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1.
Codas ; 32(1): e20180306, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664312

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Search for reliability and validity evidence for the Montreal Communication Evaluation Brief Battery (MEC B) for adults with right brain damage. METHODS: Three hundred twenty-four healthy adults and 26 adults with right brain damage, aged 19-75 years, with two or more years of education were evaluated with MEC B. The MEC B Battery contains nine tasks that aim to evaluate communicative abilities as discourse, prosody, lexical-semantic and pragmatic process. Two sources of reliability evidence were used: internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) and interrater reliability. Construct validity was evaluated comparing the Montreal Communication Evaluation Battery (MEC), expanded version and MEC B tasks. RESULTS: Internal consistence was satisfactory and the interrater reliability was considered excellent, as were correlations between MEC Battery and MEC B Battery tasks. CONCLUSION: The MEC B Battery showed satisfactory reliability and validity evidences. It can be used as outcome measure of intervention programs and assist speech therapists to plan rehabilitation programs.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas/fisiopatologia , Transtornos da Comunicação/diagnóstico , Testes Neuropsicológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fonoterapia/métodos
2.
West Afr J Med ; 36(2): 183-188, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385606

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There is paucity of information on delirium in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) particularly in the older persons (>60 years of age), leaving questions about the burden of the disease in an environment with lower health care standards. In this article, we set out to determine the frequency, precipitants and symptomatology of delirium in elderly patients admitted into medical wards in a teaching hospital in South-West Nigeria. METHODS: This was a descriptive study involving a pre-planned sample of one hundred and fifty patients aged 60 years and over, assessed for cognitive impairment and delirium using the previously validated IDEA cognitive screen, and the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) respectively. Diagnosis of delirium was made using the CAM and DSM-IV criteria. RESULTS: Delirium was diagnosed in 32 patients giving a frequency of 21.3% (95%CI: 14.7-30.0%). Patients with delirium were significantly older (p<0.05). A quarter of the patients had dementia. Hypertension was a notable co-morbid condition. All the patients had altered sleep wake cycle, inattention, disorientation, and altered consciousness. Neurological diseases were the most common precipitant. There was a good agreement between the DSM-IV and CAM diagnoses. CONCLUSION: Delirium is common in hospitalised elderly patients particularly those with neurological diseases. Co-morbidities like hypertension, dementia, and depression should be looked for in delirious elderly patients.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Confusão/diagnóstico , Delírio/diagnóstico , Demência/diagnóstico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Confusão/psicologia , Delírio/epidemiologia , Delírio/psicologia , Demência/epidemiologia , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Entrevista Psiquiátrica Padronizada/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/epidemiologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária
3.
Neurología (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 34(6): 353-359, jul.-ago. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-185452

RESUMO

Introducción: La neurofibromatosis tipo 1 (NF1) es un síndrome neurocutáneo frecuente que en muchos casos se asocia a dificultades cognitivas específicas que habitualmente no son tenidas en cuenta en el seguimiento médico de estos pacientes. Objetivo: Trazar el perfil cognitivo de pacientes con NF1 detectando trastornos en funciones superiores asociados al mismo. Identificar motivos de consulta de pacientes pediátricos con NF1 en relación con su desempeño escolar. Métodos: Trabajo descriptivo transversal. Se evaluó neuropsicológicamente a 24 pacientes con NF1 con edades comprendidas entre los 5 y los 16 años de edad. Resultados: Los motivos de consulta más frecuentes fueron: problemas atencionales (58,33%), aprendizaje (25%), coordinación motora (25%) y lenguaje (0,8%). Si bien el estudio reveló que el 96% de los pacientes tenía compromiso en al menos una de las áreas evaluadas, solo el 83,34% de los padres las refirieron. El 58,33% presentó trastorno por déficit de atención con hiperactividad (TDAH), el 33,33% trastorno de aprendizaje no verbal (TANV), el 20,83% dificultades en aspectos expresivos del lenguaje, el 8,33% coeficiente intelectual (CI) limítrofe, el 4,16% retraso mental y el 4,16% no mostró dificultades. Conclusiones: Existe alta frecuencia de trastornos en funciones superiores en niños con NF1. Aunque muchos padres detectan dichos trastornos, se ha observado que otros son subestimados. Consideramos conveniente que todos los niños con NF1 cuenten con una evaluación neuropsicológica a fin de poder detectar dificultades existentes en cada caso y así poder elaborar una estrategia de rehabilitación cognitiva precoz y efectiva


Introduction: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a common neurocutaneous syndrome often associated with specific cognitive deficits that are rarely monitored during follow-up of these patients. Objective: The purpose of our study is two-fold. First, we aimed to describe the cognitive profile of patients with NF1 and detect disorders in higher brain functions associated with the disease. Second, we identified the reasons for consultation associated with school performance in these patients. Methods: We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study of 24 paediatric patients (ages 5 to 16) with NF1 who underwent neuropsychological assessment. Results: The most frequent reasons for consultation were attention deficits (58.33%), learning disorders (25%), poor motor coordination (25%), and language impairment (0.8%). Although 96% of the patients displayed impairments in at least one of the assessed areas, only 83.34% of the parents had reported such impairments. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder was present in 58.33% of the patients, whereas 33.33% had nonverbal learning disabilities, 20.83% had expressive language disorder, 8.33% had borderline intellectual functioning, 4.16% had mental retardation, and only 4.16% showed no cognitive impairment. Conclusion: Higher brain functions are frequently impaired in paediatric patients with NF1. Although many parents report such disorders, they can go undetected in some cases. Neuropsychological assessment is recommended for all paediatric patients with NF1 to detect cognitive impairment and provide early, effective rehabilitation treatment


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Transtornos Cognitivos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Cognitivos/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Aprendizagem/diagnóstico , Neurofibromatose 1/psicologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Deficiência Intelectual/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Linguagem/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Aprendizagem/epidemiologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos/estatística & dados numéricos
4.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 55(7)2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295973

RESUMO

Background and objectives: To explore the association between weight status and executive function in young adults. Materials and Methods: Ninety-seven young males (age 17-26 years) underwent adiposity and body composition measurements using body composition analyzer. Inhibitory control and working memory were measured using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Battery (CANTAB). Results: Multiple linear regression using both unadjusted and adjusted analyses revealed no association between adiposity and body composition variables with executive tasks, apart from a significant association between skeletal muscle mass (SMM) and mean reaction time on go trial (standardized B = -0.28; p = 0.02). Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) revealed that underweight participants presented inferior working memory compared to their normal weight (p = 0.001) or overweight peers (p = 0.008). However, according to the percentage fat quartiles (Q) participants with the highest quartile (Q4) were inferior in inhibitory control than their peers with Q2 (p = 0.04), and participants with the lowest quartile (Q1) were inferior in working memory compared with their peers with Q2 (p = 0.01) or Q3 (p = 0.02). A worse inhibitory control was observed for participants with the highest fat/SMM (Q4) compared to participants in Q3 (p = 0.03), and in contrast worse working memory was observed for participants with the lowest fat/SMM (Q1) compared to participants in Q2 (p = 0.04) or Q3 (p = 0.009). Conclusions: Low adiposity is associated with worse working memory, whereas high adiposity is associated with worse inhibitory control. Therefore, our findings show that normal adiposity, but greater SMM may have a positive impact on executive function in young adults.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Antropometria/métodos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Correlação de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
Geriatr Nurs ; 40(6): 614-619, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277962

RESUMO

The purpose of the pilot study was twofold, seeking to investigate both the feasibility and preliminary effects of a music therapy intervention on the global cognitive state (attention, immediate and delayed memory, and executive function) and gait parameters (gait velocity, cadence, and right and left stride length) in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Sixteen participants attended the one-hour music therapy sessions three times a week for 12 weeks. The intervention was feasible, achieving a retention rate of 84%. Significant effects were found in global cognitive state (p = .001), attention (p = .007), immediate memory (p < .001), delayed memory (p = .001), executive function (p = .002), gait velocity (p = .021), right stride length (p = .007), and left stride length (p = .014). These results suggest that music therapy intervention is a potentially innovative strategy for improving cognition and gait parameters in older adults with MCI.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Vida Independente , Musicoterapia , Idoso , Atenção/fisiologia , Feminino , Marcha/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Projetos Piloto
6.
Dev Psychol ; 55(8): 1775-1787, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31192641

RESUMO

The world's population is aging at an increasing rate. Even in the absence of neurodegenerative disorders, healthy aging affects perception and cognition. In the context of cognition, common factors are well established. Much less is known about common factors for vision. Here, we tested 92 healthy older and 104 healthy younger participants in 19 visual tests (including visual search and contrast sensitivity) and three cognitive tests (including verbal fluency and digit span). Unsurprisingly, younger participants performed better than older participants in almost all tests. Surprisingly, however, the performance of older participants was mostly uncorrelated between visual tests, and we found no evidence for a common factor. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Visão Ocular/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152641

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Brain rate is parameter correlated to brain electric and metabolic activity. AIM: The aim of this study was to analyze the results obtained for brain rate parameter as an indicator for general mental arousal in anxious patients and to compare them with results of healthy young people matched in age and gender, as well as with anorectic and hyperactive children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The diagnosis for all examinees was made according two statistic manuals (DMSIV- R and ICD-10), medical history, neuropsychological assessment, biochemical analysis and QEEG. In this study we examined the spectra power of the brain waves through quantified EEG (QEEG). The obtained results were exported to brain rate software and then calculated for each region separately. The QEEG spectra power data and the brain rate data were analyzed using Statistica software. RESULTS: According to sagittal and lateral topography maximal values of brain rate parameter were obtained in group of healthy individuals and in group of anorectic patients. The lowest results were obtained in group of hyperactive children for all three regions. CONCLUSIONS: The general conclusion will be that pathological conditions in childhood, analyzed in this research, can be defined as conditions of hypoarausal and this can be specific sign of brain dysfunction.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Ondas Encefálicas/fisiologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/fisiopatologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Criança , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
Ir J Psychol Med ; 36(2): 105-119, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31187720

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Research shows that cognitive rehabilitation (CR) has the potential to improve goal performance and enhance well-being for people with early stage Alzheimer's disease (AD). This single subject, multiple baseline design (MBD) research investigated the clinical efficacy of an 8-week individualised CR intervention for individuals with early stage AD. METHODS: Three participants with early stage AD were recruited to take part in the study. The intervention consisted of eight sessions of 60-90 minutes of CR. Outcomes included goal performance and satisfaction, quality of life, cognitive and everyday functioning, mood, and memory self-efficacy for participants with AD; and carer burden, general mental health, quality of life, and mood of carers. RESULTS: Visual analysis of MBD data demonstrated a functional relationship between CR and improvements in participants' goal performance. Subjective ratings of goal performance and satisfaction increased from baseline to post-test for three participants and were maintained at follow-up for two. Baseline to post-test quality of life scores improved for three participants, whereas cognitive function and memory self-efficacy scores improved for two. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that CR can improve goal performance, and is a socially acceptable intervention that can be implemented by practitioners with assistance from carers between sessions. This study represents one of the promising first step towards filling a practice gap in this area. Further research and randomised-controlled trials are required.


Assuntos
Idade de Início , Doença de Alzheimer/reabilitação , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Qualidade de Vida , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Projetos Piloto
9.
J Psychol ; 153(8): 759-783, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31188721

RESUMO

This investigation assessed the impact of three cognitively demanding tasks on cognitive performance, subjective, and physiological indicators of mental fatigue. Following familiarization, participants completed four testing sessions, separated by 48 h. During each session, participants watched a 45-min emotionally neutral documentary (control) or completed one of the following computer tasks: Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT); AX-Continuous Performance Test (AX-CPT); or Stroop Task. Mental fatigue was assessed before and at regular periods for 60 min following the 45-min treatments. Cognitive performance was assessed using 3-min PVT, and task performance. Subjective assessments were conducted using the Brunel Mood Scale, and visual analog scales (VAS). Physiological indicators of mental fatigue included electroencephalography (EEG), and heart rate variability (HRV). Subjective ratings of mental fatigue increased from pre to 0-min post in all-treatments, but not the documentary (p < 0.05). Subjective fatigue (VAS) remained higher (p < 0.05) than pretreatment values for 20-, 50-, and 60-min following the PVT, Stroop, and AX-CPT respectively. The cognitively demanding tasks had unclear effects on 3-min PVT, EEG, and HRV assessments. Tasks requiring response inhibition appear to induce fatigue for longer durations than a simple vigilance task. Simple VAS appear to be the most practical method for assessing mental fatigue.


Assuntos
Fadiga Mental/psicologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Afeto/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
10.
Rev. logop. foniatr. audiol. (Ed. impr.) ; 39(2): 59-65, abr.-jun. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-185742

RESUMO

Objetivo: la enfermedad de Parkinson no solo suele relacionarse con dificultades motoras sino también con deterioro cognitivo. En este sentido, cabe preguntarse si las funciones cognitivas relacionadas con información visuoespacial se ven afectadas a medida que aumenta la severidad de la enfermedad. Método: a partir de la evaluación y análisis del procesamiento y la memoria visuoespacial mediante el test Figura compleja de Rey-Osterrieth en 27 sujetos con enfermedad de Parkinson en estadios 2 y 3 se pretenden establecer diferencias según el estadio. Resultados: los resultados evidencian diferencias significativas en la memoria visuoespacial, lo que podría indicar que la evolución de la enfermedad parece determinar la severidad de la alteración cognitiva, principalmente en lo que respecta a memoria visuoespacial. Conclusión: a partir de los resultados, se sugiere incorporar evaluaciones fonoaudiológicas de la información visuoespacial en esta población con el fin de diseñar planes terapéuticos enfocados en el déficit neuropsicológico


Objective: Parkinson's disease is not only related to motor difficulties but also to cognitive impairmet. Hence, it is worth knowing if the cognitive functions related to visuospatial information are affected as the severity of the disease increases. Method: this study intends to establish differences according to the Parkinson's disease stage from evaluation and analysis of visuospatial information in 27 patients using the Complex figure of Rey-Osterrieth test. Results: the results show significant differences in the visuospatial memory between both groups, which could indicates that the evolution of the disease seems to determine the severity of the cognitive alteration, mainly with regard to visuospatial memory. Conclusion: the results suggest to incorporate visuospatial information in speech-language evaluations of Parkinson's disease patients in order to design therapeutic plans focused on the neuropsychological deficit


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença de Parkinson/classificação , Transtornos da Memória/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Fonoterapia/métodos , Doença de Parkinson/complicações , Memória Espacial , Testes Neuropsicológicos/estatística & dados numéricos
11.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 11(1): 1-7, ene.-jun. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-183537

RESUMO

Research findings suggest that sex offenders show worse performance than the general population in neuropsychological tests. Nevertheless, moderators such as age of the victim, use of antisocial control groups, and characteristics of administered measures have been highlighted. Here, 100 participants completed a battery of cognitive measures tapping fluid reasoning, verbal ability, and three basic executive processes (inhibition, switching, and updating). They were matched by educational level and classified in four groups: controls, non-sex offenders, rapists, and child abusers. The analyses revealed that rapists showed lower fluid reasoning scores than controls and child abusers. Furthermore, rapists and child abusers showed lower executive updating performance than controls and non-sex offenders. Importantly, child abusers did show fluid reasoning scores on a par with controls (controlling for updating differences), but their executive updating performance was equivalent to the one revealed by rapists (controlling for fluid intelligence differences). Implications of these findings for the design of efficient intervention programs are discussed


Los datos de investigación empírica sugieren que los delincuentes sexuales presentan un peor desempeño que la población general en las pruebas neuropsicológicas. Aun así, se ha resaltado la influencia de variables moderadoras como la edad de la víctima, el uso de grupos control que incluyan individuos antisociales y las características de las medidas utilizadas. En este estudio cien participantes completaron una batería de pruebas cognitivas que evalúan razonamiento fluido, capacidad verbal y tres funciones ejecutivas básicas (inhibición, cambio y actualización). Los participantes estaban igualados en su nivel educativo y divididos en cuatro grupos: controles, delincuentes no sexuales, agresores sexuales con víctimas adultas y abusadores de menores. Los análisis revelaron que los agresores sexuales con víctimas adultas presentaban puntuaciones menores que los controles y los abusadores de menores en razonamiento fluido. Más aún, los agresores con víctimas adultas y los abusadores tenían peor desempeño que los controles y los delincuentes no sexuales en actualización ejecutiva. Es destacable que los abusadores de menores mostraran puntuaciones en razonamiento fluido equiparables a las de los controles (controlando estadísticamente las diferencias en actualización), pero su desempeño en actualización ejecutiva fue equivalente al mostrado por los agresores con víctimas adultas (controlando estadísticamente las diferencias en inteligencia fluida). Finalmente se discuten las implicaciones de estos resultados para el diseño de programas de intervención efectivos


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estupro/psicologia , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Abuso Sexual na Infância/psicologia , Função Executiva , Psicologia Criminal/métodos , Criminosos/psicologia , Comportamento Criminoso , Testes Neuropsicológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Casos e Controles
12.
Eat Disord ; 27(2): 230-252, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31084426

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to conduct a preliminary evaluation of cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) as part of the treatment of a patient with anorexia nervosa (AN) from Mexico. The participant was a 21-year-old woman with a body mass index (BMI) of 14.7, who had suffered from the disorder for 10 years. Using a pre-post treatment design, changes were evaluated using four neuropsychological tests, two tests to measure the AN symptoms and two to measure psychological distress (depression and anxiety). BMI was also evaluated before and after the intervention. The results of the present study were similar to those reported for patients from English-speaking countries. The average percentage of favorable change in the different measures was higher than 30%, except for BMI, which increased by only 21%. The results suggest that the inclusion of CRT in AN treatment programs in Mexico is a potentially viable option.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa/terapia , Remediação Cognitiva , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , México , Testes Neuropsicológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Genet Psychol ; 180(2-3): 81-95, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31094293

RESUMO

Research shows that the general population varies with regard to both autistic traits and theory of mind (ToM) ability. Other work has shown that autistic individuals may not underperform on ToM tests when the agent of evaluation is anthropomorphic rather than typically human. Two studies examined the relation between ToM and autistic trait profiles in over 650 adults using either the standard Faux Pas Recognition Test (FPT) or an anthropomorphized version of the FPT (FPTa). Results showed that autistic trait profiles were related to faux pas detection ability in the FPT but not the FPTa. Furthermore, while those with the broad autism phenotype scored significantly worse than those who were typically developed on the FPT, scores did not significantly differ on the FPTa. These findings add to a growing body of work suggesting that ToM ability is not at a global deficit in those on the autistic spectrum, but may relate to the mindreading of specifically human agents.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Social , Teoria da Mente , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Transtorno Autístico/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
14.
Neuroimage Clin ; 22: 101799, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30991619

RESUMO

We developed a cortical language map from performance data on a language test battery in patients with brain lesions. The research problem was how to select the subtest that was most related to the function of each cortical area from the battery. When studied by voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM), patients were divided into two groups: those with and without a lesion at each particular region. We considered the task that optimally discriminated between the two groups to be the task most related to the function of a given region. One hundred and fifty left-lesioned patients were examined using the Japanese Standard Language Test of Aphasia (SLTA), which is composed of 26 subtests. Using logistic discriminant analysis, we selected the subtest that optimally discriminated the lesioned and non-lesioned groups for each cortical region. Patients with left middle frontal gyrus (area 46) lesions were optimally discriminated from patients without lesions in that area by the speech sound-kana letter choice matching subtest. Patients with lesions in the inferior postcentral gyrus were optimally distinguished by the disturbance of word repetition. Patients with lesions in the anterior cingulate gyrus were characterized by impaired performance on the category fluency subtest. Voxel-based discriminant analysis can thus select the subtest that can be regarded as most related to the function of each cortical area.


Assuntos
Afasia , Encefalopatias , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Psicometria , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Afasia/diagnóstico , Afasia/patologia , Afasia/fisiopatologia , Encefalopatias/diagnóstico , Encefalopatias/patologia , Encefalopatias/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Linguagem/normas , Testes de Linguagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Logísticos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos/normas , Testes Neuropsicológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicometria/normas , Psicometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Neuropsychology ; 33(5): 739-753, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31021107

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The potential influence of methamphetamine use on neuropsychological functioning is unclear. The aim of this this meta-analysis was to investigate the relationship between abstinence and neuropsychological functioning in people with methamphetamine use disorder. METHOD: The systematic review protocol was registered with the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO: CRD42018083598). Studies were eligible if they (a) included a group that identified methamphetamine as their primary substance of use, (b) comprised participants who reported a period of abstinence from methamphetamine, (c) included healthy comparison participants, (d) included outcome measures that constituted valid and reliable cognitive tests and, (e) were published in English. The search yielded effect sizes based on 1008 abstinent methamphetamine participants and 984 healthy comparison participants. RESULTS: Findings revealed small-to-moderate effect sizes, indicating that methamphetamine participants performed somewhat below controls on learning efficiency, visual-spatial processing, comprehension knowledge, retrieval fluency, processing speed, and psychomotor speed. Three exceptions, in which performance demonstrated no group effect, were in domains of fluid reasoning, short-term working memory, and reaction and decision speed. DISCUSSION: The current results support the hypothesis that methamphetamine use is associated with small-to-moderate cognitive sequelae that persist beyond a period of abstinence. However, we cannot determine whether methamphetamine use leads to long-term neuropsychological impairment via structural or functional brain changes, or whether preexisting deficits in neuropsychological performance and cortical integrity are vulnerability factors for methamphetamine use, or both. Taken together, the results suggest that strong statements regarding impaired cognitive functioning in abstinent methamphetamine users are premature. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Anfetaminas/complicações , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/efeitos adversos , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Metanfetamina/efeitos adversos , Testes Neuropsicológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
16.
Trends Psychiatry Psychother ; 41(1): 51-59, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30994783

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the construct validity and model-based reliability of general and specific contributions of the subscales of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2 (MABC-2) and Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency-2 (BOT-2) when evaluating motor skills across a range of psychiatric disorders. METHODS: Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and bifactor analysis were conducted on BOT-2 data from 187 elementary school students (grades 1 to 6) (mean age: 113 ± 20 months; boys: n = 117, 62.56%) and on MABC-2 data from 127 elementary school students (grade 1) (mean age: 76 ± 2 months; boys: n = 58, 45.67%). RESULTS: The results of the CFA fit the data for multidimensionality for the BOT-2 and presented poor fit indices for the MABC-2. For both tests, the bifactor model showed that the reliability of the subscales was poor. CONCLUSIONS: The BOT-2 exhibited factorial validity with a multidimensional structure among the current samples, but the MABC-2 showed poor fit indices, insufficient to confirm its multidimensional structure. For both tests, most of the reliable variance came from a general motor factor (M-factor), therefore the scoring and reporting of subscale scores were not justified for both tests.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Transtornos da Linguagem/fisiopatologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos/normas , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
17.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 49(6): 2589-2596, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30927178

RESUMO

This study aimed to examine the neuropsychological correlates of child patients diagnosed with ADHD, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), or comorbid ASD + ADHD through a multidisciplinary ASD evaluation clinic. Patients completed standardized tests of intellectual, attention, social-affective/cognitive, and executive functioning; and a semi-structured assessment commonly used for autism diagnosis. The majority of patients were medicated for ADHD concerns during testing. Parents and teachers also completed inventories of day-to-day social and attentional functioning. Group effects were found across objective social measures but not across related respondent-ratings. In contrast, group differences were observed in parent-ratings of attention difficulties, but not on standardized tests of attention or executive functioning. Findings underscore importance of integrating objective and functional measures when assessing ASD and/or ADHD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Atenção , Transtorno Autístico , Criança , Comorbidade , Função Executiva , Feminino , Metas , Humanos , Masculino , Pais , Comportamento Social
18.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0213908, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30908501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mild cognitive impairment is common in chronic HIV infection and there is concern that it may worsen with age. Distinguishing static impairment from on-going decline is clinically important, but the field lacks well-validated cognitive measures sensitive to decline and feasible for routine clinical use. Measures capable of detecting improvement are also needed to assess interventions. The objective of this study is to estimate the extent of change on repeat administration of three different forms of a brief computerized cognitive assessment battery (B-CAM) developed for assessing cognitive ability in the mildly-impaired to normal range in people living with HIV. We hypothesized no change over a six-month period in people on effective antiretroviral therapy. METHODS: 102 HIV+ individuals completed a set of computerized cognitive tasks on three occasions over a six-month period. Rasch analysis was used to determine if change over time (i.e. improvement due to practice) was uniform across tasks and to refine scoring in order to produce three forms of the B-CAM of equivalent level of difficulty. Group-based trajectory analysis (GBTA) was then applied to determine if performance at baseline influenced the magnitude of practice-related improvement on the battery as a whole over the course of follow-up. RESULTS: Two cognitive tasks (fluency and word recall) had different levels of difficulty across test sessions, related to the different forms of the tasks. These two items were split by testing session. For all other items, the level of difficulty remained constant across all three time points. GBTA showed that the sample was composed of three distinct groups of people with unique trajectories, defined mainly by level of cognitive ability at baseline. Only the highest group showed an apparent improvement over time, but this change fell within measurement error. CONCLUSIONS: Rasch analysis provides mathematical confirmation that these three forms of the B-CAM are of equivalent difficulty. GBTA demonstrates that no adjustment of the total score is required to correct for practice effects. Application of these modern statistical methods paves the way towards rapid and robust quantification of change in cognition.


Assuntos
Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Complexo AIDS Demência/diagnóstico , Complexo AIDS Demência/etiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicometria/métodos , Psicometria/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
Mil Med ; 184(Suppl 1): 206-217, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30901472

RESUMO

Subconcussive head injuries are connected to both short-term cognitive changes and long-term neurodegeneration. Further study is required to understand what types of subconcussive impacts might prove detrimental to cognition. We studied cadets at the US Air Force Academy engaged in boxing and physical development, measuring head impact motions during exercise with accelerometers. These head impact measures were compared with post-exercise memory performance. Investigators explored multiple techniques for characterizing the magnitude of head impacts. Boxers received more head impacts and achieved lower performance in post-exercise memory than non-boxers. For several measures of impact motion, impact intensity appeared to set an upper bound on post-exercise memory performance - stronger impacts led to lower expected memory performance. This trend was most significant when impact intensity was measured through a novel technique, applying principal component analysis to boxer motion. Principal component analysis measures also captured more distinct impact information than seven traditional impact measures also tested.


Assuntos
Boxe/lesões , Concussão Encefálica/complicações , Transtornos da Memória/etiologia , Acelerometria/métodos , Adolescente , Concussão Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Avaliação Educacional/métodos , Avaliação Educacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos da Memória/classificação , Testes de Memória e Aprendizagem , Testes Neuropsicológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Neonatology ; 115(4): 310-319, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30836372

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Birth weight (BW) is often used as a proxy for gestational age (GA) in studies on preterm birth. Recent findings indicate that, in addition to perinatal outcomes, subjects born very preterm (VP; GA < 32 weeks) differ from those with a very low birth weight (VLBW; BW < 1,500 g) in postnatal growth up to their final height. OBJECTIVE: To study whether neurodevelopmental and functional outcomes at the age of 19 years differ in VP and/or VLBW subjects. METHODS: 705 19-year-old subjects from the Project on Preterm and Small-for-Gestational-Age Infants (POPS) cohort were classified as (1) VP+/VLBW+ (n = 354), (2) VP+/VLBW- (n = 144), or (3) VP-/VLBW+ (n = 207), and compared with regard to IQ as assessed with the Multicultural Capacity Test-intermediate level; neuromotor function using Touwen's examination of mild neurologic dysfunction; hearing loss; self- and parent-reported behavioral and emotional functioning; educational achievement and occupation; and self-assessed health using the Health Utilities Index and the London Handicap Scale. RESULTS: VP+/VLBW- infants, on average, had 3.8-point higher IQ scores (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.5-7.1), a trend towards higher educational achievement, 3.3-dB better hearing (95% CI 1.2-5.4), and less anxious behavior, attention problems, and internalizing behavior than to VP+/VLBW+ subjects. VP-/VLBW+ infants reported 1.8 increased odds (95% CI 1.2-2.6) of poor health compared to VP+/VLBW+ subjects. CONCLUSIONS: At the age of 19 years, subjects born VP+/VLBW+, VP+/VLBW-, and VP-/VLBW+ have different neurodevelopmental and functional outcomes, although effect sizes are small. Hence, the terms VP and VLBW are not interchangeable. We recommend, at least for industrialized countries, to base inclusion in future studies on preterm populations on GA instead of on BW.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/epidemiologia , Função Executiva , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso , Inteligência , Testes Neuropsicológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Lineares , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
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