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1.
J Med Microbiol ; 70(9)2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486972

RESUMO

Introduction. Non-invasive sample collection and viral sterilizing buffers have independently enabled workflows for more widespread COVID-19 testing by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).Gap statement. The combined use of sterilizing buffers across non-invasive sample types to optimize sensitive, accessible, and biosafe sampling methods has not been directly and systematically compared.Aim. We aimed to evaluate diagnostic yield across different non-invasive samples with standard viral transport media (VTM) versus a sterilizing buffer eNAT- (Copan diagnostics Murrieta, CA) in a point-of-care diagnostic assay system.Methods. We prospectively collected 84 sets of nasal swabs, oral swabs, and saliva, from 52 COVID-19 RT-PCR-confirmed patients, and nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs from 37 patients. Nasal swabs, oral swabs, and saliva were placed in either VTM or eNAT, prior to testing with the Xpert Xpress SARS-CoV-2 (Xpert). The sensitivity of each sampling strategy was compared using a composite positive standard.Results. Swab specimens collected in eNAT showed an overall superior sensitivity compared to swabs in VTM (70 % vs 57 %, P=0.0022). Direct saliva 90.5 %, (95 % CI: 82 %, 95 %), followed by NP swabs in VTM and saliva in eNAT, was significantly more sensitive than nasal swabs in VTM (50 %, P<0.001) or eNAT (67.8 %, P=0.0012) and oral swabs in VTM (50 %, P<0.0001) or eNAT (58 %, P<0.0001). Saliva and use of eNAT buffer each increased detection of SARS-CoV-2 with the Xpert; however, no single sample matrix identified all positive cases.Conclusion. Saliva and eNAT sterilizing buffer can enhance safe and sensitive detection of COVID-19 using point-of-care GeneXpert instruments.


Assuntos
Teste de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19 , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Contenção de Riscos Biológicos , Meios de Cultura , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Boca/virologia , Nasofaringe/virologia , Nariz/virologia , Testes Imediatos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Saliva/virologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Manejo de Espécimes/normas
2.
BMJ ; 374: n1857, 2021 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34389547

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the addition of placental growth factor (PlGF) measurement to current clinical assessment of women with suspected pre-eclampsia before 37 weeks' gestation would reduce maternal morbidity without increasing neonatal morbidity. DESIGN: Stepped wedge cluster randomised control trial from 29 June 2017 to 26 April 2019. SETTING: National multisite trial in seven maternity hospitals throughout the island of Ireland PARTICIPANTS: Women with a singleton pregnancy between 20+0 to 36+6 weeks' gestation, with signs or symptoms suggestive of evolving pre-eclampsia. Of the 5718 women screened, 2583 were eligible and 2313 elected to participate. INTERVENTION: Participants were assigned randomly to either usual care or to usual care plus the addition of point-of-care PlGF testing based on the randomisation status of their maternity hospital at the time point of enrolment. MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURES: Co-primary outcomes of composite maternal morbidity and composite neonatal morbidity. Analysis was on an individual participant level using mixed-effects Poisson regression adjusted for time effects (with robust standard errors) by intention-to-treat. RESULTS: Of the 4000 anticipated recruitment target, 2313 eligible participants (57%) were enrolled, of whom 2219 (96%) were included in the primary analysis. Of these, 1202 (54%) participants were assigned to the usual care group, and 1017 (46%) were assigned the intervention of additional point-of-care PlGF testing. The results demonstrate that the integration of point-of-care PlGF testing resulted in no evidence of a difference in maternal morbidity-457/1202 (38%) of women in the control group versus 330/1017 (32%) of women in the intervention group (adjusted risk ratio (RR) 1.01 (95% CI 0.76 to 1.36), P=0.92)-or in neonatal morbidity-527/1202 (43%) of neonates in the control group versus 484/1017 (47%) in the intervention group (adjusted RR 1.03 (0.89 to 1.21), P=0.67). CONCLUSIONS: This was a pragmatic evaluation of an interventional diagnostic test, conducted nationally across multiple sites. These results do not support the incorporation of PlGF testing into routine clinical investigations for women presenting with suspected preterm pre-eclampsia, but nor do they exclude its potential benefit. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02881073.


Assuntos
Mortalidade Materna/tendências , Fator de Crescimento Placentário/metabolismo , Testes Imediatos/normas , Pré-Eclâmpsia/diagnóstico , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil/tendências , Recém-Nascido , Irlanda , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Fator de Crescimento Placentário/sangue , Testes Imediatos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pré-Eclâmpsia/sangue , Pré-Eclâmpsia/etnologia , Gravidez
3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17063, 2021 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34433852

RESUMO

Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major public health threat for migrant populations in Spain and efforts to scale up testing are needed to reach the WHO elimination targets. The Hepatitis B Virus Community Screening and Vaccination in Africans (HBV-COMSAVA) study aims to use point-of-care testing and simplified diagnostic tools to identify, link to care, or vaccinate African migrants in Barcelona during the COVID-19 pandemic. From 21/11/20 to 03/07/2021, 314 study participants were offered HBV screening in a community clinic. Rapid tests for HBsAg screening were used and blood samples were collected with plasma separation cards. Patients received results and were offered: linkage to specialist care; post-test counselling; or HBV vaccination in situ. Sociodemographic and clinical history were collected and descriptive statistics were utilized. 274 patients were included and 210 (76.6%) returned to receive results. The HBsAg prevalence was 9.9% and 33.2% of people had evidence of past resolved infection. Overall, 133 required vaccination, followed by post-test counselling (n = 114), and linkage to a specialist (n = 27). Despite the COVID-19 pandemic, by employing a community-based model of care utilizing novel simplified diagnostic tools, HBV-COMSAVA demonstrated that it was possible to diagnose, link to care, and vaccinate African migrants in community-based settings.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Hepatite B Crônica/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Pandemias , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Imediatos , Prevalência , Espanha/epidemiologia
4.
Undersea Hyperb Med ; 48(3): 221-226, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34390626

RESUMO

Historically, electronic devices have been generally prohibited during hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) therapy due to risk of fire in a pressurized, oxygen-rich environment. Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) however has emerged as a useful imaging modality in diverse clinical settings. Hyperbaric chambers treating critically ill patients would benefit from the application of POCUS at pressure to make real-time patient assessments. Thus far, POCUS during HBO2 therapy has been limited due to required equipment modifications to meet safety standards. Here we demonstrate proof of concept, safety, and successful performance of an off-the-shelf handheld POCUS system (SonoSite iViz) in a clinical hyperbaric environment without need for modification.


Assuntos
Oxigenação Hiperbárica , Testes Imediatos , Estudo de Prova de Conceito , Ultrassonografia/instrumentação , Cuidados Críticos , Estado Terminal , Fontes de Energia Elétrica , Desenho de Equipamento , Segurança de Equipamentos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Fatores de Tempo
6.
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med ; 29(1): 128, 2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461967

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metabolic and electrolyte imbalances are some of the reversible causes of cardiac arrest and can be diagnosed even in the pre-hospital setting with a mobile analyser for point-of-care testing (POCT). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective observational study, which included analysing all pre-hospital resuscitations in the study region between October 2015 and December 2016. A mobile POCT analyser (Alere epoc®) was available at the scene of each resuscitation. We analysed the frequency of use of POCT, the incidence of pathological findings, the specific interventions based on POCT as well as every patient's eventual outcome. RESULTS: N = 263 pre-hospital resuscitations were included and in n = 98 of them, the POCT analyser was used. Of these measurements, 64% were performed using venous blood and 36% using arterial blood. The results of POCT showed that 63% of tested patients had severe metabolic acidosis (pH < 7.2 + BE < - 5 mmol/l). Of these patients, 82% received buffering treatment with sodium bicarbonate. Potassium levels were markedly divergent normal (> 6.0 mmol/l/ < 2.5 mmol/l) in 17% of tested patients and 14% of them received a potassium infusion. On average, the pre-hospital treatment time between arrival of the first emergency medical responders and the beginning of transport was 54 (± 20) min without POCT and 60 (± 17) min with POCT (p = 0.07). Overall, 21% of patients survived to hospital discharge (POCT 30% vs no POCT 16%, p = 0.01, Φ = 0.16). CONCLUSIONS: Using a POCT analyser in pre-hospital resuscitation allows rapid detection of pathological acid-base imbalances and potassium concentrations and often leads to specific interventions on scene and could improve the probability of survival.


Assuntos
Reanimação Cardiopulmonar , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/diagnóstico , Parada Cardíaca Extra-Hospitalar/terapia , Testes Imediatos , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 11(7)2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34356700

RESUMO

Three techniques were compared for lowering the limit of detection (LOD) of the lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) of the receptor-binding domain of severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) based on the post-assay in situ enlargement of Au nanoparticles (Au NPs) on a test strip. Silver enhancement (growth of a silver layer over Au NPs-Au@Ag NPs) and gold enhancement (growth of a gold layer over Au NPs) techniques and the novel technique of galvanic replacement of Ag by Au in Au@Ag NPs causing the formation of Au@Ag-Au NPs were performed. All the enhancements were performed on-site after completion of the conventional LFIA and maintained equipment-free assay. The assays demonstrated lowering of LODs in the following rows: 488 pg/mL (conventional LFIA with Au NPs), 61 pg/mL (silver enhancement), 8 pg/mL (galvanic replacement), and 1 pg/mL (gold enhancement). Using gold enhancement as the optimal technique, the maximal dilution of inactivated SARS-CoV-2-containing samples increased 500 times. The developed LFIA provided highly sensitive and rapid (8 min) point-of-need testing.


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico , Ouro/química , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Prata/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/análise , Sítios de Ligação , Diagnóstico Precoce , Humanos , Imunoensaio , Limite de Detecção , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Testes Imediatos , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo
8.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e046308, 2021 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34385236

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Left untreated, sexually transmitted and genital infections (henceforth STIs) in pregnancy can lead to serious adverse outcomes for mother and child. Papua New Guinea (PNG) has among the highest prevalence of curable STIs including syphilis, chlamydia, gonorrhoea, trichomoniasis and bacterial vaginosis, and high neonatal mortality rates. Diagnosis and treatment of these STIs in PNG rely on syndromic management. Advances in STI diagnostics through point-of-care (PoC) testing using GeneXpert technology hold promise for resource-constrained countries such as PNG. This paper describes the planned economic evaluation of a cluster-randomised cross-over trial comparing antenatal PoC testing and immediate treatment of curable STIs with standard antenatal care in two provinces in PNG. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Cost-effectiveness of the PoC intervention compared with standard antenatal care will be assessed prospectively over the trial period (2017-2021) from societal and provider perspectives. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios will be calculated for the primary health outcome, a composite measure of the proportion of either preterm birth and/or low birth weight; for life years saved; for disability-adjusted life years averted; and for non-health benefits (financial risk protection and improved health equity). Scenario analyses will be conducted to identify scale-up options, and budget impact analysis will be undertaken to understand short-term financial impacts of intervention adoption on the national budget. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analysis will be conducted to account for uncertainty in key model inputs. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study has ethical approval from the Institutional Review Board of the PNG Institute of Medical Research; the Medical Research Advisory Committee of the PNG National Department of Health; the Human Research Ethics Committee of the University of New South Wales; and the Research Ethics Committee of the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. Findings will be disseminated through national stakeholder meetings, conferences, peer-reviewed publications and policy briefs. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN37134032.


Assuntos
Nascimento Prematuro , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Criança , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Genitália , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Papua Nova Guiné/epidemiologia , Testes Imediatos , Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/tratamento farmacológico
9.
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis ; 101(2): 115430, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34229244

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to assess, by rapid tests, the immune status against COVID-19 among Healthcare Workers (HCW) with history of symptoms, and for whom SARS-CoV-2 detection was either not documented or negative. METHODS: Whole blood by finger prick and serum samples were taken from HCW for use with 2 rapid lateral flow tests and an automated immunoassay. RESULTS: Seventy-two HCWs were included, median duration between symptoms onset and serology sampling was 68 days. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were detected by rapid test in 11 HCW (15.3%) and confirmed in the 10 with available serum by the automated immunoassay. The frequency of ageusia or anosmia was higher in participants with SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (P = 0.0006 and P = 0.029, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: This study, among symptomatic HCW during the first wave in France, showed that 15% had IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2, a higher seroprevalence than in the general population. Rapid lateral flow tests were highly concordant with automated immunoassay.


Assuntos
Teste Sorológico para COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Pessoal de Saúde , Testes Imediatos , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , COVID-19/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoensaio , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paris/epidemiologia , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
11.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 57(55): 6796-6799, 2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34236364

RESUMO

A rapid dual probe-based fluorimetric assay was developed to detect deletion mutations in circulating tumor DNA using structure-selective isothermal amplification and pattern recognition. This method could detect both homozygous and heterozygous deletion configurations in a one-set experiment and achieved picomolar detection limits with high selectivity within 2 hours. It was promising for point-of-care cancer diagnosis in hospital settings.


Assuntos
DNA Tumoral Circulante/genética , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Deleção de Sequência , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Testes Imediatos
12.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(13)2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209176

RESUMO

In this work, we aim to achieve low-cost real-time tracking for nasogastric tube (NGT) insertion by using a tracking method based on two magnetic sensors. Currently, some electromagnetic (EM) tracking systems used to detect the misinsertion of the NGT are commercially available. While the EM tracking systems can be advantageous over the other conventional methods to confirm the NGT position, their high costs are a factor hindering such systems from wider acceptance in the clinical community. In our approach, a pair of magnetic sensors are used to estimate the location of a permanent magnet embedded at the tip of the NGT. As the cost of the magnet and magnetic sensors is low, the total cost of the system can be less than one-tenth of that of the EM tracking systems. The experimental results exhibited that tracking can be achieved with a root mean square error (RMSE) of 2-5 mm and indicated a great potential for use as a point-of-care test for NGT insertion, to avoid misplacement into the lung and ensure correct placement in the stomach.


Assuntos
Intubação Gastrointestinal , Testes Imediatos , Fenômenos Eletromagnéticos , Campos Magnéticos , Estômago
13.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(14)2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34300488

RESUMO

In this study, we propose a highly sensitive transparent urea enzymatic field-effect transistor (EnFET) point-of-care (POC) diagnostic test sensor using a triple-gate amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film pH ion-sensitive field-effect transistor (ISFET). The EnFET sensor consists of a urease-immobilized tin-dioxide (SnO2) sensing membrane extended gate (EG) and an a-IGZO thin film transistor (TFT), which acts as the detector and transducer, respectively. To enhance the urea sensitivity, we designed a triple-gate a-IGZO TFT transducer with a top gate (TG) at the top of the channel, a bottom gate (BG) at the bottom of the channel, and a side gate (SG) on the side of the channel. By using capacitive coupling between these gates, an extremely high urea sensitivity of 3632.1 mV/pUrea was accomplished in the range of pUrea 2 to 3.5; this is 50 times greater than the sensitivities observed in prior works. High urea sensitivity and reliability were even obtained in the low pUrea (0.5 to 2) and high pUrea (3.5 to 5) ranges. The proposed urea-EnFET sensor with a triple-gate a-IGZO TFT is therefore expected to be useful for POC diagnostic tests that require high sensitivity and high reliability.


Assuntos
Gálio , Índio , Testes Imediatos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Ureia , Zinco
14.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 10(1): 102, 2021 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34215330

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In late 2019, a novel coronavirus was detected in China. Supported by its respiratory transmissibility, even by people infected without symptomatic disease, this coronavirus soon began to rapidly spread worldwide. BACKGROUND: Many countries have implemented different infection control and containment strategies due to ongoing community transmission. In this context, contact tracing as well as adequate testing and consequent quarantining of high-risk contacts play leading roles in containing the virus by interrupting infection chains. This approach is especially important in the hospital setting where contacts often cannot be avoided and physical distance is usually not possible. Furthermore, health care workers (HCWs) usually have contact with a variety of vulnerable people, making it essential to identify infections among hospital employees as soon as possible to interrupt the rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 in the facility. Several electronic tools for contact tracing, such as specific software or mobile phone apps, are available for the public health sector. In contrast, contact tracing in hospitals often has to be carried out without helpful electronic tools, and an enormous amount of human resources is typically required. AIM: For rapid contact tracing and effective infection control and management measures for HCWs in hospitals, adapted technical solutions are needed. METHODS: In this study, we report the development of our containment strategy to a web-based contact tracing and rapid point-of-care-testing workflow. RESULTS/CONCLUSION: Our workflow yielded efficient control of the rapidly evolving situation during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic from May 2020 until January 2021 at a German University Hospital.


Assuntos
Teste de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19/métodos , COVID-19/transmissão , Redes de Comunicação de Computadores , Busca de Comunicante/métodos , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional , Pandemias , Testes Imediatos , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Profissional para o Paciente/prevenção & controle , Aplicativos Móveis , Recursos Humanos em Hospital , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estações do Ano , Software , Fluxo de Trabalho
15.
Talanta ; 233: 122538, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34215041

RESUMO

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most common enzymopathy in humans. More than 400 million people worldwide are affected by this genetic condition. Testing for G6PD deficiency before drug administration is essential for patient safety. Rapidly ascertaining the G6PD status of a person is desirable for proper treatment. The device described in this study, the G6PD diaxBOX, was developed to quantify G6PD deficiency using paper-based analytical devices (PADs) and a colorimetric assay. The G6PD diaxBOX is a straightforward, affordable, portable, and instrument-free analytical system. The major components of the G6PD diaxBox are a banknote-checking UV fluorescent lamp and camera that are easy to access and analysis software. When NADPH is generated, it absorbs at UV 340 nm and emits colored light that is detected with the camera. The determined Pearson's coefficient shows that the color intensity measured from the G6PD diaxBOX correlated with G6PD activity level. Also, a Bland-Altman analysis indicated that more than 95% of the measurement error was in the upper and lower boundaries (±2 SD) and the error from the severe and moderate deficiency group was less than ± 1 SD. Therefore, the error from G6PD diaxBOX was within the limit boundary and the overall accuracy was more than 80%. The G6PD diaxBOX facilitates the effective and efficient quantification of G6PD deficiency and as such represents a clinically well-suited, rapid point-of-care test.


Assuntos
Deficiência de Glucosefosfato Desidrogenase , Glucosefosfato Desidrogenase , Colorimetria , Humanos , Testes Imediatos , Software
16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 665, 2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34238234

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As SARS-CoV-2 testing expands, particularly to widespread asymptomatic testing, high sensitivity point-of-care PCR platforms may optimise potential benefits from pooling multiple patients' samples. METHOD: We tested patients and asymptomatic citizens for SARS-CoV-2, exploring the efficiency and utility of CovidNudge (i) for detection in individuals' sputum (compared to nasopharyngeal swabs), (ii) for detection in pooled sputum samples, and (iii) by modelling roll out scenarios for pooled sputum testing. RESULTS: Across 295 paired samples, we find no difference (p = 0.1236) in signal strength for sputum (mean amplified replicates (MAR) 25.2, standard deviation (SD) 14.2, range 0-60) compared to nasopharyngeal swabs (MAR 27.8, SD 12.4, range 6-56). At 10-sample pool size we find some drop in absolute strength of signal (individual sputum MAR 42.1, SD 11.8, range 13-60 vs. pooled sputum MAR 25.3, SD 14.6, range 1-54; p < 0.0001), but only marginal drop in sensitivity (51/53,96%). We determine a limit of detection of 250 copies/ml for an individual test, rising only four-fold to 1000copies/ml for a 10-sample pool. We find optimal pooled testing efficiency to be a 12-3-1-sample model, yet as prevalence increases, pool size should decrease; at 5% prevalence to maintain a 75% probability of negative first test, 5-sample pools are optimal. CONCLUSION: We describe for the first time the use of sequentially dipped sputum samples for rapid pooled point of care SARS-CoV-2 PCR testing. The potential to screen asymptomatic cohorts rapidly, at the point-of-care, with PCR, offers the potential to quickly identify and isolate positive individuals within a population "bubble".


Assuntos
Teste para COVID-19/métodos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/virologia , Testes Imediatos , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Escarro/virologia , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Nasofaringe/virologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Carga Viral
17.
J Mater Chem B ; 9(30): 5967-5981, 2021 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34254626

RESUMO

The infamous COVID-19 outbreak has left a crippling impact on the economy, healthcare infrastructure, and lives of the general working class, with all the scientists determined to find suitable and efficient diagnostic techniques and therapies to contain its ramifications. This article presents the complete outline of the diagnostic platforms developed using nanoparticles in the detection of SARS-CoV-2, delineating the direct and indirect use of nanomaterials in COVID-19 diagnosis. The properties of nanostructured materials and their relevance in the development of novel point-of-care diagnostic approaches for COVID-19 are highlighted. More importantly, the advantages of nanotechnologies over conventional reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction technique and few other methods used in the detection of SARS-CoV-2 along with the viewpoints are discussed. Also, the future perspectives highlighting the commercial aspects of the nanotechnology-based diagnostic tools developed to combat the COVID-19 pandemic are presented.


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico , Nanoestruturas/química , Testes Imediatos , Anticorpos Antivirais/análise , Anticorpos Antivirais/química , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , COVID-19/virologia , Colorimetria , Humanos , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , RNA Viral/análise , RNA Viral/química , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação
18.
Analyst ; 146(16): 5074-5080, 2021 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34318784

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus has received much attention because its complications include liver, kidney, eye, heart and cerebrovascular diseases. Thus, it would be highly significant to develop a rapid and efficient method for glucose detection in biological samples. In this work, a point-of-care testing (POCT) method of glucose detection was proposed using a standard colorimetric card for semi-quantitative determination patterns. In the prepared fluorescence color card for glucose, a good linear relationship was acquired by plotting the ratio of the grayscale value (I/I0) versus the logarithm of glucose concentration within 100.0 to 1000.0 µmol L-1, and the LOD of glucose detection was 1.1 µmol L-1. A large number of actual samples (30 serum and 7 urine) were analyzed and the results demonstrated that this method had good potential to be applied in the primary screening of diabetic patients. In addition, this method is universal and can be applied in the simultaneous detection of multiple small molecules. It provides a new strategy for the primary screening of multiple diseases simultaneously, which presents excellent application potential.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Testes Imediatos , Colorimetria , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Glucose , Humanos , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito
19.
Am J Clin Pathol ; 156(3): 370-380, 2021 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34302455

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The Abbot ID NOW COVID-19 assay and Quidel Sofia 2 SARS Antigen FIA are point-of-care assays that offer rapid testing for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 viral RNA and nucleocapsid protein, respectively. Given the utility of these devices in the field, we investigated the feasibility and safety of using the ID NOW and Sofia assays in the public health response to the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic and in future public health emergencies. METHODS: A combination of utilization and contamination testing in addition to a review of instrument workflows was conducted. RESULTS: Utilization testing demonstrated that both tests are intuitive, associated with high user test success (85%) in our study, and could be implemented by staff after minimal training. Contamination tests revealed potential biosafety concerns due to the open design of the ID NOW instrument and the transfer mechanisms with the Sofia. When comparing the workflow of the ID NOW and the Sofia, we found that the ID NOW was more user-friendly and that the transfer technology reduces the chance of contamination. CONCLUSIONS: The ID NOW, Sofia, and other emerging point-of-care tests should be used only after careful consideration of testing workflow, biosafety risk mitigations, and appropriate staff training.


Assuntos
Antígenos Virais/análise , Teste para COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Pandemias , Testes Imediatos , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Contenção de Riscos Biológicos , Segurança de Equipamentos , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Medição de Risco , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação
20.
J Immunol Methods ; 496: 113096, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34242653

RESUMO

Serology or antibody tests for COVID-19 are designed to detect antibodies (mainly Immunoglobulin M (IgM) and Immunoglobulin G (IgG) produced in response to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV-2) infection. In this study, 30 lateral flow immunoassays were tested using serum or plasma from patients with confirmed SARS CoV-2 infection. Negative serological controls were accessed from a well-characterised bank of sera which were stored prior to February 2020. Operational characteristics and ease of use of the assays are reported. 4/30 (13%) of kits (Zheihang Orient Gene COVID-19 IgG/IgM, Genrui Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) IgG/IgM, Biosynex COVID-19 BSS IgG/IgM, Boson Biotech 2019-nCoV IgG/IgM) were recommended for SAHPRA approval based on kit sensitivity. Of these, only the Orientgene was recommended by SAHPRA in August 2020 for use within the approved national testing algorithm while the remaining three received limited authorization for evaluation. All kits evaluated work on the same basic principle of immunochromatography with minor differences noted in the shape and colour of cartridges, the amount of specimen volume required and the test duration. Performance of the lateral flow tests were similar to sensitivities and specificities reported in other studies. The cassettes of the majority of kits evaluated (90%) detected both IgG and IgM. Only 23% of kits evaluated contained all consumables required for point-of-care testing. The study highlights the need for thorough investigation of kits prior to implementation.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/isolamento & purificação , Teste Sorológico para COVID-19/instrumentação , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Imunoensaio/instrumentação , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico/estatística & dados numéricos , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , Teste de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19/estatística & dados numéricos , Teste Sorológico para COVID-19/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Imunoensaio/estatística & dados numéricos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/isolamento & purificação , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/imunologia , Imunoglobulina M/isolamento & purificação , Testes Imediatos/estatística & dados numéricos , RNA Viral/sangue , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
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