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1.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371834

RESUMO

In postmenopausal women (PW), estrogen depletion may predispose to cognitive decline through an increased risk of chronic inflammation. Unhealthy diets also appear to have an impact on the cognitive health of these women. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between inflammatory potential of the diet, levels of inflammatory biomarkers, and cognitive function in PW. In a population of 222 PW, energy intake-adjusted Dietary Inflammatory Index (E-DII) was used to assess the dietary inflammatory potential. Cognitive function was estimated using the Polish version of Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), corrected by age and educational level. Selected biochemical inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein, CRP; interleukin-6, IL-6; and tumor necrosis factor alpha, TNF-α) were measured by ELISA tests. PW with an anti-inflammatory diet (first tercile) had significantly higher MMSE, while BMI, percentage fat mass and TNFα concentration were significantly lower compared to those with the most proinflammatory diets (third tercile). Women with cognitive impairment had significantly higher IL-6 concentrations (4.1 (0.8) pg/mL vs. 2.5 (0.2) pg/mL, p = 0.004), and were less educated (12.7 (0.7) years vs. 14.1 (0.2) years, p = 0.03) and less physically active compared to cognitively normal women. PW with the most proinflammatory diets had increased odds of cognitive impairment compared to those with the most anti-inflammatory diets, even after adjustment (OR = 11.10, 95% confidence level; 95%CI: 2.22; 55.56; p = 0.002). Each one-point increase in E-DII (as a continuous value) was also associated with 1.55-times greater odds of cognitive impairment (95%Cl: 1.19; 2.02 p = 0.003) in this population. Dietary inflammation may increase the risk of cognitive impairment in PW, but future studies should include a more sensitive battery of tests to assess cognitive function in this population. Implementation of an anti-inflammatory dietary pattern in PW may help prevent cognitive decline.


Assuntos
Cognição , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Pós-Menopausa/sangue , Pós-Menopausa/psicologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação , Interleucina-6/sangue , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polônia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue
2.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(7): 7479-7485, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34353037

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in the population, especially in older people. In recent years, studies have revealed an association between a low vitamin D level and cognitive decline. The present research aimed to investigate the relationship of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-D) level with cognitive function in senior patients. METHODS: We recruited 299 patients aged 65 years and older. The patients were grouped based on their serum 25-OH-D levels into group A (<10.0 ng/mL), B (10.0-19.9 ng/mL), and C (≥20.0 ng/mL). Cognitive function was assessed with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scale, and Activities of Daily Living (ADL) scale. RESULTS: MMSE and MoCA scores were significantly lower in group A (26.02±3.99 and 21.56±5.59, respectively) than in group B (27.34±2.79 and 23.94±4.74, respectively) and group C (27.65±2.54 and 24.95±4.45, respectively). The proportion of patients with cognitive impairment was increased in group A (71.1%) compared to group B (55.3%) and group C (43.9%), and the difference was statistically significant (both P<0.01). Spearman's correlation analysis showed that MMSE and MoCA had a positive relationship with serum 25-OH-D level (ß=0.173 and 0.243, both P<0.01) with adjustments for factors as age, sex, and education level. Stepwise regression analysis indicated that MMSE and MoCA scores were correlated with serum 25-OH-D level, age, and education level. CONCLUSIONS: A lower level of 25-OH-D is common in senior patients and is associated with cognitive impairment. Patients with severe deficiency of vitamin D (serum 25-OH-D level <10 ng/mL) have lower MMSE and MoCA scores and a higher risk of cognitive dysfunction.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Disfunção Cognitiva , Idoso , Humanos , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados
3.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34460155

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the dynamics of cognitive impairments (CI) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) during L-dopa therapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The randomized clinical study included 41 patients with a refined diagnosis of PD 2.5-3.5 stages by Hoehn-Yahr scale, mainly with akinetic-rigid and mixed forms, and with CI associated with PD. All patients were on levodopa therapy. The average duration of the disease was 5 years. The study participants were randomized into two groups according to the design. To assess the dynamics of CI, a neuropsychological study was carried out twice with an interval of 6 months: in group I - at the «peak and outcome¼ of L-DOPA therapy, and in group II - at the «outcome and peak¼ of levodopa therapy, respectively. Assessment of cognitive functions (CF) was carried out using Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB), Scales for Outcomes in Parkinson's Disease-Cognition (SCOPA-Cog), Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). RESULTS: The statistically significant improvement of CF at the «peak¼ of levodopa drugs and the deterioration at the «outcome¼ of L-DOPA therapy in the form of an increase in CI (p<0.05) was revealed. CONCLUSION: CI in PD, in a certain extent, may be dependent on L-DOPA therapy as well as motor manifestations. The most dependent on L-DOPA therapy CF were attention, speech, executive and visual-spatial functions.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Doença de Parkinson , Idoso , Antiparkinsonianos/efeitos adversos , Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva/induzido quimicamente , Disfunção Cognitiva/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Levodopa/efeitos adversos , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(34): e26967, 2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449462

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Alzheimer disease (AD) and sporadic cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) are common cognitive disorders. Both AD and CSVD have mental symptoms including chronic progressive cognitive impairment, dysfunction, and behavioral abnormalities. However, the differences on the cognitive dysfunction of AD and CSVD remain unclear. It is necessary to elucidate the cognitive dysfunction differences of AD and CSVD, and to identify the potential risk factors.AD or sporadic CSVD patients treated in our hospital from December 1, 2018 to May 31, 2019 were included. And we selected healthy participants as controls. The mini-mental state examination and Montreal Cognitive Assessment Scale were used for neuropsychological assessment, and related medical information were collected and compared.A total of 190 patients were included. The total mini-mental state examination scores in AD, CSVD group were significantly less than that of control group, there were significant differences in the domains of directional ability, attention and computing ability, delayed recall, and visual perception (all P < .05); the total Montreal Cognitive Assessment Scale scores in AD, CSVD group were significantly less than that of control group. There were significant differences in the domains of visual space and execution, immediate remember, attention and computing ability, language, delayed recall, and directional ability (all P < .05); diabetes was a risk factor both for AD (hazard ratio = 1.63, 95% confidence interval: 1.35-1.97) and CSVD (hazard ratio = 1.15, 95% confidence interval: 1.08-1.27).The cognitive dysfunctions of AD are difference to that of CSVD patients, and diabetes is the risk factor both for AD and CSVD, future studies are needed to further identify the prevention and treatment of AD and CSVD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/complicações , Doenças de Pequenos Vasos Cerebrais/complicações , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/patologia , Idoso , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Testes Neuropsicológicos
5.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 34(7): 509-519, 2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34353414

RESUMO

Objective: Evidence regarding alcohol consumption and cognitive impairment is controversial. Whether cessation of drinking alcohol by non-dependent drinkers alters the risk of cognitive impairment remains unknown. This study prospectively evaluated the potential association between the history of lifetime alcohol cessation and risk of cognitive impairment. Methods: This study included 15,758 participants age 65 years or older, selected from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS) that covered 23 provinces in China. Current alcohol use status, duration of alcohol cessation, and alcohol consumption before abstinence were self-reported by participants; cognitive function was evaluated using Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE). Cause-specific hazard models and restricted cubic splines were applied to estimate the effect of alcohol use on cognitive impairment. Results: Among the 15,758 participants, mean (± SD) age was 82.8 years (± 11.9 years), and 7,199 (45.7%) were males. During a mean of 3.9 years of follow-up, 3,404 cases were identified as cognitive impairment. Compared with current drinkers, alcohol cessation of five to nine years [adjusted HR, 0.79 (95% CI: 0.66-0.96)] and more than nine years [adjusted HR, 0.82 (95% CI: 0.69-0.98)] were associated with lower risk of cognitive impairment. Conclusion: A longer duration of alcohol cessation was associated with a lower risk of cognitive impairment assessed by MMSE. Alcohol cessation is never late for older adults to prevent cognitive impairment.


Assuntos
Abstinência de Álcool , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , China , Cognição , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Risco
6.
Neurol Neurochir Pol ; 55(4): 394-402, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34379319

RESUMO

AIMS OF THE STUDY: We aimed to define the cognitive burden of the largest pseudotumor cerebri syndrome (PTCS) population to date, compare objective to subjective cognitive dysfunction, and determine clinical predictors of cognitive dysfunction amongst an array of previously unstudied factors. CLINICAL RATIONALE: Patients with PTCS commonly report cognitive dysfunction, a factor associated with poor quality of life. It is not definitively known whether cognitive impairment is present in these patients, and what features of the syndrome predict impairment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We administered a cognitive battery consisting of the National Adult Reading Test, Mini-Mental Status Exam, Digit Span, Boston Naming Test, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Clock Drawing, Trail Making Test, Controlled Oral Word Association, and Category Fluency. Cognitive impairment was defined as mild-single domain with one test score, and mild-multiple domain with two scores, more than two standard deviations below the mean for age-, gender-, and education-adjusted norms. RESULTS: One-hundred and one prospectively recruited PTCS patients were enrolled. The objective testing showed 30 patients had mild-single domain impairment, and 25 had mild-multi domain impairment. More patients without objective cognitive impairment had transverse venous sinus stenosis, but otherwise the groups did not differ. Two measures of headache severity, the Headache Impact Test and pain on the Numeric Rating Scale, were negatively associated with the composite cognitive score, as was ocular pain, vision-related disability, and mental health. Opening pressure and visual function were not associated with objective cognitive impairment. We found no association between subjective and objective cognitive impairment. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Patients with PTCS may be cognitively impaired, and this correlates with measures of headache burden. Studies evaluating cognitive impairment before and after remission of the headache disorder would have to be performed to investigate this relationship further. Patients with self-perception of cognitive burden are no more likely to be cognitively impaired.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Pseudotumor Cerebral , Adulto , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Humanos , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Pseudotumor Cerebral/complicações , Qualidade de Vida
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444325

RESUMO

We investigated the preventive and risk factors of rapid cognitive decline in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Using the Chang Gung Research Database (CGRD), we enrolled patients with AD aged over 65 years between 1 January 2001 and 30 May 2019, and followed up for at least two years. Rapid cognitive decline was defined by a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score decline of ≥4 in 2 years. A longer prescription of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) was defined as 22 months based on the median treatment duration of the cohorts. The Cox proportional hazards regression model adjusted for age, sex, medication, and physical comorbidities was used to examine the candidate risk and protective factors. We analyzed data from 3846 patients with AD (1503 men, 2343 women) with a mean age and percentage of females of 77.8 ± 6.2 years and 60.9%, respectively. The mean duration of patients with AD receiving AChEIs was 658.7 ± 21.9 days. In general, 310 patients with AD showed a rapid cognitive decline, accounting for 8.1%. Treatment of a consecutive AChEI prescription for >22 months in patients with AD was a protective factor against rapid cognitive decline (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 0.41, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.33-0.52, p < 0.001). Patients with AD aged >85 years (aHR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.36-0.79, p < 0.01) and aged 75-85 years (aHR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.57-0.93, p < 0.05) had a significantly lower risk of rapid cognitive decline than those aged 65-75 years. Additionally, patients with mild and moderate AD (clinical dementia rating (CDR = 1, aHR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.26-2.07, p < 0.001; CDR = 2, aHR = 2.64, 95% CI = 1.90-3.65, p < 0.001) were more likely to have rapid cognitive decline than those with early AD (CDR = 0.5). Sex, medication with different types of AChEIs, and physical comorbidities were not associated with rapid cognitive decline. These findings indicate that it is important to maintain longer consecutive AChEI prescriptions in patients with AD to prevent cognitive decline.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Disfunção Cognitiva , Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Alzheimer/epidemiologia , Inibidores da Colinesterase/uso terapêutico , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência
8.
Neuroimage Clin ; 31: 102745, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34225020

RESUMO

Parkinson disease (PD) is characterized by motor deficits related to structural changes in the basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits. However, it is still unclear the exact nature of the association between grey matter alterations and motor symptoms. Therefore, the aim of our investigation was to identify the subcortical modifications associated with motor symptoms of PD over time - adopting voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and automated volumetry methods. We selected fifty subjects with PD from the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI) database, who performed an MRI session at two time points: at baseline (i.e. at maximum 2 years after clinical diagnosis of PD) and after 48 months. Motor symptoms were assessed using the part III of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale at the two time points. Our VBM and volumetric analyses showed a general atrophy in all subcortical regions when comparing baseline with 48 months. These findings confirmed previous observations indicating a subcortical alteration over time in PD. Furthermore, our findings supported the idea that a reduced volume in the thalamus and an increased volume in pallidum may be related to the decline in motor skills. These structural modifications are in accordance with the functional model of the basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits controlling movements. Moreover, VBM and volumetry provided partially overlapping results, suggesting that these methods might capture complementary aspects of brain degeneration in PD.


Assuntos
Doença de Parkinson , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Doença de Parkinson/diagnóstico por imagem
9.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201969

RESUMO

Decreased concentration of phospholipids were observed in brain tissue from individuals with dementia compared with controls, indicating phospholipids might be a key variable in development of age-related cognitive impairment. The reflection of these phospholipid changes in blood might provide both reference for diagnosis/monitoring and potential targets for intervention through peripheral circulation. Using a full-scale targeted phospholipidomic approach, 229 molecular species of plasma phospholipid were identified and quantified among 626 senile residents; the association of plasma phospholipids with MoCA score was also comprehensively discussed. Significant association was confirmed between phospholipid matrix and MoCA score by a distance-based linear model. Additionally, the network analysis further observed that two modules containing PEs were positively associated with MoCA score, and one module containing LPLs had a trend of negative correlation with MoCA score. Furthermore, 23 phospholipid molecular species were found to be significantly associated with MoCA score independent of fasting glucose, lipidemia, lipoproteins, inflammatory variables and homocysteine. Thus, the decreased levels of pPEs containing LC-PUFA and the augmented levels of LPLs were the most prominent plasma phospholipid changes correlated with the cognitive decline, while alterations in plasma PC, PS and SM levels accompanying cognitive decline might be due to variation of lipidemia and inflammatory levels.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento Cognitivo/fisiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/sangue , Fosfolipídeos/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Redes Neurais de Computação
10.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(13): 17237-17252, 2021 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34214049

RESUMO

Genetic background has been considered one of the important contributors to the rate of cognitive decline among patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). We conducted a 4-year longitudinal follow-up study, recruited 255 AD and 44 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients, and used a data-driven trajectory analysis to examine the influence of selected AD risk genes on the age for and the rate of cognitive decline in Han Chinese population. Genotyping of selected single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the APOE, ABCA7, SORL1, BIN1, GAB2, and CD33 genes was conducted, and a Bayesian hierarchical model was fitted to analyze the trajectories of cognitive decline among different genotypes. After adjusting for sex and education years, the APOE ε4 allele was associated with an earlier mean change of -2.39 years in the age at midpoint of cognitive decline, the G allele in ABCA7 rs3764650 was associated with an earlier mean change of -1.75 years, and the T allele in SORL1 rs3737529 was associated with a later mean change of 2.6 years. Additionally, the rate of cognitive decline was associated with the APOE ε4 allele and SORL1 rs3737529. In summary, APOE and SORL1 might be the most important genetic factors related to cognitive decline in Han Chinese population.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/epidemiologia , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Feminino , Seguimentos , Genótipo , Humanos , Proteínas Relacionadas a Receptor de LDL/genética , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Taiwan/epidemiologia
11.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr ; 96: 104482, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34284300

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Geriatric rehabilitation inpatients who suffer from acute and chronic diseases that aggravate blood pressure (BP) dysregulation, may be particularly susceptible to orthostatic hypotension (OH). OH may increase the risk of cerebral small vessel disease and subsequent white matter hyperintensities inducing cognitive impairment (CI). This study investigates the association between OH and cognition in geriatric rehabilitation inpatients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Geriatric rehabilitation inpatients of the observational, longitudinal REStORing health of acutely unwell adulTs (RESORT) cohort in Melbourne, Australia, underwent intermittent BP measurements during active standing or partial postural change to sitting (when unable to stand). OH was defined as a systolic BP drop ≥20 mmHg and/or diastolic BP drop ≥10 mmHg within three minutes after postural change. CI included dementia diagnosis, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score <24 points (categorized as 18-23 (mild CI) and <18 points (severe CI)), Montreal Cognitive Assessment score <26 points or Rowland Universal Dementia Assessment Scale score <23 points. RESULTS: In geriatric rehabilitation inpatients (n=1232, mean age 82.3 years (SD 8.2), 57.5% female), OH, CI and dementia prevalence was 20.0%, 61.0% and 20.4% respectively. MMSE was scored 18-23 in 32.6% and <18 points in 27.8% of patients (n=1033). In standing patients (51.7%), OH was associated with CI (p=0.045) and dementia (p=0.021), with a trend for MMSE scores <18 points (p=0.080), but not for MMSE scores 18-23 points (p=0.528). No association was found between seated OH and cognition. CONCLUSION: OH assessed by active standing using intermittent BP measurements was associated with worse cognition in geriatric rehabilitation inpatients.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Hipotensão Ortostática , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Pressão Sanguínea , Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipotensão Ortostática/epidemiologia , Pacientes Internados , Masculino , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência
12.
Neuropsychology ; 35(6): 622-629, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34292024

RESUMO

Objective: Despite theoretical models emphasizing the likely importance of adaptive decision-making to maintaining safety on the roads, there has been a lack of research investigating this topic. This exploratory study aimed to determine if decision-making under risk conditions, as measured by the Game of Dice Task (GDT), can explain additional variance in on-road driving safety beyond other well-validated predictors. Method: Two hundred and thirty-nine cognitively normal Australian drivers aged 65-96 completed demographic and health questionnaires, vision testing, a neurocognitive test battery assessing cognitive flexibility, cognitive interference, episodic memory, verbal working memory, verbal fluency, and visuospatial function, the GDT-a lab-based assessment of decision-making under risk conditions, validated off-road driver screening measures and an on-road driving assessment along a standard route in urban traffic conditions administered by a trained Occupational Therapist (OT). Results: The number of risky choices made, but not the number of strategy changes, across trials of the GDT independently predicted on-road safety ratings after controlling for visual acuity, cognitive test performance, and off-road driver screening measures, B = -.146, 95% CI [-.276 to -.016]. Conclusion: Overall, this study offers the first evidence that decision-making is related to older adults' on-road driving safety, and makes recommendations for future research exploring the contribution of decision-making to on-road safety. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Condução de Veículo , Idoso , Austrália , Humanos , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Testes Neuropsicológicos
13.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 7: CD010860, 2021 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259337

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease and related forms of dementia are becoming increasingly prevalent with the aging of many populations. The diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease relies on tests to evaluate cognition and discriminate between individuals with dementia and those without dementia. The Mini-Cog is a brief, cognitive screening test that is frequently used to evaluate cognition in older adults in various settings. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this review was to determine the accuracy of the Mini-Cog for detecting dementia in a community setting. Secondary objectives included investigations of the heterogeneity of test accuracy in the included studies and potential sources of heterogeneity. These potential sources of heterogeneity included the baseline prevalence of dementia in study samples, thresholds used to determine positive test results, the type of dementia (Alzheimer's disease dementia or all causes of dementia), and aspects of study design related to study quality. Overall, the goals of this review were to determine if the Mini-Cog is a cognitive screening test that could be recommended to screen for cognitive impairment in community settings. SEARCH METHODS: We searched MEDLINE (OvidSP), EMBASE (OvidSP), PsycINFO (Ovid SP), Science Citation Index (Web of Science), BIOSIS previews (Web of Science), LILACS (BIREME), and the Cochrane Dementia Group's developing register of diagnostic test accuracy studies to March 2013. We used citation tracking (using the database's 'related articles' feature, where available) as an additional search method and contacted authors of eligible studies for unpublished data. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included all cross-sectional studies that utilized the Mini-Cog as an index test for the diagnosis of dementia when compared to a reference standard diagnosis of dementia using standardized dementia diagnostic criteria. For the current review we only included studies that were conducted on samples from community settings, and excluded studies that were conducted in primary care or secondary care settings. We considered studies to be conducted in a community setting where participants were sampled from the general population. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Information from studies meeting the inclusion criteria were extracted including information on the characteristics of participants in the studies. The quality of the studies was assessed using the QUADAS-2 criteria and summarized using risk of bias applicability and summary graphs. We extracted information on the diagnostic test accuracy of studies including the sensitivity, specificity, and 95% confidence intervals of these measures and summarized the findings using forest plots. Study specific sensitivities and specificities were also plotted in receiver operating curve space. MAIN RESULTS: Three studies met the inclusion criteria, with a total of 1620 participants. The sensitivities of the Mini-Cog in the individual studies were reported as 0.99, 0.76 and 0.99. The specificity of the Mini-Cog varied in the individual studies and was 0.93, 0.89 and 0.83. There was clinical and methodological heterogeneity between the studies which precluded a pooled meta-analysis of the results. Methodological limitations were present in all the studies introducing potential sources of bias, specifically with respect to the methods for participant selection. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There are currently few studies assessing the diagnostic test accuracy of the Mini-Cog in community settings. The limited number of studies and the methodological limitations that are present in the current studies make it difficult to provide recommendations for or against the use of the Mini-Cog as a cognitive screening test in community settings. Additional well-designed studies comparing the Mini-Cog to other brief cognitive screening tests are required in order to determine the accuracy and utility of the Mini-Cog in community based settings.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Memória de Curto Prazo , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Demência/diagnóstico , Humanos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
14.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 7: CD011414, 2021 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34260060

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease dementia and other dementias relies on clinical assessment. There is a high prevalence of cognitive disorders, including undiagnosed dementia in secondary care settings. Short cognitive tests can be helpful in identifying those who require further specialist diagnostic assessment; however, there is a lack of consensus around the optimal tools to use in clinical practice. The Mini-Cog is a short cognitive test comprising three-item recall and a clock-drawing test that is used in secondary care settings. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to determine the accuracy of the Mini-Cog for detecting dementia in a secondary care setting. The secondary objectives were to investigate the heterogeneity of test accuracy in the included studies and potential sources of heterogeneity. These potential sources of heterogeneity will include the baseline prevalence of dementia in study samples, thresholds used to determine positive test results, the type of dementia (Alzheimer's disease dementia or all causes of dementia), and aspects of study design related to study quality. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following sources in September 2012, with an update to 12 March 2019: Cochrane Dementia Group Register of Diagnostic Test Accuracy Studies, MEDLINE (OvidSP), Embase (OvidSP), BIOSIS Previews (Web of Knowledge), Science Citation Index (ISI Web of Knowledge), PsycINFO (OvidSP), and LILACS (BIREME). We made no exclusions with regard to language of Mini-Cog administration or language of publication, using translation services where necessary. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included cross-sectional studies and excluded case-control designs, due to the risk of bias. We selected those studies that included the Mini-Cog as an index test to diagnose dementia where dementia diagnosis was confirmed with reference standard clinical assessment using standardised dementia diagnostic criteria. We only included studies in secondary care settings (including inpatient and outpatient hospital participants). DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We screened all titles and abstracts generated by the electronic database searches. Two review authors independently checked full papers for eligibility and extracted data. We determined quality assessment (risk of bias and applicability) using the QUADAS-2 tool. We extracted data into two-by-two tables to allow calculation of accuracy metrics for individual studies, reporting the sensitivity, specificity, and 95% confidence intervals of these measures, summarising them graphically using forest plots. MAIN RESULTS: Three studies with a total of 2560 participants fulfilled the inclusion criteria, set in neuropsychology outpatient referrals, outpatients attending a general medicine clinic, and referrals to a memory clinic. Only n = 1415 (55.3%) of participants were included in the analysis to inform evaluation of Mini-Cog test accuracy, due to the selective use of available data by study authors. There were concerns related to high risk of bias with respect to patient selection, and unclear risk of bias and high concerns related to index test conduct and applicability. In all studies, the Mini-Cog was retrospectively derived from historic data sets. No studies included acute general hospital inpatients. The prevalence of dementia ranged from 32.2% to 87.3%. The sensitivities of the Mini-Cog in the individual studies were reported as 0.67 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.63 to 0.71), 0.60 (95% CI 0.48 to 0.72), and 0.87 (95% CI 0.83 to 0.90). The specificity of the Mini-Cog for each individual study was 0.87 (95% CI 0.81 to 0.92), 0.65 (95% CI 0.57 to 0.73), and 1.00 (95% CI 0.94 to 1.00). We did not perform meta-analysis due to concerns related to risk of bias and heterogeneity. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: This review identified only a limited number of diagnostic test accuracy studies using Mini-Cog in secondary care settings. Those identified were at high risk of bias related to patient selection and high concerns related to index test conduct and applicability. The evidence was indirect, as all studies evaluated Mini-Cog differently from the review question, where it was anticipated that studies would conduct Mini-Cog and independently but contemporaneously perform a reference standard assessment to diagnose dementia. The pattern of test accuracy varied across the three studies. Future research should evaluate Mini-Cog as a test in itself, rather than derived from other neuropsychological assessments. There is also a need for evaluation of the feasibility of the Mini-Cog for the detection of dementia to help adequately determine its role in the clinical pathway.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Transtornos Cognitivos/diagnóstico , Demência/diagnóstico , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência/normas , Atenção Secundária à Saúde , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Viés , Estudos Transversais , Demência/epidemiologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Seleção de Pacientes , Prevalência , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
15.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 7: CD010775, 2021 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34255351

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dementia is a progressive syndrome of global cognitive impairment with significant health and social care costs. Global prevalence is projected to increase, particularly in resource-limited settings. Recent policy changes in Western countries to increase detection mandates a careful examination of the diagnostic accuracy of neuropsychological tests for dementia. OBJECTIVES: To determine the accuracy of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) for the detection of dementia. SEARCH METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, BIOSIS Previews, Science Citation Index, PsycINFO and LILACS databases to August 2012. In addition, we searched specialised sources containing diagnostic studies and reviews, including MEDION (Meta-analyses van Diagnostisch Onderzoek), DARE (Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects), HTA (Health Technology Assessment Database), ARIF (Aggressive Research Intelligence Facility) and C-EBLM (International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine Committee for Evidence-based Laboratory Medicine) databases. We also searched ALOIS (Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group specialized register of diagnostic and intervention studies). We identified further relevant studies from the PubMed 'related articles' feature and by tracking key studies in Science Citation Index and Scopus. We also searched for relevant grey literature from the Web of Science Core Collection, including Science Citation Index and Conference Proceedings Citation Index (Thomson Reuters Web of Science), PhD theses and contacted researchers with potential relevant data. SELECTION CRITERIA: Cross-sectional designs where all participants were recruited from the same sample were sought; case-control studies were excluded due to high chance of bias. We searched for studies from memory clinics, hospital clinics, primary care and community populations. We excluded studies of early onset dementia, dementia from a secondary cause, or studies where participants were selected on the basis of a specific disease type such as Parkinson's disease or specific settings such as nursing homes. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We extracted dementia study prevalence and dichotomised test positive/test negative results with thresholds used to diagnose dementia. This allowed calculation of sensitivity and specificity if not already reported in the study. Study authors were contacted where there was insufficient information to complete the 2x2 tables. We performed quality assessment according to the QUADAS-2 criteria. Methodological variation in selected studies precluded quantitative meta-analysis, therefore results from individual studies were presented with a narrative synthesis. MAIN RESULTS: Seven studies were selected: three in memory clinics, two in hospital clinics, none in primary care and two in population-derived samples. There were 9422 participants in total, but most of studies recruited only small samples, with only one having more than 350 participants. The prevalence of dementia was 22% to 54% in the clinic-based studies, and 5% to 10% in population samples. In the four studies that used the recommended threshold score of 26 or over indicating normal cognition, the MoCA had high sensitivity of 0.94 or more but low specificity of 0.60 or less. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The overall quality and quantity of information is insufficient to make recommendations on the clinical utility of MoCA for detecting dementia in different settings. Further studies that do not recruit participants based on diagnoses already present (case-control design) but apply diagnostic tests and reference standards prospectively are required. Methodological clarity could be improved in subsequent DTA studies of MoCA by reporting findings using recommended guidelines (e.g. STARDdem). Thresholds lower than 26 are likely to be more useful for optimal diagnostic accuracy of MoCA in dementia, but this requires confirmation in further studies.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Demência/diagnóstico , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Idoso , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Doença de Alzheimer/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Demência/epidemiologia , Função Executiva , Humanos , Memória de Curto Prazo , Orientação , Padrões de Referência , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
16.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 7: CD011415, 2021 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34261197

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia are becoming increasingly common with the aging of most populations. The majority of individuals with dementia will first present for care and assessment in primary care settings. There is a need for brief dementia screening instruments that can accurately detect dementia in primary care settings. The Mini-Cog is a brief, cognitive screening test that is frequently used to evaluate cognition in older adults in various settings. OBJECTIVES: To determine the accuracy of the Mini-Cog for detecting dementia in a primary care setting. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Register of Diagnostic Test Accuracy Studies, MEDLINE, Embase and four other databases, initially to September 2012. Since then, four updates to the search were performed using the same search methods, and the most recent was January 2017. We used citation tracking (using the databases' 'related articles' feature, where available) as an additional search method and contacted authors of eligible studies for unpublished data. SELECTION CRITERIA: We only included studies that evaluated the Mini-Cog as an index test for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease dementia or related forms of dementia when compared to a reference standard using validated criteria for dementia. We only included studies that were conducted in primary care populations. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We extracted and described information on the characteristics of the study participants and study setting. Using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS-2) criteria we evaluated the quality of studies, and we assessed risk of bias and applicability of each study for each domain in QUADAS-2. Two review authors independently extracted information on the true positives, true negatives, false positives, and false negatives and entered the data into Review Manager 5 (RevMan 5). We then used RevMan 5 to determine the sensitivity, specificity, and 95% confidence intervals. We summarized the sensitivity and specificity of the Mini-Cog in the individual studies in forest plots and also plotted them in a receiver operating characteristic plot. We also created a 'Risk of bias' and applicability concerns graph to summarize information related to the quality of included studies. MAIN RESULTS: There were a total of four studies that met our inclusion criteria, including a total of 1517 total participants. The sensitivity of the Mini-Cog varied between 0.76 to 1.00 in studies while the specificity varied between 0.27 to 0.85. The included studies displayed significant heterogeneity in both methodologies and clinical populations, which did not allow for a meta-analysis to be completed. Only one study (Holsinger 2012) was found to be at low risk of bias on all methodological domains. The results of this study reported that the sensitivity of the Mini-Cog was 0.76 and the specificity was 0.73. We found the quality of all other included studies to be low due to a high risk of bias with methodological limitations primarily in their selection of participants. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is a limited number of studies evaluating the accuracy of the Mini-Cog for the diagnosis of dementia in primary care settings. Given the small number of studies, the wide range in estimates of the accuracy of the Mini-Cog, and methodological limitations identified in most of the studies, at the present time there is insufficient evidence to recommend that the Mini-Cog be used as a screening test for dementia in primary care. Further studies are required to determine the accuracy of Mini-Cog in primary care and whether this tool has sufficient diagnostic test accuracy to be useful as a screening test in this setting.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência/normas , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Idoso , Viés , Intervalos de Confiança , Demência/diagnóstico , Humanos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
17.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 7: CD010783, 2021 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34313331

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dementia is a progressive global cognitive impairment syndrome. In 2010, more than 35 million people worldwide were estimated to be living with dementia. Some people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) will progress to dementia but others remain stable or recover full function. There is great interest in finding good predictors of dementia in people with MCI. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is the best-known and the most often used short screening tool for providing an overall measure of cognitive impairment in clinical, research and community settings. OBJECTIVES: To determine the accuracy of the Mini Mental State Examination for the early detection of dementia in people with mild cognitive impairment SEARCH METHODS: We searched ALOIS (Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Specialized Register of diagnostic and intervention studies (inception to May 2014); MEDLINE (OvidSP) (1946 to May 2014); EMBASE (OvidSP) (1980 to May 2014); BIOSIS (Web of Science) (inception to May 2014); Web of Science Core Collection, including the Conference Proceedings Citation Index (ISI Web of Science) (inception to May 2014); PsycINFO (OvidSP) (inception to May 2014), and LILACS (BIREME) (1982 to May 2014). We also searched specialized sources of diagnostic test accuracy studies and reviews, most recently in May 2014: MEDION (Universities of Maastricht and Leuven, www.mediondatabase.nl), DARE (Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, via the Cochrane Library), HTA Database (Health Technology Assessment Database, via the Cochrane Library), and ARIF (University of Birmingham, UK, www.arif.bham.ac.uk). No language or date restrictions were applied to the electronic searches and methodological filters were not used as a method to restrict the search overall so as to maximize sensitivity. We also checked reference lists of relevant studies and reviews, tracked citations in Scopus and Science Citation Index, used searches of known relevant studies in PubMed to track related articles, and contacted research groups conducting work on MMSE for dementia diagnosis to try to locate possibly relevant but unpublished data. SELECTION CRITERIA: We considered longitudinal studies in which results of the MMSE administered to MCI participants at baseline were obtained and the reference standard was obtained by follow-up over time. We included participants recruited and clinically classified as individuals with MCI under Petersen and revised Petersen criteria, Matthews criteria, or a Clinical Dementia Rating = 0.5. We used acceptable and commonly used reference standards for dementia in general, Alzheimer's dementia, Lewy body dementia, vascular dementia and frontotemporal dementia. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We screened all titles generated by the electronic database searches. Two review authors independently assessed the abstracts of all potentially relevant studies. We assessed the identified full papers for eligibility and extracted data to create two by two tables for dementia in general and other dementias. Two authors independently performed quality assessment using the QUADAS-2 tool. Due to high heterogeneity and scarcity of data, we derived estimates of sensitivity at fixed values of specificity from the model we fitted to produce the summary receiver operating characteristic curve. MAIN RESULTS: In this review, we included 11 heterogeneous studies with a total number of 1569 MCI patients followed for conversion to dementia. Four studies assessed the role of baseline scores of the MMSE in conversion from MCI to all-cause dementia and eight studies assessed this test in conversion from MCI to Alzheimer´s disease dementia. Only one study provided information about the MMSE and conversion from MCI to vascular dementia. For conversion from MCI to dementia in general, the accuracy of baseline MMSE scores ranged from sensitivities of 23% to 76% and specificities from 40% to 94%. In relationship to conversion from MCI to Alzheimer's disease dementia, the accuracy of baseline MMSE scores ranged from sensitivities of 27% to 89% and specificities from 32% to 90%. Only one study provided information about conversion from MCI to vascular dementia, presenting a sensitivity of 36% and a specificity of 80% with an incidence of vascular dementia of 6.2%. Although we had planned to explore possible sources of heterogeneity, this was not undertaken due to the scarcity of studies included in our analysis. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Our review did not find evidence supporting a substantial role of MMSE as a stand-alone single-administration test in the identification of MCI patients who could develop dementia. Clinicians could prefer to request additional and extensive tests to be sure about the management of these patients. An important aspect to assess in future updates is if conversion to dementia from MCI stages could be predicted better by MMSE changes over time instead of single measurements. It is also important to assess if a set of tests, rather than an isolated one, may be more successful in predicting conversion from MCI to dementia.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/complicações , Demência/diagnóstico , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Demência/etiologia , Demência Vascular/diagnóstico , Demência Vascular/etiologia , Progressão da Doença , Diagnóstico Precoce , Demência Frontotemporal/diagnóstico , Demência Frontotemporal/etiologia , Humanos , Doença por Corpos de Lewy/diagnóstico , Doença por Corpos de Lewy/etiologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
18.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 12: 21501327211029231, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34247532

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Community aged care services provide support to older adults living in their own homes. Cognitive impairment may increase the complexity of the support required. There is a need to ensure suitable brief screening tools are available to community aged care providers to assess possible cognitive impairment. This study aimed to examine the agreement between 2 validated cognitive impairment screening tools, the Mini-Cog, and Abbreviated Mental Test Score (AMTS), and the perceptions the individuals case manager of Case Manager's. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey study was undertaken with clients of a community aged care provider. Clients were administered both the screening tools via an electronic survey by their Case Manager. RESULTS: In total, 158 (54%) eligible participants consented to participate. There was a 70% agreement between the Mini-Cog and AMTS measures, indicating a moderate agreement which was not statistically different from chance (Kappa 0.08, 95% CI -0.04-0.19). Case Managers identified 37% (n = 48/130) of participants as possibly having cognitive impairment, of which, 15% (n = 20) were also identified via a screening tool. CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicate poor agreement across the 3 measures. To ensure adequate supports are offered to those with cognitive impairment, the use of validated tools that can be administered by non-medical staff in a community setting is a priority. This study highlights a need for further work to determine the most suitable tool for use by community-based aged care services.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Demência , Idoso , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Vida Independente , Programas de Rastreamento , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34300067

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (CASI) is increasingly used to assess general cognitive function in people with dementia. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score can be converted from the CASI (i.e., the estimated MMSE). Recognizing that measurement equivalence is critical to meaningfully representing one with the other, we aimed to determine whether the estimated MMSE score obtained from the CASI was equivalent to the original MMSE in people with dementia. METHODS: We obtained 110 data points for the MMSE and CASI scores in people with dementia. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), Pearson's r, percent of standard error of measurement (SEM%), paired t-test, and effect size (Cohen's d) were used to investigate the equivalence. RESULTS: To examine the equivalence between the original and estimated MMSE score, the ICC and Pearson's r of the total score and six domains were 0.62-0.95 and 0.62-0.96, respectively. The SEM% of the total score and six domains were 0.6-8.9%. The paired t-test results showed a significant difference (p < 0.05) between the total score and the three domains. The Cohen's d of the total score and six domains were 0.06-0.27. CONCLUSIONS: The estimated MMSE score was found to have moderate to excellent equivalence to the original MMSE score. The three domains (i.e., registration, attention and calculation, and visual-constructional ability) with moderate equivalence should be used cautiously to interchange with the original MMSE in people with dementia.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos , Demência , Cognição , Demência/diagnóstico , Humanos , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Testes Neuropsicológicos
20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34304483

RESUMO

Objective:To evaluate the efficacy of modified mini-mental state examination(MMSE) in elderly patients with severe to profound hearing loss. Methods:A total of 24 elderly patients with severe to profound hearing loss from April to June 2019 were involved. Severe to profound hearing loss was defined by a pure-tone average of hearing thresholds at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz in the better-hearing ear. Modified and original MMSE was completed for the patients at first visit. Two weeks later, they all return hospital and MMSE were carried out by the other method. The aggregate score and subitem score of MMSE by modified and original instrument were analyzed. The degree of cognitive impairment evaluated by two methods were compared. Results:Among the 24 patients, the mean MMSE score by routine method and improved method were 10.88±9.70 and 25.29±3.70(P<0.01). The average score of sub-items of MMSE with routine method and improved method are as follows: orientation 3.21±4.03 vs 8.71±1.92(P<0.01), registration 1.04±1.33 vs 2.79±0.51(P<0.01), attention and calculation 1.63±2.02 vs 4.00±1.41(P<0.01), recall 0.79±1.14 vs 2.50±0.72(P<0.01), language 4.21±2.11 vs 7.29±1.33(P<0.01). Compared with the routine method, the degree of cognitive impairment getting better in 83.3% patients with improved method, meanwhile, 16.7% of the patients remain the same and no deterioration. Conclusion:The routine method of MMSE should be improved to seek the real cognitive state of the patients with severe to profound hearing loss.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Perda Auditiva , Idoso , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Audição , Perda Auditiva/diagnóstico , Testes Auditivos , Humanos , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência
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