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1.
Life Sci ; 250: 117554, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32184123

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mental stress (MS) is related to endothelial dysfunction in overweight/obese men. It is believed that the pro-oxidant profile, associated with an imbalance in the vascular remodeling process, may contribute to deleterious effects of MS on endothelial function. However, it is unknown whether administration of ascorbic acid (AA), a potent antioxidant, can prevent oxidative and remodeling dysfunction during MS in these subjects. METHODS: Fourteen overweight/obese grade I men (27 ± 7 years; 29.7 ± 2.6 kg·m-2) underwent the Stroop Color Word Test for 5 min to induce MS after AA (3 g) or placebo (PL, 0.9% NaCl) intravenous infusions. Venous blood samples were collected at baseline and the last minute of MS to measure nitrite concentration (chemiluminescence), protein carbonylation, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and catalase activity (colorimetric assays), superoxide dismutase (SOD; immunoenzymatic assay), activities of active/inactive (pro) forms of metalloproteinases-9 and -2 (MMP; zymography) and its respective tissue inhibitors concentration (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2; immunoenzymatic assays). RESULTS: At baseline, MMP-9 activity (p < 0.01), the MMP-9/proMMP-9 ratio (p = 0.02) and TIMP-1 concentration (p = 0.05) were reduced, whereas proMPP-9 activity was increased (p = 0.02) after AA compared to PL infusion. After PL infusion, MS increased protein carbonylation (p < 0.01), catalase (p < 0.01), and the MMP-9/proMMP-9 ratio (p = 0.04) when compared to baseline. AA infusion reduced protein carbonylation (p = 0.02), MMP-9 activity (p < 0.01), and MMP-9/pro-MMP-9 ratio (p < 0.01), while SOD (p = 0.04 vs baseline), proMPP-9 (p < 0.01 vs PL), MMP-2 (p < 0.01 vs PL) and TIMP-2 (p = 0.02 vs baseline) remained elevated during MS. CONCLUSIONS: AA appears to minimize the oxidative imbalance and vascular remodeling induced by MS.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico/farmacologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Sobrepeso/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico , Remodelação Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Estudos Cross-Over , Endotélio Vascular/patologia , Humanos , Luminescência , Masculino , Metaloproteinase 2 da Matriz/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , Oxidantes/metabolismo , Carbonilação Proteica , Fatores de Risco , Teste de Stroop , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Inibidor Tecidual de Metaloproteinase-1/metabolismo , Inibidor Tecidual de Metaloproteinase-2/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
2.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227118, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945068

RESUMO

The present study aimed to investigate the extent to which the severity of misophonia symptoms is linked with cognitive control under misophonia symptom-provocation circumstances in the general population sample. Participants (N = 79) completed a measure of cognitive control-a Stroop color naming task, which consists of congruent and incongruent stimuli, and requires inhibition of a prepotent response (reading a word) in the service of a less predominant response (naming a color), while listening to misophonia symptom-provocation or universally unpleasant sounds. Participants' misophonia sound sensitivity, and emotional behaviors towards trigger sounds were assessed using the Misophonia Questionnaire. Stronger emotional behavioral reactions to misophonia trigger sounds were significantly associated with the larger Stroop effect when participants were exposed to the misophonia trigger sounds, but not when they were exposed to the universally unpleasant sounds. This effect held when controlling for the personality trait of Neuroticism and for baseline levels of anxiety. Both elevated misophonia sound sensitivity and emotional behaviors towards trigger sounds significantly correlated with higher self-reported anxiety when performing the Stroop task. However, only elevated emotional behaviors towards trigger sounds were linked with higher anxiety levels at baseline, suggesting that people who experience stronger emotions and behavioral reactions to misophonia trigger sounds may have higher anxiety at a trait level. Limitations and future directions are discussed.


Assuntos
Sintomas Afetivos/fisiopatologia , Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Percepção Auditiva , Cognição , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Neuroticismo , Teste de Stroop
3.
J Sports Sci ; 38(5): 552-558, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31941416

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to analyse the effect of the use of social networks in smartphones or playing video games on the passing decision-making performance in professional soccer athletes. Participants were 25 male professional soccer athletes (mean ± SD: age 23.4 ± 2.8 years). The participants performed three randomised conditions divided into three groups: control (CON), smartphone (SMA), and video game (VID). Before and after each experimental condition, the Stroop Task assessed the level of induced mental fatigue. Then, the athletes performed a simulated soccer match. A CANON® camera recorded the matches for further analysis on passing decision-making performance. A group effect was identified (p < .01) with impairment on passing decision-making performance for the SMA (p = .01, ES = 0.5) and VID (p = .01, ES = 0.5) conditions. We concluded that the use of social networks on smartphones and/or playing video games right before official soccer matches might impair the passing decision-making performance in professional soccer athletes.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Smartphone , Futebol/psicologia , Jogos de Vídeo , Adulto , Desempenho Atlético , Estudos Cross-Over , Humanos , Masculino , Redes Sociais Online , Estado de Hidratação do Organismo/fisiologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Futebol/fisiologia , Teste de Stroop , Adulto Jovem
4.
BMC Psychol ; 7(1): 87, 2019 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31870422

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Using the Iowa Gambling Test (IGT), we demonstrated previously impaired decision- making process in young tattooed women. The purpose of the present study was to explore the associations among the three facets of impaired inhibition (response inhibition, reflection inhibition and interference inhibition) and decision-making processes in this population. METHODS: To this end, the participants of the previous study (60 tattooed women and 60 non-tattooed women) were assessed in the Go/NoGo task, a measure of response inhibition, the Matched Familiar Figure Test (MFFT), a measure of reflection inhibition and the Stroop task a measure of interference inhibition. RESULTS: Tattooed women were significantly slower than non-tattooed women in the Go/NoGo performance; however, no differences were detected in the MFFT and the Stroop task. A hierarchical regression analysis did not reveal any significant main effects of these inhibition measures on the IGT performance. CONCLUSIONS: These findings do not support the hypothesis that risky decision in young tattooed women is due to impaired inhibitory control. Further studies are needed to identify the cognitive mechanisms involved in the tendency to risky decisions in young tattooed women.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Jogo de Azar/psicologia , Inibição Psicológica , Tatuagem , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Iowa , Assunção de Riscos , Teste de Stroop , Adulto Jovem
5.
Exp Psychol ; 66(5): 361-367, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31696793

RESUMO

A long-standing debate in the Stroop literature concerns whether the way we respond to the color dimension determines how we process the irrelevant dimension, or whether word processing is purely stimulus driven. Models and findings in the Stroop literature differ in their predictions about how response modes (e.g., responding manually vs. vocally) affect how the irrelevant word is processed (i.e., phonologically, semantically) and the interference and facilitation that results, with some predicting qualitatively different Stroop effects. Here, we investigated whether response mode modifies phonological facilitation produced by the irrelevant word. In a fully within-subject design, we sought evidence for the use of a serial print-to-speech prelexical phonological processing route when using manual and vocal responses by testing for facilitating effects of phonological overlap between the irrelevant word and the color name at the initial and final phoneme positions. The results showed phoneme overlap leads to facilitation with both response modes, a result that is inconsistent with qualitative differences between the two response modes.


Assuntos
Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Semântica , Teste de Stroop/normas , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Masculino
6.
Neuropsychology ; 33(7): 1007-1019, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512888

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Designed to measure a diversity of executive functioning (EF) through classical neuropsychological tests, the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function Scale (D-KEFS) allows for the investigation of the neural architecture of EF. We examined how the D-KEFS Tower, Verbal Fluency, Design Fluency, Color-Word Interference, and Trail Making Test tasks related to frontal lobe volumes, quantifying the regional specificity of EF components. METHOD: Adults from the Nathan Kline Institute-Rockland Sample (NKI-RS), an open-access community study of brain development, with complete MRI (3T scanner) and D-KEFS data were selected for analysis (N = 478; ages 20-85). In a mixed-effects model predicting volume, D-KEFS task, D-KEFS score, region of interest (ROI; 13 frontal, 1 occipital control), were entered as fixed effects with intercepts for participants as random effects. RESULTS: "Unitary" EF (aggregate of D-KEFS scores) was positively associated with superior frontal, rostral middle frontal, and lateral orbitofrontal volumes; a negative association was observed with frontal pole volume (| z-score slope | range = 0.040 to 0.051). "Diverse" EF skills (individual D-KEFS task scores) were differentially associated with two or three ROIs, respectively, but to a stronger extent (| z-score slope | range = 0.053 to 0.103). CONCLUSIONS: The neural correlates found for the D-KEFS support the prefrontal modularity of both unitary (aspects of EF ability common to all tasks) and diverse EF. Our findings contribute to emerging evidence that aggregate measurements of EF may serve broader but less robust frontal neural correlates than distinct EF skills. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Função Executiva/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Teste de Stroop , Teste de Sequência Alfanumérica , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Sports Sci ; 37(21): 2506-2512, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362579

RESUMO

The study assesses the test-retest reliability of movement and physiological measures during a simulated rugby match that employed activities performed in a stochastic order. Twenty male rugby players (21.4 ± 2.1 y) completed two trials of a 2 × 23 min rugby movement simulation protocol during which the order of events was performed in a stochastic order, with 7-10 days between trials. Movement characteristics, heart rate (HR), RPE, maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), voluntary activation (VA%) of the quadriceps, Stroop test and subjective task load rating (NASA-TLX) were measured. The most reliable measures of external load was relative distance (typical error [TE] and CV% = 1.5-1.6 m min-1 and 1.4-1.5%, respectively), with all other movement characteristics possessing a CV% <5%. The most reliable measure of internal load, neuromuscular function and perceptual measures were for %HRmax (TE and CV% = 1.4-1.7% and 1.4-2.1%, respectively), MVC before (TE and CV% = 10.8-14.8 N·m and 3.8-4.6%, respectively), and average RPE (TE and CV% = 0.5-0.8 AU and 3.6-5.5%, respectively). The Stroop test, NASA-TLX and blood lactate produced the least reliable measures (CV% >5%). Future studies can confidently examine changes in several perceptual, neuromuscular, physiological and movement measures related to rugby activity using stochastic movements.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Desempenho Atlético/psicologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Futebol Americano/fisiologia , Futebol Americano/psicologia , Movimento/fisiologia , Músculo Quadríceps/fisiologia , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Masculino , Contração Muscular/fisiologia , Percepção/fisiologia , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Processos Estocásticos , Teste de Stroop , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adulto Jovem
8.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 264: 1629-1630, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438264

RESUMO

Recent studies have attributed impaired cognitive function in cancer patients, or Cancer Related Cognitive Impairment (CRCI), to various causes. CRCI screening is vital for guiding important decisions about treatment options. This study investigates the emotional Stroop-test-based CRCI screening, examining response time when naming the colors of negative emotional words. Cancer patients (n=17) participated in two tests: (1) the Stroop task; (2) State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Results suggest that Stroop-based CRCI screening is feasible.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Neoplasias , Cognição , Emoções , Humanos , Teste de Stroop
9.
Atten Percept Psychophys ; 81(8): 2788-2797, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31309529

RESUMO

It is well supported that stimulus-driven control of attention varies depending on the degree of conflict previously encountered in a given location. Previous research has further shown that control settings established in conflict-biased locations can transfer to nearby unbiased items. However, these spatial transfer effects have only been shown using incompatible flanking arrows (i.e., stimuli that trigger spatial information) to elicit conflict in a flanker task. Here we examine the generalizability of transfer of control by examining if it can occur across a range of tasks. We employ a classic Stroop task (Experiment 1), a spatially segregated Stroop task (Experiment 2), and a spatial Stroop task (Experiment 3). Location-specific proportion compatibility effects were observed in all variations of the Stroop task tested; however, transfer to unbiased items occurred only in the spatial Stroop task in Experiment 3. This suggests that the transfer of cognitive control settings within spatial categories may occur only in tasks where the source of conflict is spatial, as arises in tasks with arrow and direction word stimuli.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tempo de Reação , Teste de Stroop , Adulto Jovem
10.
Exp Psychol ; 66(3): 231-238, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31266430

RESUMO

Previous analyses of response time distributions have shown that the Stroop effect is observed in the mode (µ) and standard deviation (σ) of the normal part of the distribution, as well as its tail (τ). Specifically, interference related to semantic and response processes has been suggested to specifically affect the mode and tail, respectively. However, only one study in the literature has directly manipulated semantic interference, and none manipulating response interference. The present research aims to address this gap by manipulating both semantic and response interference in a manual response Stroop task, and examining how these components of Stroop interference affect the response time distribution. Ex-Gaussian analysis showed both semantic and response conflict to only affect τ. Analyzing the distribution by rank-ordered response times (Vincentizing) showed converging results as the magnitude of both semantic and response conflict increased with slower response times. Additionally, response conflict appeared earlier on the distribution compared to semantic conflict. These findings further highlight the difficulty in attributing specific psychological processes to different parameters (i.e., µ, σ, and τ). The effect of different response modalities on the makeup of Stroop interference is also discussed.


Assuntos
Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Semântica , Teste de Stroop/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
11.
Hum Mov Sci ; 67: 102498, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31330475

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In a previous study it was observed that participants increase their walking speed during a dual task while walking on a self-paced treadmill in a virtual reality (VR) environment (Gait Real time Analysis Interactive Lab (GRAIL)). This observation is in contrast with the limited resources hypothesis, which suggests walking speed of healthy persons to decrease when performing a cognitive dual task. AIM: The aim of the present study was therefore to determine whether the cognitive demand of the task, an aroused feeling, discrepancy in optic flow or a change in gaze direction caused participants to walk faster in this computer assisted rehabilitation environment. MATERIALS: The GRAIL included a self-paced treadmill, a motion-capture system and synchronized VR environments. METHODS: Thirteen healthy young adults (mean age 21.6 ±â€¯2.5) were included in this study. Participants walked on the self-paced treadmill while seven different intervention conditions (IC) were offered. Prior to each IC, a control condition (CC) was used to determine the natural self-selected walking speed. Walking speed during the last 30 s of each IC was compared with the walking speed during the last 30 s of the preceding CC. RESULTS: Results show that the height on which a visual task was presented in the VR environment, influenced walking speed. Participants walked faster when gaze was directed above the focus of expansion. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings contribute to a further understanding of the differences between walking in a real life environment or computer assisted rehabilitation environment. When analyzing gait on a self-paced treadmill in the future, one must be attentive where to place a visual stimulus in the VR environment.


Assuntos
Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Realidade Virtual , Velocidade de Caminhada/fisiologia , Adulto , Cognição/fisiologia , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fluxo Óptico/fisiologia , Teste de Stroop , Interface Usuário-Computador , Adulto Jovem
12.
Atten Percept Psychophys ; 81(8): 2722-2731, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31214969

RESUMO

Previous research has shown that holding a color word in working memory can produce interference effects in an intervening color-identification task, which mimics the classic color-word Stroop effect. Although this finding has previously been considered to suggest that the content of working memory can have behavioral consequences similar to those of externally perceived stimuli, it has remained unclear whether active internal maintenance of a color word indeed makes a critical contribution to the working memory Stroop effect. In the present study, we addressed this matter by asking participants to perform a color-identification task following display of either a congruent or an incongruent color word. By controlling for encoding strategy and/or maintenance demand across Experiments 1-4, we consistently showed that the magnitude of the congruency effect in color-identification performance was markedly larger when the recently presented color word was actively retained in working memory, as compared to when the color word was perceptually identified without working memory processing, when the color word had once been remembered but was no longer being actively maintained in working memory, or when the color word was retro-cued to be irrelevant to the working memory task. The findings therefore demonstrate a critical role for active internal maintenance of a color word in producing the working memory Stroop effect. In addition, Experiment 5 further showed that the working memory Stroop effect was sustained over time during the retention interval. Moreover, we found that the intervening color-identification task conversely influenced working memory maintenance, leading to poorer memory performance on incongruent than on congruent trials. We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding the linkage between working memory and attention.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Percepção de Cores/fisiologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Tempo de Reação , Teste de Stroop , Adulto Jovem
13.
Neuropsychology ; 33(6): 862-871, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31192653

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Processing Speed (PS) is an important domain in cognitive aging that is characterized by multiple related but nonidentical abilities. Few studies have directly investigated the relationships among PS measures, and none have used genetically informed methods. In this study, we examined the relationship between measures of PS at up to two time points during middle age. METHOD: We examined data from 1,262 middle-aged men when the sample was at a mean age of 56 and a mean age 62 years. Participants completed 6 measures of PS from three different cognitive tests. We used a genetically informative, confirmatory factor analytic approach to evaluate the phenotypic and genetic relationships cross-sectionally at both single time points and across time. RESULTS: A higher-order common PS factor accounted for the covariance among three test-specific factors, and each test-specific factor accounted for the covariance between two observed measures. The general PS factor was explained primarily by genetic influences at both time points (a²age56 = .75, a²age62 = .64), and all test-specific factors were heritable (a² range: .45 to .65). Factor loadings from the test-specific factors to the general PS factor varied from λ = .46 to .82. The model was stable over time, although there were differing rates of phenotypic change among latent factors (.20 SD to .44 SD). Cross-time genetic correlations were near unity for all latent factors. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that PS is highly heritable when considered at a latent variable level, and that there are different rates of change in tests of PS within this sample. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , Envelhecimento Cognitivo/psicologia , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Cognição , Meio Ambiente , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tempo de Reação , Teste de Stroop , Teste de Sequência Alfanumérica , Gêmeos Dizigóticos , Gêmeos Monozigóticos
14.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0218405, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206523

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study investigates the effect of a mentally demanding response inhibitory task on time trial performance in sub-elite under 23 cyclists. METHODS: Ten under 23 road cyclists completed two separate testing sessions during which they performed two different cognitive tasks before completing a 30-min time trial on the cycle ergometer. In the experimental condition, 30 min of a standard cognitive task (Stroop task) was used to elicit mental fatigue; in the control condition, a non-demanding activity was carried out. Subjective workload and mood were measured before and after the treatments, and motivation was recorded before the time-trial. During the time trial, power, cadence, heart rate, and rate of perceived exertion were assessed. Blood lactate concentrations and heart rate variability (using the root mean square of the successive differences) were measured before and after the time trial. RESULTS: The Stroop task was rated more mentally (P < 0.001) and temporally (P < 0.001) demanding, effortful (P < 0.001), and frustrating (P = 0.001) than the control task; fatigue (P = 0.002) and vigor (P = 0.018) after the cognitive tasks were respectively higher and lower than in the control task. Mean power output (P = 0.007) and cadence (P = 0.043) were negatively affected by the Stroop task, while heart rate (P = 0.349), rating of perceived exertion (P = 0.710), blood lactate concentration (P = 0.850), and root mean square of the successive differences (P = 0.355) did not differ between the two conditions. CONCLUSION: A mentally demanding activity reduced the subsequent physical performance in sub-elite under 23 cyclists. Thus, avoiding cognitive efforts before training and races could improve performance of high-level athletes.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/psicologia , Ciclismo/fisiologia , Fadiga Mental/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Atletas , Ciclismo/psicologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Teste de Stroop
15.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0217962, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31188850

RESUMO

To investigate the emotional conflict processing during the processing of emotional stimuli in individuals with different levels of social adjustment through developing an event-related potential (ERP) method, the study used positive words (happy), negative words (disgusted), positive faces and negative faces as experimental materials for a face-word Stroop emotional conflict task, which was completed by 34 participants. For the N2 component, there was a significant difference between the high and low social adjustment groups for the congruent condition; the low social adjustment group evoked more negative amplitude under the congruent condition. Under the incongruent condition, there was a marginally significant difference between the high and low social adjustment groups; the low social adjustment group evoked more negative amplitude under the incongruent condition. For the SP component, there were no significant differences for both the high and low social adjustment group between the congruent and incongruent conditions of emotional conflict. However, within the low social adjustment group, the incongruent evoked more positive amplitude. Our findings indicate that the difference in the emotional conflict process between individuals with high and low social adjustment mainly lies in the early processing stages of emotional information. That is, for both congruent and incongruent emotional stimuli, individuals with high social adjustment showed better emotional conflict monitoring, used less cognitive resources, and had a higher degree of automated processing than those with low social adjustment. During the later stages of emotional conflict processing, individuals with low social adjustment showed poorer conflict processing.


Assuntos
Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Ajustamento Social , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Asco , Eletroencefalografia , Expressão Facial , Feminino , Felicidade , Humanos , Masculino , Teste de Stroop , Adulto Jovem
16.
Dev Cogn Neurosci ; 38: 100664, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31158801

RESUMO

Inhibitory control (IC) plays a critical role in cognitive and socio-emotional development. Short-term IC training improves IC abilities in children and adults. Surprisingly, few studies have investigated the IC training effect during adolescence, a developmental period characterized by high neuroplasticity and the protracted development of IC abilities. We investigated behavioural and functional brain changes induced by a 5-week computerized and adaptive IC training in adolescents. We focused on the IC training effects on the local properties of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) signal fluctuations at rest (i.e., Regional Homogeneity [ReHo] and fractional Amplitude of Low Frequency Fluctuations [fALFF]). Sixty adolescents were randomly assigned to either an IC or an active control training group. In the pre- and post-training sessions, cognitive ('Cool') and emotional ('Hot') IC abilities were assessed using the Colour-Word and Emotional Stroop tasks. We found that ReHo and fALFF signals in IC areas (IFG, ACC, Striatum) were associated with IC efficiency at baseline. This association was different for Cool and Hot IC. Analyses also revealed that ReHo and fALFF signals were sensitive markers to detect and monitor changes after IC training, while behavioural data did not, suggesting that brain functional changes at rest precede behavioural changes following training.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Teste de Stroop , Adolescente , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Criança , Emoções/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Descanso/fisiologia , Descanso/psicologia , Método Simples-Cego , Adulto Jovem
17.
Biol Psychol ; 146: 107708, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31153934

RESUMO

Conflict control refers to an individual's goal-directed cognitive control and self-regulation of behavior. The neurodevelopment related to conflict control is crucial for the development of cognitive and emotional abilities in children. In the current study, preadolescent children and adults completed the Simon and Stroop tasks in emotional and non-emotional contexts with simultaneous electroencephalography recordings. The behavioral findings showed that adults had faster response speed and better conflict control performance compared to children. Children's accuracy was affected by the emotional context, whereby children had a lower accuracy in the emotional contexts compared to the non-emotional contexts. Adults had similar performances in both contexts. During the neural processes of conflict detection and conflict resolution, children had longer N2 latencies for conflict detection, and devoted more neural efforts with larger P3 amplitudes to execute resolution control on the conflicts than adults. Moreover, both age groups' reaction times (RT) were shorter in the Simon task than in the Stroop task in the non-emotional context, while, RTs were longer in the Simon task than in the Stroop task in the emotional context. Children showed larger P3 responses in the Simon task than in the Stroop task in the emotional contexts, while adults showed no such differences. The current findings demonstrate that children have immature neurodevelopment of conflict control compared to adults, and their cognitive control processes on conflicts were distracted by the emotional contexts. Children's emotional conflict control processes were also affected by the characteristic of conflict types, and they need to devote more neural effort to process Simon-like conflicts than Stroop-like conflicts compared to adults.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Adulto , Criança , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Teste de Stroop , Adulto Jovem
18.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 197: 143-152, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154090

RESUMO

The size of the Stroop effect is usually taken as dependent on the level of practice of the more automatized of two competing processes (e.g., reading in the standard Stroop task), possibly modulated in children by the age-dependent ability to inhibit nonrelevant information. However, this conclusion stems from experimental settings where the automaticity of the second process (e.g., color naming) is hard to assess and manipulate. The musical Stroop task, in which a note name is written inside a note on a staff, overcomes this limit. In the present experiment, children engaged in musical education were asked to read the written note names while ignoring the notes on the staff, or conversely, to name the notes while ignoring the written names. Both a Stroop-like effect and its reverse were observed, but, unexpectedly, the two effects did not evolve in parallel even though both musical and reading abilities improved during practice. Introducing the level of immunity to interference of the to-be-interfered process as a predictor of Stroop interference, in addition to the strength of the interfering process, appears as the best way to account for the interactive pattern.


Assuntos
Automatismo/psicologia , Música/psicologia , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Leitura , Teste de Stroop , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
19.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 198: 102869, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228719

RESUMO

The congruency sequence effect (CSE) occurs when the congruency effect observed in tasks such as the Eriksen flanker task is smaller on trials preceded by an incongruent trial relative to trials preceded by a congruent trial. The CSE has been attributed to a range of factors including repetition expectancy, conflict monitoring, feature integration, and contingency learning. To clarify the debate surrounding the CSE and the mechanisms underlying its occurrence, researchers have developed confound-minimized congruency tasks designed to control for feature-integration and contingency-learning effects. A CSE is often observed in confound-minimized tasks, indicating that the effect is driven by repetition expectancy, conflict monitoring, or a combination of the two. Here, we propose and test a variant of the repetition expectancy account that emphasizes how multiple expectations can be formed simultaneously based upon the congruency type (congruent vs. incongruent) and the congruency repetition type (congruency repetition vs. congruency alternation) of the most recent trial. Data from confound-minimized versions of the prime-probe task were found to support this novel account. Data from confound-minimized versions of the Eriksen flanker, Simon, and Stroop tasks indicate that feature-integration confounds often remain in these tasks, potentially undermining the conclusions of previous work. We discuss the implications of these findings for ongoing theoretical debates surrounding the CSE.


Assuntos
Motivação/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Condicionamento Clássico/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Teste de Stroop , Adulto Jovem
20.
Int J Biometeorol ; 63(10): 1309-1317, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31240386

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of negative air ions (NAIs) on cognitive function in young male adults, specifically examined whether NAIs could influence the behavioral and neuroelectrical indices of inhibition. Thirty-nine young adults participated in the NAI and the control sessions in a counterbalanced order. A computerized Stroop color-word test was administrated, and N2 of the event-related potential was recorded and then analyzed. The results revealed that participants in the NAI session demonstrated shorter reaction times and higher accuracy for both Stroop congruent and incongruent trials. Larger N2 amplitudes were also observed in the NAI session than in the control session, whereas no alterations in the latencies were found. These findings suggest that NAIs resulted in a general improvement in both basic information processing and inhibition. This facilitation may be related to an enhanced neuronal processing or alertness status reflected by larger amplitudes of the N2 component.


Assuntos
Cognição , Potenciais Evocados , Eletroencefalografia , Humanos , Íons , Masculino , Tempo de Reação , Teste de Stroop , Adulto Jovem
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