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1.
Acta Neurochir Suppl ; 127: 145-148, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407075

RESUMO

Delayed cerebral infarction (DCI) is related to unfavorable outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). There lacks a clear understanding how the DCI load affects cognitive function after SAH. We conducted a literature review on the clinical classification systems on brain hemorrhages and cerebral infarction and devised a Delayed Cerebral Infarction Load Scoring System (DCI Score). DCI Score significantly correlated with Symbol Digit Modalities Test (-0.334, p = 0.032), Color Trail Test (-0.310, p = 0.032), Hong Kong List Learning Test (-0.318, p = 0.036), Verbal Digit Span Forward (-0.382, p = 0.017), and Visual Digit Span Backward (-0.425, p = 0.012). In conclusion, higher DCI load impacted significantly on memory and executive function. DCI Score is a useful system for clinical quantification of DCI load and clinical research.


Assuntos
Infarto Cerebral , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea , Infarto Cerebral/diagnóstico , Hong Kong , Humanos , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Hemorragia Subaracnóidea/diagnóstico
2.
Acta colomb. psicol ; 22(2): 28-52, July-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019275

RESUMO

Abstract Neurological Soft Signs (NSS) are indicative of generalized disruptions in neurological networks of cortico-subcortical areas. Their presence leads to problems in children's cognitive development with future academic repercussions. The presence of NSS was assessed and compared in 144 children aged 6 to 11 years of low-medium socioeconomic status from Mexico City and the metropolitan area through the Infant Neuropsychological Maturity Questionnaire (CUMANIN, for its Spanish acronym) and the School Neuropsychological Maturity Questionnaire (CUMANES, for its Spanish acronym). Results indicate significant differences by sex. Girls showed better performance in word articulation. In groups by age, significant differences were found in leximetric-comprehension, visual perception and executive function-errors. Participants showed the presence of developmental NSS which include: language (articulation disorders, oral and written language disturbances, difficulty finding words), psychomotricity, visual perception and other cognitive functions. There are several factors related to those impairments such as age, socioeconomic context and critical stages in child's development. Identification and early diagnosis can reduce the risk of school failure.


Resumo Os Sinais Neurológico Sutis (SNS) são indicadores de interrupções generalizadas nas redes de trabalho neural de áreas córtico-subcorticais, cuja presença leva a problemas no desenvolvimento neurocognitivo da criança que representam repercussões acadêmicas negativas. Na presente pesquisa, foi avaliada e comparada a presença de SNS com os processos cognitivos de 144 participantes mexicanos de estrato socioeconómico médio-baixo com idades entre 6 e 11 anos, sem antecedentes neurológicos ou psiquiátricos, por meio dos Cuestionarios de Madurez Neuropsicológica (CUMANIN) e Madurez Neuropsicológica Escolar (CUMANES). Os resultados indicaram diferenças significativas por gênero, já que as meninas apresentaram melhor desempenho na articulação de palavras. Nos grupos por idade, as diferenças significativas foram encontradas na velocidade de leitura e compreensão, visuopercepção e função executiva e erros. Em geral, os participantes mostraram presença de SNS de desenvolvimento, que incluem interferências na linguagem (problemas articulatórios, alterações da linguagem oral e escrita, dificuldade para encontrar palavras), psicomotricidade, visuopercepção e outras funções cognitivas. Ao final, conclui-se que a identificação e o diagnóstico precoce dos SNS permite diminuir o risco de fracasso escolar.


Resumen Los Signos Neurológicos Blandos (SNB) son indicativos de interrupciones generalizadas en las redes de trabajo neuronal de áreas cortico-subcorticales, cuya presencia conlleva a problemas en el desarrollo neurocognitivo del niño que representan repercusiones académicas negativas. En la presente investigación se evaluó y comparó la presencia de SNB con los procesos cognitivos de 144 participantes mexicanos de estrato socioeconómico medio-bajo con edades entre los 6 y 11 años sin antecedentes neurológicos o psiquiátricos por medio de los Cuestionarios de Madurez Neuropsicológica (CUMANIN) y Madurez Neuropsicológica Escolar (CUMANES). Los resultados indicaron diferencias significativas por sexo, ya que las niñas presentaron mejor desempeño en la articulación de palabras. En los grupos por edad, las diferencias significativas se encontraron en leximetría-comprensión, visopercepción y función ejecutiva-errores; y, en general, los participantes mostraron presencia de SNB de desarrollo, que incluyen afectaciones en: lenguaje (problemas articulatorios, alteraciones del lenguaje oral y escrito, dificultad para encontrar palabras), psicomotricidad, visopercepción y otras funciones cognitivas. Al final, se concluye que la identificación y diagnóstico temprano de los SNB permite disminuir el riesgo de fracaso escolar.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Escolaridade , Manifestações Neurológicas , Testes Neuropsicológicos
3.
N Engl J Med ; 381(17): 1644-1652, 2019 10 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597037

RESUMO

Genome sequencing is often pivotal in the diagnosis of rare diseases, but many of these conditions lack specific treatments. We describe how molecular diagnosis of a rare, fatal neurodegenerative condition led to the rational design, testing, and manufacture of milasen, a splice-modulating antisense oligonucleotide drug tailored to a particular patient. Proof-of-concept experiments in cell lines from the patient served as the basis for launching an "N-of-1" study of milasen within 1 year after first contact with the patient. There were no serious adverse events, and treatment was associated with objective reduction in seizures (determined by electroencephalography and parental reporting). This study offers a possible template for the rapid development of patient-customized treatments. (Funded by Mila's Miracle Foundation and others.).


Assuntos
Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Mutagênese Insercional , Lipofuscinoses Ceroides Neuronais/tratamento farmacológico , Lipofuscinoses Ceroides Neuronais/genética , Oligonucleotídeos Antissenso/uso terapêutico , Medicina de Precisão , Doenças Raras/tratamento farmacológico , Biópsia , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Descoberta de Drogas , Drogas em Investigação/uso terapêutico , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Testes Neuropsicológicos , RNA Mensageiro , Convulsões/diagnóstico , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico , Pele/patologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
4.
Psychiatr Danub ; 31(3): 355-357, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596829

RESUMO

We aimed to compare processing speed (PS) and its subcomponents in schizophrenia (SC) and schizoaffective disorder (SA). Thirty-five patients were divided into two groups (SC=18; SA=17). PS tasks from the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery Central/South America version were used. Additional PS subcomponents were analyzed (i.e., behavioral execution, response processing, and accuracy). SA obtained significant higher scores than SC in response processing, verbal fluency and the PS general domain. Our results indicate that PS is a potential cognitive marker to differentiate between SC and SA. Further research with larger samples must be conducted.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/psicologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Transtornos Cognitivos/complicações , Humanos , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Projetos Piloto , Transtornos Psicóticos/complicações , Esquizofrenia/complicações
5.
JAMA ; 322(16): 1589-1599, 2019 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638686

RESUMO

Importance: Worldwide, 47 million people live with dementia and, by 2050, the number is expected to increase to 131 million. Observations: Dementia is an acquired loss of cognition in multiple cognitive domains sufficiently severe to affect social or occupational function. In the United States, Alzheimer disease, one cause of dementia, affects 5.8 million people. Dementia is commonly associated with more than 1 neuropathology, usually Alzheimer disease with cerebrovascular pathology. Diagnosing dementia requires a history evaluating for cognitive decline and impairment in daily activities, with corroboration from a close friend or family member, in addition to a thorough mental status examination by a clinician to delineate impairments in memory, language, attention, visuospatial cognition such as spatial orientation, executive function, and mood. Brief cognitive impairment screening questionnaires can assist in initiating and organizing the cognitive assessment. However, if the assessment is inconclusive (eg, symptoms present, but normal examination findings), neuropsychological testing can help determine whether dementia is present. Physical examination may help identify the etiology of dementia. For example, focal neurologic abnormalities suggest stroke. Brain neuroimaging may demonstrate structural changes including, but not limited to, focal atrophy, infarcts, and tumor, that may not be identified on physical examination. Additional evaluation with cerebrospinal fluid assays or genetic testing may be considered in atypical dementia cases, such as age of onset younger than 65 years, rapid symptom onset, and/or impairment in multiple cognitive domains but not episodic memory. For treatment, patients may benefit from nonpharmacologic approaches, including cognitively engaging activities such as reading, physical exercise such as walking, and socialization such as family gatherings. Pharmacologic approaches can provide modest symptomatic relief. For Alzheimer disease, this includes an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor such as donepezil for mild to severe dementia, and memantine (used alone or as an add-on therapy) for moderate to severe dementia. Rivastigmine can be used to treat symptomatic Parkinson disease dementia. Conclusions and Relevance: Alzheimer disease currently affects 5.8 million persons in the United States and is a common cause of dementia, which is usually accompanied by other neuropathology, often cerebrovascular disease such as brain infarcts. Causes of dementia can be diagnosed by medical history, cognitive and physical examination, laboratory testing, and brain imaging. Management should include both nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic approaches, although efficacy of available treatments remains limited.


Assuntos
Demência/diagnóstico , Demência/terapia , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Doença de Alzheimer/terapia , Inibidores da Colinesterase/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Colinesterase/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Aminoácidos Excitatórios/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas de Aminoácidos Excitatórios/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Memantina/efeitos adversos , Memantina/uso terapêutico , Neuroimagem , Testes Neuropsicológicos
6.
Wiad Lek ; 72(9 cz 2): 1715-1722, 2019.
Artigo em Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622253

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Introduction: Cognitive limitations are a serious health and social problem, which concerns elderly people. Effective prevention and treatment of cognitive dysfunction is one of the challenges of modern medicine. There is not enough consistent data in the literature to indicate to indicate the relationship between various clinical and demographic factors with cognitive functioning in different age ranges. The aim: To analyze clinical and demographic predictors of mild cognitive impairment by age group. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Material and methods: The analysis included 817 participants (669 with normal cognitive function and 148 people with MCI). The evaluation of the level of depressive symptoms was measured by the Short Form Geriatric Depression Scale. All participants were screened for cognitive functioning using the Mini-Mental State Examination and Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-III. Different cognitive domains were evaluated with different neuropsychological tools: the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning test, Clock Drawing test, Verbal Fluency test, Digit Span Test and Trail Making test. RESULTS: Results: It has been shown that independently associated with MCI ware age (OR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.05-1.13) and level of education (OR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.69-0.81). Depending on the age, it turned out that in the younger MCI group, age, education and depression were significant, and the age and level of education were significant in the older MCI group. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: The identification of cognitive dysfunctions is an important element of the diagnostic and therapeutic process.


Assuntos
Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Fatores Etários , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Humanos
7.
Soins Gerontol ; 24(139): 37-42, 2019.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540720

RESUMO

The demographic evolution of our society has increased the need to assess the cognitive functions of people aged over 80. These assessments are made difficult due to the specificities of this population. It is possible to clarify the issues relating to the neuropsychological assessment in geriatrics and to put forward areas for discussion.


Assuntos
Avaliação Geriátrica , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Humanos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
8.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 52(9): e8533, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483000

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the effect of a newly designed intensive caregiver education program (ICEP) on reducing cognitive impairment, anxiety, and depression in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients. One hundred and ninety-six AIS patients were divided into ICEP group and Control group in a 1:1 ratio using blocked randomization method. In the ICEP group, the caregivers received ICEP, while in the Control group caregivers received usual education and guidance. All patients received conventional rehabilitation treatment. Cognitive impairment (assessed by Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) score and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) score), anxiety (assessed by Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)-A score and Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) score), and depression (assessed by HADS-D score and Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS) score) were assessed at baseline (M0), 3 months (M3), 6 months (M6), and 12 months (M12). Cognitive impairment score at M12 and cognitive impairment score change (M12-M0) were increased, while cognitive impairment rate at M12 was reduced in the ICEP group compared with the Control group. Anxiety score change (M12-M0), anxiety score at M12, and anxiety rate at M12 were decreased in the ICEP group compared with the Control group. Depression score change (M12-M0), depression score at M12, and depression rate at M12 were lower in the ICEP group compared with the Control group. Further subgroup analysis based on baseline features also provided similar results. In conclusion, ICEP effectively reduced cognitive impairment, anxiety, and depression in AIS patients.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Cuidadores , Disfunção Cognitiva/prevenção & controle , Transtorno Depressivo/prevenção & controle , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/enfermagem , Adulto , Ansiedade/etiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/etiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/psicologia , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral
9.
Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr ; 87(9): 504-510, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519026

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neuropsychological dementia diagnosis of migrants are limited regarding the testing of cognitive abilities as well as the recording of everyday activities (Activities of Daily Living, ADL) such as linguistic, educational, lifestyle and cultural-religious factors have not been taken into account in psychometric instruments. AIM OF THE STUDY: We aimed to develop a culturally sensitive ADL scale, which is suitable for both German people and Turkish migrants that takes into consideration gender, cultural-religious and lifestyle aspects. A further aim was to determine the quality criteria for the newly proposed ADL scale. METHODS: After the initial phase, including qualitative interviews (N = 15) with cognitively unimpaired German participants and Turkish migrants, a first version of the ADL instrument was developed. This version was then completed by cognitively unimpaired Germans (n = 197) and Turkish participants (n = 53) and the shortened ADL scale was generated based on an item analysis. It consisted of the three subscales 'cognition', 'Basic Activities of Daily Living (BADL)' and 'Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL)'. For Turkish participants, questions about Islamic prayers were added. Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) were applied to rule out cognitive impairment and depression. The 'Bayer-ADL' was used to measure the validity of the scale. RESULTS: The everyday life of Germans and Turkish migrants differs in aspects of religious practice and in terms of sociocultural activities, which are taken into account in the CC-ADL. The reliability of the new ADL scale in terms of internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) were regarding 'cognition' α = .43 for Germans and α = .80 for Turkish migrants; 'BADL' α = .55 for Germans and α = -.04 for Turkish migrants; 'IADL' α = .91 for Germans and α = .83 for Turkish migrants and α = .73 for Turkish migrants under the 'prayer items'. The correlation of the ADL total score with the Bayer ADL for Germans was ρ = .347 (p < .00) and for the Turkish sample ρ = .520 (p < .01). CONCLUSION: The development of a final version of the CC-ADL scale requires further data from healthy participants and patients (Mild Cognitive Impairment and dementia).


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Competência Cultural , Demência/diagnóstico , Demência/psicologia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Estilo de Vida/etnologia , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Religião e Psicologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Turquia/etnologia
10.
Postgrad Med ; 131(7): 523-532, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478421

RESUMO

Objectives: Many people affected by multiple sclerosis (MS) experience cognitive impairment, especially decreases in information processing speed (PS). Neural disconnection is thought to represent the neural marker of this symptom, although the role played by alterations of specific functional brain networks still remains unclear. The aim is to investigate and compare patterns of association between PS-demanding cognitive performance and functional connectivity across two MS phenotypes. Methods: Forty patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) and 25 with secondary progressive MS (SPMS) had neuropsychological and MRI assessments. Multiple regression models were used to investigate the relationship between performance on tests of visuomotor and verbal PS, and on the verbal fluency tests, and functional connectivity of four cognitive networks, i.e. left and right frontoparietal, salience and default-mode, and two control networks, i.e. visual and sensorimotor. Results: Patients with SPMS were older and had longer disease history than patients with RRMS and presented with worse overall clinical conditions: higher disease severity, total lesion volume, and cognitive impairment rates. However, in both patient samples, cognitive performance across tests was negatively correlated with functional connectivity of the salience and default-mode networks, and positively with connectivity of the left frontoparietal network. Only the visuomotor PS scores of the RRMS group were also associated with connectivity of the sensorimotor network. Conclusions: PS-demanding cognitive performance in patients with MS appears mainly associated with strength of functional connectivity of frontal networks involved in the evaluation and manipulation of information, as well as the default mode network. These results are in line with the hypothesis that multiple neural networks are needed to support normal cognitive performance across MS phenotypes. However, different PS measures showed partially different patterns of association with functional connectivity. Therefore, further investigations are needed to clarify the contribution of inter-network communication to specific cognitive deficits due to MS.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Esclerose Múltipla Crônica Progressiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Idoso , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Cerebelo/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Lobo Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Frontal/fisiopatologia , Neuroimagem Funcional , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico por imagem , Esclerose Múltipla/fisiopatologia , Esclerose Múltipla/psicologia , Esclerose Múltipla Crônica Progressiva/fisiopatologia , Esclerose Múltipla Crônica Progressiva/psicologia , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/fisiopatologia , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/psicologia , Vias Neurais/diagnóstico por imagem , Vias Neurais/fisiopatologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Lobo Parietal/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Parietal/fisiopatologia , Desempenho Psicomotor
11.
Psychiatr Danub ; 31(Suppl 3): 261-264, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488738

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia can be interpreted as a pathology involving the neocortex whose cognitive dysfunctions represent a central and persistent characteristic of the disease, as well as one of the more important symptoms in relation to the impairment of psychosocial functioning and the resulting disabilities. Given the implication of cognitive functions in everyday life, they can better predict the degree of schizophrenia. The study proposes to use Machine Learning techniques to identify the specific cognitive deficits of schizophrenia that mostly characterize the disorder, as well as to develop a predictive system that can diagnose the presence of schizophrenia based on neurocognitive tests. BACKGROUND: The study employs a dataset of neurocognitive assessments carried out on 201 people (86 schizophrenic patients and 115 healthy patients) recruited by the Neuroscience Group of the University of Bari "A. Moro". A data analysis process has been carried out, with the aim of selecting the most relevant features as well as to prepare data for training a number of "off-the-shelf" machine learning methods (Decision Tree, Random Forest, Logistic Regression, k-Nearest Neighbor, Neural Network, Support Vector Machine), which have been evaluated in terms of classification accuracy according to stratified 20-fold cross-validation. RESULTS: Among all variables, 14 were selected as the most influential for the classification problem. The variables with greater influence are related to working memory, executive functions, attention, verbal fluency, memory. The best algorithms turned out to be Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Neural Network, showing an accuracy of 87.8% and 84.8% on a test set. CONCLUSIONS: Machine Learning provides "cheap" and non-invasive methods that potentially enable early intervention with specific rehabilitation interventions. The results suggest the need to integrate a thorough neuropsychological evaluation into the more general diagnostic evaluation of patients with schizophrenia disorder.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/complicações , Transtornos Cognitivos/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/complicações , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Aprendizado de Máquina , Esquizofrenia/complicações , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Cognição , Humanos , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico
12.
Am J Occup Ther ; 73(5): 7305205060p1-7305205060p9, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484030

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine how Parkinson's disease (PD) affects functional cognition as assessed by the Complex Task Performance Assessment (CTPA) and to examine the associations of CTPA performance with other indicators of executive function in people with PD. METHOD: Volunteers with PD without dementia (n = 20) and community control participants (n = 19) completed neuropsychological testing, patient-reported outcome measures, and the CTPA. RESULTS: There were no group differences for CTPA performance accuracy; however, the PD group took longer to complete the CTPA than did the control group. In the PD group, inefficient CTPA performance correlated with poorer cognitive flexibility and worse reported everyday shifting and task monitoring. CONCLUSION: Decreased executive function, namely cognitive flexibility and attentional control, may impair functional cognition in people with PD. Future studies with larger, more diverse samples are warranted to determine the discriminant validity and sensitivity of the CTPA. Use of performance-based assessments such as the CTPA may increase the understanding of functional cognition in people with PD.


Assuntos
Doença de Parkinson , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Cognição , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Humanos , Testes Neuropsicológicos
13.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(10): 1617-1623, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31551603

RESUMO

Common risk factors for psychiatric and other brain disorders are likely to converge on biological pathways influencing the development and maintenance of brain structure and function across life. Using structural MRI data from 45,615 individuals aged 3-96 years, we demonstrate distinct patterns of apparent brain aging in several brain disorders and reveal genetic pleiotropy between apparent brain aging in healthy individuals and common brain disorders.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , Envelhecimento/patologia , Encefalopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Encefalopatias/genética , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Algoritmos , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Lactente , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Esquizofrenia/genética , Esquizofrenia/patologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
14.
Dev Neuropsychol ; 44(5): 397-408, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394932

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to generate normative data on the M-WCST in a Lebanese adult population and to examine the relationship between performance on this task and demographic variables. The sample consisted of 220 healthy adults aged between 18 and 64 years. Regression-based strategy was applied to generate normative data. The results showed a statistically significant effect of age and level of education on the M-WCST measures, whereas gender was not significant. Demographically calibrated percentiles and scaled scores were created. Finally, this study was the first to provide normative-adjusted tables for the M-WCST scores in Lebanon.


Assuntos
Testes Neuropsicológicos/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Escolaridade , Função Executiva , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valores de Referência , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Teste de Classificação de Cartas de Wisconsin , Adulto Jovem
15.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 264: 168-172, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437907

RESUMO

Early detection of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has become increasingly important. Healthy monitoring technology focusing on behavioral changes is a promising approach in this vein. Among such technologies, handwriting features measured by digital tablet devices have attracted attention as potential indicators for detecting AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, previous studies have mainly investigated features in single tasks, and it remains unclear whether combining the features of multiple tasks could improve the performance of detecting AD and MCI. In this study, we investigated features in five representative tasks used in neuropsychological tests collected from 71 seniors including some diagnosed with MCI and AD. We found that our three-class classification model improved diagnosis accuracy by up to 11.3% by combining features of multiple tasks, for a final accuracy of 74.6%. We also suggested that drawing behaviors during multiple tasks might be useful for estimating disease progression simply by utilizing the labels of disease groups.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Disfunção Cognitiva , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Progressão da Doença , Diagnóstico Precoce , Escrita Manual , Humanos , Testes Neuropsicológicos
16.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 44(7): 805-812, 2019 Jul 28.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31413220

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the white-matter integrity and its correlation with cognitive function in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) complicated with lacunar infarctions (LI) by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of magnetic resonance (MR).
 Methods: Twenty-six patients with MCI were selected including 14 patients with combined LI and 12 patients without combined LI, and 16 healthy volunteers were recruited as normal control. All subjects completed cognitive function assessment and DTI sequence of MR. Factional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) values among the MCI with LI group (MCI-LI), the MCI without LI group (MCI-non LI), and the normal control group (NC) were compared, and the correlation between DTI parameters and cognition was determined by multiple linear stepwise regression.
 Results: Compared with the MCI-non LI group, the FA values were significantly decreased (P<0.05) and MD values were significantly increased (P<0.05) in the white matter fiber bundles (such as the left hippocampus of the cingulate tract, the frontal fascicle of the corpus callosum, the right inferior frontal occipital fascicle, and the right superior longitudinal fascicle) in the MCI-LI group. In the MCI-LI group, the FA value of right cingulate gyrus was significantly correlated with Activity of Daily Living Scale (ADL) score (B=-50.2, 95% CI -77.7 to -22.7, P=0.003); the FA value of left anterior thalamic radiation (B=443.8, 95% CI 222.9 to 664.8, P=0.001) and MD value of left inferior longitudinal tract (B=-318.5, 95% CI -534.7 to -102.3, P=0.009) were significantly correlated with Wechsler digit symbol substitution (WDSS) score; the FA value of left superior temporal lobe longitudinal tract was significantly correlated with Backward Digit Span (BDSP) score (B=12.5, 95% CI 1.5 to 23.4, P=0.030).
 Conclusion: The integrity of white matter is significantly destroyed in MCI patients with LI than that in MCI patients without LI, and there is a correlation between cognitive function and DTI parameters in some white matter tracts in MCI patients with LI.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Acidente Vascular Cerebral Lacunar , Substância Branca , Anisotropia , Encéfalo , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Humanos , Testes Neuropsicológicos
17.
Environ Res ; 177: 108632, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Results from studies to date, regarding the role of chronic pesticide exposure on cognitive function remain contradictory. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between self-reported pesticide exposure and cognitive function. METHODS: Data from a population-based cohort study of older adults (HEllenic Longitudinal Investigation of Aging and Diet) in Greece was used. Pesticide exposure classification was based on 1) living in areas that were being sprayed; 2) application of spray insecticides/pesticides in their gardens; and 3) occupational application of sprays. Associations between z-scores of cognitive performance and self-reported pesticide exposure were examined with linear regression analyses. Adjusted models were applied, for all analyses. RESULTS: Non-demented individuals who reported that they had been living in areas near sprayed fields, had poorer neuropsychological performance, compared to those who had never lived in such areas. Sub-analyses revealed poorer performance in language, executive and visual-spatial functioning, and attention. These associations remained after a sensitivity analysis excluding subjects with mild cognitive impairment. CONCLUSION: Self-reported exposure to pesticides was negatively associated with cognitive performance.


Assuntos
Cognição , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Dieta , Feminino , Jardins , Grécia , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos
18.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 99(31): 2423-2428, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434421

RESUMO

Objective: To compare the features of a modified WHO/UCLA AVLT performance in the cognitive normal, amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and mild Alzheimer's disease (mild AD) patients. Method: A total of 105 cases of cognitivenormal (CN), 48 aMCI and 50 mild AD patients were included between 2016 and 2018. All subjects undertook detailed neuropsychological tests and brain MRI/CT scan. Results: The total score of five learning trials in CN, aMCI and AD groups were 53.9±6.9, 34.6±8.3 and 23.7±6.2, respectively (P<0.001). The score of 20-min delay recallwere 12.5±1.6, 4.3±3.0 and 0.6±1.0, respectively (P<0.001) in three groups. The score of cued recall were 13.0±1.4, 7.0±2.4 and 2.6±2.0, respectively (P<0.001). The score of 20-min delay recall had the largest effect sizes between CN and aMCI groups (Cohen'd=3.8, 95%CI,3.3-4.4), and CN and mild AD groups (Cohen'd=8.1, 95%CI 7.1-9.1). Cued recall had the largest effect size between aMCI and mild AD groups (Cohen'd=2.04, 95%CI 1.5-2.5). The scores of learning total score, 20-min delay recall, cued recall and recognition had the strong relationships with the scores of mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) , but obtaining moderate relationships with Boston naming test and trail making test (TMT) and weak relationships with digit span and figure copy. Age and education had no relationship with the main indices of this modified AVLT. Conclusions: The modified WHO/UCLA AVLT is still an age and education fair test to assess memory domain function. Qualitative analysis of AVLT profiles may be useful to differentiate the CN, aMCI and mild AD in Chinese sample.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Disfunção Cognitiva , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Memória , Testes Neuropsicológicos
19.
West Afr J Med ; 36(2): 158-164, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385602

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Previous reports has shown that asthmatic patients with poor asthma control exhibited cognitive dysfunction. However, there is paucity of information on the cognitive functions of patients with clinically stable asthma particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Subjects, study setting, materials and methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted at the Federal Medical Centre, Owo, South West Nigeria from 2014-2016. Forty patients with mild to moderate asthma and forty matched (age, sex and educational status) non-asthmatic control subjects were included. Spirometry was done for all participants. Cognitive performance on domains of psychomotor speed, attention/concentration, memory and vigilance were assessed in all the participants using the Fepsy neuropsychological test battery Results: The mean age of the patients with asthma in years was 38.65±16.67 while that of the control subjects was 39.18±11.64 years. The patients with asthma had prolonged visual and binary choice reaction time relative to controls. Older asthmatic patients had prolonged visual and binary choice reaction time when compared to controls (p<0.05) while other socio-demographic clinical characteristics of the patients did not have impact on their cognitive performance (p>0.05). CONCLUSION: Cognitive performance was similar between the patients with mild to moderate asthma and non-asthmatic controls. Older asthmatic patients have impaired psychomotor speed relative to younger asthmatic patients.


Assuntos
Asma/diagnóstico , Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Asma/complicações , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Transtornos Cognitivos/diagnóstico , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Memória , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Nigéria
20.
West Afr J Med ; 36(2): 183-188, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385606

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There is paucity of information on delirium in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) particularly in the older persons (>60 years of age), leaving questions about the burden of the disease in an environment with lower health care standards. In this article, we set out to determine the frequency, precipitants and symptomatology of delirium in elderly patients admitted into medical wards in a teaching hospital in South-West Nigeria. METHODS: This was a descriptive study involving a pre-planned sample of one hundred and fifty patients aged 60 years and over, assessed for cognitive impairment and delirium using the previously validated IDEA cognitive screen, and the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) respectively. Diagnosis of delirium was made using the CAM and DSM-IV criteria. RESULTS: Delirium was diagnosed in 32 patients giving a frequency of 21.3% (95%CI: 14.7-30.0%). Patients with delirium were significantly older (p<0.05). A quarter of the patients had dementia. Hypertension was a notable co-morbid condition. All the patients had altered sleep wake cycle, inattention, disorientation, and altered consciousness. Neurological diseases were the most common precipitant. There was a good agreement between the DSM-IV and CAM diagnoses. CONCLUSION: Delirium is common in hospitalised elderly patients particularly those with neurological diseases. Co-morbidities like hypertension, dementia, and depression should be looked for in delirious elderly patients.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Confusão/diagnóstico , Delírio/diagnóstico , Demência/diagnóstico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Confusão/psicologia , Delírio/epidemiologia , Delírio/psicologia , Demência/epidemiologia , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Entrevista Psiquiátrica Padronizada/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/epidemiologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária
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