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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5241, 2022 03 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35347208

RESUMO

Serosurveillance helps establish reopening guidelines and determine the immunity levels in different populations to reach herd immunity. Then, there is an urgent need to estimate seroprevalence population wide. In Mexico, information about COVID-19 cases and related deaths is scarce. Also, there is no official serosurveillance, limiting our knowledge of the impact of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Here, we report the prevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in 522,690 unvaccinated people from July 5th to December 31st, 2020. The overall seroprevalence was 32.8% and highest in adults aged 30-39 years (38.5%) than people under 20 years (33.0%) or older (28.9%). Moreover, in a cohort of 1655 individuals confirmed COVID-19 by PCR, we found that symptomatic people (HR = 2.56) increased seroconversion than presymptomatic. Also, we identified that the most discriminative symptoms for COVID-19 that could predict seroconversion were anosmia and ageusia (HR = 1.70), fever, myalgia/arthralgia, and cough (HR = 1.75). Finally, we found that obese people had lower seroconversion (HR = 0.53) than healthy people, but the opposite happens in diabetic people (HR = 1.39). These findings reveal that around one-third of Mexican outpatients had anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies before vaccination. Also, some symptoms improve empirically COVID-19 diagnosis and seroconversion. This information could help fine-tune vaccination schemes and the reopening and back-to-work algorithms.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Teste para COVID-19 , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , México/epidemiologia , Soroconversão , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
2.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl ; 104(4): 269-273, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34941446

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic led to an unprecedented time for the management of colorectal cancer, with uncertainty as to cancer-specific risks and the circumventing of gold standard oncological strategies. Our study aimed to acquire a snapshot of the practice of multidisciplinary team (MDT) management and variability in response to rapidly emerging guidelines. METHODS: The survey was disseminated to 150 colorectal cancer MDTs across England and Wales taken from the National Bowel Cancer Audit data set between 15 April and 30 June 2020 for completion by colorectal surgeons. RESULTS: Sixty-seven MDTs responded to the survey. Fifty-seven centres reported that they continued to perform colorectal cancer resections during the initial lockdown period. Fifty centres (74.6%) introduced routine preoperative COVID-19 testing and 50 (74.6%) employed full personal protective equipment for elective cases. Laparoscopic resections were continued by 25 centres (42.1%), whereas 28 (48.3%) changed to an open approach. Forty-nine (79.0%) centres reported experiencing patient-led surgical cancellations in 0-25% of their listings. If surgery was delayed significantly then 24 centres (38.7%) employed alternative neoadjuvant therapy, with short-course radiotherapy being their preferred adjunct of choice for rectal cancer. Just over 50% of the MDTs stated that they were uncomfortable or very uncomfortable with their management strategies. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates variability in the MDT management of colorectal cancer during the initial COVID-19 lockdown, incorporating adaptive patient behaviour and initially limited data on oncological safety profiles leading to challenging decision-making.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Neoplasias Retais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Teste para COVID-19 , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle
3.
Front Public Health ; 10: 871567, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35928486

RESUMO

The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spreads rapidly, causing outbreaks that grow exponentially within a short period before interventions are sought and effectively implemented. Testing is part of the first line of defense against Corona Virus Disease of 2019 (COVID-19), playing a critical role in the early identification and isolation of cases to slow transmission, provision of targeted care to those affected, and protection of health system operations. Laboratory tests for COVID-19 based on nucleic acid amplification techniques were rapidly developed in the early days of the pandemic, but such tests typically require sophisticated laboratory infrastructure and skilled staff. In March 2020, Zimbabwe confirmed its first case of COVID-19; this was followed by an increase in infection rates as the pandemic spread across the country, thus increasing the demand for testing. One national laboratory was set to test all the country's COVID-19 suspect cases, building pressure on human and financial resources. Staff burnout and longer turnaround times of more than 48 h were experienced, and results were released late for clinical relevance. Leveraging on existing PCR testing platforms, including GeneXpert machines, eased the pressure for a short period before facing the stockout of SARs-CoV-2 cartridges for a long time, leading to work overload at a few testing sites contributing to long turnaround times. On September 11, WHO released the interim guidance to use antigen rapid diagnostic test as a diagnostic tool. The Zimbabwe laboratory pillar quickly adopted it and made plans for its implementation. The National Microbiology Reference Laboratory verified the two emergency-listed kits, the Panbio Abbott and the Standard Q, Biosensor, and they met the WHO minimum performance of ≥97% specificity and ≥80% sensitivity. Decentralizing diagnostic testing leveraging existing human resources became a game-changer in improving COVID-19 containment measures. Task shifting through training on Antigen rapid diagnostic tests (Ag-RDT) commenced, and testing was decentralized to all the ten provinces, from 1 central testing laboratory to more than 1,000 testing centers. WhatsApp platforms made it easier for data to be reported from remote areas. Result turnaround times were improved to the same day, and accessibility to testing was enhanced.


Assuntos
Teste para COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Pandemias , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2 , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
4.
Lancet ; 400(10350): 452-461, 2022 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35934007

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients often report various symptoms after recovery from acute COVID-19. Previous studies on post-COVID-19 condition have not corrected for the prevalence and severity of these common symptoms before COVID-19 and in populations without SARS-CoV-2 infection. We aimed to analyse the nature, prevalence, and severity of long-term symptoms related to COVID-19, while correcting for symptoms present before SARS-CoV-2 infection and controlling for the symptom dynamics in the population without infection. METHODS: This study is based on data collected within Lifelines, a multidisciplinary, prospective, population-based, observational cohort study examining the health and health-related behaviours of people living in the north of the Netherlands. All Lifelines participants aged 18 years or older received invitations to digital COVID-19 questionnaires. Longitudinal dynamics of 23 somatic symptoms surrounding COVID-19 diagnoses (due to SARS-CoV-2 alpha [B.1.1.7] variant or previous variants) were assessed using 24 repeated measurements between March 31, 2020, and Aug 2, 2021. Participants with COVID-19 (a positive SARS-CoV-2 test or a physician's diagnosis of COVID-19) were matched by age, sex, and time to COVID-19-negative controls. We recorded symptom severity before and after COVID-19 in participants with COVID-19 and compared that with matched controls. FINDINGS: 76 422 participants (mean age 53·7 years [SD 12·9], 46 329 [60·8%] were female) completed a total of 883 973 questionnaires. Of these, 4231 (5·5%) participants had COVID-19 and were matched to 8462 controls. Persistent symptoms in COVID-19-positive participants at 90-150 days after COVID-19 compared with before COVID-19 and compared with matched controls included chest pain, difficulties with breathing, pain when breathing, painful muscles, ageusia or anosmia, tingling extremities, lump in throat, feeling hot and cold alternately, heavy arms or legs, and general tiredness. In 12·7% of patients, these symptoms could be attributed to COVID-19, as 381 (21·4%) of 1782 COVID-19-positive participants versus 361 (8·7%) of 4130 COVID-19-negative controls had at least one of these core symptoms substantially increased to at least moderate severity at 90-150 days after COVID-19 diagnosis or matched timepoint. INTERPRETATION: To our knowledge, this is the first study to report the nature and prevalence of post-COVID-19 condition, while correcting for individual symptoms present before COVID-19 and the symptom dynamics in the population without SARS-CoV-2 infection during the pandemic. Further research that distinguishes potential mechanisms driving post-COVID-19-related symptomatology is required. FUNDING: ZonMw; Dutch Ministry of Health, Welfare, and Sport; Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs; University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen; Provinces of Drenthe, Friesland, and Groningen.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Sintomas Inexplicáveis , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Teste para COVID-19 , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 794264, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35937687

RESUMO

The world has seen the emergence of a new virus in 2019, SARS-CoV-2, causing the COVID-19 pandemic and millions of deaths worldwide. Microscopy can be much more informative than conventional detection methods such as RT-PCR. This review aims to present the up-to-date microscopy observations in patients, the in vitro studies of the virus and viral proteins and their interaction with their host, discuss the microscopy techniques for detection and study of SARS-CoV-2, and summarize the reagents used for SARS-CoV-2 detection. From basic fluorescence microscopy to high resolution techniques and combined technologies, this article shows the power and the potential of microscopy techniques, especially in the field of virology.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Teste para COVID-19 , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
6.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0267766, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35939422

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Widespread use of at-home rapid COVID-19 antigen tests has been proposed as an important public health intervention to interrupt chains of transmission. Antigen tests may be preferred over PCR because they provide on-demand results for relatively low cost and can identify people when they are most likely to be infectious, particularly when used daily. Yet the extent to which a frequent antigen testing intervention will result in a positive public health impact for COVID-19 will depend on high acceptability and high adherence to such regimens. METHODS: We conducted a mixed-methods study assessing acceptability of and adherence to a daily at-home mobile-app connected rapid antigen testing regimen among employees of a US-based media company. Acceptability was assessed across seven domains of the Theoretical Framework of Acceptability. RESULTS: Among 31 study participants, acceptability of the daily testing intervention was generally high, with participants reporting high perceived effectiveness, intervention coherence, and self-efficacy; positive affective attitude; acceptable degree of burden and opportunity cost; and assessing the intervention as ethical. 71% reported a preference to test daily using an at-home antigen test than weekly employment-based PCR. Mean adherence to the 21-day testing regimen was 88% with 43% of participants achieving 100% adherence, 48% testing at least every other day, and 10% testing less than every other day. CONCLUSIONS: Despite overall high acceptability and adherence, we identified three implementation challenges that must be addressed for frequent serial testing for COVID-19 to be implemented at scale and have a positive public health impact. First, users need guidance on how and when to adapt testing frequencies to different epidemiological conditions. Second, users and institutions need guidelines for how to safely store and share test results. Third, implementation of serial testing strategies must prioritize health equity and protect those most vulnerable to COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Aplicativos Móveis , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Teste para COVID-19 , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Pandemias
7.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 1010, 2022 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35941617

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite extensive evidence that COVID-19 symptoms may persist for up to a year, their long-term implications for healthcare utilization and costs 6 months post-diagnosis remain relatively unexplored. We examine patient-level association of COVID-19 diagnosis association of COVID-19 diagnosis with average monthly healthcare utilization and medical expenditures for up to 6 months, explore heterogeneity across age groups and determine for how many months post-diagnosis healthcare utilization and costs of COVID-19 patients persist above pre-diagnosis levels. METHODS: This population-based retrospective cohort study followed COVID-19 patients' healthcare utilization and costs from January 2019 through March 2021 using claims data provided by the COVID-19 Research Database. The patient population includes 250,514 individuals infected with COVID-19 during March-September 2020 and whose last recorded claim was not hospitalization with severe symptoms. We measure the monthly number and costs of total visits and by telemedicine, preventive, urgent care, emergency, immunization, cardiology, inpatient or surgical services and established patient or new patient visits. RESULTS: The mean (SD) total number of monthly visits and costs pre-diagnosis were .4783 (4.0839) and 128.06 (1182.78) dollars compared with 1.2078 (8.4962) visits and 351.67 (2473.63) dollars post-diagnosis. COVID-19 diagnosis associated with .7269 (95% CI, 0.7088 to 0.7449 visits; P < .001) more total healthcare visits and an additional $223.60 (95% CI, 218.34 to 228.85; P < .001) in monthly costs. Excess monthly utilization and costs for individuals 17 years old and under subside after 5 months to .070 visits and $2.77, persist at substantial levels for all other groups and most pronounced among individuals age 45-64 (.207 visits and $73.43) and 65 years or older (.133 visits and $60.49). CONCLUSIONS: This study found that COVID-19 diagnosis was associated with increased healthcare utilization and costs over a six-month post-diagnosis period. These findings imply a prolonged burden to the US healthcare system from medical encounters of COVID-19 patients and increased spending.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Gastos em Saúde , Adolescente , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/terapia , Teste para COVID-19 , Atenção à Saúde , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
8.
Front Public Health ; 10: 887665, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35937218

RESUMO

For containment of COVID-19, most countries are following the isolate, test, treat and trace approach. Following the approach, India scaled up COVID-19 testing from about 5,000 tests per day at the end of March 2020 to more than 1 M tests per day in September 2020. Testing scale-up has seen a huge variation across states and union territories (UTs) with respect to growth rates, testing strategies, testing infrastructure, and deployment of various kit types (RT-PCR, Antigen, CBNAAT, etc). To understand the gaps in testing and prioritize appropriate interventions, it is important for national stakeholders to evaluate and rank states/UTs based on their testing performance. Indicators like total samples tested, total samples positive, tests per million, and positives per million are currently being used by epidemiologists and researchers for comparing the performance of various regions. This article proposes a robust ranking methodology to rank the states/UTs in India based on a comprehensive scoring developed by combining multiple variables for evaluating the testing performance of states/UTs. Since RT-PCR testing is considered the gold standard for COVID-19 testing, the composite score for testing performance in this article is defined by the ability of states/UTs to successfully deploy RT-PCR testing and reduce its positivity over time. Evaluating region-wise ranking can enable the identification of areas requiring immediate attention in poorly performing regions, thus channelizing efforts and resources in the right direction.


Assuntos
Teste para COVID-19 , COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Humanos , Índia
9.
Front Public Health ; 10: 897662, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35937258

RESUMO

There have been several reports across the globe regarding the presentation of a severe multi-system hyperinflammatory syndrome, resembling Kawasaki disease (KD), in the pediatric population during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. The exact pathophysiology is still unclear; however, children typically demonstrate multi-organ dysfunction and less respiratory system involvement compared to adults. The limited literature is available at present for the identification and management of such patients. In this study, we investigated four cases in children ages 11-15 years that fulfilled the case definition for the pediatric multi-system inflammatory syndrome. All were found negative for SARS-CoV-2 from oropharyngeal swabs and stool. As they were having symptoms of diarrhea, tests for bacterial and enteric viral infections were performed after SARS-CoV-2 testing. Molecular analysis revealed that all the children were infected with enterovirus (Echovirus-18). Early and exact diagnosis is vital for timely, effective, and potentially life-saving management of such cases.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adolescente , COVID-19/complicações , Teste para COVID-19 , Criança , Enterovirus Humano B , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica
10.
Brasilia, D.F.; OPAS; 2022-08-02. (OPAS/BRA/PHE/COVID-19/22-0026).
Não convencional em Português | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr2-56211

RESUMO

No contexto do rápido aumento de casos de COVID-19 após um aumento repentino no uso de testes de diagnóstico para COVID-19 em vários países dentro e fora da Região das Américas, a Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde/Organização Mundial da Saúde (OPAS/OMS) recomenda aos estados-membros que tomem as medidas adequadas para a utilização racional dos testes de diagnóstico e, assim, assegurem a sua provisão tanto para a vigilância quanto para a atenção médica.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus , Teste para COVID-19 , América
11.
Am J Case Rep ; 23: e935787, 2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35909261

RESUMO

BACKGROUND The retroperitoneal hematoma is a very rare entity in obstetrics. A type of obstetric hematoma that extends into the retroperitoneal space, this hematoma usually occurs after laceration of the uterine artery, after uterine rupture, or by extension of a vaginal hematoma. Although the hematoma usually manifests as intense abdominal pain, sometimes the clinical signs can go unnoticed. This is the main reason it is important to report the cases in which retroperitoneal hematomas occur. In addition to clinical suspicion, experience in management can also help improve maternal morbidity and mortality from this cause. CASE REPORT We present a series of 3 clinical cases in which retroperitoneal hematomas occurred after instrumental deliveries. The 3 clinical cases described took place before the COVID-19 pandemic. In the first 2 deliveries, a vacuum was used, while in the third delivery, spatulas were used. CONCLUSIONS Our findings showed that suspicion is essential in patients with symptoms of nonspecific pain, as well as in patients with anemia that causes hemodynamic instability in the immediate postpartum period. The use of early computed tomography angiography in hemodynamically stable patients is essential to reach a diagnosis and to determine if the patient can be treated by embolization of the bleeding vessel.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doenças Peritoneais , Teste para COVID-19 , Feminino , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal , Hematoma/diagnóstico , Hematoma/etiologia , Hematoma/terapia , Humanos , Pandemias , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Espaço Retroperitoneal
12.
Prog Community Health Partnersh ; 16(2S): 13-22, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35912653

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Denver COVID-19 Joint Task Force is a multisector community partnership which formed to coordinate Denver's pandemic response in people experiencing homelessness (PEH). OBJECTIVES: Describe how interdisciplinary community partners collaborated to develop, implement, and pilot severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) testing and isolation protocols in congregate shelters, and discuss lessons learned and subsequently applied. METHODS: In March through May 2020, community partners collaborated to design, implement and conduct pilot testing paired with isolation in a subset of PEH at a congregate shelter to assess feasibility and inform protocol development.Results and Lessons Learned: We performed SARS-CoV-2 testing in 52 PEH with 14 (27%) testing positive or inconclusive. Thirteen (93%) positive or inconclusive participants were transferred to isolation hotels with 9 of 13 (69%) transferred within 72 hours of testing. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings informed development of coronavirus disease 2019 surveillance testing and isolation protocols for PEH and highlight the value of community partnerships in nimbly responding to the pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pessoas em Situação de Rua , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Teste para COVID-19 , Pesquisa Participativa Baseada na Comunidade , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 664, 2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35915394

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Numerous scoring tools have been developed for assessing the probability of SARS-COV-2 test positivity, though few being suitable or adapted for outpatient triage of health care workers. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed 3069 patient records of health care workers admitted to the COVID-19 Testing Unit of the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität of Munich between January 27 and September 30, 2020, for real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of naso- or oropharyngeal swabs. Variables for a multivariable logistic regression model were collected from self-completed case report forms and selected through stepwise backward selection. Internal validation was conducted by bootstrapping. We then created a weighted point-scoring system from logistic regression coefficients. RESULTS: 4076 (97.12%) negative and 121 (2.88%) positive test results were analysed. The majority were young (mean age: 38.0), female (69.8%) and asymptomatic (67.8%). Characteristics that correlated with PCR-positivity included close-contact professions (physicians, nurses, physiotherapists), flu-like symptoms (e.g., fever, rhinorrhoea, headache), abdominal symptoms (nausea/emesis, abdominal pain, diarrhoea), less days since symptom onset, and contact to a SARS-COV-2 positive index-case. Variables selected for the final model included symptoms (fever, cough, abdominal pain, anosmia/ageusia) and exposures (to SARS-COV-positive individuals and, specifically, to positive patients). Internal validation by bootstrapping yielded a corrected Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristics Curve of 76.43%. We present sensitivity and specificity at different prediction cut-off points. In a subgroup with further workup, asthma seems to have a protective effect with regard to testing result positivity and measured temperature was found to be less predictive than anamnestic fever. CONCLUSIONS: We consider low threshold testing for health care workers a valuable strategy for infection control and are able to provide an easily applicable triage score for the assessment of the probability of infection in health care workers in case of resource scarcity.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Dor Abdominal , Adulto , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Teste para COVID-19 , Feminino , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Triagem
14.
Iran J Med Sci ; 47(4): 338-349, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35919083

RESUMO

Background: The present study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of ultra-low-dose (ULD) chest computed tomography (CT) in comparison with the routine dose (RD) CT images in detecting lung lesions related to COVID-19. Methods: A prospective study was conducted during April-September 2020 at Shahid Faghihi Hospital affiliated with Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. In total, 273 volunteers with suspected COVID-19 participated in the study and successively underwent RD-CT and ULD-CT chest scans. Two expert radiologists qualitatively evaluated the images. Dose assessment was performed by determining volume CT dose index, dose length product, and size-specific dose estimate. Data analysis was performed using a ranking test and kappa coefficient (κ). P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Lung lesions could be detected with both RD-CT and ULD-CT images in patients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 (κ=1.0, P=0.016). The estimated effective dose for the RD-CT protocol was 22-fold higher than in the ULD-CT protocol. In the case of the ULD-CT protocol, sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and positive predictive value for the detection of consolidation were 60%, 83%, 80%, and 20%, respectively. Comparably, in the case of RD-CT, these percentages for the detection of ground-glass opacity (GGO) were 62%, 66%, 66%, and 18%, respectively. Assuming the result of real-time polymerase chain reaction as true-positive, analysis of the receiver-operating characteristic curve for GGO detected using the ULD-CT protocol showed a maximum area under the curve of 0.78. Conclusion: ULD-CT, with 94% dose reduction, can be an alternative to RD-CT to detect lung lesions for COVID-19 diagnosis and follow-up.An earlier preliminary report of a similar work with a lower sample size was submitted to the arXive as a preprint. The preprint is cited as: https://arxiv.org/abs/2005.03347.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Teste para COVID-19 , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Doses de Radiação , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
16.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 841825, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35909966

RESUMO

During the initial onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, each industry experienced hardships. One area that has not been explored in great detail was how the diagnostic industry managed while bringing SARS-CoV-2 tests to the market. This perspective piece provides a sample view of what went on behind the walls of a diagnostic manufacturer that released one of the initial SARS-CoV-2 testing options, some of the barriers that were encountered, and how they could be overcome.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Teste para COVID-19 , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
17.
BMJ Open ; 12(8): e057739, 2022 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35914915

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to explore the lived experience of Jordanian front-line healthcare workers (FHCWs), including their experienced challenges and adaptations amid the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN: A phenomenological qualitative design was used to highlight the experiences of a sample Jordanian FHCWs during the COVID-19 pandemic. Qualitative interviews were conducted using a semistructured guide with open-ended questions, audiotaped and then transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis of the transcribed narratives was conducted using an open coding line by line to develop themes and related subthemes. SETTING: Mobile COVID-19 testing and contact tracing units during an active surge of cases in Jordan between May and September 2020. PARTICIPANTS: Participants were recruited using purposive sampling method and consisted of 15 FHCWs (2 physicians, 10 nurses, 2 paramedics and 1 laboratory technician) who have worked in testing and contact tracing teams in the community and have dealt with suspected or confirmed cases of COVID-19 infection. RESULTS: Participant narratives were classified into two main overarching themes; challenges and adaptation themes. The challenges theme was exhibited as follows: (1) an excruciating encounter with an invisible enemy, (2) distorted knowledge about COVID-19 and (3) organisational and administrative challenges. The adaptation theme was exhibited as follows: (1) seeking relevant knowledge about the disease and (2) seeking more connectedness. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic exerted many challenges for FHCWs at multiple levels; intrapersonal and interpersonal, organisational and societal levels. Nevertheless, a number of adaptation strategies within these levels have been reported. This study helps to provide the base on which healthcare officials and public health personnel can formulate preparedness plans that tackle challenges faced by front-line workers, which ultimately enhance the resilience of healthcare systems to withstand future pandemics.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Teste para COVID-19 , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Jordânia/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pesquisa Qualitativa
18.
CMAJ ; 194(29): E1018-E1026, 2022 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35918087

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: First Nations, Inuit and Métis Peoples across geographies are at higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 because of high rates of chronic disease, inadequate housing and barriers to accessing health services. Most Indigenous Peoples in Canada live in cities, where SARS-CoV-2 infection is concentrated. To address gaps in SARS-CoV-2 information for these urban populations, we partnered with Indigenous agencies and sought to generate rates of SARS-CoV-2 testing and vaccination, and incidence of infection for First Nations, Inuit and Métis living in 2 Ontario cities. METHODS: We drew on existing cohorts of First Nations, Inuit and Métis adults in Toronto (n = 723) and London (n = 364), Ontario, who were recruited using respondent-driven sampling. We linked to ICES SARS-CoV-2 databases and prospectively monitored rates of SARS-CoV-2 testing, diagnosis and vaccination for First Nations, Inuit and Métis, and comparator city and Ontario populations. RESULTS: We found that SARS-CoV-2 testing rates among First Nations, Inuit and Métis were higher in Toronto (54.7%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 48.1% to 61.3%) and similar in London (44.5%, 95% CI 36.0% to 53.1%) compared with local and provincial rates. We determined that cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection was not significantly different among First Nations, Inuit and Métis in Toronto (7364/100 000, 95% CI 2882 to 11 847) or London (7707/100 000, 95% CI 2215 to 13 200) compared with city rates. We found that rates of vaccination among First Nations, Inuit and Métis in Toronto (58.2%, 95% CI 51.4% to 64.9%) and London (61.5%, 95% CI 52.9% to 70.0%) were lower than the rates for the 2 cities and Ontario. INTERPRETATION: Although Ontario government policies prioritized Indigenous populations for SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, vaccine uptake was lower than in the general population for First Nations, Inuit and Métis Peoples in Toronto and London. Ongoing access to culturally safe testing and vaccinations is urgently required to avoid disproportionate hospital admisson and mortality related to COVID-19 in these communities.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Índios Norte-Americanos , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Teste para COVID-19 , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Canadá/epidemiologia , Humanos , Inuítes , Londres/epidemiologia , Ontário/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Minerva Dent Oral Sci ; 71(4): 206-211, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35920289

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A quick diagnosis is crucial in effectively limiting the spread of SARS-CoV-2. The study aims to assess the prevalence of positive rapid tests in private dental practices. METHODS: This is an observational study. 532 COVID-19 rapid nasopharyngeal antigen tests were carried out in the Veneto region of Italy. Patients of 4 dental practices in different cities (Caorle, Montebelluna, Treviso and Vicenza) were screened with a rapid test (Rapid Test COVID-19 Ag immunochromatographic assay, Techno Genetics) throughout November and December 2020. All the positive results from rapid tests were further investigated with a molecular test (PCR). All the patients tested showed no symptoms associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection and had already undergone triage and temperature measurement. In total 532 tests were taken: 202 in Caorle (Venice), 130 in Montebelluna (Treviso), 100 in Treviso, and 100 in Vicenza. Statistical analysis was carried with the computing environment R version 3.2.1 (R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria). In particular, R was used for estimating the P value of the χ2 test. The test was considered significant if the P value was lower or equal to 0.05. RESULTS: The prevalence of the rapid tests that resulted positive was 7.14% (38 out of 532 in total, 22 out of 202 in Caorle, 6 out of 130 in Montebelluna, 4 out of 100 in Treviso and 6 out of 100 in Vicenza). Among these patients, 36 tested positive also with a molecular test (94.74%), in particular, 21 in Caorle, 5 in Montebelluna, 4 in Treviso, and 6 in Vicenza. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of positive patients screened with a rapid test in private dental practices stands at 7.14% and it was confirmed in most of the patients with molecular tests. Therefore, in high-risk environments like dental practices, it is imperative to follow all the precautionary measures, and having every patient tested with a rapid test could be taken into consideration to limit the spread of COVID-19 infection.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Teste para COVID-19 , Humanos , Nasofaringe , Prevalência , SARS-CoV-2/genética
20.
R I Med J (2013) ; 105(7): 16-22, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35930485

RESUMO

Survivors of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may experience persistent symptoms, abnormal diagnostic test findings, incident disease in specific organ systems, or progression of existing disease. Post-acute COVID-19 syndrome (PACS) is defined by persistent, recurrent, or new symptoms, findings, or diagnoses beyond four weeks after the initial infection. PACS has been characterized as a multi-organ syndrome, often with cardiopulmonary symptoms that include fatigue, dyspnea, chest pain, and palpitations. Cardiovascular pathologies in PACS include new-onset arrhythmia, myocarditis, unmasked coronary artery disease, and diastolic dysfunction as well as abnormal findings on electrocardiogram, troponin testing, and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. In this review, we discuss the cardiovascular symptoms, pathophysiology, clinical investigation, and management strategies for cardiopulmonary symptoms of PACS. We offer a treatment algorithm for primary care clinicians encountering patients with cardiopulmonary PACS and discuss ongoing research on this topic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Miocardite , Arritmias Cardíacas/diagnóstico , Arritmias Cardíacas/etiologia , Arritmias Cardíacas/terapia , COVID-19/complicações , Teste para COVID-19 , Dor no Peito/etiologia , Humanos
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