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1.
J Headache Pain ; 22(1): 34, 2021 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33941081

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As a disorder of brain dysfunction, migraine has been associated with cognitive decline. However, no consistent results with respect to the attention function in migraineurs have been found, and the relationship between attentional inhibition and migraine is also unclear. In this study, the attentional inhibition function was evaluated using event-related potentials (ERPs) while migraine patients and healthy controls were performing the color-word Stroop task. METHODS: In this study, 75 migraine patients and 41 age-, gender-, and education-matched healthy controls were enrolled. The Stroop task was performed, and both behavioral and ERP data were analyzed. RESULTS: As to the behavioral data, the migraine group had a longer reaction time compared to the control group, but no difference in Stroop effect was observed. With respect to ERP components, the amplitudes of both early and late medial frontal negativity (MFN) were decreased in the migraine group. Additionally, obvious differences in the early MFN and sustained potential (SP) amplitudes were found between patients with and without allodynia. CONCLUSIONS: At the behavioral level, migraine patients exhibited decreased executive ability but no obvious decline in inhibition. By contrast, a decline in attentional inhibition during the migraine interictal phase was confirmed by the analysis of ERP components, mainly those associated with changes in the conflict-monitoring stage, independent of confounding factors such as age, education, medication and mood disorders. Migraine patients with allodynia exhibited some significant differences in early MFN and SP compared to those without, supporting the hypothesis that migraine chronification aggravates the decline in attentional inhibition.


Assuntos
Potenciais Evocados , Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Atenção , Humanos , Tempo de Reação , Teste de Stroop
2.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 216: 103306, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33866276

RESUMO

Previous research by Hazan-Liran & Miller (2017) developed a new Stroop-like task to examine how ink colours as task-irrelevant information affects paired-associate learning (see also Miller, Hazan-Liran, & Cohen, 2018). The task was to learn word-number pairs (e.g. blue-5) whilst only numbers were coloured in either congruent ink colours (e.g. number 5 printed in blue ink), incongruent ink colours (e.g. 5 printed in brown ink) or neutral ink colours (e.g. 5 printed in black ink). The present paper refers to this task as the Associative Memory Stroop Task (AMST). Hazan-Liran & Miller (2017) found that incongruent ink colours interfere and congruent ink colour facilitate the speed of learning word-number pairs. The present experiments employed the AMST to examine the effects of irrelevant ink colours (with colour names) on memory accuracy in cued recall and associative recognition. Memory impairment was found with incongruent ink colours on both memory tests whilst improved memory accuracy with congruent ink colours was not reliable. We discuss possible explanations for these findings.


Assuntos
Percepção de Cores , Tinta , Atenção , Cor , Humanos , Tempo de Reação , Teste de Stroop
3.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 214: 103268, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33609972

RESUMO

The confound-minimized cross-task design has been widely used to examine the characteristics of top-down cognitive control underlying the congruency sequence effect (CSE) without feature integration and contingency learning confounds. The present study reanalyzed our previous data obtained with the confound-minimized cross-task design, this time including the preceding congruency repetition type, to examine whether the cross-task CSE is confounded by feature integration from two-back (n-2) trials or multiple expectancies regarding the congruency and the congruency repetition type of the upcoming trial. As a result, the cross-task CSE interacted with the arbitrariness of S-R mapping or response mode regardless of the preceding congruency repetition type, indicating the contribution of top-down control triggered by conflict. Feature integration from n-2 trials, but not multiple expectancies, was found to have a lingering effect on the sequential modulation of the congruency effect between previous and current trials. However, because the influence of feature integration operated in opposite directions depending on the preceding congruency repetition type, the contribution of feature integration to the cross-task CSE can be minimized when the combined datasets of trials following a congruency repetition trial and those following a congruency alternation trial are analyzed. These findings are consistent with recent perspectives on cognitive control, which posit that top-down cognitive control and bottom-up feature integration operate independently to optimize task performance.


Assuntos
Conflito Psicológico , Aprendizagem , Humanos , Tempo de Reação , Teste de Stroop , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
4.
Biol Psychol ; 159: 108023, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33460781

RESUMO

The present research measured participants' event-related brain activity while they performed a Stroop-priming task that induced the implementation of expectancy-based strategic processes. Participants identified a colored (red vs. green) target patch preceded by a prime word (GREEN or RED), with incongruent prime-target pairings being more frequent (75 %) than congruent pairs (25 %). The prime-target stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) was manipulated at two levels: 300 vs. 700 ms. Participants also performed a change localization task to assess their working memory capacity (WMC). At the 300 ms SOA, all participants presented a Stroop-priming congruency effect (slower responses on incongruent than on congruent trials) and an increased N2 amplitude in incongruent trials, irrespective of their WMC. At the 700-ms SOA, the lower-WMC group showed again a larger negative-going waveform to incongruent targets, whereas the higher-WMC group exhibited a reversed Stroop-priming congruency effect (faster responses to incongruent targets) and the N2 component was absent.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Memória de Curto Prazo , Humanos , Tempo de Reação , Teste de Stroop
5.
Neurology ; 96(5): e709-e718, 2021 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33380500

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) and cognitive impairment 15 years after pregnancy, we measured cognitive performance in 115 women with a history of HDP and in 481 women with a previous normotensive pregnancy. METHODS: This was a nested cohort study embedded in a population-based prospective cohort from early pregnancy onwards. Cognitive function was assessed with cognitive tests 15 years after the index pregnancy (median 14.7 years, 90% range [13.9-16.1]). Cognitive performance was measured in different cognitive domains: executive function, processing speed, verbal memory, motor function, and visuospatial ability. A global cognition factor (g-factor) was derived from principal component analysis. RESULTS: Of the women with HDP, 80 (69.6%) had gestational hypertension (GH) and 35 (30.4%) had preeclampsia. Women with HDP had a lower g-factor than women with a previous normotensive pregnancy (mean -0.22, 90% range [-2.06-1.29]). HDP was negatively associated with the 15-word learning test: immediate recall (-0.25, 95% CI [-0.44 to -0.06]) and delayed recall (-0.30, 95% CI [-0.50 to -0.10]). Women with GH perform significantly worse on their 15-word learning test than women with a previous normotensive pregnancy. CONCLUSION: A history of HDP is independently associated with poorer working memory and verbal learning 15 years after pregnancy. This association is mainly driven by women with GH. Clinicians and women who experienced HDP should be aware of this risk.


Assuntos
Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Função Executiva , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/epidemiologia , Memória , Pré-Eclâmpsia/epidemiologia , Adulto , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Estudos de Coortes , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Rememoração Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Gravidez , Análise de Componente Principal , Estudos Prospectivos , Desempenho Psicomotor , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Processamento Espacial , Teste de Stroop
6.
Neurosci Lett ; 740: 135442, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33184035

RESUMO

Because of the increase in the numbers of vehicles and drivers, traffic congestion causes anger on the road to occur frequently. In addition to the impact of personality traits, the information processing of emotional stimuli also influences drivers' behaviours. Research is needed to understand how drivers interact with anger stimuli and the differences in processing anger information between safe and dangerous drivers. This study aimed to explore the differences between safe and dangerous drivers' negativity bias towards anger and discuss the causes of dangerous driving behaviours from the perspective of information processing. In total, 34 participants were divided into a safe group and dangerous group based on their traffic violation history and driving behaviour trends. Participants completed an emotional Stroop task with event-related potential (ERP) data. The results showed that the P200 amplitudes of dangerous drivers were significantly reduced compared with those of safe drivers when processing angry and neutral faces, indicating the inadequate assessment of angry faces in early emotional processing. The N170 amplitudes of dangerous drivers were significantly reduced compared with those of safe drivers when processing angry faces, demonstrating decreased negative input that is potentially related to dispositional fearlessness and uncaring traits. This study revealed negativity bias towards anger in dangerous drivers based on ERP evidence, enabling us to understand the differences in driving behaviours from the perspective of physiological mechanisms.


Assuntos
Ira , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Potenciais Evocados , Adulto , Condução de Veículo/legislação & jurisprudência , Crime , Comportamento Perigoso , Eletroencefalografia , Expressão Facial , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Processos Mentais , Tempo de Reação , Segurança , Teste de Stroop
7.
Brain Cogn ; 147: 105662, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33360042

RESUMO

The successful resolution of ever-changing conflicting contexts requires efficient cognitive control. Previous studies have found similar neural patterns in conflict processing for different modalities using an event-related potential (ERP) approach and have concluded that cognitive control is supramodal. However, recent behavioral studies have found that conflict adaptation (a phenomenon with the reduction of congruency effect in the current trial after an incongruent trial as compared with a congruent trial) could not transfer across visual and auditory modalities and suggested that cognitive control is modality-specific, challenging the supramodal view. These discrepancies may have also arisen from methodological differences across studies. The current study examined the electroencephalographic profiles of a Stroop-like task to elucidate the modality-specific neural mechanisms of cognitive control. Participants were instructed to respond to a target always coming from the visual modality while disregarding the distractor coming from either the auditory or the visual modality. The results revealed significant congruency effects on both behavioral indices, i.e., reaction time and error rate, and ERP components, including the P3 and the conflict slow potential. Besides, the congruency effects on the amplitude of the P3 showed a negative correlation with reaction time, indicating an intrinsic link between these neural and behavioral indices. Furthermore, in the modality-repetition condition, conflict adaptation effects were significant on both reaction time and P3 amplitude, and the reaction time could be predicted by the P3 amplitude, while such effects were not observed in the modality-alternation condition. The time-frequency analysis also showed that conflict adaptation occurred in the modality-repetition condition, but not in the modality-alternation condition in low frequency bands, including the theta (4-8 Hz), alpha (8-12 Hz), and beta1 (12-20 Hz) bands. Taken together, our results revealed modality-specific patterns of the conflict adaptation effects on the P3 amplitude and oscillatory power (in theta, alpha, and beta1 bands), providing neural evidence for the modality specificity of cognitive control and expanding the boundaries of cognitive control.


Assuntos
Conflito Psicológico , Potenciais Evocados , Cognição , Eletroencefalografia , Humanos , Tempo de Reação , Teste de Stroop
8.
Adv Rheumatol ; 61: 10, 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152740

RESUMO

Abstract Background: Fibromyalgia is a chronic pain disorder characterized by widespread musculoskeletal symptoms, primarily attributed to sensitization of somatosensory system carrying pain. Few reports have investigated the impact of fibromyalgia symptoms on cognition, corticomotor excitability, sleepiness, and the sleep quality — all of which can deteriorate the quality of life in fibromyalgia. However, the existing reports are underpowered and have conflicting directions of findings, limiting their generalizability. Therefore, the present study was designed to compare measures of cognition, corticomotor excitability, sleepiness, and sleep quality using standardized instruments in the recruited patients of fibromyalgia with pain-free controls. Methods: Diagnosed cases of fibromyalgia were recruited from the Rheumatology department for the cross-sectional, case-control study. Cognition (Mini-Mental State Examination, Stroop color-word task), corticomotor excitability (Resting motor threshold, Motor evoked potential amplitude), daytime sleepiness (Epworth sleepiness scale), and sleep quality (Pittsburgh sleep quality index) were studied according to the standard procedure. Results: Thirty-four patients of fibromyalgia and 30 pain-free controls were recruited for the study. Patients of fibromyalgia showed decreased cognitive scores (p = 0.05), lowered accuracy in Stroop color-word task (for color: 0.02, for word: 0.01), and prolonged reaction time (< 0.01, < 0.01). Excessive daytime sleepiness in patients were found (< 0.01) and worsened sleep quality (< 0.01) were found. Parameters of corticomotor excitability were comparable between patients of fibromyalgia and pain-free controls. Conclusions: Patients of fibromyalgia made more errors, had significantly increased reaction time for cognitive tasks, marked daytime sleepiness, and impaired quality of sleep. Future treatment strategies may include cognitive deficits and sleep disturbances as an integral part of fibromyalgia management.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Fibromialgia/diagnóstico , Cognição , Dor Crônica , Higiene do Sono , Excitabilidade Cortical , Tempo de Reação , Medição da Dor/instrumentação , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Teste de Stroop , Estudo Observacional
9.
J Med Life ; 13(3): 283-288, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33072197

RESUMO

Cognitive dysfunction is a significant complaint among patients after moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), with devastating consequences on functional recovery and quality of life. Prognostic models allow a better assessment and management of neurotrauma patients. The aim of the study was to demonstrate the predictive value of the Baseline Prognostic Risk Score (BPRS) in moderate to severe TBI, in a sample of patients treated with neurotrophic factors. Eighty patients with moderate-severe TBI from the CAPTAIN II study were included in secondary data analysis. Patients received active treatment with Cerebrolysin, 50 mL per day for ten days, followed by two treatment cycles with 10 mL per day for ten days. BPRS was determined on admission; the age was recorded, and patients were evaluated using the following neurocognitive tests: Mini-Mental State Essay (MMSE), Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition Processing Speed Index (WAIS-III PSI) and Stroop Colour Word Test-Victoria Version at 10, 30 and 90 days. Hierarchical regression analysis was performed to investigate the unique predictive value of BPRS on cognitive evolution, independent of age. BPRS independently predicted scores on the WAIS-III PSI DSCales and the Word subscale of the Stroop Colour Word Test at 90 days. Age was a significant predictor for all the investigated scales at 10, 30, and 90 days. This study demonstrates the predictive value of a validated prognostic model (BPRS) for medium-term neurocognitive outcomes in a sample of moderate-severe traumatic brain injury treated with neurotrophic factors.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/uso terapêutico , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Aminoácidos/farmacologia , Atenção/efeitos dos fármacos , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/fisiopatologia , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Função Executiva/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Qualidade de Vida , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Risco , Teste de Stroop , Escalas de Wechsler
10.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 5976-5979, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019333

RESUMO

It is important to care and manage daily stress, even for young healthy individuals. Conventional approach to investigate the effect of mental stress on our body usually utilizes a cognitive task as an induced stressor and compares the response with a resting state. During the process, the effects of daily stress are ignored. We hypothesized that the response to mental stress may differ depending on the daily stress level. As far as our knowledge, the effect of daily stress on cognitive ability and electrophysiological response has not yet been widely investigated. We designed and conducted an experiment to record ECGs while performing a Stroop color word task for 42 young healthy female subjects. We repeated the experiment for two different days with different levels of stress measured by self-report. As a result, we could find significant differences on behavior and heart-rate variability depending on the stress level. These findings may provide a new insight on how to understand the trend of heart-rate variability according to subject's daily stress.


Assuntos
Eletrocardiografia , Estresse Psicológico , Cor , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Teste de Stroop
11.
Neurology ; 95(17): e2398-e2408, 2020 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907958

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To understand how, biologically, the acute event of traumatic brain injury gives rise to a long-term disease, we address the relationship between evolving cortical and subcortical brain damage and measures of functional outcome and cognitive functioning at 6 months after injury. METHODS: For this longitudinal analysis, clinical and MRI data were collected in a tertiary neurointensive care setting in a continuous sample of 157 patients surviving moderate to severe traumatic brain injury between 2000 and 2018. For each patient, we collected T1- and T2-weighted MRI data acutely and at the 6-month follow-up, as well as acute measures of injury severity (Glasgow Coma Scale), follow-up measures of functional impairment (Glasgow Outcome Scale-extended), and, in a subset of patients, neuropsychological measures of attention, executive functions, and episodic memory. RESULTS: In the final cohort of 113 subcortical and 92 cortical datasets that survived (blind) quality control, extensive atrophy was observed over the first 6 months after injury across the brain. However, only atrophy within subcortical regions, particularly in the left thalamus, was associated with functional outcome and neuropsychological measures of attention, executive functions, and episodic memory. Furthermore, when brought together in an analytical model, longitudinal brain measurements could distinguish good from bad outcome with 90% accuracy, whereas acute brain and clinical measurements alone could achieve only 20% accuracy. CONCLUSION: Despite great injury heterogeneity, secondary thalamic pathology is a measurable minimum common denominator mechanism directly relating biology to clinical measures of outcome and cognitive functioning, potentially linking the acute event and the longer-term disease of traumatic brain injury.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/complicações , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Atenção , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/psicologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Estudos de Coortes , Função Executiva , Feminino , Seguimentos , Escala de Coma de Glasgow , Escala de Resultado de Glasgow , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Memória Episódica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Teste de Stroop , Adulto Jovem
12.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238461, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32903263

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of mental fatigue on physical activity, technical and decision-making performance during small-sided games. Nine sub-elite soccer players were enrolled in the study. The players performed two small-sided games on two occasions within a crossover experimental design. Before each game, they underwent a mental fatiguing task (Stroop task) and a control task (documentary watching) in a randomized, counterbalanced order. Players' physical activity, technical, and decision-making performance were obtained during small-sided games by GPS and video scouting. Results showed that distance in acceleration covered per min, negative passes, passing accuracy, and shot accuracy were likely impaired than control task after a mental fatiguing protocol. Decision-making performance of negative passes, passes accuracy, and dribbling accuracy resulted also likely decreased compared with control task. These findings demonstrated that mental fatigue impacted on technical, GPS-derived, and soccer-specific decision-making performance during SSG. In conclusion, avoiding cognitively demanding tasks before playing soccer-specific activities may be advisable to preserve players' physical activity, technical, and decision-making skills.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Fadiga Mental/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Atletas , Desempenho Atlético , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Fadiga Mental/metabolismo , Futebol , Teste de Stroop , Adulto Jovem
13.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236287, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785218

RESUMO

The forgetting of previously remembered information has, for a long time, been explained by purely passive processes. This viewpoint has been challenged by the finding that humans show worse memory for specific items that they have been instructed to forget. The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex has, through imaging, lesion and brain stimulation studies, been implied in controlling such active forgetting processes. In this study, we attempted to solidify evidence for such a causal role of the dlPFC in directed forgetting by replicating an existing rTMS study (Hanslmayr S, 2012) in a preregistered within-participant design. We stimulated participants at the dlPFC (BA9) or vertex using 45s of 1Hz rTMS after instructions to forget previously remembered words in a list-method directed forgetting paradigm and tested for effects on the amount of forgotten information. Contrary to the study we were attempting to replicate, no significant increase in forgetting under dlPFC stimulation was found in our participants. However, when combining our results with the study we were attempting to replicate, dlPFC stimulation led to significantly increased directed forgetting in both studies combined. We further explored if the rTMS parameters used here and in earlier work (Hanslmayr S, 2012) influenced inhibitory processing at their time of delivery or in a more persistent manner. Unaltered incongruency and negative priming effects in a Stroop task conducted directly after stimulation suggests that our rTMS stimulation did not continue to influence inhibitory processing after the time of stimulation. As the combined evidence for increased directed forgetting due to rTMS dlPFC stimulation is still quite weak, additional replications are necessary to show that directed forgetting is indeed causally driven by an active prefrontal process.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Memória/fisiopatologia , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana , Adolescente , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos da Memória/diagnóstico , Teste de Stroop , Adulto Jovem
14.
Psychol Aging ; 35(5): 663-675, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32744849

RESUMO

Recent evidence indicates that older adults' decreased ability to inhibit irrelevant information may lead to increased processing and greater memory for distractor information compared with younger adults. The present experiments examine the generality of this finding in a series of Stroop studies. In Experiment 1, participants studied a list of words then received a Stroop color naming task, with to-be-remembered words embedded within the Stroop task. Although there was evidence of a disproportionate age-related Stroop effect, there was no evidence of an age difference in episodic recognition memory for words from the Stroop task. Experiment 2 extended this paradigm to a more implicit demasking task. Again, there was evidence of an age-related disproportionate Stroop effect, however, there were no differences in memory for unattended words in demasking performance. Experiment 3 was a direct replication of a previous study which reported age differences in the influence of unattended words, via implicit priming in a general knowledge test. The results did not replicate the original study such that younger adults showed slightly more priming from distractors than older adults. The results provide converging evidence that although older adults have more difficulty inhibiting irrelevant information in the Stroop task, distractor information does not seem to disproportionately influence later memory for older adults compared with younger adults. These studies suggest that it is critical to consider the locus of memory encoding in distractor tasks to better understand the relationship between inhibitory processes during the distractor task and later memory performance. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Teste de Stroop/normas , Adulto , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Feminino , Objetivos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
15.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237093, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750087

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate associations between buying-shopping disorder (BSD) propensity and the performance in the Stroop Matching Task. This task measures stimulus interference, one specific component of behavioral impulsivity, using neutral (i.e. not buying related) stimuli. Deficits thus mirror a general rather than a specific deficit to resist task-irrelevant stimuli. METHOD: 222 participants completed the Stroop Matching Task, the Pathological Buying Screener, and various questionnaires assessing clinical background variables as well as trait-impulsivity. RESULTS: Correlation analyses showed that BSD propensity was associated with poorer performance in the Stroop Matching Task. Multiple regression analyses controlling for related disorders and trait-impulsivity indicated that BSD was the only significant predictor. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that BSD propensity is associated with deficits in the stimulus interference component of behavioral impulsivity, mirroring a general cognitive deficit. Since no other disorder significantly predicted the performance in the Stroop Matching Task, this deficit seems to be unique for BSD.


Assuntos
Cognição , Comércio , Comportamento Compulsivo/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Teste de Stroop
16.
Atten Percept Psychophys ; 82(6): 2802-2813, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32627132

RESUMO

Motivated attention can be driven by the desire to maximize gains or escape punishment. In the Stroop task, when rewards can be obtained by responding quickly to certain colors, corresponding color words are prioritized and produce enhanced interference, suggesting transfer of an attentional bias from color hues to color words. In the present study, we replicated this transfer effect using reward and conducted a parallel experiment exchanging the prospect of reward (appetitive motivation) with the opportunity to avert punishment (aversive motivation). Participants were required to identify the color (hue) of color words and received electric shocks for responses to particular hues that were slow or incorrect. Shock-related words similarly impaired color-ink naming performance. In contrast to prior studies with reward, however, responding to hues associated with shock was also impaired, with threat producing an increase in error rate that ironically resulted in more frequent shocks. Our results suggest that aversive and appetitive motivation affect attention to task-relevant information differently, although each produces a common bias in automatic stimulus processing presumably driven by valence.


Assuntos
Atenção , Motivação , Recompensa , Afeto , Humanos , Teste de Stroop
17.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(8): 104960, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32689609

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Executive dysfunction following stroke is well documented, but less is known about whether it occurs in mild stroke patients. The purpose of the study was to investigate executive impairment in this population and explore the correlation between executive function tests and cognitive tests of other domains. METHODS: Cross-sectional study was undertaken to compare 139 mild ischemic stroke patients (National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) ≤ 7) aged 40-80 with 131 normal controls matched age, gender and levels of education. All participants were administered a neuropsychological test battery including three measures of executive functioning: Clock Drawing Test (CDT), Trial Making Test-A and B (TMT-A and B), and Stroop Color Word Test (SCWT). The CDT was evaluated using three quantitative scoring rubrics, with a total score of 3,10,18, respectively and a qualitative scoring method with six types of errors. Spearman's correlations were made to analyze the correlation between executive function tests and other neuropsychological tests. RESULTS: Control group performed better than stroke group on most executive function tests at a statistical significance. Qualitative CDT showed that errors of "graphic difficulties", "conceptual deficits" and "spatial and/or planning deficits" occurred frequently in the early stage of mild stroke. Correlation data clarified that among the executive function tests, time for TMT-B correlated with global cognition most. CONCLUSION: Executive dysfunction is common following even mild strokes, and that relatively brief measures such as CDT, TMT and SCWT can be employed for it before discharge as part of rehabilitation planning.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/complicações , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Função Executiva , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Isquemia Encefálica/psicologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Avaliação da Deficiência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/psicologia , Teste de Stroop , Teste de Sequência Alfanumérica
18.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 208: 103116, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32585433

RESUMO

In this study, two experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of global precedence on spatial Stroop effect. Combined stimuli were adopted. In Experiment 1, a Chinese character "" (up) or "" (down) was embedded in an up- or down-pointing arrow; the character was the local feature, whereas the arrow was the global feature. In the spatial task, participants were asked to identify arrow orientation, whereas in the meaning task, they were asked to respond to the character meaning. The results revealed that the RTs were longer for the incongruent trials than for the congruent trials (i.e., spatial Stroop effect) in meaning task, but not in the spatial task. In Experiment 2, an arrow was embedded in a character; the arrow was the local feature, whereas the character was the global feature. The results showed that the effect was found in the spatial task, but not in the meaning task. These results suggest that when combined stimuli are adopted, the spatial Stroop effect is modulated by global precedence. Specifically, the magnitudes of spatial Stroop effect were smaller in the global feature identification than those in the local feature identification.


Assuntos
Orientação , Teste de Stroop , Humanos , Tempo de Reação
19.
Arch. med. deporte ; 37(197): 176-182, mayo-jun. 2020. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-195229

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: El fútbol es actualmente el deporte más popular y de más rápido crecimiento en todo el mundo. El fútbol femenino no para de crecer y despierta en la actualidad un gran interés, pero la mayoría de las recomendaciones científicas para el juego femenino se han basado hasta ahora en investigaciones realizadas en hombres. El aumento creciente de la práctica del fútbol femenino hace necesario incluir estos tipos de estudios. OBJETIVO: Fue valorar las funciones ejecutivas del lóbulo frontal en el control de la atención a corto plazo después de haber realizado 6 remates de cabeza con un balón inteligente, en jugadoras de futbol adultas no profesionales. METODOLOGÍA: El diseño de estudio fue experimental de un grupo intervención con evaluación pre y post. El estudio constó de dos fases, en la primera fase se realizó la recogida de datos personales, la historia deportiva, las medidas antropométricas y se realizó el Test Stroop para evaluar las funciones ejecutivas del lóbulo frontal. En la segunda fase, se realizaron 6 remates de cabeza consecutivos desde una distancia de 28 metros y se volvió a realizar el test de Stroop. La muestra estuvo formada por 12 jugadoras, con una media de edad de 25,3 (DE = 6,5 años) y un rango entre los 18 y 40 años. La media de años que llevaban jugando al futbol en equipos federados fue de 6,5 (DE=2,35 años), practicando entre 7 y 10 horas semanales al futbol. RESULTADOS Y CONCLUSIONES: Los impactos repetidos al realizar los remates de cabeza con un balón de fútbol, cuando la velocidad es superior a los 62 km/h, producen cambios cognitivos significativos y específicos en jugadoras de fútbol femenino, inmediatamente después del remate; indicando una disrupción en las funciones cerebrales voluntarias, provocando alteraciones negativas en las funciones ejecutivas


INTRODUCTION: Football is currently the most popular and fastest growing sport in the world. Women's football players does not stop growing and currently arouses great interest, but most of the scientific recommendations for the female game have been based so far on research conducted in men. The increasing increase in the practice of women's football makes it necessary to include these types of studies. OBJECTIVE: To assess the executive functions of the frontal lobe in the control of short-term attention after having performed 6 heading shots with an intelligent ball, in non-professional adult football players. METHODOLOGY: The study design was experimental of an intervention group with pre and post evaluation. The study consisted of two phases, in the first phase the collection of personal data, sports history, anthropometric measures was performed, and the Stroop Test was performed to evaluate the executive functions of the frontal lobe. In the second phase, 6 consecutive head shots were made from 28 meters and the Stroop test was carried out again. The sample consisted of 12 players, with an average age of 25.3 (SD = 6.5 years) and a range between 18 and 40 years. The average number of years they had been playing football in federated teams was 6.5 (SD = 2.35 years), practicing between 7 and 10 hours per week in football .Results and conclusions: The repeated impacts when football heading, when the speed is higher than 62 km / h, produce significant and specific cognitive changes in female football players, immediately after the auction; indicating a disruption in voluntary brain functions, causing negative alterations in executive functions


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Futebol/lesões , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Lobo Frontal/fisiopatologia , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo , Teste de Stroop , Modelos Lineares , Valores de Referência , Fatores de Risco
20.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(7): 104887, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32402720

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to investigate the domain-specific trends of cognitive function up to 12 months after mild acute ischemic stroke. METHODS: Enrolment of consecutive cohort of patients with mild acute ischemic stroke with recorded clinical characteristics and extensive neuropsychological assessments, including five cognitive domains. The Montreal cognitive assessment of the Beijing version (MoCA-Bj) was used to assess overall cognition. All patients completed all domain-specific examinations were categorised into three groups according to the time between the stroke onset and neuropsychological profiling, the time duration including less than one month (n = 174), one month to six months (n = 65) and over six months (n = 39). RESULTS: The final cohort consisted of 278 patients. The executive (χ2 = 6.95, P<0.05) and memory dysfunctions (χ2 = 9.6, P<0.01) showed strong improvement, especially in executive function, which prevalence was 48.85% at <1- month group and 25.64% at >6 months group. The prevalence of attention and information processing also had a declining trend, the differences, however, were not statistically significant (χ2 = 0.23 and 2.25, respectively, P>0.05). There was no significant change in language function (χ2 = 0.46, P>0.05) and the MoCA (χ2 = 0.59, P>0.05) at 3-time point groups. In 195 first-ever stroke patients, the results of memory (χ2 = 6.94 P<0.05) and executive dysfunctions (χ2 = 6.25 P<0.05) also showed significant improvement. CONCLUSION: There is varying degree of improvement tendency in executive and memory dysfunctions after mild acute ischemic stroke. Early cognitive assessments after mild acute ischemic stroke do not reflect the cognitive level of stable period.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Transtornos Cognitivos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Cognitivos/psicologia , Cognição , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Atenção , Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/psicologia , China/epidemiologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/epidemiologia , Função Executiva , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Memória , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/psicologia , Teste de Stroop , Fatores de Tempo , Teste de Sequência Alfanumérica , Comportamento Verbal , Escalas de Wechsler
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