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1.
Arch Virol ; 166(4): 1113-1124, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33576898

RESUMO

Avian influenza virus (AIV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV), and avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) inflict immense damage on the global poultry industry annually. Serological diagnostic methods are fundamental for the effective control and prevention of outbreaks caused by these viruses. In this study, a novel triplex protein microarray assay was developed and validated for the rapid and simultaneous visualized detection of antibodies against AIV, NDV, and IBV in chicken sera. The AIV nuclear protein (NP), NDV phosphoprotein (P), and IBV nonstructural protein 5 (nsp5) were produced in a prokaryotic expression system, purified, and immobilized onto an initiator integrated poly(dimethylsiloxane) (iPDMS) film as probes to detect antibodies against these viruses in chicken sera. After optimization of the reaction conditions, no cross-reactivity was detected with infectious bursal disease virus, avian leukosis virus subgroup J and chicken anemia virus antisera. The lowest detectable antibody titers in this assay corresponded to hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titers of 24 and 21 for AIV and NDV, respectively, and to an IDEXX antibody titer of 103 for IBV, using the HI assay and IDEXX commercial ELISA kit as the reference methods. When156 serum samples were tested using the new assay, the HI test and the IBV IDEXX ELISA kit, the assay showed 96.8% (151/156), 97.4% (152/156) and 99.4% (155/156) diagnostic accuracy for detection of AIV, NDV and IBV antibody, respectively. The current study suggests that the newly developed triplex microarray is rapid, sensitive, and specific, providing a viable alternative assay for AIV, NDV, and IBV antibody screening in epidemiological investigations and vaccination evaluations.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle/isolamento & purificação , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/diagnóstico , Análise Serial de Proteínas/veterinária , Animais , Antígenos Virais/genética , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Antígenos Virais/metabolismo , Galinhas , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Imunoensaio/normas , Imunoensaio/veterinária , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/imunologia , Vírus da Influenza A/imunologia , Influenza Aviária/diagnóstico , Doença de Newcastle/diagnóstico , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Testes Sorológicos/normas , Testes Sorológicos/veterinária
2.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(12): e0008932, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33332357

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chagas disease is a neglected zoonosis of growing concern in the southern US, caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. We genotyped parasites in a large cohort of PCR positive dogs to shed light on parasite transmission cycles and assess potential relationships between parasite diversity and serological test performance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a metabarcoding approach based on deep sequencing of T. cruzi mini-exon marker to assess parasite diversity. Phylogenetic analysis of 178 sequences from 40 dogs confirmed the presence of T. cruzi discrete typing unit (DTU) TcI and TcIV, as well as TcII, TcV and TcVI for the first time in US dogs. Infections with multiple DTUs occurred in 38% of the dogs. These data indicate a greater genetic diversity of T. cruzi than previously detected in the US. Comparison of T. cruzi sequence diversity indicated that highly similar T. cruzi strains from these DTUs circulate in hosts and vectors in Louisiana, indicating that they are involved in a shared T. cruzi parasite transmission cycle. However, TcIV and TcV were sampled more frequently in vectors, while TcII and TcVI were sampled more frequently in dogs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These observations point to ecological host-fitting being a dominant mechanism involved in the diversification of T. cruzi-host associations. Dogs with negative, discordant or confirmed positive T. cruzi serology harbored TcI parasites with different mini-exon sequences, which strongly supports the hypothesis that parasite genetic diversity is a key factor affecting serological test performance. Thus, the identification of conserved parasite antigens should be a high priority for the improvement of current serological tests.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/veterinária , Éxons/genética , Variação Genética , Trypanosoma cruzi/genética , Animais , Doença de Chagas/epidemiologia , Doença de Chagas/parasitologia , Doença de Chagas/transmissão , Estudos de Coortes , Cães , Genótipo , Humanos , Louisiana/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Testes Sorológicos/veterinária , Trypanosoma cruzi/imunologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/fisiologia , Zoonoses
3.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(3): e005820, 2020 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756774

RESUMO

Ehrlichia canis is the main etiological agent of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME), a globally canine infectious disease. In Brazil, CME is considered to be endemic, and its prevalence can reach 65% in some states. The diagnosis of ehrlichiosis is important for treatment and epidemiological purposes. The E. canis TRP36 (Tandem Repeat Protein) protein elicits the earliest acute-phase antibody response observed during the course of the disease. This study aimed to generate the recombinant TRP36 protein from E. canis São Paulo strain and to evaluate its potential as a tool for the serologic diagnosis of CME. The E. canis São Paulo isolate was cultivated in DH82 lineage cells, and its genomic DNA was obtained. The bacterial DNA fragment encoding the entire ORF of TRP36 was cloned into the pBAD/Thio-TOPO vector and transformed into Escherichia coli DH10B competent cells with the trp36-bearing plasmid for protein expression. To evaluate the protein antigenicity, 16 canine serum samples were previously tested (by PCR and the commercial SNAP®4Dx® serological test). The results were in accordance with the SNAP®4Dx® test. Experiments using this recombinant protein as an antigen, targeting the development of a serologic test based on ELISA methodology, are the next step to produce a reliable, affordable and useful diagnostic tool for CME in Brazil.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias , Doenças do Cão , Ehrlichia canis , Ehrlichiose/veterinária , Proteínas Recombinantes , Testes Sorológicos/veterinária , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/imunologia , Brasil , Linhagem Celular , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Cães , Ehrlichia canis/genética , Ehrlichiose/diagnóstico , Escherichia coli/genética , Expressão Gênica , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia
4.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(7): e0008488, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32716931

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a major neglected disease, potentially fatal, whose control is still impaired by inefficient and/or expensive treatment and diagnostic methods. The most promising approach for VL diagnosis uses serological assays with recombinant proteins, since they are more efficient and easier to perform. Tests developed for the human form of the disease, however, have not been shown to be efficient for its diagnosis in the canine host, the major reservoir for the American VL. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we describe a systematic approach aimed at the production of a new chimeric protein potentially able to be used for both human and canine VL diagnosis and based both on in silico gene design and experimental data. Starting from the previous identification of Leishmania infantum recombinant antigens efficient for the diagnosis of either human or canine VL, three of the best performing antigens were selected (Lci2, Lci3 and Lci12). After a preliminary evaluation validating the chimeric approach, DNA fragments encoding predicted antigenic regions from each protein, enriched with repeats, were joined in various combinations to generate a total of seventeen chimeric genes optimized for prokaryotic expression. These were assessed for optimal expression and purification yield, with four chimeric proteins being efficiently produced. Their diagnostic potential was then evaluated through ELISA assays with sera from VL afflicted humans and dogs. After two rounds of gene design, the results showed high levels of sensitivity for the best chimeric protein, named Q5, in humans (82%) and dogs (100%) with 100% specificity in comparison with healthy controls. A single non-specific reaction was seen with serum from individuals with tegumentary leishmaniasis. CONCLUSION: The newly described chimeric protein is potentially useful for the detection of both humans and dogs afflicted with VL, with its use in rapid tests necessary for validation as a new diagnostic tool.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Testes Sorológicos/veterinária , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Antígenos de Protozoários/química , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Cães , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Leishmaniose Visceral/sangue , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Proteínas de Protozoários/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Testes Sorológicos/métodos , Transcriptoma
5.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233695, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479551

RESUMO

Johne's disease (JD) is an infectious wasting condition of ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in domestic livestock of every country that has been investigated. Controlling JD is problematic due to the lack of sensitive, specific, efficient, and cost-effective diagnostic tests. A major challenge in the development of diagnostics like ELISA is the selection of an ideal antigen/(s) that is pathogen-specific and allows sensitive recognition. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify and use Mce-truncated protein-based ELISA assay for the diagnosis of MAP infection with high sensitivity and specificity. In silico epitope prediction by epitope mapping throughout the whole length of MAP2191 protein revealed that C-terminal portion of this protein presented potential T- and B-cell epitopes. Therefore, a novel Mce-truncated protein encoded by the selected region of MAP2191 gene was expressed, purified with Ni-NTA gel matrix and confirmed by SDS PAGE and western blot. A profiling ELISA assay was developed to evaluate sera from MAP infected and non-infected ruminant species for antibodies against Mce-truncated protein to infer the immunogenicity of this protein in the host. Using this Mce protein-based ELISA, 251 goats, 53 sheep, 117 buffaloes, and 33 cattle serum samples were screened and 49.4, 51.0, 69.2, and 54.6% animals, respectively, were found positive. Comparing with i-ELISA, the new Mce-based ELISA kit showed a relatively higher specificity but suffered from slightly reduced sensitivity. Mce-based ELISA excluded apparently false positive results of i-ELISA. Mce protein was found to be antigenic and Mce-ELISA test could be employed as a diagnostic test for JD in domestic livestock in view of the a relatively higher specificity and accuracy. The antigenic potential of Mce antigen can also be exploited for the development of a new vaccine for the control of MAP infection.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/sangue , Mycobacterium avium/imunologia , Paratuberculose/sangue , Testes Sorológicos/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/sangue , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/imunologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Cabras , Mycobacterium avium/patogenicidade , Paratuberculose/diagnóstico , Paratuberculose/microbiologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Testes Sorológicos/métodos , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia
6.
BMC Vet Res ; 16(1): 130, 2020 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32381014

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Porcine Deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is a newly emerging Coronavirus that was first identified in 2012 in Hong Kong, China. Since then, PDCoV has subsequently been reported worldwide, causing a high number of neonatal piglet deaths and significant economic losses to the swine industry. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a highly sensitive and specific method for the rapid diagnosis of PDCoV. RESULTS: In the present study, a highly sensitive and specific diagnostic method using recombinase polymerase amplification combined with a lateral flow dipstick (LFD-RPA) was developed for rapid and visual detection of PDCoV. The system can be performed under a broad range of temperature conditions from 10 to 37 °C, and the detection of PDCoV can be completed in 10 min at 37 °C. The sensitivity of this assay was 10 times higher than that of conventional PCR with a lower detection limit of 1 × 102 copies/µl of PDCoV. Meanwhile, the LFD-RPA assay specifically amplified PDCoV, while there was no cross-amplification with other swine-associated viruses, including Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), Porcine kobuvirus (PKoV), Foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV), Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and Seneca valley virus (SVV). The repeatability of the test results indicated that this assay had good repeatability. In addition, 68 clinical samples (48 fecal swab specimens and 20 intestinal specimens) were further tested by LFD-RPA and RT-PCR assay. The positive rate of LFD-RPA clinical samples was 26.47% higher than that of conventional PCR (23.53%). CONCLUSIONS: The LFD-RPA assay successfully detected PDCoV in less than 20 min in this study, providing a potentially valuable tool to improve molecular detection for PDCoV and to monitor the outbreak of PDCoV, especially in low-resource areas and laboratories.


Assuntos
Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Recombinases/metabolismo , Testes Sorológicos/veterinária , Animais , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Testes Sorológicos/métodos , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia
7.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(5): 385-388, May 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1135628

RESUMO

Serological techniques can detect antibodies against Sarcocystis spp., Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii antigens in single or mixed infections. Immunofluorescent antibody tests (IFAT) is considered the gold standard technique for Sarcocystosis diagnostic in cattle serum and a positive IFAT result reflects Sarcocystis spp. infection. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to compare IFAT and Dot-blot for sarcocystosis diagnostic in experimentally infected mice and to investigate serological cross-reactions with N. caninum and T. gondii in these methods. Mice (Mus musculus) were inoculated intraperitoneally with bradizoites of Sarcocystis spp. or tachyzoites of N. caninum or T. gondii. Serum samples were obtained and analyzed by IFAT and Dot-blot for the three protozoa. Serum from N. caninum and T. gondii experimentally infected mice were tested by IFAT and reacted only to N. caninum or T. gondii antigens, respectively. Specific antibodies against Sarcocystis spp. were present in all animals experimentally infected with this protozoan, with IFAT titers from 10 to 800. Serum samples from mice experimentally infected with Sarcocystis spp., N. caninum and T. gondii and tested by Dot-blot demonstrated no cross reaction between protozoa. A Dot-blot using Sarcocystis spp. antigen appears to be a good alternative to IFAT in the serological diagnosis of Sarcocystosis.(AU)


As técnicas sorológicas podem detectar anticorpos contra os antígenos de Sarcocystis spp., Neospora caninum e Toxoplasma gondii em infecções únicas ou mistas. O teste de anticorpos imunofluorescentes (IFAT) é considerado a técnica padrão-ouro para o diagnóstico de sarcocistose no soro de bovinos e um resultado positivo de IFAT reflete Sarcocystis spp. infecção. Portanto, os objetivos do presente estudo foram comparar IFAT e Dot-blot para diagnóstico de sarcocistose em camundongos infectados experimentalmente e investigar reações cruzadas sorológicas com N. caninum e T. gondii nesses métodos. Os camundongos (Mus musculus) foram inoculados intraperitonealmente com bradizoítos de Sarcocystis spp. ou taquizoítos de N. caninum ou T. gondii. As amostras de soro foram obtidas e analisadas por IFAT e Dot-blot para os três protozoários. O soro de N. caninum e T. gondii infectados experimentalmente foram testados por IFAT e reagiram apenas aos antígenos de N. caninum ou T. gondii, respectivamente. Anticorpos específicos contra Sarcocystis spp. estavam presentes em todos os animais experimentalmente infectados com este protozoário, com títulos de IFAT de 10 a 800. Amostras de soro de camundongos infectados experimentalmente com Sarcocystis spp., N. caninum e T. gondii e testadas por Dot-blot não demonstraram reação cruzada entre protozoários. Um Dot-blot usando Sarcocystis spp. O antígeno parece ser uma boa alternativa ao IFAT no diagnóstico sorológico da sarcocistose.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Bovinos/parasitologia , Testes Sorológicos/métodos , Doenças dos Bovinos , Sarcocystis , Sarcocistose/diagnóstico , Sarcocistose/veterinária , Testes Sorológicos/veterinária , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo
8.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 32(3): 444-449, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32270752

RESUMO

An outbreak of inclusion body hepatitis caused by fowl adenovirus serotype 8 (FAdV-8) has caused significant economic losses in the poultry industry worldwide. However, a rapid serology test kit specific to FAdV-8 is not available to date. We developed a fiber-based ELISA using the purified GST-fiber of FAdV-8 as coating antigen to measure antibodies against FAdV-8. Specificity analysis showed that our ELISA could react with sera against FAdV-7, -8a, and -8b, but not with sera against the other pathogens tested. Moreover, detection of positive sera with our ELISA had 83% and 94% agreement with an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and a commercial ELISA from BioChek, respectively. Our ELISA was also effective in the detection of antibodies against FAdV-8 in sera from both experimentally infected and clinically vaccinated chickens. Our FAdV-8 fiber-based ELISA can be a valuable tool to specifically and sensitively detect antibodies against FAdV-7 and/or -8 in infected or vaccinated chickens.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Aviadenovirus/imunologia , Galinhas/virologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Infecções por Adenoviridae/veterinária , Animais , Aviadenovirus/classificação , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/diagnóstico , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Sorogrupo , Testes Sorológicos/veterinária
9.
BMC Vet Res ; 16(1): 101, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32228593

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chagas disease is increasingly recognized in the southern U.S., where triatomine vectors transmit Trypanosoma cruzi among wildlife and domestic dogs with occasional vector spillover to humans. As in humans, clinical outcome in dogs is variable, ranging from acute death to asymptomatic infections or chronic heart disease. In order to characterize cardiac manifestations of T. cruzi infections, we tracked a cohort of naturally-infected dogs and a matched cohort of uninfected dogs. We hypothesized that selected measures of cardiac disease (abnormal rate, abnormal rhythm, and elevated cardiac troponin I (cTnI; a biomarker of cardiac injury)) would occur more commonly in infected than uninfected dogs matched by age, breed, sex and location. In addition to the clearly positive and negative dogs, we specifically tracked dogs with discordant test results across three independent serological assays to gather clinical data that might elucidate the infection status of these animals and inform the utility of the different testing approaches. RESULTS: We placed an ambulatory ECG monitor (Holter) on 48 government working dogs and analyzed 39 successful recordings that met length and quality criteria from 17 T. cruzi-infected, 18 uninfected dogs and 4 dogs with discordant results. Overall, 76.5% of positive, 100.0% of discordant, and 11.1% of negative dogs showed > 1 ECG abnormality (p < 0.0001), and positive and discordant dogs had a higher mean number of different types of ECG abnormalities than negative dogs (p < 0.001-0.014). The most common cardiac abnormalities included supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias and atrioventricular block. Positive dogs had higher serum concentrations of cTnI than both negative dogs (p = 0.044) and discordant dogs (p = 0.06). Based on dog handler reports, nearly all (4/5; 80%) dogs with reported performance decline or fatigue were T. cruzi-infected dogs. CONCLUSIONS: Further understanding cardiac manifestations in dogs naturally infected with T. cruzi is critical for prognostication, establishing a baseline for drug and vaccine studies, and better understanding of zoonotic risk.


Assuntos
Doença de Chagas/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cardiopatias/veterinária , Animais , Arritmias Cardíacas/complicações , Arritmias Cardíacas/veterinária , Doença de Chagas/complicações , Doença de Chagas/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Eletrocardiografia Ambulatorial/veterinária , Feminino , Masculino , Testes Sorológicos/veterinária , Texas/epidemiologia , Troponina I/sangue , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolamento & purificação
10.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(4): 261-265, Apr. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1135624

RESUMO

Bluetongue is an infectious, non-contagious disease that affects domestic and wild ruminants, caused by a virus from the Orbivirus genus, Reoviridae family, transmitted by arthropod vectors of the Culicoides genus. This paper aims to be the first serological survey of bluetongue in sheep from the Meso-regions of Campo das Vertentes and South and Southeast of Minas Gerais. Samples were collected from sheep from different properties. The serum samples were submitted to Agar Gel Immunodiffusion (AGID) and competitive Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (cELISA). 303 serum samples were submitted to AGID and cELISA. In these samples, 164 (54.13%) were positive in the AGID technique, and 171 (56.44%) positive in the cELISA technique, with an almost perfect agreement between the techniques (kappa index = 0.887). In all visited properties, positive animals have been found in the herd. Animals acquired from properties of the studied mesoregions were more likely to be positive in IDGA and cELISA tests than animals acquired from properties in other regions of Brazil (p<0.001). These results suggest that bluetongue virus (BTV) is widespread in the mesoregions of Campo das Vertentes and South and Southeast of Minas Gerais.(AU)


A língua azul (LA) é uma doença infecciosa, não contagiosa, que acomete ruminantes domésticos e silvestres, causada por um vírus do gênero Orbivirus da família Reoviridae, transmitida por vetores artrópodes do gênero Culicoides. O presente estudo representa o primeiro trabalho a realizar um inquérito sorológico da língua azul em rebanhos ovinos nas Mesorregiões de Campo das Vertentes e Sul e Sudoeste de Minas Gerais. Foram coletadas amostras de soro de ovinos de diferentes propriedades. As amostras de soro foram submetidas aos testes de imunodifusão em gel de ágar (IDGA) e ensaio de imunoadsorção enzimática por competição (cELISA). Ao todo 303 amostras de soro foram submetidas ao IDGA e cELISA. Dessas amostras, 164 (54,13%) foram positivas na técnica de IDGA e 171 (56,44%) positivas na técnica de cELISA, havendo concordância quase perfeita entre as técnicas (índice kappa = 0,887). Em todas as propriedades visitadas, foram encontrados animais positivos no rebanho. Animais adquiridos de propriedades das Mesorregiões estudadas, tiveram mais chances de serem positivos nos testes de IDGA e cELISA do que animais adquiridos de propriedades de outras Regiões do Brasil (p<0,001). Esses resultados sugerem que o vírus da língua azul encontra-se disseminado em ovinos nas Mesorregiões de Campo das Vertentes e Sul e Sudoeste de Minas Gerais.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Orbivirus , Bluetongue/diagnóstico , Bluetongue/imunologia , Bluetongue/epidemiologia , Infecções por Reoviridae/veterinária , Testes Sorológicos/veterinária , Ovinos
11.
Vet Parasitol ; 280: 109089, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32222595

RESUMO

Trypanosoma evansi (T. evansi) is a hemoflagellate parasite that affects a broad range of mammalian hosts and that causes a disease called surra. Diagnosis of surra based on clinical symptoms alone is inaccurate. Therefore, a variety of serological and molecular diagnostic tests are used to assist in the detection of T. evansi infections. The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic performance of four serological tests (CATT/T.evansi, immune trypanolysis, ELISA with purified variant surface glycoprotein RoTat 1.2 and with whole cell lysate) and two molecular PCR tests targeting sequences within the ribosomal genes locus (ITS1 TD PCR and 18S qPCR). Tests were carried out on blood samples from 161 dromedary camels, 93 horses, 129 goats, 168 sheep, 127 bovines and 76 dogs. Latent class analysis was carried out to calculate the sensitivity and specificity of each diagnostic test. Cohen's Kappa test was used to assess the concordance between the different diagnostic tests. Overall positivity rates observed with the serological tests were as follows: 3.1 % with CATT/T.evansi, 4.9 % with ELISA/RoTat 1.2, 3.4 % with ELISA/whole lysate and 2.0 % with immune trypanolysis (TL). Among the 754 samples tested with the molecular tests, 1.7 % were positive with 18S qPCR and 1.3 % with ITS1 TD PCR. Cohen's Kappa test showed agreement ranging from fair to substantial (k = 0.2-0.8) between serological diagnostic tests. However, it showed a perfect agreement (k = 0.868) between molecular diagnostic tests. Latent class analysis showed that all serological tests were 100 % sensitive, in contrast to the molecular tests with 47 % sensitivity. All tests, though, were highly specific (≥ 97 %). Given the persistence of circulating antibodies after cure, detectable by serological tests, it is recommend combining a serological and a molecular diagnostic test for accurate diagnosis of infection with T. evansi in domestic animals.


Assuntos
Camelus , Doenças das Cabras/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Testes Sorológicos/veterinária , Doenças dos Ovinos/diagnóstico , Trypanosoma/isolamento & purificação , Tripanossomíase/veterinária , Argélia , Animais , Bovinos , Cães , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Cabras , Cavalos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Ovinos , Tripanossomíase/diagnóstico
12.
Acta Trop ; 205: 105400, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32081660

RESUMO

The foodborne trematodiases pose a significant health problem to the animals as well as the human population living in close proximities with the livestock and are still considered as the neglected tropical diseases by the World Health Organisation. The digenetic trematode, Gigantocotyle explanatum infecting the liver of Indian water buffalo, Bubalus bubalis, has been identified as one of the most common helminth parasite responsible for the disease, amphistomosis, in livestock. Despite huge abattoir prevalence, the epidemiological data and the actual economic losses incurred due to this parasite alone are yet to be established probably due to the limitations of routinely used diagnostic tests. The gold standard for the confirmation of such infections under field conditions is still the fecal egg count (FEC). However, the poor sensitivity and cumbersome nature of these tests necessitates the development of a more sensitive, reliable and easy to perform workflow/method. Immunological diagnosis of helminthic infections is still considered as an alternative to the FEC. Therefore, efforts have been made to utilize glutathione-S-transferase (GST), a vitally significant molecule of the adult G. explanatum, for the serodiagnosis of amphistomosis under both laboratory and field conditions. The GST antigen was first affinity purified from the somatic extract of the adult worms since its highest level was recorded in the somatic extracts followed by eggs and the excretory/secretory products. A five-fold affinity purified native GST antigen of about 25 kDa was found to be highly immunogenic as evident from high titre (1:25,600) of the polyclonal antibodies raised in the rabbits. The immunoblotting results revealed differential presence of GST in the adult worms, their eggs and excretory/secretory products. The immunolocalization studies revealed that the vitelline glands are the major source of GST in liver amphistome. Further, we were able to successfully screen animals naturally infected with G. explanatum using anti GST polyclonal antibodies in dot blot assay. High levels of both circulating GST antigen and anti GST antibodies were detected in the serum of the animals naturally infected with G. explanatum, while no cross reactivity was observed with the tropical liver fluke, F. gigantica which often infects the buffalo liver concurrently. The findings of the present study indicate that GST could be used as an important antigen for the diagnosis of G. explanatum infection in Indian water buffaloes.


Assuntos
Búfalos/parasitologia , Glutationa Transferase/sangue , Trematódeos/enzimologia , Infecções por Trematódeos/veterinária , Animais , Antígenos de Helmintos , Humanos , Fígado/parasitologia , Coelhos , Testes Sorológicos/veterinária , Infecções por Trematódeos/sangue , Infecções por Trematódeos/diagnóstico , Infecções por Trematódeos/parasitologia
13.
BMC Vet Res ; 16(1): 50, 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32046738

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brucellosis is a zoonosis whose incidence is not declining worldwide despite the global effort to control the disease. Accurate and precise diagnosis is a crucial step in any prophylaxis program but single tests to unequivocally detect animals infected with Brucella spp. are currently unavailable. In Italy, serological diagnosis of bovine brucellosis is performed with two official tests: a rapid agglutination test (i.e., Rose Bengal Plate test, RBPT) and a complement fixation test (CFT) that detect antibodies directed mainly to the smooth lipopolysaccharide (S-LPS). Neither of the two tests is able to avoid the detection of false positive serological reactions (FPSRs) caused by bacteria sharing S-LPS components with Brucella spp. and responsible for the single reactors (SR) phenomenon. A B. melitensis R strain-based ELISA showed a good diagnostic performance in unravelling FP animals; however, since a limited number of animals were analyzed in that study, a large field study was conducted here to discriminate between Brucella-infected from FP animals, with the final aim of reducing the unnecessary slaughter of the latter. An ELISA based on a R strain of Brucella, i.e., Brucella melitensis B115, was employed to measure specific IgG responses in a collection of bovine sera (n = 648). Sera were obtained from 180 farms (either officially brucellosis-free or not brucellosis-free) recruited during an extended period of time (2014-2018) and were preliminarily assayed with the official tests by the Italian Reference Centers and then subjected to the ELISA. RESULTS: Negative sera, when subjected to the ELISA, gave O.D. values below the cutoff; SR sera, i.e. RBPT positive and CFT negative, as well as double positive (DP) sera, i.e. RBPT and CFT positive, gave O.D. values that were below the cutoff. All positive sera, i.e. from Brucella-infected animals, were RBPT positive and CFT positive (ICFTU ranging from 20 to 1280) and gave ELISA O.D. values above the cutoff. CONCLUSIONS: The B. melitensis B115-based ELISA systematically unravelled all false positive (FP) sera while confirming the diagnosis in Brucella-infected animals. Thus, the test employed in the present study may complement the official assays to avoid the costly slaughter of FP animals.


Assuntos
Brucella melitensis/isolamento & purificação , Brucelose Bovina/microbiologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Testes Sorológicos/veterinária , Animais , Brucelose Bovina/sangue , Brucelose Bovina/diagnóstico , Brucelose Bovina/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Reações Falso-Positivas , Itália/epidemiologia , Testes Sorológicos/métodos
14.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0228184, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995591

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The existing diagnostic techniques for detecting schistosomiasis turkestanica, such as aetiological assays, identify infection by parasitic worms via the incubation of miracidia from faeces or observing eggs under microscopy. However, they are limited in the diagnosis of low-grade and prepatent infections, which lead to a high misdetection rates. Therefore, a new method for parasite diagnosis with increased sensitivity is urgently needed. METHODS: Goats in Nimu County (Tibet, China) infected with Schistosoma turkestanicum in an epidemic area were selected according positivity for the infection by faecal examination. Adult worms were collected, eggs were extracted by the sodium hydroxide (NaOH) erosion method, and soluble worm antigen preparation (SWAP) and soluble egg antigen (SEA) were isolated. The best coating concentration of the antigens and the best degree of dilution for serum were determined by square array experiments, and the optimal blocking solution and serum diluents were selected. The specificity, sensitivity and crossover of the ELISA method were determined using 48 samples of goat sera positive for S. turkestanicum, 100 samples of goat sera negative for S. turkestanicum, and 54 samples of buffalo sera positive for S. japonicum. Serological assays were established with samples from goats naturally grazed in a rural area of Nimu County, Tibet Province, by using the indirect ELISA method for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis, and faeces were collected for miracidia hatching. The sensitivity of the two detection methods was compared. RESULTS: Eggs of S. turkestanicum were distributed in the host duodenum and small intestine. Eggs in the host intestinal wall were extracted by the NaOH erosion method, which provided intact eggs with reduced impurities. The testing results obtained by isolating SEA were more stable than those obtained by using SWAP and less affected by the coating concentration and serum dilution. Additionally, the value of positive serum/negative (P/N) serum for SEA was much higher than that for SWAP. The optimal coating concentration of SEA was 0.5 µg/ml, and the optimal serum dilution was 1:100. The specificity and sensitivity of the indirect ELISA based on SEA (S. turkestanicum) were both 100%, and no cross-reactivity was found with schistosomiasis japonica. An epidemiological survey of goats in naturally infected areas showed that the prevalence rate of schistosomiasis turkestanica was 93%, and the infection rate increased with the ages of the goats. CONCLUSION: We aimed to develop a sensitive method to utilize in the mass field screening of livestock. As a diagnostic antigen, SEA (S. turkestanicum) was more suitable for serological testing than SWAP (S. turkestanicum). The indirect ELISA using SEA (S. turkestanicum) exhibited good sensitivity, specificity and no cross-reactivity with schistosomiasis japonica. The degree of infectivity and prevalence of S. turkestanicum infection in endemic areas are serious and should be a focus of concern among local departments.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Helmintos/imunologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Schistosoma , Esquistossomose/veterinária , Testes Sorológicos/veterinária , Animais , Reações Cruzadas/imunologia , Doenças das Cabras/diagnóstico , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras/parasitologia , Óvulo/imunologia , Schistosoma/imunologia , Schistosoma japonicum/imunologia , Esquistossomose/diagnóstico , Esquistossomose/imunologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Tibet
15.
J Vet Med Sci ; 82(3): 325-332, 2020 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31996495

RESUMO

Among domestic animals, melioidosis is one of the most common diseases reported in goat, sheep, and swine. To evaluate the specific antibodies in goats with melioidosis, we developed a serology test using recombinant outer membrane protein A (OmpA) and flagellin (FliC) of Burkholderia pseudomallei as antigens. DNA corresponding to each antigen was cloned into a pET32a vector and expressed in Escherichia coli. Essentially, the recombinant OmpA and FliC were expressed in a soluble form that could be isolated with 95% homogeneity. Both recombinants could be recognized by rabbit antibodies prepared against heat-inactivated B. pseudomallei (1:1,000) on a Western blot. Subsequently, we demonstrated that both recombinants could capture the antibodies present in goat with naturally occurring melioidosis (optimized titer 1:40) while not cross-reacting with the serum samples of goats naturally infected by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis or Staphylococcus aureus. Finally, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using 20 goat serum samples without melioidosis and 10 goat serum samples with melioidosis demonstrated that the infected group has significantly higher antibody titer levels than the normal group (P<0.001) when using either OmpA or FliC as an antigen. However, the sensitivity (100%) of the assay using OmpA was superior to that (90%) from using FliC. Serological tests that are commonly used often rely on antigens from crude cell extracts, which pose risks for laboratory-acquired infections and inconsistency in their preparation; however, use of recombinant OmpA is safe; it can potentially be used as a reagent in testing for goat melioidosis.


Assuntos
Proteínas da Membrana Bacteriana Externa/imunologia , Burkholderia pseudomallei/imunologia , Flagelina/imunologia , Doenças das Cabras/diagnóstico , Melioidose/veterinária , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Doenças das Cabras/sangue , Cabras , Imunoensaio , Melioidose/diagnóstico , Melioidose/imunologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Testes Sorológicos/veterinária
16.
BMC Vet Res ; 16(1): 14, 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31937302

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Virus neutralization test (VNT) is widely used for serological survey of classical swine fever (CSF) and efficacy evaluation of CSF vaccines. However, VNT is a time consuming procedure that requires cell culture and live virus manipulation. C-strain CSF vaccine is the most frequently used vaccine for CSF control and prevention. In this study, we presented a neutralizing monoclonal antibody (mAb) based competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) with the emphasis on the replacement of VNT for C-strain post-vaccination monitoring. RESULTS: One monoclonal antibody (6B211) which has potent neutralizing activity against C-strain was generated. A novel cELISA was established and optimized based on the strategy that 6B211 can compete with C-strain induced neutralizing antibodies in pig serum to bind capture antigen C-strain E2. By testing C-strain VNT negative pig sera (n = 445) and C-strain VNT positive pig sera (n = 70), the 6B211 based cELISA showed 100% sensitivity (95% confidence interval: 94.87 to 100%) and 100% specificity (95% confidence interval: 100 to 100%). The C-strain antibody can be tested in pigs as early as 7 days post vaccination with the cELISA. By testing pig sera (n = 139) in parallel, the cELISA showed excellent agreement (Kappa = 0.957) with VNT. The inhibition rate of serum samples in the cELISA is highly correlated with their titers in VNT (r2 = 0.903, p < 0.001). In addition, intra- and inter-assays of the cELISA exhibited acceptable repeatability with low coefficient of variations (CVs). CONCLUSIONS: This novel cELISA demonstrated excellent agreement and high level correlation with VNT. It is a reliable tool for sero-monitoring of C-strain vaccination campaign because it is a rapid, simple, safe and cost effective assay that can be used to monitor vaccination-induced immune response at the population level.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Peste Suína Clássica/imunologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Testes de Neutralização/veterinária , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Anticorpos Neutralizantes , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Vírus da Febre Suína Clássica/imunologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Feminino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Testes de Neutralização/métodos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Testes Sorológicos/métodos , Testes Sorológicos/veterinária , Suínos , Vacinação/veterinária
17.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 67(3): 1306-1314, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31899584

RESUMO

The present study highlights the transboundary nature of tuberculosis (TB) in alpacas and the failure of current antemortem testing protocols to identify TB-free alpaca herds and individuals for exportation. The tuberculin skin test (TST) failed to identify Mycobacterium bovis-infected animals prior to movement from the United Kingdom (UK) to Poland. This study describes the use of four serological assays [Enferplex Camelid TB, dual-path platform (DPP) VetTB and BovidTB assays, and multi-antigen print immunoassays (MAPIAs)] to detect TB in an alpaca herd with negative TST results. The breeding in Poland purchased alpacas for several years from the UK with the last group arriving in May 2018. In July 2018, two sick alpacas from the centre were hospitalized in a veterinary clinic and both died of TB a few weeks later. In November 2018, 20 alpacas remaining in this M. bovis-affected herd were euthanized and samples were collected. The study population included 20 M. bovis-infected and 20 uninfected alpacas, but only 15 infected animals were tested by all serology tests. The DPP VetTB and DPP BovidTB assays detected antibodies in 14 of the 20 infected alpacas, with results confirmed by MAPIA, and in none (MAPIA and DPP BovidTB) or one (DPP VetTB) of the 20 uninfected animals. None of the infected alpacas tested positive using the Enferplex assay. In addition, the group included three orphans and two cria-dam pairs, which provided an opportunity to analyse immune aspects of cria-mother relationships in this herd. The results suggest high susceptibility of this host species to M. bovis infection and rapid progression to disease. The serological tests used in this study offer useful tools for the detection of M. bovis infection in TST and Enferplex test non-reactive alpacas. These tests should be further evaluated for implementation into TB management and control strategies for camelid species.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Camelídeos Americanos , Mycobacterium bovis/imunologia , Testes Sorológicos/veterinária , Teste Tuberculínico/veterinária , Tuberculose/veterinária , Animais , Comércio , Reações Falso-Negativas , Polônia/epidemiologia , Testes Sorológicos/métodos , Tuberculose/microbiologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
18.
Res Vet Sci ; 128: 217-223, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31835123

RESUMO

Caprine tuberculosis (TB) is a zoonosis with sanitary and economic repercussions. Caprine TB control programs are based on a test and cull strategy using the intradermal tuberculin tests and slaughterhouse surveillance. However, this approach is not always feasible and may have a limited sensitivity under specific circumstances. In this study, performance of a new experimental test based on the P22 protein complex (P22 ELISA) was evaluated in two TB-infected herds using milk and serum samples and compared with cell-based diagnostic tests. Samples from a low (n = 62, herd 1) and a high (n = 52, herd 2) TB prevalence herd were selected. Moreover, bulk tank milk samples from both herds were analysed using the P22 ELISA. At the end of the study, a group of animals (n = 21) was euthanized and subjected to post-mortem analysis and bacteriological culture. Significant differences (p < .001) on the qualitative and quantitative (ODs) results were observed between herds using both serum and milk samples in the P22 ELISA. The correlation observed in the quantitative results obtained in serum and milk samples was very strong in animals from flock 2 (rs = 0.91) and moderate in animals from flock 1 (rs = 0.46). Among the slaughtered animals, the P22 ELISA detected a higher proportion of lesion-culture positive animals than cell-based diagnostic tests (61.9 and 66.7% using milk and serum samples, respectively). The P22 ELISA using milk samples demonstrated a similar sensitivity compared with serum samples, suggesting it might be a valuable test for TB control in dairy goats.


Assuntos
Doenças das Cabras/diagnóstico , Leite/imunologia , Testes Sorológicos/veterinária , Tuberculose/veterinária , Animais , Sangue/imunologia , Bovinos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Feminino , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Cabras , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Teste Tuberculínico/veterinária , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia
19.
Res Vet Sci ; 128: 197-204, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816502

RESUMO

Excretory and secretory products (ESPs) are released by the parasites during Haemonchus contortus (H. contortus) infection. In this study, Tropomyosin (TpMy), one of these ESPs was used to develop western blotting and optimized Enzyme Linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of H. contortus during early infection in goat. Microscopic examination was performed parallel for comparison. Recombinant tropomyosin protein was purified successfully. Western blotting results revealed that anti-recombinant H. contortus Tropomyosin (rHc-TpMy) antibodies could recognize the natural proteinand rHc-TpMy antigen did not show any cross-reaction with goat anti-sera of Fasciola hepatica, Trichinella spiralis, and Toxoplasma gondii. Moreover, initial antibodies were detected by both western blotting and indirect ELISA at 14 days post infection (DPI) and persisted till 30 DPI but fecal eggs count couldn't detect the eggs in feces at early stage (7 and 14 DPI). The optimized antigen coating concentration was calculated as 10 µg/ml (P/N Optimum Density450 = 4.165) with optimized dilution of serum (1:50) and secondary antibody (1:2500). Positive and negative cutoff value of the indirect-ELISA assay was calculated as 0.392 and 0.344, respectively. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis validated the cutoff value (0.392) based on a high specificity and sensitivity. Indirect ELISA showed 90% diagnostic sensitivity and 100% diagnostic specificity. In comparison of serological and conventional method, rHc-TpMy based indirect ELISA showed more positive results (30%; 9/30) than microscopic examination (20%; 6/30). These results demonstrated that rHc-TpMy is a potential immunodiagnostic antigen to detect specific antibodies at early stage of infection in goat and serological methods are more reliable as compared to microscopic examination.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/sangue , Hemoncose/diagnóstico , Haemonchus , Testes Sorológicos/veterinária , Tropomiosina/imunologia , Animais , Antígenos de Helmintos , Western Blotting/veterinária , Reações Cruzadas , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Fezes/parasitologia , Cabras , Haemonchus/isolamento & purificação , Haemonchus/parasitologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
20.
Avian Pathol ; 49(2): 179-184, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31818125

RESUMO

No recent information is available on the specificity of current M. synoviae (Ms) and M. gallisepticum (Mg) serological tests. In this study the performance of a currently available Mg and Ms Rapid Plate Agglutination (RPA) test, and three Mg, three Ms and three Mg/Ms combination ELISAs were evaluated on SPF sera that were obtained from days (D) 0-28 after M. gallinarum, M. imitans or M. gallinaceum inoculation, after sham inoculation and without inoculation. Tracheal swabs for mycoplasma culture were obtained before inoculation (D0), 7 and 28 days post inoculation (d.p.i.) in all groups except the sham inoculated group. The different mycoplasma species colonized well. In the early stage after inoculation (7-14 d.p.i.) with heterologous mycoplasma species, the specificity varied from 85% to 100% in the Mg RPA test and from 70% to 85% in the Ms RPA test. The specificity of both Mg and Ms RPA test was 100% in the sham inoculated samples and ruled out the effect of sham medium. In the late stage (21-28 d.p.i.) specificity was 100% for both RPA tests. The test specificity was 100% for seven ELISAs except for two combination ELISAs where a specificity of 95% was found in the late stage after inoculation. However, this was not significantly different from the specificity of all other tests in the late stage of these groups. These results show that it is not advisable to establish Mg and Ms seromonitoring programmes on the Mg and Ms RPA test alone as other mycoplasma species frequently occur in poultry.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Mycoplasma gallisepticum/isolamento & purificação , Mycoplasma synoviae/isolamento & purificação , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Testes Sorológicos/veterinária , Animais , Reações Falso-Positivas , Infecções por Mycoplasma/diagnóstico , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Mycoplasma gallisepticum/genética , Mycoplasma synoviae/genética , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/diagnóstico , RNA Bacteriano/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Especificidade da Espécie , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos
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