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1.
J Appl Psychol ; 106(5): 657-673, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34096740

RESUMO

New labor market entrants face significant hurdles when searching for a job, with these stressors likely amplified during the COVID-19 pandemic. Here, we consider how COVID-induced job search anxiety-feeling anxious about one's job search due to issues imposed by the pandemic-has the potential to affect adaptive, goal-directed efforts, and maladaptive, goal-avoidant reactions. We theorize that this anxiety can prompt job seekers to engage in problem-solving pondering and affect-focused rumination, with these experiences relating to whether job seekers engage in various forms of search-related efforts the following week. In particular, we consider whether job seekers are engaging in dream job search effort (i.e., effort toward pursuing one's dream job), as well as focused (i.e., effort toward a selection of carefully screened jobs), exploratory (i.e., effort toward a wide swath of jobs in a broad manner), and haphazard (i.e., effort toward applying for any job without a clear plan) job search effort. Further, we consider how stable beliefs relevant to the pandemic (i.e., belief in conspiracy theories; belief in COVID-19 being a public health crisis) affect the aforementioned relationships. Using a weekly study of 162 new labor market entrants, results indicated that COVID-induced job search anxiety positively related to problem-solving pondering and affect-focused rumination; problem-solving pondering promoted dream, focused, and exploratory job search effort the following week, whereas affect-focused rumination hindered dream job search effort. Finally, the detrimental effects of COVID-induced job search anxiety via affect-focused rumination were amplified for those who held higher levels of conspiracy theory beliefs. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Ansiedade/etiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Candidatura a Emprego , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Emprego/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Resolução de Problemas , Testes Psicológicos , Ruminação Cognitiva , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
3.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 952021 Apr 26.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33896933

RESUMO

Events that occur during fetal and perinatal life can have consequences on the health and disease of the offspring. The pioneering work on the "Fetal Programming Hypothesis" focused on pregnant women exposed to a great famine that occurred in the Netherlands at the end of World War II. The intrauterine environment of the babies during that famine caused them to low birthweight and determined the appearance of cardiovascular diseases in themselves when they reached adulthood, a risk that was transmitted even to the following generation. In addition to the general stress that a pregnant woman may suffer as a result of the death of a family member, suffering a war or natural disaster such as the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus, there is another specific type of stress that refers exclusively to the pregnancy process; this is the pregnancy specific-stress. Pregnancy-specific stress is capable of sensitively predicting negative maternal and neonatal outcomes. This type of stress refers to the specific stress of pregnant women related to medical problems, the health of the newborn, the changes that the pregnancy will produce in their social relationships, prematurity, physical changes of pregnancy and fear of labor and birth. The objective of this article was to offer an updated information on pregnancy-specific stress and its consequences for maternal and neonatal health. Thus, we also proposed to offer strategies that midwives and psychologists can use to reduce pregnancy-specific stress levels. In conclusion, midwives and psychologists can work together to reduce pregnancy-specific stress levels.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Materna , Tocologia/métodos , Gravidez/psicologia , Papel Profissional , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Saúde do Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Saúde Materna , Resultado da Gravidez/psicologia , Testes Psicológicos , Psicologia , Espanha , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(17): e25616, 2021 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33907115

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is one of the most commonly reported mental health consequences, followed by disasters and traumatic events, either natural or man-made. At present, there are no unified results for the prevalence rate of PTSD in patients suffering from acute trauma and related influencing factors. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to systematically evaluate the existing literatures, thus obtaining a comprehensive estimation of the combined prevalence rate of PTSD and related factors in trauma patients, so as to provide evidence support for clinical disease prediction models and intervention strategies. METHODS: Published articles will be retrieved from PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, China Biology Medicine Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, China Science and Technology Journal Database, and Wanfang Database. Research reports will be searched in March 2021. STATA 14.0 software will be applied for data analysis. Mantel-Haenszel fixed effect model or DerSimonian-Laird random effect model will be selected to estimate the pooled prevalence of PTSD in patients with acute trauma and associated factors. RESULTS: We will disseminate the findings of this systematic review and meta-analysis via publications in peer-reviewed journals. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this analysis can be used to establish a risk prediction model of PTSD in patients experiencing acute trauma, so as to provide intervention strategies. OSF REGISTRATION NUMBER: DOI 10.17605/OSF.IO/Z275U.


Assuntos
Testes Psicológicos , Medição de Risco , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/etiologia , Avaliação de Sintomas , Ferimentos e Lesões/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metanálise como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Adulto Jovem
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(13): e24648, 2021 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787573

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: higher level of aggression and antisocial behavior are frequent following head trauma, due to specific brain alterations. Many tests are used to assess this aspect. A descriptive review was conducted on the main tests used to detect the appearance of aggressive dimensions following traumatic brain injury. REVIEW SUMMARY: we searched on PubMed and Web of Science databases and screening references of included studies and review articles for additional citations. From initial 723 publications, only 7 met our search criteria. Findings showed that various psychometric tools are used to assess aggressiveness and its subdomains, following head trauma. CONCLUSIONS: further investigation are necessary to clarify whether these tools ensure a reliable diagnosis in order to make an early intervention and reduce violent behavior and its development.


Assuntos
Agressão/psicologia , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/psicologia , Transtorno da Conduta/diagnóstico , Testes Psicológicos/normas , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Transtorno da Conduta/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(11): e24841, 2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33725955

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90) is the popular and widely used instrument, whether in mental health screening, psychological consultation, or the diagnosis and estimate of mental illness. In 1984, it was translated from theEnglish version into Chinese and then SCL-90 has been widely used in China. It is a pity that the item text of Chinese version has not been revised since the birth of it until today. We analyzed the Chinese version of the 90-item text from 3 new perspectives: translation, semantic, and cross-cultural, and thought that 18 items should be revised. This study' results have taken one step forward on the basis of previous studies, which will play an important role in improving the quality of Chinese version SCL-90 and improving the mental health level of Chinese people.


Assuntos
Lista de Checagem/normas , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Testes Psicológicos/normas , Semântica , Avaliação de Sintomas/normas , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/psicologia , China , Comparação Transcultural , Humanos , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Traduções
7.
Psychother Psychosom ; 90(3): 200-206, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33691321

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The long-lasting threat of COVID-19 makes it necessary to explore strategies to improve coping skills which enable us to master a balanced life in the face of adversity. OBJECTIVE: To unravel the most challenging aspects of COVID-19 in a nonclinical adult population and identify predictors of lost balance and consequent allostatic overload (AO). We examined the role of regular, moderate-intensity formula aerobic exercise (312 meridian exercise) in preventing allostatic overload through increasing well-being. METHODS: An online survey was conducted to measure CO-VID-related allostatic overload according to clinimetric criteria. The Psychosocial Index (PSI), Kellner's Symptom Questionnaire (KSQ), short Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21), Public Health Surveillance Well-Being Scale -(PHS-WB), and Whiteley-7 were used to explore mental health characteristics. Univariate statistics logistic regression analysis and a general linear model were used. RESULTS: According to 442 valid answers, 217 adults practiced physical exercise (PE) frequently (fPE, 3-5 times/every day) while 120 did it less regularly (1-2 times/week), and 105 did not exercise/practiced irregularly (controls). Restriction-related stressors were most challenging, resulting in AO in 29% (n = 128) of the sample. The main predictors were additional stressors (p = 0.005) and anxiety symptoms (p < 0.001). The prevalence of AO was lower (p = 0.018) in the fPE group when compared to controls. KSQ distress symptoms were also lower in fPE (p < 0.0001), while total well-being was increased (p < 0.001) after adjusting for sex, age, and number of chronic diseases. According to the PHS-WB, both physical and mental well-being were higher (p = 0.003 and p = 0.004, respectively) in fPE. CONCLUSIONS: Frequent moderate exercise is associated with better mental and physical well-being and a lower prevalence of AO.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Alostase/fisiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Psicológicos , SARS-CoV-2 , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Minerva Surg ; 76(1): 57-61, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33754590

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity represents a risk factor for COVID-19 infection. Therefore, in order to reduce COVID-19 related comorbidities in obese population a continuation of obesity treatment is needed. However, bariatric procedures were postponed because of COVID-19 restrictions, delaying treatment for obese patients seeking for surgery. This study aimed to test the feasibility of a telematics pre-operative psychological and nutritional assessment as an alternative tool during COVID-19 outbreak. METHODS: Twenty-six patients were contacted. The pre-operative assessment consisted in 3-weekly one-to-one online sessions and a final in-person multidisciplinary session. The protocol feasibility has been evaluated on the following outcome: rejection rate (%), dropout rate (%), compliance and satisfaction's degree. RESULTS: Eighteen participants completed the whole protocol and 10% dropped-out. Seventy-two percent of participants obtained an excess weight loss ≥5%. All participants were satisfied of the telematics assessment. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 emergency has changed standard hospital procedures and this study could represent a landmark for an online pre-operative assessment method to adopt in case of new restrictions.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Avaliação Nutricional , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Testes Psicológicos , Mídias Sociais , Adulto , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Intervenção Baseada em Internet , Masculino , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Pacientes Desistentes do Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Satisfação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Projetos Piloto , Estudos Prospectivos , Perda de Peso
10.
Psicothema (Oviedo) ; 33(1): 118-124, feb. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-199560

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The validity of individual difference variables for predicting important life phenomena, such as job performance, has been studied for over a century. However, the relationships between some of them have scarcely been investigated. This paper presents a study on the relationship between cognitive reflection (CR), satisfaction with life (SWL), and emotional balance (EB) with job performance. METHOD: The participants were 245 managers (140 men and 105 women) working in companies in various economic sectors. RESULTS: The results showed that CR was not significantly related to job performance but that SWL and EB were valid predictors. Moreover, CR correlated significantly with SWL and EB. Multiple regression analysis showed that neither CR nor EB showed incremental validity over SWL in predicting job performance. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that CR may not be an important variable in the workplace, at least regarding job performance, and that it is not a fully cognitive construct because some degree of its variance may be shared with motivational and personality traits


ANTECEDENTES: la relación del desempeño ocupacional con variables de diferencias individuales se ha investigado durante casi un siglo, aunque su relación con la reflexividad cognitiva (RC), la satisfacción con la vida (SCV) y el equilibrio emocional (EE) ha sido escasamente estudiada, por ello, el objetivo principal de este artículo es examinar la relación entre RC, SCV y EE con el desempeño en el trabajo. MÉTODO: participaron 245 directivos (140 hombres y 105 mujeres) de empresas de diferentes sectores económicos. RESULTADOS: SCV y EE fueron predictores válidos del desempeño en el puesto pero no RC. Análisis de regresión múltiple indicaron que ni RC ni EE añadían validez sobre la SCV para predecir el desempeño en el puesto. CONCLUSIONES: los resultados sugieren que RC podría no ser una variable relevante en el lugar de trabajo, al menos en relación con el desempeño ocupacional, y que no se trata de un constructo totalmente cognitivo, ya que una parte de su varianza podría estar explicada por rasgos motivacionales y de la personalidad


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Satisfação no Emprego , Controle Interno-Externo , Satisfação Pessoal , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Cognição , Testes Psicológicos , Desempenho Profissional , Análise de Dados , Análise de Regressão , Valor Preditivo dos Testes
11.
Int J Ment Health Nurs ; 30(2): 524-532, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33491299

RESUMO

Anxiety and depression are common mental illnesses among nurses fighting coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the precise factors that affect anxiety and depression in this population require further evaluation. This study aimed to explore factors associated with anxiety and depression among nurses fighting COVID-19 in China. We used convenience sampling to recruit 282 nurses fighting COVID-19 in three hospitals. Participants were questioned about demographic characteristics, daily working time, daily sleep duration, sleep quality, anxiety, depression, resilience, and coping styles. Linear regression analysis indicated that resilience (ß = -0.217, P < 0.001), positive coping style (ß = -0.281, P < 0.001), negative coping style (ß = 0.395, P < 0.001), and sleep quality (ß = 0.153, P = 0.010) were predictive factors for anxiety, and the model explained 44.20% (P < 0.001) of variability. Resilience (ß = -0.239, P < 0.001), positive coping style (ß = -0.222, P < 0.001), negative coping style (ß = 0.152, P < 0.001), and sleep quality (ß = 0.104, P = 0.003) were identified as explanatory factors for depression, and the model explained 34.50% (P < 0.001) of variability. The present study suggested that resilience, coping styles, and sleep quality could account for an individual's levels of anxiety and depression.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/etiologia , COVID-19/enfermagem , Depressão/etiologia , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/psicologia , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recursos Humanos de Enfermagem no Hospital/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/psicologia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Testes Psicológicos , Resiliência Psicológica , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
12.
Psych J ; 10(2): 305-317, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33511783

RESUMO

A number of different laboratory procedures investigate the hormonal response in a standardized pharmacological challenge test (dexamethasone-corticotropin releasing hormone; DEX-CRH) or in a psychosocial stress induction on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis by the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). However, the magnitude of the response related to the different stressors and the interaction of the responsiveness between the two tests is still unclear. Fifty-two participants underwent both the DEX-CRH test and the TSST on two separate days. The cortisol and the plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) release were assessed before and after the stress tests. For a specification of the cortisol response to both conditions, subgroups of high- and low-cortisol responders to the TSST and the DEX-CRH test were formed. The healthy participants showed a substantial increase in the ACTH and the cortisol concentration after the two tests. This increase was 3 times greater in the TSST than the DEX-CRH test. High responders in both tests demonstrated a higher factor of the cortisol reactivity ratio (TSST/DEX-CRH test). Psychosocial stress as induced by the TSST was associated with a significantly greater increase in cortisol compared to the DEX-CRH test, even though the ACTH response displayed no differences. Our findings indicate an interaction of the hormonal responsiveness between the two tests with regard to the cortisol patterns.


Assuntos
Hormônio Liberador da Corticotropina , Dexametasona , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico , Humanos , Hidrocortisona , Testes Psicológicos
13.
J Forensic Leg Med ; 78: 102107, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33422886

RESUMO

Torture and ill-treatment are crimes practiced systematically in many countries around the world. Little is known about the attitudes and experiences of health professionals who evaluate the victims of these crimes. This study was conducted to assess the attitudes and experiences of health professionals who conduct clinical evaluations of alleged torture and ill-treatment and identify common needs and challenges. Two surveys were administered to health professionals who attended a series of Istanbul Protocol (IP) trainings in various countries of Central Asia, Middle East/North Africa and Latin-America. The findings indicate that participants documented a significant number of torture and ill-treatment cases during a three-year period preceding the survey and that they were interested in conducting evaluations in accordance with the IP, but expressed concern about the impact of such evaluations on their workload and the effects of secondary trauma. Participants indicated support for a wide range of professional development and self-regulatory measures. The study also indicates the need for additional training and other measures to ensure effective documentation practices as 13% of participants failed to understand one of the most basic IP concepts - that the absence of physical and/or psychological evidence does not rule out the possibility that torture and/or ill-treatment occurred.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Vítimas de Crime , Guias como Assunto , Tortura , Adulto , Documentação/normas , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exame Físico/normas , Testes Psicológicos/normas , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
An. psicol ; 37(1): 133-141, ene.-abr. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-200658

RESUMO

El objetivo fue evaluar las interacciones entre el acoso escolar, las necesidades psicológicas básicas, la responsabilidad y la satisfacción con la vida de los adolescentes. 1785 estudiantes de Educación Secundaria y Bachillerato, con edades comprendidas entre los 12 y los 17 años de edad (M = 14.44, DT = 1.50), de 16 centros educativos de tres zonas de España: norte (Asturias), centro-norte (León) y centro-sur (Cuenca y Albacete), ac-cedieron a participar. 590 contestaron cuestionarios referidos a la asignatura de Matemáticas, 596 a la de Lengua Castellana y Literatura y 599 a la de Educación Física. Para determinar los perfiles en función de las seis dimensiones de la dicotomía frustración-satisfacción de las necesidades psicológicas básicas se realizó un Análisis de Perfiles Latentes -LPA- utilizando el programa Mplus 7.11. Los resultados mostraron cinco perfiles de estudian-tes: uno adaptativo (clase 3) con niveles altos de satisfacción de las necesidades psicológicas básicas y bajos de frustración de las mismas, además de los niveles más altos de satisfacción con la vida, responsabilidad personal y social y los más bajos de victimización y agresión, y otros cuatro perfiles más desadaptativos. Por lo tanto, la satisfacción de estas necesidades debe ser promovida desde la escuela para prevenir y/o mitigar problemas de acoso escolar


The goal was to assess the interactions between bullying and adolescents' basic psychological needs, responsibility and life satisfaction. 1785 students from secondary education (year eight, n = 404; year nine, n = 390; year 10, n = 364; year 11, n = 376), and Baccalaureate (year 12, n = 251), from 16 schools located in three different areas of Spain: north (Asturias), central-north (León), and central-south (Cuenca y Albacete) agreed to participate. 590 answered the questionnaire used referring to Math, 596 to Literature and 599 to Physical Education. Results showed five profiles: one adaptive (class three) with high levels of basic psychological needs satisfaction, low levels of basic needs frustration, and high levels of life satisfaction, personal and social responsibility, and the lowest levels of victimization and aggression, and four other less adaptive profiles. Therefore, the satisfaction of these needs must be promoted in the schools to prevent and/or mitigate bullying problems


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Bullying/psicologia , Satisfação Pessoal , Responsabilidade Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Testes Psicológicos , Estudantes/psicologia , Frustração , Espanha
15.
Psicol. educ. (Madr.) ; 27(1): 27-36, ene. 2021. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-199707

RESUMO

Diversos organismos alertan sobre el incremento del consumo de alcohol y de su uso extendido en los adolescentes. Algunas investigaciones dan cuenta de la relevancia que posee la inteligencia emocional (IE) como nuevo constructo que puede ayudar a explicar esta problemática. El objetivo de este estudio es analizar la contribución de la IE rasgo y habilidad a la comprensión del consumo de alcohol respecto a otros factores protectores personales previamente estudiados como la autoestima, la autoeficacia y la asertividad. Esta investigación desarrolla una metodología de corte cuantitativo y de tipo correlacional en una muestra de 799 estudiantes. Los resultados revelan que los factores de percepción emocional, claridad emocional, reparación emocional, autoestima y asertividad se asociaron de manera significativa e inversamente con las conductas de consumo de alcohol, al contrario que el componente de atención emocional. Estos hallazgos proporcionan nueva evidencia empírica que podría orientar intervenciones preventivas a edades tempranas


A lot of public bodies have warned against an increase in alcohol intake and its extended use among adolescents. Some studies have revealed the relevance of emotional intelligence (EI) as a novel construct that may be useful in explaining this problem. The objective of this study is to analyze the contribution of trait and ability EI to the understanding of alcohol consumption with respect to other personal protective factors such as self-esteem, self-efficacy, and assertiveness previously studied. A correlational and quantitative methodology was used on a sample of 799 students. The results suggest that the factors of emotional perception, emotional clarity, emotional repair, self-esteem, and assertiveness were significantly and inversely related to alcohol consumption behaviors, unlike the emotional attention component. These findings offer new empirical evidence that may assist in establishing preventive interventions targeting young people


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Inteligência Emocional , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Fatores de Proteção , Autoimagem , Autoeficácia , Assertividade , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários , Testes Psicológicos , Fatores de Tempo , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Etários , Fatores de Risco
16.
Rev. psicol. (Fortaleza, Online) ; v. 12(n. 1): 164-172, 2021.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1222535

RESUMO

A avaliação psicológica é função exclusiva do psicólogo e é uma ação fundamental para estruturar sua prática, sendo o ensino da avaliação fundamental na graduação de Psicologia. O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar um relato de experiência sobre a prática de atividade de avaliação psicológica realizada na disciplina de Técnicas de Exames Psicológicos (TEP) em um curso de graduação de Psicologia. Para relatar essa experiência será descrito todos os passos das atividades realizadas pelos alunos da disciplina com intuito de vivenciarem o processo de avaliação psicológica ainda na graduação. Todas as etapas foram realizadas no espaço do Serviço Escola de Psicologia da Instituição de Ensino Superior em que as disciplinas foram ministradas. Como resultado dessa experiência notou-se um maior comprometimento dos alunos e melhor compreensão do processo de avaliação psicológica, que não se restringe ao ensino do uso de testes. Conclui-se que a atividade favoreceu o aprendizado da avaliação psicológica como um processo amplo, possibilitando contextualizar a sua prática de forma ética e cuidadosa.


Psychological assessment is the exclusive function of the psychologist and is a fundamental action to structure his practice, and the teaching of fundamental assessment in the Psychology degree is essential. The purpose of this article is to present an experience report on the practice of psychological assessment activity carried out in the Psychological Examination Techniques (TEP) discipline in an undergraduate Psychology course. To report this experience, all the steps of the activities carried out by the students of the discipline will be described in order to experience the psychological assessment process while still undergraduate. All steps were performed at the School of Psychology Service of the Higher Education Institution where the subjects were taught. As a result of this experience, there was a greater commitment from students and a better understanding of the psychological assessment process, which is not restricted to teaching the use of tests. It is concluded that the activity favored the learning of psychological assessment as a broad process, making it possible to contextualize its practice in an ethical and careful way


Assuntos
Psicologia , Prática Profissional , Testes Psicológicos
17.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 125: 105111, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33341502

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) is the most widely used protocol for activating a stress response of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis and other stress-mediating systems. A number of variants of the TSST exist, including ones for children, groups, and virtual reality. All of these versions, though, require in-person assessment. The COVID-19 pandemic has made in-person assessment impossible or extremely difficult and potentially dangerous. The purpose of this study was to validate a completely remote, online, version of the TSST for children. METHOD: A sample of 68 (27 female) 15- and 16-year old participants were administered the TSST-Online (TSST-OL) during the late afternoon hours (3-6 p.m. start time). The participants, judges (one male, one female), and experimenter (female) all joined the assessment from their own homes via the online platform, ZOOM™. Two sessions were conducted, one to obtain consent, explain procedures, work with the family to arrange the computer and room set-up for the TSST-OL and one within two weeks to conduct the procedure. The participants were trained to take their own saliva samples and a saliva sampling kit was mailed to the home in between the first and second session. The samples were then mailed to the researchers within a day of collection. The participant was observed during saliva collection to determine correct procedures were followed. Salivary cortisol, salivary α-amylase and self-reports of stress were measured multiple times over the second session. RESULTS: rmANOVAs yielded a significant effect of trials, for cortisol, F(1.37,90.46) = 15.13, p = .001, sAA, F(2.75,146.68) = 6.91, p = .001, and self-rated stress, F(3.43,222.69) = 118.73, p = .001. There were no significant sex by trials interactions for any measure, although females reported more stress than males, F(1,65) = 9.14, p = .004. For cortisol, from baseline to expected peak (30 min after the onset of speech preparation), the Cohen's effect size was dz = 0.57. Using 1.5 nmol/l (or 0.54 µg/dl) as the criterion for a response (Miller, Plessow, Kirschaum, & Stalder, 2013), 63% of the participants produced a significant increase in cortisol. CONCLUSIONS: The responses to the TSST-OL are consistent with in-person responses among children and adolescents (see recent meta-analysis (Seddon et al., 2020). The protocol is a viable way of assessing reactivity of the HPA axis and other stress systems without needing to bring the participant into the research laboratory. This method will be useful during periods of widespread infection. It should also work to study populations who all live too far from the research laboratory to be assessed in person.


Assuntos
Internet , Testes Psicológicos , Psicologia do Adolescente/métodos , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Telemedicina/métodos , Adolescente , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Feminino , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/análise , Masculino , Sistemas On-Line , Pandemias , Testes Psicológicos/normas , SARS-CoV-2 , Saliva/química , alfa-Amilases Salivares/análise , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos
18.
Hist Cienc Saude Manguinhos ; 27(4): 1149-1167, 2020.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338181

RESUMO

The article analyzes psychology within the Brazilian Mental Hygiene League, an institution founded in 1923 for the adaptation of individuals and to shape the "universal morals of tomorrow." Among other purposes, the league worked to adapt psychological tests and studies on child development in an attempt to assess mental function and establish standards. As an element that helped broaden the power of psychiatry, psychology was involved in two dimensions of disciplinary power: individual bodies and the social body. In this way, psychology also encountered the possibility that it could be vulgarized, as well as contradictions arising from the position of knowledge and techniques in this area.


Assuntos
Psicologia/história , Academias e Institutos/história , Brasil , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , História do Século XX , Humanos , Saúde Mental/história , Psiquiatria/história , Testes Psicológicos/história , Psicologia da Criança/história
19.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244579, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33382733

RESUMO

Recent tragic events and data from official NCAA reports suggest student-athletes' well-being is compromised by symptoms of mental health (MH) disorders. Self-compassion (SC) and mental toughness (MT) are two psychological constructs that have been shown effective against stressors associated with sports. The purpose of this study was to investigate SC, MT, and MH in a NCAA environment for the first time and provide practical suggestions for MH best practice No.4. In total, 542 student-athletes participated across Divisions (Mage = 19.84, SD = 1.7). Data were collected through Mental Toughness Index, Self-Compassion Scale, and Mental Health Continuum-Short Form. MT, SC (including mindfulness), and MH were positively correlated. Males scored higher than females on all three scales. No differences were found between divisions. SC partially mediated the MT-MH relationship, but moderation was not significant. Working towards NCAA MH best practice should include training athletes in both MT and SC skills (via mindfulness).


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Empatia , Adulto , Feminino , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Testes Psicológicos
20.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 82(1)2020 12 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33356022

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the prevalence of recent (previous 2 weeks) suicide attempts and estimates of likelihood of future suicide attempts as well as demographic characteristics associated with such attempts among residents of the Arab region looking for depression information online. METHODS: Google Ads were used to recruit 1,003 Arabic-speaking adults mostly from February 2014 to June 2014 to take part in a depression and suicidality screening study using a self-report questionnaire based on DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. RESULTS: Of the eligible participants (N = 900), 10.6% reported a suicide attempt in the previous 2 weeks, and 16.1% indicated a likelihood of making a suicide attempt in the following month. Men, those declining to state their sexual orientation, those from lower subjective social status (SSS), and unemployed individuals had higher odds of reporting a past suicide attempt (P = .001, P = .002, P < .001, P = .023, respectively). Younger individuals, those less religious, those with past suicide attempt, and those with lower SSS had higher odds of a likelihood of a future suicide attempt (P = .03, P = .02, P < .001, P = .001, respectively). Comparing the 4 countries with highest number of participants (Algeria, n = 148, Egypt, n = 260, Morocco, n = 118, and Saudi Arabia, n = 99), lower SSS was associated with higher odds of an attempt for Algeria, Morocco, and Saudi Arabia, but not for Egypt (P = .002). Lower religiosity was related to higher odds of estimates of future suicide for Algeria, Egypt, and Saudi Arabia, but not for Morocco (P = .014). CONCLUSIONS: Suicidality among residents of Arab-speaking countries warrants further exploration. Common predictors of risk may be less relevant for some populations.​.


Assuntos
Depressão/epidemiologia , Tentativa de Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , África do Norte/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Árabes , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Psicológicos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Autorrelato , Ideação Suicida , Tentativa de Suicídio/etnologia , Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
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