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1.
Talanta ; 252: 123862, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36084571

RESUMO

Facile, efficient, and inexpensive biosensing systems are in high demand for biomedical test. In recent years, numerous smartphone-based biosensing systems have been developed to match demand for biomedical test in source-limited environment. However, application of these smartphone-based biosensing systems was limited because of performance gap between the smartphone-based systems and commercial plate readers. In this study, we have developed a smart tablet-phone-based colorimetric plate reader (STPCPR) with intelligent and dynamic light modulation for broad-range colorimetric assays. The STPCPR allows controllable modulation of exciting light in three different color channels that is lack in conventional smartphone-based system. Using optimized exciting modulation, the STPCPR shows higher sensitivities, lower detection limits, and broader detection ranges in test of pigments, proteins, and cells when compared to conventional plate readers and smartphone-based system. Therefore, the developed STPCPR can serve as an ideal next-generation smartphone-based biosensing system for point-of-care colorimetric test in diverse biomedical applications in source-limited environment.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Colorimetria , Smartphone , Desenho de Equipamento , Testes Imediatos , Bioensaio
2.
Glob Health Sci Pract ; 10(3)2022 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36332072

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Delayed HIV diagnosis in HIV-exposed infants (HEIs) results in missed opportunities for early antiretroviral therapy (ART), causing significant morbidity and mortality. Early infant diagnosis (EID) depends on the availability of accessible and reliable testing services. We explored the acceptability, appropriateness, and feasibility of deploying a targeted community-based point-of-care (POC) EID testing model (i.e., "community POC model") to reach high-risk mother-infant pairs (MIPs) in Lusaka, Zambia. METHODS: We conducted in-depth interviews with a purposive sample of health care workers, study staff, and caregivers in high-risk MIPs at 6 health facilities included in a larger implementation research study evaluating the community POC model. We defined "high-risk MIPs" as mothers who did not receive antenatal testing or an attended delivery or infants who missed EID testing milestones. Interviews were audio-recorded, translated, and transcribed verbatim in English. Content and thematic analysis were done using NVivo 10 software. RESULTS: Health care workers (n=20) and study staff (n=12) who implemented the community POC model noted that the portability and on-screen prompts of the POC platform made it mobile and easy to use, but maintenance and supply chain management were key to field operations. Respondents also felt that the community POC model reached more infants who had never had EID testing, allowing them to find infants with HIV infection and immediately initiate them on ART. Caregivers (n=22) found the community POC model acceptable, provided that privacy could be ensured because the service was convenient and delivered close to home. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate the acceptability, appropriateness, and feasibility of implementing the community POC model in Zambia, while identifying potential challenges related to client privacy and platform field operations. The community POC model may represent a promising strategy to further facilitate active HIV case finding and linkage to ART for children with undiagnosed HIV infection in the community.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Lactente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Zâmbia , Diagnóstico Precoce , Testes Imediatos
3.
Mikrochim Acta ; 189(12): 443, 2022 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36350388

RESUMO

The epidemic of infectious diseases caused by contagious pathogens is a life-threatening hazard to the entire human population worldwide. A timely and accurate diagnosis is the critical link in the fight against infectious diseases. Aptamer-based biosensors, the so-called aptasensors, employ nucleic acid aptamers as bio-receptors for the recognition of target pathogens of interest. This review focuses on the design strategies as well as state-of-the-art technologies of aptasensor-based diagnostics for infectious pathogens (mainly bacteria and viruses), covering the utilization of three major signal transducers, the employment of aptamers as recognition moieties, the construction of versatile biosensing platforms (mostly micro and nanomaterial-based), innovated reporting mechanisms, and signal enhancement approaches. Advanced point-of-care testing (POCT) for infectious disease diagnostics are also discussed highlighting some representative ready-to-use devices to address the urgent needs of currently prevalent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Pressing issues in aptamer-based technology and some future perspectives of aptasensors are provided for the implementation of aptasensor-based diagnostics into practical application.


Assuntos
Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos , Técnicas Biossensoriais , COVID-19 , Doenças Transmissíveis , Humanos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Testes Imediatos , Doenças Transmissíveis/diagnóstico
6.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 12(11)2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36354458

RESUMO

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a global epidemic; however, many individuals are able to obtain treatment and manage their condition. Progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) occurs during late-stage HIV infection, which compromises the immune system, making it susceptible to infections. While there is no cure, antiretroviral therapy can be used provided that detection occurs, preferably during the early phase. However, the detection of HIV is expensive and resource-intensive when tested with conventional methods, such as flow cytometry, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Improving disease detection in resource-constrained areas requires equipment that is affordable, portable, and can deliver rapid results. Microfluidic devices have transformed many benchtop techniques to on-chip detection for portable and rapid point-of-care (POC) testing. These devices are cost-effective, sensitive, and rapid and can be used in areas lacking resources. Moreover, their functionality can rival their benchtop counterparts, making them efficient for disease detection. In this review, we discuss the limitations of currently used conventional HIV diagnostic assays and provide an overview of potential microfluidic technologies that can improve HIV testing in POC settings.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Humanos , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Testes Imediatos , Citometria de Fluxo
7.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 12(11)2022 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36354495

RESUMO

Wearable biosensors are becoming increasingly popular due to the rise in demand for non-invasive, real-time monitoring of health and personalized medicine. Traditionally, wearable biosensors have explored protein-based enzymatic and affinity-based detection strategies. However, in the past decade, with the success of nucleic acid-based point-of-care diagnostics, a paradigm shift has been observed in integrating nucleic acid-based assays into wearable sensors, offering better stability, enhanced analytical performance, and better clinical applicability. This narrative review builds upon the current state and advances in utilizing nucleic acid-based assays, including oligonucleotides, nucleic acid, aptamers, and CRISPR-Cas, in wearable biosensing. The review also discusses the three fundamental blocks, i.e., fabrication requirements, biomolecule integration, and transduction mechanism, for creating nucleic acid integrated wearable biosensors.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Ácidos Nucleicos , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Testes Imediatos
8.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e064038, 2022 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36328389

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This body of work aimed to elicit ambulance service staff's perceptions on the barriers and facilitators to adoption, and clinical utility of incorporating rapid SARS-CoV-2 testing during ambulance assessments. DESIGN: A mixed-methods survey-based project using a framework analysis method to organise qualitative data. SETTING: Emergency and non-emergency care ambulatory services in the UK were approached to take part. PARTICIPANTS: Current, practising members of the UK ambulance service (paramedics, technicians, assistants and other staff) were included in this body of work. RESULTS: Survey 1: 226 responses were collected between 3 December 2020 and 11 January 2021, 179 (79.2%) of which were completed in full. While the majority of respondents indicated that an ambulance-based testing strategy was feasible in concept (143/190, 75.3%), major barriers to adoption were noted. Many open-ended responses cited concerns regarding misuse of the service by the general public and other healthcare services, timing and conveyance issues, and increased workloads, alongside training and safety concerns. Survey 2: 26 responses were received between 8 February 2021 and 22 February 2021 to this follow-up survey. Survey 2 revealed conveyance decision-making, and risk stratification to be the most frequently prioritised use cases among ambulance service staff. Optimal test characteristics for clinical adoption according to respondents were; accuracy (above 90% sensitivity and specificity), rapidity (<30 min time to results) and ease of sample acquisition. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of commercially available lateral flow devices are unlikely to be supported by paramedics as their duty of care requires both rapid and accurate results that can inform clinical decision making in an emergency situation. Further investigation is needed to define acceptable test characteristics and criteria required for ambulance service staff to be confident and supportive of deployment of a SARS-CoV-2 test in an emergency care setting.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Humanos , Ambulâncias , SARS-CoV-2 , Teste para COVID-19 , Estudos de Viabilidade , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Testes Imediatos
9.
Biomed Microdevices ; 24(4): 38, 2022 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36326901

RESUMO

An automated microfluidic system with functionalized beads has been developed for multiplexed TORCH detection at point-of-care testing. A concise microfluidic chip consisting of a one-dimensional beads array is developed to simultaneously detect TOX, RUB, CMV, HSV-I and HSV-II respectively with five functionalized beads. A compact liquid handling module has been developed to automate the sandwiched chemiluminescence immunoassay within the one-dimensional beads array of the microfluidic chip. A precise ram pump is adopted to not only add reagent into the microfluidic chip from outside, but also facilitate elaborate fluid control inside the microfluidic chip for improved performance. A large-size waste chamber with a liquid-absorbing sponge holds the waste reagent within the microfluidic chip to prevent backflow. The one-dimensional beads array is heated from double-sides at 37 ℃ for sensitive detection with reduced time. A sensitive CMOS camera is adopted to take chemiluminescence image from the one-dimensional beads array, and a custom processing algorithm is adopted to analyze the image. For each serum sample, five different infections can be simultaneously detected with the automated microfluidic system. Experimental results show that efficient, sensitive, and accurate multiplexed TORCH detection can be conveniently achieved with the integrated microfluidic system.


Assuntos
Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas , Microfluídica , Animais , Masculino , Ovinos , Microfluídica/métodos , Imunoensaio/métodos , Testes Imediatos , Medições Luminescentes/métodos , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas/métodos , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito
10.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1236: 340576, 2022 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36396231

RESUMO

Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes), a typical foodborne pathogen, poses a serious threat to public health safety. This stimulates to develop a point-of-care testing (POCT) method to achieve rapid, sensitive detection of L. monocytogenes. In this study, polyethylene glycol (PEG) mediated ampicillin functionalized magnetic beads (Amp-PEG-MBs) was prepared successfully and it achieved high efficiency (>90%) and rapid (5 min) capture for L. monocytogenes at room temperature. The innovative combination of antibody (Ab), glucose oxidase (GOD) and graphene oxide (GO) prepared Ab@GO@GOD for the specific recognition of L. monocytogenes. Finally, Amp-PEG-MBs and Ab@GO@GOD were successfully assembled into Amp-PEG-MBs@L. monocytogenes-Ab@GO@GOD sandwich structure which could catalyze the glucose, and the final detection results were recorded by a blood glucose meter (BGM). Magnetic separation (MS) combined with enzyme-catalyzed sensor (MS-Ab@GO@GOD-BGM) was successfully established to achieve the detection of L. monocytogenes in artificially contaminated juice within 66 min with the limit of detection was 101 CFU/mL. This sensor has potential for other pathogens detection by modifying specific antibodies.


Assuntos
Listeria monocytogenes , Nanoestruturas , Testes Imediatos , Fenômenos Magnéticos , Monofosfato de Adenosina
12.
BMC Res Notes ; 15(1): 328, 2022 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36273209

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Obesity and mediators of inflammation have been identified as the most important risk and predictive factors in postmenopausal breast cancer (BC) survivors using aromatase inhibitors (AIs). This study was conducted to assess the impact of point of care technology (PCOT) as part of pathology supported genetic testing (PSGT) to prevent BC therapy-associated comorbidities in African settings. RESULTS: The study revealed that high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and body mass index (BMI) are predictors of cardiovascular (CVD) related adverse events in obese postmenopausal patients subjected to AIs. There were statistically significant variations in total body fat (TBF), weight, hs-CRP, body mass index (BMI), homocysteine, ferritin, and calcium between baseline and after 24 months of follow-up. The above inflammatory markers can be incorporated in pathology supported genetic testing (PSGT) using HyBeacon® probe technology at POC for prediction and management of AI-associated adverse events among postmenopausal breast cancer survivors and associated comorbidities. The barriers for implementation of POCT application among six African countries for diagnosis of breast cancer were documented as insufficient of BC diagnosis and management capacity at different levels of health system.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Aromatase , Neoplasias da Mama , Humanos , Feminino , Inibidores da Aromatase/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Proteína C-Reativa , Cálcio , Estudos de Viabilidade , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Testes Imediatos , Homocisteína , Ferritinas , Mediadores da Inflamação
13.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 12(10)2022 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36290994

RESUMO

For the identification of nucleic acids, which are important biomarkers of pathogen-mediated diseases and viruses, the gold standard for NA-based diagnostic applications is polymerase chain reaction (PCR). However, the requirements of PCR limit its application as a rapid point-of-care diagnostic technique. To address the challenges associated with regular PCR, many isothermal amplification methods have been developed to accurately detect NAs. Isothermal amplification methods enable NA amplification without changes in temperature with simple devices, as well as faster amplification times compared with regular PCR. Of the isothermal amplifications, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is the most studied because it amplifies NAs rapidly and specifically. This review describes the principles of LAMP, the methods used to monitor the process of LAMP, and examples of biosensors that detect the amplicons of LAMP. In addition, current trends in the application of LAMP to smartphones and self-diagnosis systems for point-of-care tests are also discussed.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , Ácidos Nucleicos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Testes Imediatos
14.
BMJ Open ; 12(10): e063781, 2022 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36302575

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: With advances in mobile technology, smartphone-based point-of-care testing (POCT) urinalysis hold great potential for disease screening and health management for clinicians and individual users. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the analytical performance of Hipee S2 POCT urine dipstick analyser. DESIGN: A multicentre, hospital-based, cross-sectional study. SETTING: Analytical performance of the POCT analyser was conducted at a clinical laboratory, and method comparison was performed at three clinical laboratories in China. PARTICIPANTS: Urine samples were collected from 1603 outpatients and inpatients at three hospitals, and 5 health check-up population at one of the hospitals. OUTCOME MEASURES: All tests were performed by clinical laboratory technicians. Precision, drift, carry-over, interference and method comparison of Hipee S2 were evaluated. Diagnostic accuracy of semiquantitative albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) for albuminuria was carried out using quantitative ACR as the standard. RESULTS: The precision for each parameter, assessed by control materials, was acceptable. No sample carry-over or drift was observed. Ascorbate solution with 1 g/L had an inhibitory effect for the haemoglobin test. Agreement for specific gravity (SG) varied between moderate to substantial (κ values 0.496-0.687), for pH was moderate (κ values 0.423-0.569) and for other parameters varied between substantial to excellent (κ values 0.669-0.991), on comparing the Hipee S2 with laboratory analysers. The semiquantitative microalbumin and creatinine were highly correlated with the quantitative results. The sensitivity of semiquantitative ACR to detect albuminuria was 87.2%-90.7%, specificity was 70.7%-78.4%, negative predictive value was 85.3%-87.9% and positive predictive value was 73.9%-83%. CONCLUSIONS: Hipee S2 POCT urine analyser showed acceptable analytical performance as a semiquantitative method. It serves as a convenient alternate device for clinicians and individual users for urinalysis and health management. In addition, the POCT semiquantitative ACR would be useful in screening for albuminuria.


Assuntos
Albuminúria , Urinálise , Humanos , Albuminúria/diagnóstico , Creatinina , Estudos Transversais , Urinálise/métodos , Testes Imediatos , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito
15.
Clin J Sport Med ; 32(6): 623-626, 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36315821

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Visinin-like protein 1 (VILIP-1) is a neuron-specific calcium sensor protein rapidly released into blood after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and may be a suitable biomarker for identification of sports-related concussion (SRC). The objective of the study is to test if quantification of a specific post-translationally modified (ubiquitinated) form of VILIP-1 (ubVILIP-1) from a fingerstick blood sample using a point of care (POC) lateral flow device (LFD) can be used to rapidly identify athletes with SRC. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Side-line blood collection at football, soccer, and volleyball games/practices. PARTICIPANTS: Division I athletes with/without SRC. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Blood ubVILIP-1 concentrations. RESULTS: Data collected over 2 athletic seasons from non-SRC athletes (controls) show a small but statistically significant elevation of ubVILIP-1 over an individual season for male athletes (P = 0.02) dependent on sport (P = 0.014) and no significant changes in ubVILIP-1 levels between seasons. For SRC athletes, the data show ubVILIP-1 levels substantially increase above baseline as soon as 30 minutes postdiagnosis with peak concentrations and times postinjury that vary based on injury severity. CONCLUSION: Results of the study suggest quantification of blood ubVILIP-1 levels measured using an LFD may provide an objective identification of athletes with SRC, setting the stage for further study with a larger number of SRC patients.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Concussão Encefálica , Futebol Americano , Humanos , Masculino , Concussão Encefálica/diagnóstico , Traumatismos em Atletas/diagnóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Futebol Americano/lesões , Atletas , Testes Imediatos
16.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(10): e2234588, 2022 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36255727

RESUMO

Importance: Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) account for most outpatient visits. Discriminating bacterial vs viral etiology is a diagnostic challenge with therapeutic implications. Objective: To investigate whether FebriDx, a rapid, point-of-care immunoassay, can differentiate bacterial- from viral-associated host immune response in ARI through measurement of myxovirus resistance protein A (MxA) and C-reactive protein (CRP) from finger-stick blood. Design, Setting, and Participants: This diagnostic study enrolled adults and children who were symptomatic for ARI and individuals in a control group who were asymptomatic between October 2019 and April 2021. Included participants were a convenience sample of patients in outpatient settings (ie, emergency department, urgent care, and primary care) who were symptomatic, aged 1 year or older, and had suspected ARI and fever within 72 hours. Individuals with immunocompromised state and recent vaccine, antibiotics, stroke, surgery, major burn, or myocardial infarction were excluded. Of 1685 individuals assessed for eligibility, 259 individuals declined participation, 718 individuals were excluded, and 708 individuals were enrolled (520 patients with ARI, 170 patients without ARI, and 18 individuals who dropped out). Exposures: Bacterial and viral immunoassay testing was performed using finger-stick blood. Results were read at 10 minutes, and treating clinicians and adjudicators were blinded to results. Main Outcomes and Measures: Bacterial- or viral-associated systemic host response to an ARI as determined by a predefined comparator algorithm with adjudication classified infection etiology. Results: Among 520 participants with ARI (230 male patients [44.2%] and 290 female patients [55.8%]; mean [SD] age, 35.3 [17.7] years), 24 participants with missing laboratory information were classified as unknown (4.6%). Among 496 participants with a final diagnosis, 73 individuals (14.7%) were classified as having a bacterial-associated response, 296 individuals (59.7%) as having a viral-associated response, and 127 individuals (25.6%) as negative by the reference standard. The bacterial and viral test correctly classified 68 of 73 bacterial infections, demonstrating a sensitivity of 93.2% (95% CI, 84.9%-97.0%), specificity of 374 of 423 participants (88.4% [95% CI, 85.0%-91.1%]), positive predictive value (PPV) of 68 of 117 participants (58.1% [95% CI, 49.1%-66.7%), and negative predictive value (NPV) of 374 of 379 participants (98.7% [95% CI, 96.9%-99.4%]).The test correctly classified 208 of 296 viral infections, for a sensitivity of 70.3% (95% CI, 64.8%-75.2%), a specificity of 176 of 200 participants (88.0% [95% CI, 82.8%-91.8%]), a PPV of 208 of 232 participants (89.7% [95% CI, 85.1%-92.9%]), and an NPV of 176 of 264 participants (66.7% [95% CI, 60.8%-72.1%]). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, a rapid diagnostic test demonstrated diagnostic performance that may inform clinicians when assessing for bacterial or viral etiology of ARI symptoms.


Assuntos
Proteína C-Reativa , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Criança , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Testes Imediatos , Biomarcadores , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico
17.
Clin Chim Acta ; 537: 107-111, 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36309068

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The diagnostic potential of urine NT-pro-BNP has been studied recently and shows great promise, especially for children. Bedside serum-NT-proBNP determination with point of care testing (POCT) is established in adults. This study investigated the analytical capabilities of NT-proBNP POCT measurements for urine-samples. Furthermore, the stability of this biomarker in urine samples at room-temperature was explored. METHODS: 104 urine samples were analysed, partly with double and triple determinations and compared to the established Elecsys system. To investigate the stability of NT-proBNP in urine, five samples were stored at room temperature and analysed 12-hourly over 96 h. RESULTS: 34 % of samples lay outside the POCT range (60 pg/ml-9000 pg/ml). The 69 values within the range were correlated with those measured by Elecsys (correlation coefficient of 0.92; p < 0.001). Linear regression yields an r2 of 0.84. The stability of urine NT-proBNP was shown with correlation coefficients between 0.97 and 1 (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Analysing NT-ProBNP in urine with cobas h232 POC system is feasible, but the detection range needs to be adjusted. As urine NT-proBNP proved stable for at least 96 h even postal shipping would be possible. Adjusting this system's measuring range could help introduce a new, non-invasive, pain-free parameter.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Peptídeo Natriurético Encefálico , Fragmentos de Peptídeos , Testes Imediatos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico
18.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(19)2022 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36236497

RESUMO

Due to the recent pandemic caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the lateral flow immunoassay used for its rapid antigen test is more popular than ever before. However, the history of the lateral flow immunoassay is about 60 years old, and its original purpose of use, such as a COVID-19 rapid antigen test or a pregnancy test, was the qualitative detection of a target analyte. Recently, the demand for quantitative analysis of lateral flow immunoassays is increasing in various fields. Lateral flow immunoassays for quantitative detection using various materials and sensor technologies are being introduced, and readers for analyzing them are being developed. Quantitative analysis readers are highly anticipated for their future development in line with technological advancements such as optical, magnetic field, photothermal, and electrochemical sensors and trends such as weight reduction, miniaturization, and cost reduction of systems. In addition, the sensing, processing, and communication functions of portable personal devices such as smartphones can be used as tools for the quantitative analysis of lateral flow immunoassays. As a result, lateral flow immunoassays can efficiently achieve the goal of rapid diagnosis by point-of-care testing. Readers used for the quantification of lateral flow immunoassays were classified according to the adopted sensor technology, and the research trends in each were reviewed in this paper. The development of a quantitative analysis system was often carried out in the assay aspect, so not only the readers but also the assay development cases were reviewed if necessary. In addition, systems for quantitative analysis of COVID-19, which have recently been gaining importance, were introduced as a separate section.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Humanos , Imunoensaio/métodos , Testes Imunológicos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miniaturização , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Testes Imediatos
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(19)2022 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36232618

RESUMO

Aspirin resistance describes a phenomenon where patients receiving aspirin therapy do not respond favorably to treatment, and is categorized by continued incidence of adverse cardiovascular events and/or the lack of reduced platelet reactivity. Studies demonstrate that one in four patients with vascular disease are resistant to aspirin therapy, placing them at an almost four-fold increased risk of major adverse limb and adverse cardiovascular events. Despite the increased cardiovascular risk incurred by aspirin resistant patients, strategies to diagnose or overcome this resistance are yet to be clinically validated and integrated. Currently, five unique laboratory assays have shown promise for aspirin resistance testing: Light transmission aggregometry, Platelet Function Analyzer-100, Thromboelastography, Verify Now, and Platelet Works. Newer antiplatelet therapies such as Plavix and Ticagrelor have been tested as an alternative to overcome aspirin resistance (used both in combination with aspirin and alone) but have not proven to be superior to aspirin alone. A recent breakthrough discovery has demonstrated that rivaroxaban, an anticoagulant which functions by inhibiting active Factor X when taken in combination with aspirin, improves outcomes in patients with vascular disease. Current studies are determining how this new regime may benefit those who are considered aspirin resistant.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária , Doenças Vasculares , Anticoagulantes , Aspirina/farmacologia , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Clopidogrel , Fator X , Humanos , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/farmacologia , Inibidores da Agregação Plaquetária/uso terapêutico , Testes Imediatos , Rivaroxabana , Ticagrelor , Doenças Vasculares/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Vasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Vasculares/tratamento farmacológico
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