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1.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 273: 249-251, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33087620

RESUMO

Neuropsychological tests are tools, used by psychologists, to measure and assess the impact of cognitive impairment diseases on patients. These tests are usually run and scored by hand, and results are stored on paper files. However, over the last years, the use of computers and Information and Communications Technology have been considered facilitating those processes. As a result, today there are Neuropsychological Batteries and Computerized Assessments with enough accuracy for evaluating such tests and redesigning the way those tests are applied. This paper presents the progress of Psique, a software application that groups a set of automatized neuropsychological tests used in consultation and operating theatre, developed by students of the Universidad del Valle, with neuropsychologists from the Hospital Departamental Psiquiátrico Universitario del Valle and the Centro Médico Imbanaco.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos , Disfunção Cognitiva , Diagnóstico por Computador , Humanos , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Software
2.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 45(9): 1109-1114, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33051426

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate volume changes of subcortical structures in patients with post-hepatitis B cirrhosis. METHODS: Thirty patients with post-hepatitis B cirrhosis (the cirrhosis group) and 24 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (the control group) were enrolled in this prospective study. All subjects underwent neuropsychological tests, blood biochemical determinations, and cerebral MRI. Volumes of 18 selected subcortical structures were automatically segmented and analyzed by the FreeSurfer. In the cirrhosis group, the relationships between abnormal subcortical volumes and clinical index or neurocognitive performance were investigated. The relationships between globus pallidus volumes and pallidal hyperintensity were also examined. RESULTS: Compared with the healthy controls, patients with post-hepatitis B cirrhosis displayed smaller bilateral putamen, amygdala, and nucleus accumbens volumes and larger bilateral globus pallidus volumes (P<0.001 or P=0.001). In the cirrhosis group, the volumes of left putamen and amygdala were negatively correlated with the number connection test-A (NCT-A)(left putamen r=-0.410, P=0.034; left amygdala r=-0.439, P=0.022), and the volumes of bilateral globus pallidus were positively correlated with pallidal index (PI) (left globus pallidus r=0.889, P<0.001; right globus pallidus r=0.900, P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Abnormalities of subcortical volumes appear bilaterally symmetrical in patients with post-hepatitis B cirrhosis. Atrophy of left putamen and amygdala might contribute to poor neurocognitive performance, and the manganese deposition might contribute to the increased globus pallidus volumes in patients with post-hepatitis B cirrhosis.


Assuntos
Hepatite B , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Hepatite B/complicações , Hepatite B/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico por imagem , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Estudos Prospectivos
3.
An. psicol ; 36(2): 271-282, mayo 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-192064

RESUMO

Un número considerable de estudiantes presenta dificultades de aprendizaje y bajo rendimiento académico, sin embargo su evaluación no siempre deriva en un diagnóstico concreto. Son categorizados como inmaduros, pero no se determinan ni la naturaleza ni las características de sus dificultades. El objetivo fue identificar los dominios evolutivos afectados en niños con retraso del desarrollo (RD) y valorar el concepto de dificultades neuroevolutivas como constructo comprensivo de las dificultades generalizadas de aprendizaje. Para ello, se realizó una revisión sistemática en las bases electrónicas Medline, PsycINFO, WOS, Eric, Dialnet y CSIC y, tras aplicar los criterios de inclusión, se seleccionaron 18 artículos. Los resultados confirman que RD se utiliza como etiqueta diagnóstica para caracterizar a niños con retrasos significativos en uno o varios ámbitos del desarrollo, pero no existe una definición de consenso ni criterios específicos para su diagnóstico, y solo sería de aplicación a niños de corta edad. Los dominios afectados coinciden con funciones neuroevolutivas y, en su etiología, destacan factores de riesgo biológico y ambiental. Se constata la persistencia en la niñez de las dificultades neuroevolutivas y su asociación con las dificultades generalizas en el aprendizaje de años escolares, apuntando a las primeras como constructo explicativo de las segundas


A considerable number of students have learning difficulties and low academic performance, yet their evaluation does not always lead to a concrete diagnosis. They are categorized as immature, but neither the nature nor the characteristics of their difficulties are determined. The aim of this study was to identify the developmental domains which are affected in children with developmental delay (DD) in order to assess the concept of neurodevelopmental difficulties as a comprehensive category and profile of generalized learning difficulties. To this end, a systematic review was carried out on the electronic databases Medline, PsycINFO, WOS, Eric, Dialnet and CSIC and, after applying the inclusion criteria, 18 articles were selected. The results confirm that DD is used as a diagnostic label to characterize children with significant delays in one or more developmental domains, but there is no definition of consensus nor specific criteria for its diagnosis, and it would only be applicable to young children. The affected domains coincide with neurodevelopmental functions, and biological and environmental risk factors stand out in their aetiology. Neurodevelopmental difficulties would encompass a wide spectrum of deficits with different levels of severity that, on interacting with each other, give rise to a variety of profiles


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Deficiências da Aprendizagem/psicologia , Transtornos Neurocognitivos/psicologia , Baixo Rendimento Escolar , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/psicologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Fatores de Risco , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia
4.
S Afr Med J ; 110(6): 519-524, 2020 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880565

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Delirium is a common, serious, underdiagnosed condition in medical and surgical inpatients with acute conditions. It is associated with increased risk of mortality and morbidity. Data of geriatric cohorts are largely limited to developed countries. OBJECTIVES: To describe prevalence, risk factors and outcomes of delirium among general medical patients admitted to two hospitals in Cape Town, South Africa. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study of patients with acute conditions admitted to a general medical inpatient service in secondary- and tertiary-level public hospitals in the Metro West area of Cape Town. Patients ≥18 years of age were recruited daily from all acute medical admissions. Patients were excluded if they were aphasic or their Glasgow coma scale was <8/15. Delirium was diagnosed using the validated confusion assessment method (CAM) tool and performed by trained neuropsychologists. Demographic data were collected by a clinical team and short- and long-term mortality data were obtained using linkage analysis of hospitalised patients and routinely collected provincial death certification records. RESULTS: The median age of inpatients was 51 (interquartile range 36 - 65) years, 29% were HIV-infected and the overall prevalence of delirium was 12.3%. Multivariate predictors of delirium included the presence of an indwelling urinary catheter (odds ratio (OR) 4.47; confidence interval (CI) 2.43 - 8.23), admission with a central nervous system disease (OR 4.34; CI 2.79 - 7.90), pre-existing cognitive impairment (OR 3.02; CI 1.22 - 7.43) and immobility (OR 1.88; CI 1.01 - 3.51). HIV infection was not associated with increased risk of delirium. Delirium was associated with an increased risk of inhospital (delirium v. no delirium: 29% v. 12%; p<0.01) and 12-month (30% v. 20%; p<0.01) mortality, as well as increased length of hospital stay (7 days v. 5 days; p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort of medical inpatients (relatively young and with a high HIV prevalence) 1 of 8 (12.3%) patients was delirious. Delirium was associated with adverse outcomes. Delirium risk factors in this young cohort were similar to those in geriatric cohorts in developed countries, and neither HIV nor opportunistic infections increased risk.


Assuntos
Delírio/epidemiologia , Pacientes Internados , Adulto , Idoso , Delírio/mortalidade , Feminino , Hospitais Públicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , África do Sul/epidemiologia
5.
J Psychiatr Res ; 129: 98-102, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32912598

RESUMO

This study aims to evaluate the impacts of COVID-19 on cognitive functions in recovered patients and its relationship with inflammatory profiles. Twenty-nine patients recovered from COVID-19 as confirmed by negative nucleic tests for two consecutive times were recruited. A total of 29 age-, gender- and education-matched healthy controls were also recruited. The cognitive functions of all subjects were evaluated by the iPad-based online neuropsychological tests, including the Trail Making Test (TMT), Sign Coding Test (SCT), Continuous Performance Test (CPT), and Digital Span Test (DST). Blood samples from all patients were collected for examining inflammatory profiles, including interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), and C-reactive protein (CRP). The relationship between cognitive functions and inflammatory profiles were analyzed by Pearson correlation. In results, although no significant differences were found in TMT, SCT, and DST between the two groups, patients with COVID-19 scored lower in the correct number of the second and third parts of CPT, they also scored higher in the missing number of the third part of CPT (all P < 0.05). In patients with COVID-19, there was a trend of significant difference for lower reaction time in the first and second parts of CPT (P = 0.050, and 0.051, respectively), as well as the lower correct number of the second part of CPT (P = 0.050). Correlation analysis showed that the reaction time for the first and second parts of CPT was positively correlated with the CRP levels (r = 0.557 and 0.410, P < 0.05). In conclusion, our findings indicated that cognitive impairments exist even in patients recovered from COVID-19, and might be possibly linked to the underlying inflammatory processes.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Disfunção Cognitiva/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Inflamação/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Sobreviventes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia
6.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 100(33): 2607-2611, 2020 Sep 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32892607

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the relationship between white matter lesions and spatial navigation ability in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods: A total of 32 MCI patients [age (66±11) years, 16 males and 16 females] who were treated in the Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School from January 2015 to February 2018 were selected, and matched with age, gender and education level of 28 healthy controls (NC) [age (70±11) years, 19 males and 9 females] underwent spatial navigation ability test and neuropsychology scale evaluation. In the cross-sectional study, all subjects simultaneously underwent 3.0T magnetic resonance three-dimensional liquid inversion recovery sequence and high-resolution T(1) weighted imaging scan. The Wisconsin White Matter Hyperintensities Segmentation Toolbox (W2MHS) was used to automatically mark and extract the volume of the white matter hyperintensity. Results: The average error distances of egocentric virtual (P=0.002) and allocentric virtual (P=0.039) of MCI patients are greater than that of the control group, but the average error distance of mixed (allocentric-egocentric virtual) navigation had no statistic difference between two groups (P=0.070). The volume of the whole white matter hyperintensity, periventricular white matter hyperintensity, and deep white matter hyperintensity showed no significant differences between two groups (all P>0.05). Partial correlation analysis showed that after controlling for age, gender, education level and whole brain volume, the average error distance of mixed (allocentric-egocentric virtual) navigation in MCI patients was positively correlated to the volume of the whole white matter hyperintensity, deep white matter intensity, and periventricular white matter hyperintensity (r=0.469, 0.434, 0.512, all P<0.05). The average error distance of allocentric virtual navigation is positively correlated with the volume of periventricular white matter hyperintensity (r=0.403, P=0.033). There is no correlation between the average error distance of egocentric virtual navigation and the hyperintensity of white matter. Conclusions: The spatial navigation ability of patients with MCI is related to white matter lesions, which is of great significance for further research on the potential biological mechanisms affecting human spatial navigation ability.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Leucoaraiose , Navegação Espacial , Substância Branca , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(37): e22154, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925774

RESUMO

The cognitive function of nursing home (NH) residents with cognitive impairment (CI) tends to decline over time. An effective multimodal non-pharmacological intervention (MNPI) strategy is needed to improve the cognitive function of NH residents with CI.The aim of this study was to clarify the cognitive function characteristics of NH residents with CI in whom a non-pharmacological intervention (NPI) can be implemented, consisting of MNPI using a Bayesian analysis, and to incorporate suggestions to make the MNPI strategy as effective as possible.This study had a cross-sectional design. The 61 subjects were selected from the residents of 5 NHs, of whom 90.16% were female, and the mean (standard deviation) age was 87.20 ±â€Š6.90. Analyses were performed using a hierarchical Bayesian model, and the global and specific cognitive functions as assessed by the Japanese version of the Neurobehavioral Cognitive Status Examination were the response variables. Three types of NPI (cognitive enhancement NPI, physical NPI, psychological and psychosocial NPI), and activities of daily living (ADL), as assessed by the Barthel index, were the explanatory variables.Cognitive enhancement NPI was revealed to have no association with any cognitive function. Physical NPI was negatively associated with orientation [OR 0.31 (95% credible interval (95% CI) -2.33, -0.10)], comprehension [OR 0.16 (95% CI -2.78, -0.95)] and naming [OR 0.49 (95% CI -1.47, -0.02)]. Psychological and psychosocial NPI was positively associated with comprehension [OR 3.67 (95% CI 0.52, 2.13)]. Barthel index was positively associated with total Japanese version of the Neurobehavioral Cognitive Status Examination [OR 1.74 (95% CI 0.08, 2.12)], comprehension [OR 3.49 (95% CI 0.45, 4.67)], repetition [OR 10.07 (95% CI 0.53, 9.01)], naming [OR 2.24 (95% CI 0.07, 3.20)], and calculations [OR 18.82 (95% CI 2.71, 9.40)].The implementation of MNPI should be preceded by cognitive enhancement NPI and physical NPI. Providing ADL enhancing NPI in response to cognitive improvement may be an effective strategy. Providing cognitive enhancement NPI, physical NPI, psychological, and psychosocial NPI, as well as ADL-enhancing NPI at the same time, is also an effective strategy for subjects with mild dementia who are considered to have relatively high cognitive functions.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/terapia , Instituição de Longa Permanência para Idosos , Casas de Saúde , Atividades Cotidianas , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Teorema de Bayes , Terapia Combinada , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Participação Social
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(36): e22068, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899073

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Nearly 20% of night shift nurses will cause shift work disorder (SWD) due to the disruption of sleep-wake cycle, which not only affects the daily work efficiency, but also brings a huge burden on physical and mental health. Acupuncture is a safe and effective intervention on SWD. This trial will combine with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study the clinical effects and potential mechanism of acupuncture in the treatment of SWD. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a randomized controlled neuroimaging trial, with enrolled participants, outcome assessors, and data statisticians blinded. 60 patients with SWD and 30 healthy controls who sleep regularly will be recruited and divided into divided into a control group, a true acupoints treatment group (TATG) and a sham acupoints treatment group (SATG) by the ratio of 1:1:1. The TATG and SATG will receive 8 sessions of acupuncture treatment in 4 weeks. Cognitive function scales and MRI scanning will be performed before and after 4-week acupuncture treatment. The control group will receive no intervention. Functional connectivity of intra-network and inter-network will be the primary outcome and effect indicator. The secondary outcomes included Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status, Attentional Network Test, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scale and needle sensation assessment scale. Neuroimage indicators will be correlated with clinical data and scores of cognitive function assessment to explore the possible mechanisms underlying the changes of brain activity caused by acupuncture treatment. DISCUSSION: The results of this study will enable us to verify the therapeutic effect of acupuncture on SWD and explore the potential central mechanism of acupuncture on SWD from the change of brain activity.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura/métodos , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Transtornos do Sono do Ritmo Circadiano/terapia , Pontos de Acupuntura , Terapia por Acupuntura/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Encéfalo/irrigação sanguínea , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Transtornos do Sono do Ritmo Circadiano/psicologia
10.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32929919

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To test the general hypothesis about executive deficits in language production in schizophrenia as well as more specific hypothesis that this deficit would be more pronounced in the case of higher demand on executive functions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-five patients with schizophrenia and twenty-seven healthy controls were asked to tell a story based on a series of pictures and then to give an oral composition on the given topic. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Schizophrenia patients, compared to controls, demonstrated poorer programming as well as shorter text and phrase length in both tasks. Oral composition on the given topic in patients was characterized by the presence of agrammatism, need for leading questions due to the difficulties of story plot generation as well as higher variance in syntactic complexity and text length. Therefore, the authors revealed executive deficit in language production, more pronounced in the task with less numerous external cues for planning and sequential text explication, in schizophrenia patients.


Assuntos
Função Executiva , Esquizofrenia , Humanos , Idioma , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica
12.
BMC Neurol ; 20(1): 322, 2020 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867701

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment in adult moyamoya disease (MMD) is thought to be the result of ischemic stroke; however, the presence and extent of cognitive decline in asymptomatic patients is unclear. METHODS: After classification using T2-weighted fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a total of 19 MMD patients with a history of cerebral infarction, 21 asymptomatic MMD patients, and 20 healthy controls matched for age, sex, and years of education were prospectively included in this study. A detailed neuropsychological evaluation of two moyamoya subgroups and normal controls was conducted. RESULTS: Asymptomatic patients showed varying degrees of decline in intelligence (Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices, P = 0.001), spatial imagination (mental rotation, P = 0.014), working memory (verbal working memory-backward digit span, P = 0.011), and computational ability (simple subtraction, P = 0.014; complex subtraction, P < 0.001) compared with normal controls. MMD patients with cerebral infarction had more severe impairment in complex arithmetic (P = 0.027) and word short-term memory (P = 0.01) than those without symptoms. CONCLUSION: In asymptomatic MMD patients, a variety of cognitive impairment precedes the onset of clinical symptoms such as cerebral infarction, which may be a long-term complication of conservative treatment.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Doença de Moyamoya/complicações , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Estudos Prospectivos
14.
Med Clin North Am ; 104(5): 807-825, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32773047

RESUMO

Clinicians should use a systematic approach to evaluating patients presenting with a concern for cognitive impairment. This approach includes interviewing a knowledgeable informant and performing a thorough mental status examination in order to determine the presence of functional impairments and the domains of cognition that are impaired. The results of this interview and examination determine the next steps of the diagnostic work-up. The pattern of cognitive impairment shapes the differential diagnosis. Treatment should address symptoms, and environmental, psychological, and behavioral interventions are essential.


Assuntos
Transtornos Neurocognitivos , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Administração dos Cuidados ao Paciente/métodos , Idoso , Cognição , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Função Executiva , Humanos , Transtornos Neurocognitivos/classificação , Transtornos Neurocognitivos/diagnóstico
15.
Science ; 369(6505): 771-772, 2020 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32792383
16.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 100(31): 2446-2451, 2020 Aug 18.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32819061

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the characteristics of executive function in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder comorbid with high functioning autism. Methods: A total of 165 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD group), 65 children with attention-deficit/Hyperactivity disorder comorbid with high functioning autism (ADHD-HFA group), and 84 healthy controls (control group) (based on the criteria of DSM-5) were recruited from the Outpatient Clinic of Child Healthcare Department of Shen Zhen Children's Hospital. The Rey complex figure test (RCFT), trail making test (TMT), Stroop color-word test were used to assess working memory, shifting and inhibition. Results: ADHD group (2.1±1.9, 7±5, 2.1±2.0 and 7±5) and ADHD-HFA group (2.0±2.0, 7±6, 2.0±2.1 and 6±5) performed worse than control group (3.4±2.0, 10±5, 3.4±2.0 and 10±6) in Rey complex figure test (all P<0.05). ADHD group ((171±8) s, (27.40±0.82) s and (52.29±1.62) s) and ADHD-HFA group ((197±11) s, (29.7±1.1) s and (58.6±2.1) s) group took longer time on the TMT-2, Stroop2 and Stroop4 test than control group ((135±18) s, (22.4±1.9) s and (38.7±3.8) s) (all P<0.05). In children with low intelligence quotient (IQ), ADHD group ((30±8) s) and ADHD-HFA group ((34±9) s) performed worse on Stroop3 test than control group ((20±4) s) (all P<0.05). In children with average IQ, ADHD group ((19±5) s and (24±8) s) took longer time on the Stroop1 and Stroop3 test than control group ((16±3) s and (19±4) s) (all P<0.05). In children with high IQ, ADHD-HFA group ((20±8) s) spent more time on Stroop1 than control group ((15±4) s) (P<0.05). Inattention symptoms were associated with the time on TMT-2 of ADHD-HFA group (r=0.275 and 0.329, all P<0.05). The score of item 1 in autism spectrum screening questionnaire (ASSQ) was negatively correlated with immediate recall structure and detail scores as well as delay structure scores of Rey complex figure test (r=-0.358, -0.326 and -0.306, all P<0.05). The score of item 4 was positively correlated with errors of Stroop4 (r=0.296, P<0.05). The score of item 22 was positively correlated with time of color interference (r=0.279, P<0.05). Conclusions: Children with ADHD-HFA are likely to demonstrate the spatial working memory, shifting and inhibition deficits associated with ADHD alone. Some domains of executive function impairment in ADHD-HFA group are related with symptoms of inattention/hyperactivity and autism.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Transtorno Autístico , Criança , Comorbidade , Função Executiva , Humanos , Memória de Curto Prazo , Testes Neuropsicológicos
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(32): e21578, 2020 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32769905

RESUMO

Impulsivity is a frequent non-motor symptom in Parkinson disease (PD). It comprises psycho-behavioral alterations that negatively impact quality of life. Dopaminergic treatments underpin many impulsive controls disorders however, side effects, such as increased impulsivity, are described also after neurosurgical procedure of deep brain stimulation (DBS). We investigated the effect of deep brain stimulation on psycho-behavioral alterations and quality of life (QoL) in PD patients, analyzing, also, the role of dopaminergic therapies.Twenty idiopathic PD patients with and 20 idiopathic PD patients without DBS were included in the study. All patient underwent to neuropsychological assessment for a screening of executive functions, impulsivity, anxiety and depressive symptoms and QoL.Differences were found between DBS and no DBS groups and in term of dopaminergic therapies. The comparison between 2 groups showed a greater motor and attentional impulsivity in DBS patients. Moreover, this impulsivity worse QoL and interpersonal relationships. The combination of Levodopa and dopamine agonists exerted a great impact on impulsivity behavior.The emergence of postoperative impulsivity seems to be a neurostimulator phenomenon related to the computational role of the subthalamic nucleus in modulation of behavior.


Assuntos
Estimulação Encefálica Profunda/normas , Dopaminérgicos/uso terapêutico , Doença de Parkinson/terapia , Núcleo Subtalâmico/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Estimulação Encefálica Profunda/instrumentação , Estimulação Encefálica Profunda/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Núcleo Subtalâmico/fisiologia
18.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790989

RESUMO

The article provides a review of research on dyslexia. Various views on the role of genetic and environmental factors in the etiology and pathogenesis of this disorder are examined. The results of neurophysiological and neuropsychological studies are presented, indicating a disturbance of some higher mental functions in dyslexia. The main neurocognitive deficits observed in dyslexia are considered: a disturbance of certain parameters of attention and working memory, a decrease in the speed of information processing, and insufficient automation of new skills. Based on the data presented, dyslexia appears to be a multifactorial and multideficit disorder.


Assuntos
Dislexia , Atenção , Cognição , Humanos , Memória de Curto Prazo , Testes Neuropsicológicos
19.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0235810, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810171

RESUMO

Anomia is common in Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA), and there is considerable evidence that semantic problems (as opposed to impaired access to output word phonology) exist in many PPA individuals irrespective of their strict subtype, including a loss of representations from semantic memory, which is typical for people with the semantic variant of PPA. In this manuscript we present a straightforward novel clinical algorithm that quantifies this degree of semantic storage impairment. We sought to produce an algorithm by employing tasks that would measure key elements of semantic storage loss: a) whether an unrecalled name could be retrieved with cues; b) if performance for items was consistent across tasks; and c) the degree to which a participant's performance was related to general severity of cognitive impairment rather than semantic loss. More specifically, these tasks were given to 28 individuals with PPA (12 participants had a clinical diagnosis of atypical Alzheimer's Disease with the logopenic variant of PPA; the remaining 16 participants received a clinical diagnosis of Frontotemporal dementia (11 were classified as the non-fluent variant of PPA and five were the semantic variant of PPA). Scores from these tasks produced a single omnibus semantic memory storage loss score (SSL score) for each person that ranged from 0.0 to 1.0, with scores closer to 0 more indicative of semantic storage loss. Indeed, supporting the hypothesis that our scores measure the degree of semantic storage loss, we found participants with the semantic variant of PPA had the lowest scores, and SSL scores could predict the degree of hypometabolism in the anterior temporal lobe; even when only people with the logopenic variant of PPA were examined. Thus, these scores show promise quantitating the degree of a person's semantic representation loss.


Assuntos
Afasia Primária Progressiva/fisiopatologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/fisiopatologia , Semântica , Lobo Temporal/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença de Alzheimer/complicações , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Doença de Alzheimer/fisiopatologia , Afasia Primária Progressiva/etiologia , Afasia Primária Progressiva/metabolismo , Feminino , Demência Frontotemporal/complicações , Demência Frontotemporal/metabolismo , Demência Frontotemporal/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/complicações , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/metabolismo , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Lobo Temporal/metabolismo
20.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 146(3): 614-619, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32842112

RESUMO

Unilateral coronal nonsyndromic craniosynostosis is associated with asymmetric skull growth, which may influence cerebral long-term function. Twenty affected adolescents who underwent cranial vault remodeling at a mean age of 8.2 months (12 from the Yale Craniofacial Clinic and eight from the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia) all completed a double-blinded neurodevelopmental assessment at an average age of 12.1 years. The study cohort included 55 percent female and 50 percent right-sided craniosynostosis. Mean verbal intelligence quotient was highest at 117.3, and mean performance intelligence quotient was 106.4, for a mean full-scale intelligence quotient of 112.5. Patients performed above the national average on all academic achievements except for numerical operations, which was significantly lower than word reading (p = 0.022). Patients performed below average on all Beery-Buktenica visual motor tests; motor-coordination was poorer than both visual motor integration and visual perception (p = 0.027 and p = 0.005). Significant positive correlations existed between paternal education/visual perception (r = 0.450; p = 0.046) and household income/verbal intelligence quotient (r = 0.628; p = 0.004). Patients with right unilateral coronal nonsyndromic craniosynostosis had improved spelling compared with left-sided patients on multivariate regression (p = 0.033). Female patients had higher motor coordination (p = 0.024). Breast-fed patients had better performance intelligence quotient (p = 0.024), visual motor integration (p = 0.014), and visual perception (p = 0.031). Adolescents who underwent cranial vault remodeling at two institutions had above average intelligence quotient scores, but worse mathematical and visual motor achievement compared with control subjects. Left-side craniosynostosis patients performed worse in spelling than right-side patients. Breast-feeding was an independent predictor for improved performance intelligence quotient, visual motor achievement, and visual perception performance. Study findings are limited by the cohort size. A larger population study is required, which could validate or modify the study conclusions.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Craniossinostoses/cirurgia , Leitura , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Craniossinostoses/fisiopatologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Período Pós-Operatório , Estudos Prospectivos
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