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1.
Oral Dis ; 26(1): 96-110, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31650646

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To validate the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the 10-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) for use in patients with oral lichen planus (OLP) and to provide cross-sectional analysis of anxiety, depressive and distress symptoms in patients with OLP. METHODS: Validity and reliability of both instruments were assessed in 260 participants with OLP in one tertiary oral medicine centre through confirmatory factor analysis and calculation of reliability coefficients. Prevalence, clinical and demographic predictors of the presence of psychological symptoms in OLP were calculated and identified using multivariated logistic regression. RESULTS: Factor analysis results demonstrated that a bifactor model described the underlying structure of both scales better than other models. Values of omega indicated adequate reliability of total HADS and PSS-10 score while low coefficient omega hierarchical values limit clinical applicability of their subscale scores. The prevalence of anxiety, depressive and distress symptoms in OLP was 39.23%, 20.77% and 27.69%, respectively. Pain intensity, disease comorbidities, age, smoking and alcohol consumption were found to be independent predictors of the presence of psychological symptoms in OLP. CONCLUSION: The HADS and PSS-10 are appropriate to use as general measures of psychological distress and perceived stress in patients with OLP.


Assuntos
Líquen Plano Bucal/psicologia , Testes Psicológicos , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/diagnóstico , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 12(21): 796-800, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31814342

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of graphic depictions (pictorials) to represent medical conditions is an accepted method that can complement standard methodology of comprehensive geriatric assessment. OBJECTIVES: To use the clinical pathway method to develop a comprehensive geriatric genogram assessment tool (CGGAT), which could supplement the written summary letter and recommendations. METHODS: We used the critical paths method to develop a tool to facilitate implementation of the comprehensive geriatric assessment recommendations. A multidisciplinary group of clinicians used the critical pathways method to develop a CGGAT. RESULTS: We used the CGGAT to depict the physical and functional status of patients and to complement the textual historical information, family dynamics, and current patient issues. CGGAT is a simple instrument that provides a visual structure and it can facilitate the sharing of information among team members, encourage interdisciplinary dialogue, enhance understanding and adherence on the part of patients and professionals, and reduce the burden on the clinicians who conduct the initial comprehensive geriatric assessment. CONCLUSIONS: We showed the benefits and obstacles related to the adaptation of this new tool and provide recommendations for further development.


Assuntos
Assistência Integral à Saúde/métodos , Gráficos por Computador , Procedimentos Clínicos , Avaliação Geriátrica/métodos , Idoso , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação Nutricional , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Testes Psicológicos
3.
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao ; 41(5): 615-621, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699191

RESUMO

Objective To validate the Union Physio-Psycho-Social Assessment Questionnaire(UPPSAQ-70)and test its validity and reliability.Methods From April,2013 to July,2018,patients were asked to finish the computer evaluation of UPPSAQ-70 and Symptom Checklist 90(SCL-90)in Peking Union Medical College Hospital(PUMCH).Confirmatory factor analysis(CFA)was conducted on the SPSS 17.0,and the number of fixed factors was 8 factors and 3 factors.Amos 23.0 was used to verify the original 8-factor model,8-factor revision model,3-factor model,3-factor revision model,and single-factor model.Each factor of SCL-90 was used as the calibration standard to calculate the correlation coefficient between factors.The retest reliability was tested by the outpatients in PUMCH in July,2018.Results Exploratory factor analysis indicated that the 8-factor revised model included:depression,anxiety and fatigue,sleep,physical discomfort,sexual function,happiness and satisfaction,hypochondria,and social anxiety.The 3 factors revised model included that:psychological,physiological and social dimension.Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the 8-factor modified model was superior to the 3-factor model and the single-factor model: χ 2=10 410.4,df=1862,RMSEA=0.07,CFI=0.753,and NFI=0.715.With SCL-90 as the standard criteria,except the low correlation coefficient between emotional scale and depression(r=0.600)and anxiety(r=0.520),the correlation coefficients of other symptoms were below 0.5.The chronbach's α between each factor and total score of UPPSAQ-70 was between 0.823 and 0.904,and the Chronbach's α coefficient of the whole scale was between 0.954 and 0.956 after each item was deleted.The retest reliability of the scale of 32 participants Chronbach's α was 0.847.Each item of the scale measured between one week was significantly correlated(P<0.05). Conclusion UPPSAQ-70 is a good scale for evaluating overall health status and is especially feasible in general hospitals.


Assuntos
Testes Psicológicos/normas , Psicometria , Inquéritos e Questionários , Análise Fatorial , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
4.
Transplant Proc ; 51(9): 2931-2935, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31607624

RESUMO

Transplant recipients have difficulty expressing, identifying, and describing their emotional experiences. The Machover human figure test allows us to bring out the deepest contents of a patient's personality, which are normally hidden and not explained to structured quantitative tests. The study analyzed possible situations of distress and possible symptoms of psychopathology in kidney transplant recipients, emerged from the projective test of the human figure and not easily verbalized to the common standardized tests. The sample included 80 kidney transplant patients (51 men and 29 women; mean age, 47.74 [SD, 12.39] years) during follow-up visits at 12 months after transplant. The Machover test was used to evaluate body image, affective aspects, and personality variables by projective method; the Symptom Checklist-90-R was used for the evaluation of possible psychopathology, and the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey was used for the assessment of perceived quality of life. RESULTS: showed that the more anxiety there is in the human figure test, the less somatization dimensions (ANX/SOM R = -331, P < .05), depression (ANX/DEP R = -326, P < .05), and the global index of psychic symptomatology (ANX/GSI R = -367, P < .05) of the Symptom Checklist-90-R are present. This research has confirmed the hypothesis that the spontaneous graphic production of the recipients, through the projective methods, allows them to identify and deepen their psychological contents and to activate and maintain a good psychophysical balance post transplant.


Assuntos
Transplante de Rim/psicologia , Comunicação não Verbal , Testes Psicológicos , Psicopatologia/instrumentação , Transplantados/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida
5.
BMC Psychol ; 7(1): 61, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31511068

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Germany, only limited data are available on attitudes towards death. Existing measurements are complex and time consuming, and data on psychometric properties are limited. The Death Attitude Profile- Revised (DAP-R) captures attitudes towards dying and death. The measure consists of 32 items, which are assigned to 5 dimensions (Fear of Death, Death Avoidance, Neutral Acceptance, Approach Acceptance, Escape Acceptance). It has been translated and tested in several countries, but no German version exists to date. This study reports the translation of the Death Attitudes Profile-Revised (DAP-R) into German (DAP-GR) using a cross-cultural adaption process methodology and its psychometric assessment. METHODS: The DAP-R was translated following guidelines for cultural adaption. A total of 216 medical students of the Heinrich Heine University Duesseldorf participated in this study. Interrater reliability was investigated by means of Kendall's W concordance coefficient. The internal consistency of the DAP-GR Scales was assessed with Cronbach's alpha coefficients. Split-half reliability was estimated using Spearman-Brown coefficients. Convergent validity was measured by Spearman's correlation coefficient. Content validity was assessed by means of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 24 and AMOS 22. RESULTS: The items showed fair to good interrater reliability, with W-values ranging from .30 to .79. Internal consistency of the five subscales ranged from .61 (Neutral Acceptance) to .94 (Approach Acceptance). Split-half reliability was good, with a Spearman-Brown-coefficient of .83. The results of CFA slightly diverged from the original scale. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest overall good reliability of the German version of the DAP-R. The DAP-GR promises to be a robust instrument to establish normative data on death attitudes for use in German-speaking countries.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Morte , Testes Psicológicos , Adulto , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Traduções , Adulto Jovem
6.
BMC Psychol ; 7(1): 58, 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470909

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perceived stress reflects a person's feeling of how much stress the individual is under at a given time. The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) is a popular instrument measuring the extent to which individuals perceive situations in their life as excessive relative to the ability to cope. Based on a literature review, however, several issues related to the scale remain: (a) the dimensionality is not established, (b) little information about the individual items exists, and (c) much research is based on university student samples. To address these, this study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Korean version of the Perceived Stress Scale (KPSS) using a military sample. METHODS: This study was conducted in South Korea with 373 military personnel, aged 19-30 years. Both classical test theory (CTT) and the Rasch rating scale model were used to examine the psychometric properties of the KPSS, including factor structure, concurrent validity, reliability, and item analyses. RESULTS: Internal consistency reliability for the overall and negative/positive perception subscales was.85, .85 and .86, respectively. Based on Rasch reliability, person and item reliability were .82 and .98, respectively. Person and item separation were 2.13 and 7.19, respectively. Concurrent validity was established, with significantly positive association with the measures of depression and negative association with the measure of life satisfaction. Findings from the CFA suggested that a bifactor model with two group factors was the best fit to the observed data. The RSM showed that all but one item had acceptable infit and outfit statistics, and item difficulty ranged from -.73 to 1.22. Besides, the RSM showed positive and moderate inter-item correlations ranging from .42 to .75. CONCLUSIONS: The results provided evidence that a 10-item Korean version of the Perceived Stress Scale was a reliable and valid scale to measure perceived stress in military samples.


Assuntos
Militares , Testes Psicológicos , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Adulto , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicometria/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , República da Coreia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Clin Nurs ; 28(23-24): 4504-4512, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429131

RESUMO

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: This study applied structural equation modelling to explore the relationships among agitated behaviours, depression, cognitive function and activities of daily living, as well as associations between these factors and urinary incontinence). BACKGROUND: A high prevalence of urinary incontinence is found among institutional older adults with dementia. People with urinary incontinence suffer from increased financial burden and social isolation and experience reduced quality of life. DESIGN: Cross-sectional correlational research. The study complied with the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement. METHODS: In total, 226 older adults with dementia were recruited through convenience sampling at 15 long-term care facilities in southern Taiwan. The urinary incontinence frequency, agitated behaviours, depression, cognitive function and activities of daily living were evaluated using bladder records, the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory, the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia, the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Barthel Index, respectively. RESULTS: Activities of daily living performance was found to be significantly associated with urinary incontinence; however, age, cognitive function, depression and agitated behaviours were not significantly related to urinary incontinence. Age did not have effects on any of the variables tested in this model, whereas activities of daily living performance was significantly associated with cognitive function and depression. Results further showed that cognitive function and depression were mediators between activities of daily living and agitated behaviours. CONCLUSION: Enhanced activities of daily living independency directly reduced urinary incontinence, improved cognitive function, decreased degrees of depression and indirectly reduced agitated behaviours. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: The findings could serve as a valuable reference for long-term care facilities in providing effective urinary incontinence care and prevention to older adults with dementia.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Demência/epidemiologia , Incontinência Urinária/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Demência/psicologia , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Instituição de Longa Permanência para Idosos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Casas de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Testes Psicológicos , Qualidade de Vida , Taiwan , Incontinência Urinária/psicologia
8.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 49(11): 4375-4389, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378833

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to adapt and validate the abbreviated version of the "Autism-Spectrum Quotient" (AQ-Short) in a sample of Spanish native adults. A total of 46 individuals with ASD, 41 ASD-relatives, 17 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and 190 non-clinical adults were administered the Spanish version of the AQ-Short. The results of the confirmatory factorial analysis found two high-order factors (Social Behaviour and Numbers/Patterns) and four subscales (Social Skills, Routines, Switching and Imagination). The reliability analysis showed very good internal structure and test-retest reliability. The AQ-Short also showed moderate convergent validity with ADOS-2. Differences by group were found in the ASD group when compared to other groups. Gender differences were only found in the non-clinical group.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Testes Psicológicos/normas , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adulto , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Fatores Sexuais , Comportamento Social , Habilidades Sociais , Traduções , Adulto Jovem
9.
Riv Psichiatr ; 54(4): 160-167, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31379381

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer diagnosis and treatments have a strong impact on women's lives. This study aimed to evaluate the changes in emotional traits in women aged 38-50 years over a three-year period. METHOD: By cross-sectional study design, a sample of n. 126 patients in range age 38-50 has been recruited in different timing of cancer disease, in order to evaluate the patients' emotional traits (variables: anxiety, anger, psychological distress, and depression) at the time of diagnosis, and 6, 12, 18, 24, and 36 months after diagnosis. Anger, anxiety, psychological distress, and depression were evaluated. RESULTS: Results showed significant differences in each emotional variable during treatment. Anxiety showed a decreasing trend, whereas anger tended to improve significantly. At 12 and 24 months from the diagnosis, patients seemed more aware about their own psychological needs compared with the period immediately after the diagnosis (T0) and during the treatments. Women who had recently received a diagnosis (T0) seemed more resilient in their responses in facing an emergency. CONCLUSIONS: Increased survival rate after breast cancer diagnosis is strongly linked to the management of emotional weakness of BC women because of modified living. Patients need to be supported to regain their life after clinical treatments though tailored psychological treatment along survivorship, not only in primary treatment.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Emoções , Sobrevivência , Adulto , Ira , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Psicológicos , Autorrelato , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Taxa de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Arq. bras. psicol. (Rio J. 2003) ; 71(2): 130-149, mai.-ago 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-1015012

RESUMO

As distorções cognitivas são erros lógicos de pensamentos que podem alterar a realidade do sujeito, causando possíveis sintomas depressivos. O objetivo do estudo foi construir um instrumento intitulado de Escala de Distorções Cognitivas Depressivas (EDICOD) e buscar evidências de validade baseada no conteúdo e estrutura interna, utilizando análise fatorial exploratória e o modelo da Teoria de Resposta ao Item (TRI). Na etapa de construção do estudo, participaram oito juízes e 27 estudantes de graduação para uma aplicação piloto para adequação dos itens. Posteriormente, 459 indivíduos, divididos entre sujeitos não clínicos e clínicos com diagnóstico de depressão, de ambos os sexos, com faixa etária entre 18 e 60 anos. Após as análises psicométricas, a escala ficou reduzida com 36 itens, divididos em três fatores interpretáveis, sendo esses, Abstração seletiva/personalização (F1), Inferência arbitrária/maximização e minimização (F2) e por último, Pensamento dicotômico/hipergeneralização (F3). Assim, a EDICOD apresentou ser um instrumento adequado de rastreio das principais distorções cognitivas, principalmente para possível uso em ambiente clínico


Cognitive distortions are logical errors of thoughts that can alter the subject's reality, causing possible depressive symptoms. The purpose of the study was to construct an instrument titled Depression Cognitive Distortion Scale (EDICOD) and to seek evidence of validity based on content and internal structure using exploratory factorial analysis and the Item Response Theory (TRI) model. In the construction phase of the study, eight judges and 27 undergraduate students participated in a pilot application to adjust the items. Subsequently, 459 individuals, divided between non-clinical and clinical subjects with a diagnosis of depression, of both sexes, aged between 18 and 60 years, participated. After the psychometric analysis, the scale was reduced to 36 items, divided into three interpretable factors: Selective abstraction/personalization (F1), arbitrary inference/maximization and minimization (F2), and finally, dichotomous thinking/hypergeneralization (F3). Thus, EDICOD presented an adequate tool for screening the main cognitive distortions, mainly for possible use in clinical settings


Las distorsiones cognitivas son errores lógicos de pensamientos que pueden alterar la realidad del sujeto, causando posibles síntomas depresivos. El objetivo del estudio fue construir un instrumento titulado de Escala de Distorsiones Cognitivas Depresivas (EDICOD) y buscar evidencias de validez basada en el contenido y la estructura interna, utilizando análisis factorial exploratorio y el modelo de la Teoría de Respuesta al Ítem (TRI). En la etapa de construcción del estudio, participaron ocho jueces y 27 estudiantes de graduación para una aplicación piloto para adecuación de los ítems. Posteriormente, 459 individuos, divididos entre sujetos no clínicos y clínicos con diagnóstico de depresión, de ambos sexos, con rango de edad entre 18 y 60 años. Después de los análisis psicométricos, la escala se redujo con 36 ítems, divididos en tres factores interpretables, siendo éstos, Abstracción selectiva/personalización (F1), Inferencia arbitraria/maximización y minimización (F2) y por último, Pensamiento dicotómico/hipergeneralización (F3). Así, la EDICOD presentó ser un instrumento adecuado de rastreo de las principales distorsiones cognitivas, principalmente para posible uso en ambiente clínico


Assuntos
Humanos , Testes Psicológicos , Psicometria , Transtornos Cognitivos , Transtorno Depressivo
11.
Psicothema (Oviedo) ; 31(3): 229-238, ago. 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-185348

RESUMO

Background: Are cognitive and biological variables useful for predicting future behavioral outcomes?. Method: In two independent groups, we measured a set of cognitive (fluid and crystallized intelligence, working memory, and attention control) and biological (cortical thickness and cortical surface area) variables on two occasions separated by six months, to predict behavioral outcomes of interest (performance on an adaptive version of the n-back task) measured twelve and eighteen months later. We followed three stages: discovery, validation, and generalization. In the discovery stage, cognitive/biological variables and the behavioral outcome of interest were assessed in a group of individuals (in-sample). In the validation stage, the cognitive and biological variables were related with a parallel version of the behavioral outcome assessed several months later. In the generalization stage, the validation findings were tested in an independent group of individuals (out-of-sample). Results: The key finding revealed that cortical surface area variations within the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex predict the behavioral outcome of interest in both groups, whereas the cognitive variables failed to show reliable predictive validity. Conclusions: Individual differences in biological variables might predict future behavioral outcomes better than cognitive variables concurrently correlated with these behavioral outcomes


Antecedentes: ¿Predicen las variables cognitivas y biológicas el futuro desempeño cognitivo? Método: en dos grupos independientes de participantes se miden variables cognitivas (inteligencia fluida y cristalizada, memoria operativa y control atencional) y biológicas (grosor y superficie cortical) en dos ocasiones separadas por seis meses, para predecir el desempeño en la tarea n-back valorado doce y dieciocho meses después. Se completan tres etapas: descubrimiento, validación y generalización. En la de descubrimiento se valoran en un grupo de individuos las variables cognitivas/biológicas y el desempeño a predecir. En la de validación, se relacionan las mismas variables con una versión paralela de la n-back completada meses después. En la de generalización, los resultados de la validación se replican en un grupo independiente de individuos. Resultados: las variaciones de superficie cortical en la corteza dorsolateral prefrontal derecha predicen el desempeño cognitivo en los dos grupos independientes de individuos, mientras que las variables cognitivas no contribuyen a la predicción del desempeño futuro. Conclusiones: las diferencias individuales en determinadas variables biológicas predicen el desempeño cognitivo mejor que las variables cognitivas que correlacionan concurrentemente con ese desempeño


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Atenção/fisiologia , Comportamento , Cognição/fisiologia , Inteligência/fisiologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/anatomia & histologia , Variação Biológica Individual , Mapeamento Encefálico , Estudos Controlados Antes e Depois/métodos , Lateralidade Funcional , Generalização (Psicologia) , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Testes Psicológicos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Rev. psicol. trab. organ. (1999) ; 35(2): 65-74, ago. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-184731

RESUMO

Over the years, various governmental, employment, and academic organizations have identified a list of skills to successfully master the challenges of the 21st century. So far, an adequate assessment of these skills across countries has remained challenging. Limitations inherent in the use of self-reports (e.g., lack of self-insight, socially desirable responding, response style bias, reference group bias, etc.) have spurred on the search for methods that could complement or even substitute self-report inventories. Situational judgment tests (SJTs) have been proposed as one of the complements/alternatives to the traditional self-report inventories. SJTs are low-fidelity simulations that confront participants with multiple domain-relevant situations and request to choose from a set of predefined responses. Our objectives are twofold: (a) outlining how a combined emic-etic approach can be used for developing SJT items that can be used across geographical regions and (b) investigating whether SJT scores can be compared across regions. Our data come from Laureate International Universities (N = 5,790) and comprise test-takers from Europe and Latin America who completed five different SJTs that were developed in line with a combined emic-etic approach. Results showed evidence for metric measurement invariance across participants from Europe and Latin America for all five SJTs. Implications for the use of SJTs as measures of 21st century skills are discussed


A lo largo de los años, varias organizaciones gubernamentales de empleo y académicas han identificado una lista de habilidades para superar con éxito los desafíos del siglo XXI. Hasta ahora, una evaluación adecuada de estas habilidades en los países ha continuado siendo un reto. Las limitaciones inherentes al uso de autoinformes (p. ej., falta de autoconocimiento, respuestas socialmente deseables, sesgo en el estilo de respuesta, sesgo del grupo de referencia, etc.) han estimulado la búsqueda de métodos que puedan complementar o incluso sustituir inventarios de autoinforme. Los tests de juicio situacional (TJS) se han propuesto como uno de los complementos/alternativas a los inventarios tradicionales de autoinforme. Los TJS son simulaciones de baja fidelidad que enfrentan a los participantes con múltiples situaciones de dominio relevantes y solicitan elegir entre un conjunto de respuestas predefinidas. Tenemos un doble objetivo: (a) explicar cómo se puede utilizar un enfoque emic-etic combinado para desarrollar ítems de TJS que se puedan emplear en todas las regiones geográficas y (b) investigar si las puntuaciones de los TJS se pueden comparar entre regiones. Nuestros datos provienen de las Laureate International Universities (N = 5,790) y están compuestos por examinandos de Europa y América Latina que cumplimentaron cinco TJS diferentes que se desarrollaron de acuerdo a un enfoque emic-ethic. Los resultados mostraron la existencia de invarianza en la medición en los participantes de Europa y América Latina para los cinco TJS. Se discuten las implicaciones para el uso de TJS como medida para detectar habilidades en el siglo XXI


Assuntos
Humanos , Seleção de Pessoal/métodos , Competência Profissional , Habilidades para Realização de Testes/psicologia , Descrição de Cargo , Psicometria/métodos , Testes Psicológicos , Autorrelato/classificação , Europa (Continente) , América Latina
13.
Rev. psicol. trab. organ. (1999) ; 35(2): 75-83, ago. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-184732

RESUMO

Multidimensional forced-choice questionnaires are widely regarded in the personnel selection literature for their ability to control response biases. Recently developed IRT models usually rely on the assumption that item parameters remain invariant when they are paired in forced-choice blocks, without giving it much consideration. This study aims to test this assumption empirically on the MUPP-2PL model, comparing the parameter estimates of the forced-choice format to their graded-scale equivalent on a Big Five personality instrument. The assumption was found to hold reasonably well, especially for the discrimination parameters. In the cases in which it was violated, we briefly discuss the likely factors that may lead to non-invariance. We conclude discussing the practical implications of the results and providing a few guidelines for the design of forced-choice questionnaires based on the invariance assumption


Los cuestionarios de elección forzosa multidimensionales son bastante apreciados en la literatura de selección de personal por su capacidad para controlar los sesgos de respuesta. Los modelos de TRI desarrollados recientemente normalmente asumen que los parámetros de los ítems permanecen invariantes cuando se emparejan en bloques de elección forzosa, sin dedicarle mucha atención. Este estudio tiene como objetivo poner a prueba empíricamente este supuesto en el modelo MUPP-2PL, comparando las estimaciones de los parámetros del formato de elección forzosa con su equivalente en escala graduada, en un instrumento de personalidad Big Five. Se encontró que el supuesto se cumplía razonablemente bien, especialmente para los parámetros de discriminación. En los casos en los que no se cumplió se discuten brevemente los posibles factores que pueden dar lugar a no invarianza. Concluimos discutiendo las implicaciones prácticas de los resultados y proponiendo algunas pautas para el diseño de cuestionarios de elección forzosa basados en el supuesto de invarianza


Assuntos
Humanos , Seleção de Pessoal/métodos , Competência Profissional , Psicometria/métodos , Habilidades para Realização de Testes/psicologia , Descrição de Cargo , Autoeficácia , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Comportamento de Escolha , Testes Psicológicos/estatística & dados numéricos
14.
Ulus Travma Acil Cerrahi Derg ; 25(4): 403-409, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31297786

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The fifth metacarpal neck fracture injuries are commonly found in patients who applied to emergency clinics. The mechanism of trauma in these types of injuries seems to be different and, in some cases, appears to be intentional. Psychological factors play an important role in the treatment and rehabilitation, as well as in the etiology of metacarpal neck fractures. However, to the best of our knowledge, no research has yet compared the clinical outcomes of patients with fifth metacarpal neck fractures caused intentionally with those of patients with such fractures caused by unintentional injuries. Our goal is to investigate the relationships between the mechanism of injury, socioeconomic status, and clinical outcomes of patients with fifth metacarpal neck fractures. METHODS: The study included 59 patients with fifth metacarpal neck fractures. The patients were separated into two groups. Group 1 consisted of patients with intentional injuries, and Group 2 consisted of patients with unintentional injuries. Both groups were evaluated in terms of the anger analysis, impulsivity, and the level of anxiety in relation to somatic findings Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and The Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Score (QDASH). In addition, the relationship between anger, impulsivity, and anxiety scores with the socioeconomic status and educational level was assessed. RESULTS: It was observed that the anger and impulsivity values of Group 2 patients were lower than the Group 1, and the decrease in Group 2 was correlated with the VAS and Q-DASH values. Group 1 barrat impulsivity score 61.5 (42-78), anxiety score 64 (55-77), state anger score 20 (16-30), and Group 2 barrat impulsivity score 61 (55-69), anxiety score 66 (58-72), and anger score 19 (14-26) were found as mean values. The impulsivity score and anger score were found to be lower in Group 2 at the low educational level. The number of patients with a low income was found to be high in both groups, and the impulsivity score and the anger score were higher in Group 1, while the anxiety score was higher in Group 2. CONCLUSION: Sociodemographic factors and the etiology of intentional injuries could not be detected, but psychological factors play a role in the clinical sequelae of intentional fifth metacarpal fractures, their effects thereof on the hand function and the pain course after treatment.


Assuntos
Fraturas Ósseas/psicologia , Traumatismos da Mão/psicologia , Ossos Metacarpais/lesões , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Ira , Ansiedade , Escolaridade , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/reabilitação , Fraturas Ósseas/terapia , Deformidades Adquiridas da Mão/etiologia , Deformidades Adquiridas da Mão/psicologia , Traumatismos da Mão/reabilitação , Traumatismos da Mão/terapia , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Intenção , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor , Testes Psicológicos , Classe Social , Resultado do Tratamento , Escala Visual Analógica
15.
Psicothema ; 31(3): 229-238, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292036

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Are cognitive and biological variables useful for predicting future behavioral outcomes? METHOD: In two independent groups, we measured a set of cognitive (fluid and crystallized intelligence, working memory, and attention control) and biological (cortical thickness and cortical surface area) variables on two occasions separated by six months, to predict behavioral outcomes of interest (performance on an adaptive version of the n-back task) measured twelve and eighteen months later. We followed three stages: discovery, validation, and generalization. In the discovery stage, cognitive/biological variables and the behavioral outcome of interest were assessed in a group of individuals (in-sample). In the validation stage, the cognitive and biological variables were related with a parallel version of the behavioral outcome assessed several months later. In the generalization stage, the validation findings were tested in an independent group of individuals (out-of-sample). RESULTS: The key finding revealed that cortical surface area variations within the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex predict the behavioral outcome of interest in both groups, whereas the cognitive variables failed to show reliable predictive validity. CONCLUSIONS: Individual differences in biological variables might predict future behavioral outcomes better than cognitive variables concurrently correlated with these behavioral outcomes.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Comportamento , Cognição/fisiologia , Inteligência/fisiologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/anatomia & histologia , Variação Biológica Individual , Mapeamento Encefálico , Estudos Controlados Antes e Depois/métodos , Feminino , Previsões , Lateralidade Funcional , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Testes Psicológicos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 22(7): 451-464, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295025

RESUMO

The 14-item Compulsive Internet Use Scale (CIUS) is one of the most frequently internationally adapted psychometric instruments developed to assess generalized problematic Internet use. Multiple adaptations of this instrument have led to versions in different languages (e.g., Arabic and French), and different numbers of items (e.g., from 5 to 16 items instead of the original 14). However, to date, the CIUS has never been simultaneously compared and validated in several languages and different versions. Consequently, the present study tested the psychometric properties of four CIUS versions (i.e., CIUS-14, CIUS-9, CIUS-7, and CIUS-5) across eight languages (i.e., German, French, English, Finnish, Spanish, Italian, Polish, and Hungarian) to (a) examine their psychometric properties, and (b) test their measurement invariance. These analyses also identified the optimal versions of the CIUS. The data were collected via online surveys administered to 4,226 voluntary participants from 15 countries, aged at least 18 years, and recruited from academic environments. All brief versions of the CIUS in all eight languages were validated. Dimensional, configural, and metric invariance were established across all languages for the CIUS-5, CIUS-7, and CIUS-9, but the CIUS-5 and CIUS-7 were slightly more suitable because their model fitted the ordinal estimate better, while for cross-comparisons, the CIUS-9 was slightly better. The brief versions of the CIUS are therefore reliable and structurally stable instruments that can be used for cross-cultural research across adult populations.


Assuntos
Comportamento Compulsivo/diagnóstico , Comparação Transcultural , Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Testes Psicológicos/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Linguagem , Masculino , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Traduções , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Forensic Sci ; 64(6): 1884-1888, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287563

RESUMO

In clinical and most forensic evaluations, "diagnosis" connotes the expectation of a DSM-5 or ICD-10 formally labeled mental condition. When the task is to evaluate the security risk a person's psychological makeup presents to an institution, such a molar diagnosis can blind the clinician and elevate the risk to a security agency. When "diagnosis" connotes achieving an understanding of a person's behavior that has raised security concerns, then a different conceptualization of the diagnostic process is required. Unlike the clinical situation, the evaluation is not being performed to benefit the person but for the purpose of assessing risk to an agency. The differences this introduces involve every aspect of the evaluation and changes the type of diagnosis expected. Not appreciating these differences can cause the clinician to fail in the task of assessing psychological tendencies that affect national security.


Assuntos
Emprego , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Medidas de Segurança , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Entrevista Psicológica , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Testes Psicológicos
18.
J Pers Soc Psychol ; 117(3): 522-559, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31192631

RESUMO

Using a novel technique known as network meta-analysis, we synthesized evidence from 492 studies (87,418 participants) to investigate the effectiveness of procedures in changing implicit measures, which we define as response biases on implicit tasks. We also evaluated these procedures' effects on explicit and behavioral measures. We found that implicit measures can be changed, but effects are often relatively weak (|ds| < .30). Most studies focused on producing short-term changes with brief, single-session manipulations. Procedures that associate sets of concepts, invoke goals or motivations, or tax mental resources changed implicit measures the most, whereas procedures that induced threat, affirmation, or specific moods/emotions changed implicit measures the least. Bias tests suggested that implicit effects could be inflated relative to their true population values. Procedures changed explicit measures less consistently and to a smaller degree than implicit measures and generally produced trivial changes in behavior. Finally, changes in implicit measures did not mediate changes in explicit measures or behavior. Our findings suggest that changes in implicit measures are possible, but those changes do not necessarily translate into changes in explicit measures or behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Meta-Análise em Rede , Testes Psicológicos , Psicologia Social , Percepção Social , Humanos
19.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 22(8): 558-564, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31194583

RESUMO

Avatars, or users' renditions within digital environments, may change depending on modifications of users' self-conception. According to literature, chronic health conditions influence patients and survivors' identity, because living with a disease requires people to reconfigure their self-representation and their own daily life and future plans. This is especially true for breast cancer, whose treatment and surgery also affect patients' body image, sexual identity, and sense of womanhood. In this study, 22 breast cancer survivors were asked to create multiple avatars resembling their actual self (AS), their ideal self (IS), and their self connected to the disease experience; then, they were asked to rate their attitudes toward their three avatars. Results show that disease avatars are significantly different in patients' attitudes toward them from AS and IS avatars. In addition, attitudes toward one's own avatars appeared partially related to clinically relevant psychological states, such as anxiety and depression. Discussion explores suggestions for usage of avatars in interventions for assessment and quality-of-life promotion among chronic patients.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Simulação por Computador , Testes Psicológicos , Autoimagem , Interface Usuário-Computador , Adulto , Ansiedade/etiologia , Depressão/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida
20.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 49(9): 3732-3752, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31161304

RESUMO

Initial studies have presented the Music-based Scale for Autism Diagnostics (MUSAD) as a promising DSM-5-based observational tool to identify autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in adults with intellectual disability (ID). The current study is the first to address its clinical utility in a new sample of 124 adults with ID (60.5% diagnosed with ASD). The derived diagnostic algorithm differentiated well between individuals with and without ASD (sensitivity 79%, specificity 74%, area under the curve = 0.81). Inter-rater reliability, assessed by the scorings of four independent experts in 22 consensus cases, was excellent (ICC = 0.92). Substantial correlations with scores from other ASD-specific measures indicated convergent validity. The MUSAD yields accurate and reliable scores, supporting comprehensive ASD diagnostics in adults with ID.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Música/psicologia , Testes Psicológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Área Sob a Curva , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
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