance. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that overall race time for moderately trained triathletes, competing over the sprint distance can be accurately predicted from maximal laboratory tests.


Assuntos
Ciclismo/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Natação/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo/fisiologia , Adulto , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo
9.
J Rehabil Med ; 51(9): 712-718, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468059

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The outcome of surgery in deconditioned patients can be improved through prehabilitation. This study examined the effect of prehabilitation in patients diagnosed with lung cancer. METHODS: Candidates for lung cancer resection were assigned to high-intensity interval training (n = 74) or usual care (n = 77). Cardiopulmonary exercise testing and 6-min walk test were performed before and after training. High-intensity interval training consisted of 2-3-weekly, 2 × 10-min series of cycling at peak power, measured with cardiopulmonary exercise testing prior to training, with a 15-s on-off duty cycle, preceded by a 5-min warm-up and followed by a 5-min cool-down. Work-rate, heart-rate, saturation, dyspnoea and leg effort were monitored. RESULTS: Waiting time (median 25 days) allowed a median of 8 high-intensity interval training sessions to be performed. Adherence to mean high-intensity interval training was 87% (18% standard deviation; SD). High-intensity interval training power increased (23 watt, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 20-26 watt), as did heart rate (14 bpm, 95% CI 11-16 bpm). Resting heart rate (-6 bpm, 95% CI -4 to -7 bpm) and heart rate 1 min post-cool-down decreased (-5 bpm, 95% CI -4 to -7 bpm). Aerobic capacity increased after high-intensity interval training (14%, 95% CI 3-26%), as did peak power output (median 7%, 95% CI 2-13%), but not after usual care. Six-min walk test score increased after high-intensity interval training (median 20%, 95% CI 14-26%), but not after usual care. CONCLUSION: Short-term high-intensity interval training is feasible in deconditioned patients and increases cardio-respiratory fitness and walking capacity.


Assuntos
Teste de Esforço/métodos , Exercício/fisiologia , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/reabilitação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
10.
Tuberk Toraks ; 67(2): 102-107, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31414640

RESUMO

Introduction: Respiratory and cardiac functions in association with skeletal and neurophysiologic systems can be evaluated with cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). Compared to treadmill exercise test, CPET provides more comprehensive data about the hemodynamic response to exercise. Materials and Methods: We aimed to evaluate the relationship with CPET findings and coronary lesions identified on angiography in patients with angina pectoris who underwent teradmill exercise, CPET and coronary angiography (CAG). By this way we sought to examine the CPET parameters that might be predictive for coronary artery disease (CAD) before diagnostic exercise test results and ischemia symptoms develop. Thirty patients in whom CAG was planned because of symptoms and exercise test results were enrolled in the study. Oxygen consumption (VO2), carbondioxide production (VCO2), minute ventilation (VE), maximum work rate (WR), DVO2/DWR and O2 pulse (VO2/HR) values were calculated. Significant CAD was defined as ≥ 50% narrowing in at least one of the coronary arteries. Result: The mean age was 60.4 ± 8.9 years ve 21 (65.6%) of subjects were male. On CAG, CAD was detected in 19 (59.4%) patients. Maximum heart rate, heart rate reserve (HRR), VE/VCO2 measured at anaerobic threshold (AT) and VO2(mL/kg/min) were significantly differed in patients with CAD than those without (p= 0.031; p= 0.041; p= 0.028; p= 0.03 respectively). Peak VO2, VO2/WR and O2 pulse values were higher in patients with normal angiographic results than those with CAD but the difference did not reach to statistical significance. Conclusions: The findings of our study indicate that among CPET parameters AT VE/VCO2, ATVO2 (mL/kg/dk) and HRR can have predictive value in the diagnosis of CAD. We think that these parameters might be used in the evaluation of patients with angina and dyspnea suspected of CAD. In conclusion parameters obtained during the test that are not influenced by patient's effort might increase the value of CPET in the diagnosis CAD.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Teste de Esforço , Idoso , Angina Pectoris/diagnóstico , Angina Pectoris/fisiopatologia , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Angiografia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/fisiopatologia , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Teste de Esforço/normas , Tolerância ao Exercício , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Consumo de Oxigênio , Testes de Função Respiratória
11.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 32(4): 368-373, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1012344

RESUMO

Cardiopulmonary exercise testing is widely used in the evaluation of patients with left ventricular dysfunction, and some of these patients have an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD). However, this test presents specific challenges because of the susceptibility to ventricular arrhythmias during maximal levels of exercise. Objective: To evaluate the safety of cardiopulmonary exercise testing in patients with ICD. Methods: The study included patients with ICD who underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing between 2007 and 2015. The tests were completed once the electronic devices were programmed. The maximum allowed heart rate reached during exercise was 10 beats below the first therapy zone programmed. Results: The study included 69 patients with mean age 53.7 ± 10.8 years, including 68% men. Exercise time was 8.7±2.3 minutes, with peak oxygen consumption of 13.3 ± 4.3 ml.kg-1.min-1. Peak heart rate was 62.9 ± 13.4% of the maximum rate predicted, with all patients taking specific medication. Ventricular arrhythmia was observed in 29% of the patients, and paired ventricular extrasystoles, ventricular bigeminism or non-sustained ventricular tachycardia were observed in only 14.5% of the patients. There was no sustained ventricular arrhythmia resulting in ICD therapy or other complications, such as inappropriate therapies. The frequency of severe events was 0%, 95% CI (0 - 5.2%). Conclusion: In the sample of patients evaluated, the cardiopulmonary exercise testing was shown to be safe during its performance in a hospital setting, following the safety standards


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Desfibriladores Implantáveis , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Consumo de Oxigênio , Arritmias Cardíacas , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Índice de Massa Corporal , Morte Súbita Cardíaca , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Frequência Cardíaca
12.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 32(4): 396-407, July-Aug. 2019. graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012340

RESUMO

The use of technology has increased tremendously, by means of more reliable, smaller, more accessible and specially more user-friendly devices, which provide a wider range of features, and promote significant benefits for the population and health professionals. It is in this context that monitors and apps for heart rate (HR) measurement have emerged. HR is a clinical vital sign of diagnostic and prognostic importance. In response to body movement, HR tends to increase, in a direct relationship with the intensity of exercise. HR was primarily measured by the count of arterial pulse, and recently, HR can be precisely measured by monitors, bracelets and smartphone apps capable to perform real-time measurements and storage of data. This paper aimed to make a brief and updated review on the theme, providing a broader view of advantages and limitations of these resources for HR measurement in exercise. HR monitors and apps use basically two types of technology, optical sensor (photoplethysmography) and electrical signal from the heart. In general, these devices have shown good accuracy in measuring HR and HR variability at rest, but there are differences between brands and models considering the type, mode and intensity of exercise. HR measurements by monitors and smartphone apps are simple, accessible and may help cardiologists in the monitoring of the intensity of aerobic exercise, focusing on health promotion and on primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Palpação/métodos , Exercício , Monitores de Aptidão Física , Frequência Cardíaca , Arritmias Cardíacas , Prognóstico , Esportes , Débito Cardíaco , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Tecnologia Biomédica , Teste de Esforço/métodos
13.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 32(4): 343-354, July-Aug. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012341

RESUMO

Peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) is an important prognostic marker and its classification helps the cardiologist in the therapeutic decision-making process. The most commonly used cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) classification has not been validated for the Brazilian population. Objective: To elaborate a CRF classification using a Brazilian sample and to compare it with the American Heart Association (AHA), Cooper and UNIFESP classifications. Methods: A total of 6,568 healthy subjects were analyzed through cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). They were distributed by sex and the following age groups (years): 7-12, 13-19, 20-79 (per decades) and > 80 years. After measurement of the VO2peak, participants were distributed into quintiles of CRF in very poor, poor, moderate, high and very high (AEMA Table). The CRF classifications by AEMA, AHA, Cooper, and UNIFESP were compared using the Wilcoxon, Kappa and concordance percentages. Results: VO2peak presented an inverse and moderate correlation with age considering both sexes (R = -0.488, p < 0.001). All paired comparisons between CRF classification systems showed differences (p < 0.001) and disagreement percentage - AEMA versus AHA (k = 0.291, 56.7%), AEMA versus Cooper (k = 0.220, 62.4%) and AEMA versus UNIFESP (k = 0.201, 63.9 %). Conclusion: The AEMA table showed important discrepancies in the classification of CRF when compared to other tables widely used in our setting. Because it was obtained from a large sample of the Brazilian population, the AEMA table should be preferred over other classification systems in our population


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Brasil , Amostragem , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória , Consumo de Oxigênio , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Exercício , Fatores Sexuais , Análise Estatística , Fatores Etários , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Saúde da População
15.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 32(4): 374-383, July-Aug. 2019. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012347

RESUMO

Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and both first (VT1) and second (VT2) thresholds have been used as reference points for exercise prescription in different populations. Objective: We aimed to test the hypothesis that exercise prescription, based on VTs determined by treadmill cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET), is influenced by the rate of increase in treadmill workload. Methods: Nine healthy individuals underwent two CPETs, followed by two sessions of submaximal exercise, both in randomized order. For the "speed" protocol, there was an increment of 0.1 to 0.3 km.h-1 every 15s. The "grade" incremental protocol increased 1% every 30s and 0.1 km.h-1 every 45s. This was followed by submaximal exercise sessions lasting 40min at an intensity corresponding to heart rate (HR) between the VT1 and VT2. Results: The "speed" protocol resulted in higher VT1 (p = 0.01) and VT2 (p = 0.02) when compared to the "grade" incremental protocol, but there was no effect on VO2max. The target HR for the submaximal exercise sessions was higher in the "speed" protocol compared to the "grade" incremental protocol (p < 0.01) and remained stable during the two steady-state exercise sessions. Blood lactate remained stable during the submaximal exercise sessions, with higher values observed during the "speed" protocol than those "grade" incremental protocol (p < 0.01). Conclusions: Compared to a grade-based protocol, a speed-based protocol resulted in higher VT1 and VT2, which significantly affected cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses to prescribed exercise intensity in healthy young adults


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Tolerância ao Exercício , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Consumo de Oxigênio , Prognóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Exercício , Protocolos/métodos , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , /métodos , Frequência Cardíaca
16.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 32(4): 331-342, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012349

RESUMO

Cardiorespiratory (aerobic) fitness is strongly and directly related to major health outcomes, including all-cause mortality. Maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max), directly measured by maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET), represents the subject's aerobic fitness. However, as CPET is not always available, aerobic fitness estimation tools are necessary. Objectives: a) to propose the CLINIMEX Aerobic Fitness Questionnaire (C-AFQ); b) to validate C-AFQ against measured VO2max; and c) to analyze the influence of some potentially relevant variables on the error of estimate. Methods: We prospectively studied 1,000 healthy and unhealthy subjects (68.6% men) aged from 14 to 96 years that underwent a CPET. The two-step C-AFQ describes physical activities with corresponding values in metabolic equivalents (METs) - ranging from 0.9 to 21 METs. Results: Application of C-AFQ took less than two minutes. Linear regression analysis indicated a very strong association between estimated (C-AFQ) and measured (CPET) maximal METs - r2 = 0.83 (Sy.x = 1.63; p < .001) - with median difference of only 0.2 METs between both values and interquartile range (percentiles 25 and 75) of 2 METs. The difference between estimated and measured METs was not influenced by age, sex, body mass index, clinical condition, ß-blocker use or sitting-rising test scores. Conclusion: C-AFQ is a simple and valid tool for estimating aerobic fitness when CPET is unavailable and it is also useful in planning individual ramp protocols. However, individual error of estimate is quite high, so C-AFQ should not be considered a perfect substitute for CPET's measured VO2max


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Exercícios Respiratórios , Exercício , Estudos de Validação como Assunto , Aptidão Física , Análise Estatística , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Análise de Variância , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Terapia por Exercício , Hipertensão
17.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 32(4): 362-367, July-Aug. 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012350

RESUMO

Maximal oxygen uptake is a powerful prognostic indicator and a reliable measure of physical conditioning. It can be measured directly by cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) or indirectly by formulas derived from conventional protocols. Objective: We compared the VO2 max obtained by formula using exercise testing with Bruce protocol (BP) with the VO2 max obtained by CPET on the treadmill. Methods: We selected 41 healthy, non-obese, physically inactive young volunteers, aged between 21 and 50 years, residents of Florianópolis, Brazil. Results: Twenty-one women (52%) with mean age of 35.62 ± 8.83 years, and 20 males, with mean age of 32.5 ± 7.18 years participated in the study. Statistically significant differences were found for VO2 max between the two methods (BP - 42.31 ± 5.21 ml/kg.min vs. CPET - 30.46 ± 5.50 ml/kg.min., p < 0.0001). The Bruce formula overestimated the result by 34.1% (BP - 45.95 ± 3.94 ml/kg.min vs. CPX - 34.27 ± 4.20 ml/kg.min, p < 0.0001) for men, and by 44.8% (BP - 38.84 ± 3.72 ml/kg.min vs. CPX - 26.83 ± 3.90, p < 0.0001) for women. A moderate correlation was observed between the methods (r = 0.65). When classifying the results according to the table of aerobic capacity of the American Heart Association, the agreement was null (kappa = 0.0034; Pearson chi2 = 0.001). Conclusion: VO2 estimated by BP is not capable of demonstrating the true aerobic capacity in these individuals, while CPET is an important tool for early detection of diminished functional capacity in sedentary young men and women


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Consumo de Oxigênio , Adolescente , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Índice de Massa Corporal , Fatores Sexuais , Protocolos Clínicos , Aptidão Física , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Sedentário
18.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 59(7): 1119-1125, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31332988

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hamstring strain injuries (HSI) are among the most common injuries in field-based team sports with a high-speed running component. The implementation of the Nordic hamstring exercise (NHE) is a well-documented method of improving eccentric hamstring strength to mitigate the risk of HSI occurrence. Sprint training is specific to the injury mechanism and is thought to activate the hamstrings through maximal eccentric contractions. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of sprint training and the NHE on eccentric hamstring strength and sprint performance. METHODS: Twenty-eight participants (mean±SD age=16.21±1.34 years; height=1.75m±0.10m; body mass=68.5kg±12.1kg) completed an eccentric hamstring strength assessment and 40m sprint to assess acceleration and maximum speed. Participants were randomly allocated to either a NHE training or sprint training group. Two sessions per week for four-weeks of training was performed with baseline testing procedures repeated in the week following the intervention. Perceptions of soreness were recorded following the warm-up in each training session. RESULTS: Both the NHE (effect size=0.39, P<0.05) and sprint training (effect size=0.29, P<0.05) groups displayed significant gains in eccentric hamstring strength. The NHE group reported trivial improvements in sprint performance, whilst the sprint training group experienced a moderate improvement, specifically in maximum speed (ES=0.83 Moderate). Sprint training also produced greater perceptions of soreness than the NHE following a four-week training intervention, specifically before the start of the last session (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that sprint training had a beneficial effect for both eccentric hamstring strength and sprint performance, whilst also producing greater soreness than the NHE following the final training session. It was concluded that a four-week block of maximum speed training may have both an injury prevention and performance enhancement benefit.


Assuntos
Músculos Isquiotibiais/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Adolescente , Exercício/fisiologia , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Lesões dos Tecidos Moles/etiologia , Lesões dos Tecidos Moles/prevenção & controle
19.
NeuroRehabilitation ; 44(4): 587-597, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256089

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Downslope walking (DSW) is an eccentric-based exercise intervention that promotes neuroplasticity of spinal reflex circuitry by inducing depression of Soleus Hoffman (H)-reflexes in young, neurologically unimpaired adults. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of DSW on spinal excitability (SE) and walking function (WF) in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). METHODS: Our study comprised two experiments on 12 PwMS (11 women; 45.3±11.8 years). Experiment 1 evaluated acute effects of a single 20-minute session of treadmill walking at three different walking grades on SE, 0% or level walking (LW), - 7.5% DSW, and - 15% DSW. Experiment 2 evaluated the effects of 6 sessions of DSW, at - 7.5% DSW (with second session being - 15% DSW) on SE and WF. RESULTS: Experiment 1 showed significantly greater acute % H-reflex depression following - 15% DSW compared to LW (p = 0.02) and - 7.5% DSW (p = 0.05). Experiment 2 demonstrated significant improvements in WF. PwMS who showed greater acute H-reflex depression during the - 15% DSW session also demonstrated greater physical activity, long-distance WF, and the ability to have greater H-reflex depression after DSW training. Significant changes were not observed in regards to SE. CONCLUSIONS: Though significant changes were not observed in SE after DSW training, we observed an improvement in WF which merits further investigation of DSW in PwMS.


Assuntos
Teste de Esforço/métodos , Reflexo H/fisiologia , Esclerose Múltipla/fisiopatologia , Esclerose Múltipla/terapia , Caminhada/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Eletromiografia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
20.
Int J Sports Med ; 40(8): 503-510, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288289

RESUMO

To examine the effect of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) with different work-to-rest ratios on athletic performance in athletes. Forty-seven male Taekwondo athletes (aged 15-18 yrs) were randomly assigned into 3 HIIT groups and a control group. Each group performed 6 and 8 bouts of HIIT: 1) 1:2 (30:60 s), 2) 1:4 (30:120 s), and 3) 1:8 (30:240 s) groups while the control group performed only Taekwondo training program. All HIIT groups completed 10 sessions over 4 weeks. Athletic performance tests including VO2max test, Wingate anaerobic test, vertical jump, and agility T-test were measured at both pre- and post-tests. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA were applied to examine the performance changes between protocols. VO2max improved significantly in all HIIT groups (p<0.01), and the post-hoc test indicated that the only 1:4 group showed significant improvement compared to the control group. The HIIT with 1:4 ratio showed the effective protocol for enhancing anaerobic capacity including relative peak and mean power compared to control (p<0.01). Ten sessions of HIIT involving the 1:4 group, lasting over a brief 4-week period revealed the effective protocol for enhancing both aerobic and anaerobic capacity. Our findings provide practical implications to develop a performance-enhancing program specialized for adolescent Taekwondo athletes.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade/métodos , Artes Marciais/fisiologia , Adolescente , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Consumo de Oxigênio , Descanso
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