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1.
Georgian Med News ; (306): 107-113, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130656

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to study the relationship between non-verbal intelligence, education and the factor of social functioning, taking into account the gender of patients with schizophrenia in childhood and adolescence. It should be noted that no such study was conducted in Georgia. The article discusses one of the most serious mental illnesses - schizophrenia, in terms of social functioning, since social functioning is an indicator of the degree of degradation of the patient. 246 patients with schizophrenia aged 18 to 45 years were examined. Studies have shown that the premorbid intelligence of the patient increases the degree of social adaptation. The higher the non-verbal intelligence, which is an integral part of the intellectual development of patients, the higher the indicators of social activity and adaptation, especially for women. The coefficient of social functioning does not obey the law of normal distribution. Any level of patient education is not a positive factor, although it does not significantly affect the functioning of female patients. The higher the level of non-verbal intelligence, the better the indicators of social activity, especially among women, although in general this dependence is insignificant. The article notes that in accordance with a complex, biopsychosocial approach, along with drug treatment, rehabilitation and social support of patients are necessary. The role of the human environment and other life circumstances of the patient in the severity of schizophrenia is discussed. A number of recommendations are presented that contribute to stopping cognitive decline and, therefore, preserving adaptive skills.


Assuntos
Esquizofrenia , Adaptação Fisiológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , República da Geórgia , Humanos , Inteligência , Testes de Inteligência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
2.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238309, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866184

RESUMO

The Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET) is one of the most widely used instruments for assessing the ability to recognize emotion. To examine the psychometric properties of the Korean version of the RMET and to explore the possible implications of poor performance on this task, 200 adults aged 19-32 years completed the RMET and the Korean version of the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20K), the cognitive empathy domain of the Korean version of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI-C), and the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory-Aggression (BDHI-A). In the present study, confirmatory factor analyses confirmed that the hypothesized three-factor solution based on three different emotional valences of the items (positive, negative, or neutral) had a good fit to the data. The Korean version of the RMET also showed good test-retest reliability over a 4-week time interval. Convergent validity was also supported by significant correlations with subscales of the TAS-20K, and discriminant validity was identified by nonsignificant associations with IRI-C scores. In addition, no difference was found in RMET performance according to the sex of the photographed individuals or the sex or educational attainment of the participants. Individuals with poor RMET performance were more likely to experience alexithymia and aggression. The current findings will facilitate not only future research on emotion processing but also the assessment of conditions related to the decreased ability to decode emotional stimuli.


Assuntos
Sintomas Afetivos/diagnóstico , Emoções/fisiologia , Olho/fisiopatologia , Psicometria/métodos , Adulto , Sintomas Afetivos/psicologia , Empatia/fisiologia , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Inteligência , Masculino , Leitura , República da Coreia , Teoria da Mente/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0235781, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760096

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An association between education and dementia is well-established but it is unclear whether education is associated with dementia after accounting for early life cognitive ability and whether there is a joint effect, such that the risk associated with one of the exposures depends on the value of the other. We examined separate and joint associations of adolescent cognitive ability and educational attainment with risk of dementia among Danish men born between 1939 and 1959. METHODS: Men (N = 477,421) from the Danish Conscription Database were followed for dementia from the age 60 for up to 17 years via patient and prescription registry linkages. Exposure measures included cognitive ability assessed at the conscript board examination around age 18 and highest educational level (low: 0-10 year, medium: 10-13 years, high: ≥13 years) at age 30 from registry records. Associations with dementia diagnosis were estimated in Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for birth year and age at conscript board examination. Interaction was assessed on the multiplicative scale by including a product term between the two exposure measures and on the additive scale by calculating relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI) between different levels of the exposure measures. RESULTS: Compared to men in the high education group hazard ratio [HR] for men in the medium and low group were 1.21 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.13, 1.30) and 1.34 (95% CI: 1.24, 1.45), respectively when not adjusting for cognitive ability. Additional adjustment for cognitive ability attenuated the magnitude of the associations, but they remained significant (education medium: HR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.19 and education low: HR = 1.12, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.22). A 10% higher cognitive ability score was associated with a 3.8% lower hazard of dementia (HR = 0.962; 95% CI: 0.957, 0.967), and the magnitude of the association only changed marginally after adjustment for education. Men in the low education group with relatively low cognitive ability were identified as a high-risk subgroup for dementia. The increased risk associated with exposure to both risk factors did, however, not significantly depart from the sum of risk experienced by men only exposed to one of the risk factors (estimates of RERI were not significantly different from 0) and no significant evidence of either additive or multiplicative interactions was found. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the results suggest that education and cognitive ability protect against the risk of dementia independently of one another and that increases in educational attainment may at least partially offset dementia risk due to low cognitive ability.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Demência/epidemiologia , Escolaridade , Adolescente , Idoso , Demência/fisiopatologia , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Testes de Inteligência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
6.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236241, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32716957

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early-Onset Schizophrenia (EOS) is rare but severe mental health disorder in children and adolescents. Diagnosis of schizophrenia before the age of 18 years remains complex and challenging, especially in young children. In France, there are no recent reliable epidemiological data about the prevalence of EOS. The present study evaluates the EOS rate in a target clinical population of children and adolescents in psychiatric and medico-social care centres in the South-East of France. METHODS: Psychiatric and medico-social centres for children and adolescent in the geographical area have been contacted, and after receiving their agreement to participate in the study, eligible patients corresponding to inclusion criteria were selected based on patients' medical records. Main inclusion criteria were age 7 to 17 years and intelligence quotient > 35. EOS categorical diagnosis was assessed by Kiddie-SADS Present and Lifetime psychosis section. RESULTS: 37 centres participated and 302 subjects have been included in the study. The main result was the categorical diagnosis of EOS in 27 subjects, corresponding to a rate of 8.9% in the study population. Half of the patients presented mild to moderate intellectual deficiency. Interestingly, only 2.3% had a diagnosis of schizophrenia spectrum disorder noted in their medical records before standardized assessment. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the study highlight the importance of using a standardized diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of schizophrenia in the paediatric population. In fact, EOS might be underdiagnosed in children and adolescents with neurodevelopmental disorders and subnormal cognitive functioning. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01512641. Registered 19 January 2012; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01512641.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Idade de Início , Criança , Cognição , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Geografia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Testes de Inteligência , Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Masculino , Gravidez , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Esquizofrenia/reabilitação , Fatores Socioeconômicos
7.
Environ Res ; 186: 109583, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32668545

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether cadmium (Cd) exposure during fetal brain development is associated with child neurobehavior. OBJECTIVE: To examine the potential associations between Cd exposure during pregnancy and neurobehavior among children. METHODS: We used data from 276 children in the Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment (HOME) Study, a well-established prospective pregnancy and birth cohort. We measured maternal urinary Cd concentrations at 26 weeks of gestation. For cognitive function, we assessed Mental Development Index (MDI) and Full-Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ) using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II, the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scales of Intelligence-III, or the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children-IV at ages 1, 2, 3, 5, and 8 years. We assessed child behaviors using the Behavior Assessment System for Children-2 at ages 2, 3, 4, 5, and 8 years, yielding four composite measures: Externalizing Problems, Internalizing Problems, Behavioral Symptoms Index, and Adaptive Skills. We used linear mixed models with covariate adjustment to estimate the associations between maternal urinary Cd concentrations and child neurobehavior. RESULTS: We categorized study participants into three groups based on maternal urinary Cd concentrations (Group 1: < limit of detection (LOD), Group 2: 0.06-0.22 µg/g creatinine, Group 3: >0.22 µg/g creatinine). In linear mixed models adjusting for maternal and child characteristics, maternal urinary Cd levels were not significantly associated with cognitive function at ages 1, 2, 3, 5, and 8 years or with behavioral composite measures at 2, 3, 4, 5, and 8 years. CONCLUSIONS: No significant associations were observed between maternal urinary Cd and cognitive or behavioral measures in children at 1-8 years of age in this study.


Assuntos
Cádmio , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Cádmio/toxicidade , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Testes de Inteligência , Exposição Materna , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos
8.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 35(9): 843-850, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32728913

RESUMO

The risk of dementia seems to be established already early in life, which leads to the question if overweight early in life is an important risk factor for dementia as it appears to be later in life. We examined the association between body mass index (BMI) at entry to adult life and subsequent risk of dementia in men and assessed whether the relationship differed by levels of intelligence and education. The study population consisted of 377,598 Danish men born 1939-1959 with measures of height, weight, intelligence test score (ITS), and educational level (EL) at conscript board examinations around the age of 19 years. Dementia outcomes were obtained from National Patient and Prescription Registries between 1969 and 2016. The association between BMI and dementia was analysed using Cox proportional hazard regression including interactions between BMI and ITS and EL, respectively. During the follow-up through age 77 years, 6144 (1.6%) developed dementia. The frequency was highest in men with lowest BMI, lowest ITS and lowest EL. Young adult BMI below the mean of 21.8 kg/m2 was inversely associated with subsequent dementia, whereas there was no association with higher levels of BMI. Adjustment for young adult ITS and EL attenuated the risk estimates slightly, and interaction analyses showed that the shape of the association between BMI and dementia was unaffected by the levels of ITS and EL. Regardless of levels of ITS and EL, young adult BMI below the mean is inversely associated with subsequent dementia, whereas there is no association with higher levels of BMI.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Demência/epidemiologia , Inteligência , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Escolaridade , Humanos , Incidência , Testes de Inteligência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
9.
Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 36(2): 233-238, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32530173

RESUMO

Abstract: Objective To analyze the differences in accuracy of different eye movement parameters in distinguishing the cooperation and non-cooperation during image completion test of patients with mental disorders caused by craniocerebral trauma. Methods One hundred and forty cases of patients with mental disorders caused by craniocerebral trauma who took psychiatric impairment assessments were collected. The 21 pictures from "image completion" of Wechsler intelligence test were used as stimulating pictures, then divided into cooperation group and non-cooperation group according to binomial forced-choice digit memory test and expert opinions. The eye movement parameters of research subjects during completion of images were obtained by the SMI eye-tracker. The accuracy of eye movement parameters in distinguishing the cooperation or non-cooperation of patients with mental disorders caused by craniocerebral trauma in psychiatric impairment assessments were evaluated by the ROC curve. Results During the process of the image completion test, the area under curve (AUC) value of frequency of blink, frequency of fixation, pupil size, frequency of saccade, latency of saccade, average acceleration of saccade, the average and peak longitudinal velocity of saccade was above 0.5. When it comed to a specific stimulating picture, the AUC value of frequency of blink in looking at a specific stimulating picture could be above 0.8, and the AUC value of X axis diameter of pupil size could be above 0.7. Conclusion The accuracy of eye movement parameters in distinguishing the cooperation or disguise of patients with mental disorders caused by craniocerebral trauma is related with the stimulating picture. The accuracy of frequency of blink in distinguishing cooperation and non-cooperation is better than that of other eye movement parameters.


Assuntos
Movimentos Oculares , Piscadela , Humanos , Testes de Inteligência
10.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 202: 110870, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32593806

RESUMO

Wanshan is a city in southwest China that has several inactive mercury (Hg) mines. The local population are exposed to methylmercury (MeHg) due to the consumption of Hg contaminated rice. The relationship between Hg exposure and the cognitive functions of local children is unknown. This study investigated the relationship between hair Hg concentrations and the intelligence quotient (IQ) of 314 children aged 8-10 years, recruited from three local primary schools in Wanshan area in 2018 and 2019. IQ was evaluated using Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Fourth Edition (WISC-IV). The average THg concentration in children's hair samples was 1.53 µg g-1 (range: 0.21-12.6 µg g-1), and 65.6% exceeded the United States Environment Protection Agency (USEPA) recommended value of 1 µg g-1. Results of logistic regression analysis showed that children with hair Hg ≥ 1 µg g-1 were 1.58 times more likely to have an IQ score <80, which is the clinical cut-off for borderline intellectual disability (R2 = 0.20, p = 0.03). Increasing of 1 µg g-1 hair Hg resulted in 1 point of IQ loss in Wanshan children, which was.much higher than that via fish consumption. The economical cost due to Hg exposure was estimated to be $69.8 million (9.43% of total GDP) in the Wanshan area in 2018.


Assuntos
Exposição Dietética/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Inteligência/efeitos dos fármacos , Mercúrio/análise , Oryza , Adolescente , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Peixes , Cabelo/química , Humanos , Testes de Inteligência , Masculino , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/análise , Mineração
11.
Georgian Med News ; (300): 85-89, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32383708

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between marital status, education, gender of patients and intelligence coefficient in patients in childhood and adolescence onset schizophrenia. We examined 250 patients with schizophrenia under the age of 45 years, in whom the disease began before the age of 18 and treatment was carried out in a psychiatric institution. Education of patients of any level received by patients significantly positively affects the intellectual level, although this effect increases for juveniles and those patients who were never married or were not married during the study period. The presence of patients in marriage not only negatively affects the positive effect of education, although slightly, but still negatively affects the intellectual level of patients. The level of non-verbal intelligence of patients, which is an integral part of the intellectual coefficient IQ does not depend on their gender.


Assuntos
Esquizofrenia , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Inteligência , Testes de Inteligência , Estado Civil , Casamento
12.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 145(5): 1241-1248, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32332546

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reports of neurodevelopmental delays in adolescents with metopic craniosynostosis have ranged from 15 to 61 percent. Previously, event-related potentials have correlated preoperative radiographic severity with language deficiencies in infancy. This study sought to characterize neurocognitive testing at cranial maturity and correlate outcomes to preoperative radiographic severity. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with metopic craniosynostosis who underwent surgical correction in infancy completed a neurodevelopmental battery evaluating age-normalized intelligence quotient, academic achievement, and visuomotor integration. Data were stratified by preoperative endocranial bifrontal angle (moderate, >124 degrees; severe, <124 degrees). Multiple variable regression was used to control measured intelligence and achievement for age at surgery, age at testing, parental education, and income. Significance was set at p < 0.05. RESULTS: Twenty patients completed neurodevelopmental testing. Mean intelligence quotient was 111.7 ± 13 and academic achievement was similar to national averages (word reading, 53.4 percent; reading comprehension, 53.4 percent; reading composite, 53.5 percent; spelling, 44 percent; and math, 52.9 percent). Radiographic measurements revealed 36 percent of patients with moderate phenotype and 64 percent with severe. Patients with severe phenotypes had lower intelligence quotient measures and scored more poorly in every academic measure tested. Word reading (113 versus 95; p = 0.035) and reading composite (109 versus 98; p = 0.014) reached significance. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, cranial mature patients with metopic craniosynostosis had above average intelligence quotient and academic achievement near the national mean. Long-term neurocognitive function was correlated to preoperative radiographic severity in metopic craniosynostosis, with more severe cases performing worse. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Risk, II.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Craniossinostoses/diagnóstico , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos , Crânio/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Criança , Craniossinostoses/complicações , Craniossinostoses/cirurgia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/etiologia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Testes de Inteligência , Masculino , Período Pré-Operatório , Radiografia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 112(1): 96-105, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32232408

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The correlates of prenatal and postnatal growth on Intelligence Quotient (IQ) in childhood in term-born children living in high-income countries are not well known. OBJECTIVES: We examined how birth size and growth in infancy and childhood were associated with IQ at age 5 y in term-born children using path analysis. METHODS: The study sample comprised 1719 children from the Danish National Birth Cohort who participated in a substudy in which psychologists assessed IQ using the Wechsler Primary and Preschool Scales of Intelligence-Revised. Measured weight, length/height, and head circumference at birth, 5 mo, 12 mo, and 5 y were included in a path model to estimate their total, indirect, and direct effects on IQ. All growth measures were included in the model as sex- and age-standardized z-scores. RESULTS: After adjusting for potential confounders, a positive association between birth weight and IQ was observed, and 88% of the association was direct. Weight gain in infancy was associated with IQ [per z-score increase from 5 to 12 mo, IQ increased by 1.53 (95% CI: 0.14; 2.92) points] whereas weight gain from 12 mo to 5 y was not associated with IQ. Height and head circumference growth in childhood was associated with IQ [per z-score increase from 12 mo to 5 y, IQ increased by 0.98 (95% CI: 0.17; 1.79) and 2.09 (95% CI: 0.78; 3.41) points, respectively]. CONCLUSIONS: In children born at term in an affluent country with free access to health care, higher IQ was seen with greater size at birth and greater weight gain in infancy. Also, greater growth in height and head circumference throughout the first 5 y of life was associated with higher childhood IQ whereas greater weight gain after the first year of life was not.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Adulto , Estatura , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Dinamarca , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Inteligência , Testes de Inteligência , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
14.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 505, 2020 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32299410

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Approximately 66% of children under the age of 5 in Sub-Saharan African countries do not reach their full cognitive potential, the highest percentage in the world. Because the majority of studies investigating child cognitive development have been conducted in high-income countries (HICs), there is limited knowledge regarding the determinants of child development in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). METHODS: This analysis includes 401 mother-child dyads from the South Africa and Tanzania sites of the Etiology, Risk Factors, and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) longitudinal birth cohort study. We investigated the effect of psychosocial and environmental determinants on child cognitive development measured by the Wechsler Preschool Primary Scales of Intelligence (WPPSI) at 5 years of age using multivariable linear regression. RESULTS: Socioeconomic status was most strongly associated with child cognitive development (WPSSI Score Difference (SD):14.27, 95% CI:1.96, 26.59). Modest associations between the organization of the home environment and its opportunities for cognitive stimulation and child cognitive development were also found (SD: 3.08, 95% CI: 0.65, 5.52 and SD: 3.18, 95% CI: 0.59, 5.76, respectively). CONCLUSION: This study shows a stronger association with child cognitive development at 5 years of age for socioeconomic status compared to more proximal measures of psychosocial and environmental determinants. A better understanding of the role of these factors is needed to inform interventions aiming to alleviate the burden of compromised cognitive development for children in LMICs.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Cognição/fisiologia , Pobreza , Carência Psicossocial , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Inteligência , Masculino , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Classe Social , África do Sul , Tanzânia
15.
Pediatrics ; 145(4)2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32144122

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Children born very preterm (VPT) are at high risk of cognitive impairment that impacts their educational and social opportunities. This study examined the predictive accuracy of assessments at 2, 4, 6, and 9 years in identifying preterm children with cognitive impairment by 12 years. METHODS: We prospectively studied a regional cohort of 103 children born VPT (≤32 weeks' gestation) and 109 children born term from birth to corrected age 12 years. Cognitive functioning was assessed by using age-appropriate, standardized measures: Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Second Edition (age 2); Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (ages 4 and 6); and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fourth Edition (ages 9 and 12). RESULTS: By 12 years, children born VPT were more likely to have severe (odds ratio 3.9; 95% confidence interval 1.1-13.5) or any (odds ratio 3.2; 95% confidence interval 1.8-5.6) cognitive impairment compared with children born term. Adopting a severe cognitive impairment criterion at age 2 under-identified 44% of children born VPT with later severe impairment, whereas a more inclusive earlier criterion identified all severely affected children at 12 years. Prediction improved with age, with any delay at age 6 having the highest sensitivity (85%) and positive predictive value (66%) relative to earlier age assessments. Inclusion of family-social circumstances further improved diagnostic accuracy. CONCLUSIONS: Cognitive risk prediction improves with age, with assessments at 6 years offering optimal diagnostic accuracy. Intervention for children with early mild delay may be beneficial, especially for those raised in socially disadvantaged family contexts.


Assuntos
Fatores Etários , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Intervalos de Confiança , Escolaridade , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Testes de Inteligência , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Meio Social
16.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229932, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32163453

RESUMO

Metacognitive monitoring is a critical predictor of arithmetic in primary school. One outstanding question is whether this metacognitive monitoring is domain-specific or whether it reflects a more general performance monitoring process. To answer this conundrum, we investigated metacognitive monitoring in two related, yet distinct academic domains: arithmetic and spelling. This allowed us to investigate whether monitoring in one domain correlated with monitoring in the other domain, and whether monitoring in one domain was predictive of performance in the other, and vice versa. Participants were 147 typically developing 8-9-year-old children (Study 1) and 77 typically developing 7-8-year-old children (Study 2), who were in the middle of an important developmental period for both metacognitive monitoring and academic skills. Pre-registered analyses revealed that within-domain metacognitive monitoring was an important predictor of arithmetic and spelling at both ages. In 8-9-year-olds the metacognitive monitoring measures in different academic domains were predictive of each other, even after taking into account academic performance in these domains. Monitoring in arithmetic was an important predictor of spelling performance, even when arithmetic performance was controlled for. Likewise, monitoring in spelling was an important predictor of arithmetic performance, even when spelling performance was controlled for. In 7-8-year-olds metacognitive monitoring was domain-specific, with neither correlations between the monitoring measures, nor correlations between monitoring in one domain and performance in the other. Taken together, these findings indicate that more domain-general metacognitive monitoring processes emerge over the ages from 7 to 9.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Inteligência/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Metacognição/fisiologia , Desempenho Acadêmico/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Inteligência/estatística & dados numéricos , Idioma , Masculino , Conceitos Matemáticos
17.
Pediatrics ; 145(3)2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019814

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Vitamin B12 and folate are important for normal brain development. Our objective for this study was to measure the effects of 6-month supplementation of vitamin B12 and/or folic acid in early childhood on cognition when the children were 6 to 9 years old. METHODS: The study is a follow-up of a factorial randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in 1000 North Indian children. Children 6 to 30 months of age were randomly assigned to receive a placebo or 1.8 µg of vitamin B12, 150 mg of folic acid, or both daily for 6 months. After 6 years, we re-enrolled 791 of these children for cognitive assessments. We compared the scores of the main outcomes (the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fourth Edition [India], the Crichton Verbal Scale, and subtests of the NEPSY-II) between the study groups. We also measured the associations between markers of the B vitamins (plasma cobalamin, folate, and total homocysteine concentrations) in early childhood and the cognitive outcomes. RESULTS: There were no differences between the intervention groups and the placebo group on the cognitive outcomes. Plasma cobalamin, folate, and total homocysteine concentrations in early childhood were associated with the cognitive outcomes at follow-up in the unadjusted models. These associations disappeared in models adjusted for relevant confounders. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings, from both an observational and a randomized design suggest that vitamin B12 and folate in children 6 to 36 months have limited public health relevance for long-term cognition.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Cognição , Ácido Fólico/administração & dosagem , Vitamina B 12/administração & dosagem , Complexo Vitamínico B/administração & dosagem , Criança , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Ácido Fólico/sangue , Homocisteína/sangue , Humanos , Índia , Testes de Inteligência , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Masculino , Vitamina B 12/sangue
18.
BMC Psychol ; 8(1): 7, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000845

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intelligence is the aggregate or global capacity of the individual to act purposefully, to think rationally and to deal effectively with the environment. Previous studies have shown that individuals with intellectual disability, IQ < 70, have increased risk of being diagnosed with one or more mental disorders. We wanted to investigate if this also applies to individuals with IQ between 70 and 85. METHODS: In this study, data was abstracted from a longitudinal follow-up study of individuals with low birth weight and a control group. In the present study, mental health of participants with borderline IQ, defined as a full IQ score 70-84, were compared with mental health of a reference group with full IQ scores ≥85. Mental health at age 19 was assessed using the Schedule for Affective Disorder and Schizophrenia for School-age Children Present and Lifetime (K-SADS P/L) whereby scores meeting the diagnostic criteria for a mental disorder were defined as having mental health problems. In addition the participants completed the ADHD-rating scale and the Autism Spectrum Quotient form (AQ). Logistic regression analyses were used to calculate odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for high scores on the K-SADS. RESULTS: Thirty participants with borderline IQ and 146 controls were included. Sixteen (53%) of the participants with borderline IQ met the diagnostic criteria on the K-SADS for any diagnosis compared with 18 (12%) in the reference group (OR: 6.2; CI: 2.6-14.9). In particular the participants with borderline IQ had excess risk of ADHD and anxiety. These associations were slightly attenuated when adjusted for birth weight and parents' socioeconomic status. CONCLUSIONS: 53% of the participants with borderline IQ had increased risk for a research assessed psychiatric diagnosis compared to about one in ten in the reference group. The group with borderline IQ also had higher total scores and higher scores on some sub-scores included in the Autism Spectrum Quotient form. Our results points towards an increased vulnerability for mental illness in individuals with borderline low IQ. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The main study is recorded by the Regional Committee for Health Research Ethics in Mid-Norway (as project number 4.2005.2605).


Assuntos
Inteligência , Transtornos Mentais , Saúde Mental , Adolescente , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Testes de Inteligência , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Noruega , Pais/psicologia , Testes Psicológicos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Eur J Paediatr Neurol ; 26: 75-81, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32089418

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Language is a complex neurodevelopmental phenomenon. Approximately 45% of children born very preterm (VP) show mild-to-severe language problems throughout childhood. Nevertheless, in most hospitals in Europe language functions are not routinely assessed at follow-up. OBJECTIVE: To give clear indications for extensive language assessment in school-aged children born VP, based on routinely assessed intelligence and behavioral problems. METHOD: Language functions of 63 10-year-old children born VP (<32 weeks' gestation) without major handicaps were compared to their intellectual and executive functions and behavioral problems. Using multiple linear regression analyses, the predictive value of perinatal factors and the association with neurodevelopmental factors of low language were measured. RESULTS: The mean language score was significantly lower than the verbal intelligent quotient (VIQ; mean difference = 6.4, p < .001, d=.48) and the mean vocabulary knowledge (mean difference = 9.3, p < .001, d=.70). Besides, VIQ (ß = .649, p = .001) and performance IQ (PIQ; ß = .260, p = .035) were significantly associated with language scores. Significant predictors of language scores were number of days of assisted ventilation (ß = -.592, p = .015) and mother's vocabulary knowledge (ß =.473, p = .014), rather than mother's educational level (ß =.139, p = .956). CONCLUSIONS: Children born VP had language problems that were not expected from their significantly higher VIQ and vocabulary knowledge. Clinicians assessing these children should be aware of possible language problems, which cannot be detected with a simple vocabulary task. Our findings provide evidence of the need for adequate language assessments by a speech-language pathologist in children born VP, especially in those with VIQ scores in the low average range.


Assuntos
Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/etiologia , Idioma , Adolescente , Criança , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Seguimentos , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Inteligência , Testes de Inteligência , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/epidemiologia , Testes de Linguagem , Masculino , Gravidez
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