Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 13.062
Filtrar
1.
Psychol Aging ; 34(7): 912-920, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589057

RESUMO

Metabolic syndrome affects persons of all ages and has been associated with cognitive decline. In a sample of 221 healthy adults (18.57 to 85.33 years), assessed up to 3 times (over up to 6.33 years), we applied a second-order bivariate dual-change-score model with strong factorial invariance to estimate the effects of previous levels of metabolic risk (MR) and fluid intelligence (Gf) on subsequent changes in both constructs. The results indicated that MR levels affect subsequent changes in Gf, whereas Gf does not affect changes in MR. This suggests that control of MR may be related to the change in a person's cognitive status, making early intervention, starting in young adulthood, a promising approach. To our knowledge, this is the first long-term study with such evidence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Testes de Inteligência/normas , Inteligência/fisiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
4.
BMC Psychol ; 7(1): 62, 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514741

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A lack of culturally appropriate tests hampers accurate assessment of cognition in remote Australian Aboriginal communities. In Arnhem Land, this study employed a community consultation process to evaluate commonly used Western tests of executive function, memory, attention, and visuospatial function. METHODS: An initial consultation process and a follow-up pilot study resulted in the rejection of some common tests, the development of new tests, and culturally adapted versions of others. In the subsequent 30-person main trial, adult Aboriginal volunteers were examined on nine tests, plus the Kimberly Indigenous Cognitive Assessment screen, and a brief literacy test. RESULTS: Executive function, memory, and attention tests were found to group separately after an exploratory principal components analysis. Correlations between new tests and similar Kimberly screen items were not significant, but ceiling effects may be relevant. Six of 13 test scores were found to correlate with the literacy measure. CONCLUSIONS: A selection of cognitive tests were identified that Aboriginal people found culturally acceptable and engaging. In particular, Self-Ordered Pointing, Trail-Making, a verbal-switching task, and a new test "Which car?" show promise for further development. This work may contribute to the need for culturally appropriate cognitive testing in Aboriginal communities.


Assuntos
Cognição , Testes de Inteligência , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos , Adulto , Austrália , Cultura , Feminino , Serviços de Saúde do Indígena , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto
5.
Psychiatr Danub ; 31(Suppl 3): 386-389, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488757

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nowadays, anxiety disorders are becoming more and more important in our population. And if there is one category of people more vulnerable to this problem, it is the teenagers. In addition, more and more children and teenagers are diagnosed with an IQ greater than 130, causing all the stress and questions that it generates. In this project, we are comparing two groups of adolescents, one with an IQ over 130, the other with an IQ less than 130. We are wondering if there is any difference between these groups, in terms of phobia and other psychopathologies. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A sample of 35 teenagers, from 12 to 16 years old, separated in two groups (IQ over 130 and IQ below 130), fulfilled the following questionnaires: the School Rehabilitation Assessment Scale-Revised (SARS-R), the "Family Adaptability and Cohesiveness Evaluation Scale III" (FACES III), and the "Kiddie- SADS-lifetime" (K-SADS-PL), and a social data collection questionnaire. RESULTS: At the end of this study, we can retain the following relevant elements: adolescents with IQs greater than 130 are statistically more likely to be the eldest siblings (Cochran Test F=9.159, p=0.010). They do not develop more phobias, but are more shy (t=4.375, p=0.036) than the control population. These high-potential and shy teenagers have a whole list of commonalities, such as being easily irritable, being easily distracted, ect... They have fewer friends in real life (t=2.255, p=0.033), fewer virtual friends (t=4.346, p=0.000) and fewer virtual relationships (t=2.431, p=0.021). Their families are very cohesive (Test t=0.004). There is no significant role of the socio-professional class of parents playing in the value of the IQ of their children (t=4.667, p=0.323). CONCLUSION: To conclude, being a teenager and having an IQ greater than 130 is not always a pleasure. Our results showed us that the majority of these young people consider themselves as shy, unsure of themselves and claim to have many fears. This is evidence of an increased anxiety component compared to the control sample. It seems important to insist on the need to be able and to know how to identify these young people as soon as possible, in order to propose appropriate therapeutic management.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Testes de Inteligência/estatística & dados numéricos , Inteligência , Psicopatologia , Timidez , Adolescente , Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Transtornos de Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Medo , Amigos/psicologia , Humanos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 68(6): 503-524, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31480946

RESUMO

Differences in Conflict-Based Play Behavior, Socio-Emotional and Cognitive Development of Preterm Children Compared to Full-Term Children at Preschool Age Preterm children are at increased risk for socio-emotional and cognitive developmental difficulties at preschool age. This study investigates whether preterm children (n = 50) at the age of five years show different socio-emotional competencies in conflict situations and in the corresponding conflict resolution capacity in comparison to full-term children (n = 50). For this purpose, the MacArthur Story Stem Battery was used as the central examination method. In addition, parents completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire to obtain information about the children's behavior; moreover, the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence - Third Edition was applied to examine cognitive development. The parental reports did not reveal any behavioral differences between preterm and term children. However, significant group differences regarding their play behavior were detected. In their narratives, preterm children included content themes of interpersonal conflict and dysregulation more frequently compared to term born controls. Concerning empathic and moral themes and narrative coherence, no group difference could be detected. This could indicate that preterm children show no clinically manifest behavioral disorders at preschool age, but differences concerning intrapsychic experience compared to controls. In addition, preterm children had significantly lower IQ scores than term-born controls. Gestational age was a significant predictor of IQ and hyperactivity and attention problems. The results clarify the need for long term clinical follow up of preterm children and should be used to provide more specific care and support.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Cognição , Emoções , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/psicologia , Comportamento Social , Pré-Escolar , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Testes de Inteligência , Escalas de Wechsler
7.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 22(9): 588-596, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441667

RESUMO

This study examined both children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and typically developing students in dynamic measures of intelligence through the use of a virtual avatar. Three conditions were compared: in the first condition, the avatar simply gave the instructions; in the second condition, the avatar presented the instructions and gave feedback on the attention of the learner; in the third condition, the avatar was not presented. Results indicated that ADHD subtypes do not differ in problem solving and the interactive avatar improved the performance of groups with ADHD in the dynamic intelligence test. Overall, these results support the hypothesis that the function of regulation and feedback of the avatar improve the attention process and, consequently, boosts performance.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Retroalimentação , Testes de Inteligência , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/fisiopatologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/terapia , Criança , Humanos
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438468

RESUMO

The effect of exotropia on the intelligence of children is unknown. This study aimed to assess the intelligence in children with exotropia and investigate the influence of the main clinical indexes of strabismus on intelligence. Eighty-four participants aged 8-12 years were enrolled, including 37 patients with exotropia (exotropia group) and 47 normal individuals (normal group). Intelligence was assessed by the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV), including the Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI), Perceptual Reasoning Index (PRI), Working Memory Index (WMI), Processing Speed Index (PSI), and Full-Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ). The exotropia group had a significantly lower PRI score but a higher PSI score than the normal group. However, there was no significant difference in the WMI, VCI, and FSIQ between groups. Multiple linear regression showed that PRI-WMI and PRI-PSI differences were significantly lower in the exotropia group. Inter-subscale correlations analysis showed that the pattern of intelligence structure was different between groups. The type of exotropia, angle of deviation, duration of symptoms, and stereoacuity had no effect on the intelligence of children with exotropia. Children with exotropia had a relatively worse performance in the perceptual reasoning skill but a better processing speed and a different pattern of intelligence structure.


Assuntos
Exotropia , Inteligência , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Inteligência , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo
9.
Neuropsychopharmacol Hung ; 21(2): 69-84, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378724

RESUMO

IQ is a psychological indicator with exceptional psychometric properties and substantial real-life predictive power. Behavior genetic results have long suggested that IQ is strongly heritable, that is, inter-individual IQ differences are mostly due to genetic differences, and that the effects of the environment shared by siblings, such as the family's place of residence or socioeconomic status, is minimal. Recently these observations were confirmed by quantitative genetic studies of unprecedented sample sizes, SNP heritability studies combining quantitative and molecular genetic approaches, and genome-wide association studies identifying specific genetic variants underlying IQ. Genome-wide association studies enable the creation of polygenic scores which correlate with actual cognitive ability at approximately r=0.3. The increasing understanding of the genetic basis of IQ, especially the use of polygenic scores validates previous quantitative genetic paradigms and clears the path for several applications in psychology, but it may also be the source of bioethical dilemmas.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Testes de Inteligência , Herança Multifatorial , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
10.
Psicothema (Oviedo) ; 31(3): 255-262, ago. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-185351

RESUMO

Background: Gifted and talented students have different functioning in some components of executive functions, such as working memory. This meta-analysis examines the differences between students with high abilities and with average intelligence in working memory. Method: A total of 17 articles with 33 different studies were analyzed. A random effects model was used, calculating the effect size with Hedges g. The moderating variables were analyzed using a meta-regression model for continuous variables and ANOVA for categorical variables. Results: Results show an average effect size of g+=0.80 (95% CI: 0.621, 0.976) and high heterogeneity (Q(32)=196.966; p<.001; I2=83.754%). In the studies that measured verbal working memory, the effect size was g+=0.969 (95% CI: 0.697, 1.241) and heterogeneity I2=83.416%. In those assessing visual working memory, g+=0.674 (95% CI: 0.443, 0.906) and the heterogeneity was 83.416%. The analysis of the moderating variables identified the way of measuring working memory as the only significant variable. Conclusions: There is a significant effect in favor of gifted and talented students in both verbal and visual working memory, with significant influence of the procedure used to measure working memory


Antecedentes: los estudiantes superdotados y con talento tienen un funcionamiento diferencial en algunas componentes de las funciones ejecutivas como la memoria de trabajo. Este meta-análisis estudia las diferencias entre estudiantes con alta capacidad intelectual y con inteligencia promedio en memoria de trabajo. Método: un total de 17 artículos con 33 estudios diferenciados fueron analizados. Se empleó un modelo de efectos aleatorios, calculando el tamaño del efecto con g de Hedges. Las variables moderadoras se analizaron empleando una meta-regresión para las continuas y ANOVA para las categóricas. Resultados: los resultados muestran un tamaño del efecto de g+=0.80 (95% CI: 0.621, 0.976) y una alta heterogeneidad (Q(32)=196.966; p<.001; I2=83.754%). En los estudios que miden memoria de trabajo verbal, el tamaño del efecto fue de g+=0.969 (95% CI: 0.697, 1.241) y la heterogeneidad I2=83.416%. En los que evalúan memoria de trabajo visual, g+=0.674 (95% CI: 0.443, 0.906) y la heterogeneidad I2 =83.416%. El análisis de variables moderadoras identificó la forma de medir la memoria de trabajo como la única variable significativa. Conclusiones: existe un efecto significativo en favor de los estudiantes superdotados y con talento, tanto en memoria de trabajo verbal como visual, con influencia del procedimiento utilizado para medir memoria de trabajo


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Atitude , Criança Superdotada/psicologia , Inteligência , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Análise de Variância , Intervalos de Confiança , Testes de Inteligência , Tamanho da Amostra
11.
Psicothema ; 31(3): 255-262, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292039

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gifted and talented students have different functioning in some components of executive functions, such as working memory. This meta-analysis examines the differences between students with high abilities and with average intelligence in working memory. METHOD: A total of 17 articles with 33 different studies were analyzed. A random effects model was used, calculating the effect size with Hedges g. The moderating variables were analyzed using a meta-regression model for continuous variables and ANOVA for categorical variables. RESULTS: Results show an average effect size of g +=0.80 (95% CI: 0.621, 0.976) and high heterogeneity (Q(32)=196.966; <.001; I2 =83.754%). In the studies that measured verbal working memory, the effect size was g +=0.969 (95% CI: 0.697, 1.241) and heterogeneity I2 =83.416%. In those assessing visual working memory, g +=0.674 (95% CI: 0.443, 0.906) and the heterogeneity was 83.416%. The analysis of the moderating variables identified the way of measuring working memory as the only significant variable. CONCLUSIONS: There is a significant effect in favor of gifted and talented students in both verbal and visual working memory, with significant influence of the procedure used to measure working memory.


Assuntos
Aptidão , Criança Superdotada/psicologia , Inteligência , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Análise de Variância , Criança , Intervalos de Confiança , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Inteligência , Masculino , Tamanho da Amostra
12.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 49(10): 4079-4096, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31267287

RESUMO

Investigated between-group differences in cognitive/affective theory of mind (ToM) and predictors of cognitive ToM both within broad autism phenotype/non (BAP/Non-BAP) groups as well as across the sample. The BAP group (n = 45) performed worse than the Non-BAP group (n = 102) on the unexpected outcomes test (UOT), but groups were similar regarding reading the mind in the eyes test (RMET). Stepwise regression indicated RMET best predicted UOT for the BAP group; block design best predicted UOT in the Non-BAP group. BAP traits did not mediate the relation of RMET to UOT performance. While RMET and UOT appear similarly related in BAP/Non-BAP samples, use of emotion recognition abilities in a cognitive ToM task may reflect over-reliance on this skill in the BAP.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , Testes de Inteligência , Teoria da Mente , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo
13.
J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) ; 65(3): 224-232, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257262

RESUMO

Mental stress is a known risk factor for disease. This study investigated changes in sensations of taste and pungency before and after mental stress. Thirty healthy male university students rested for 20 min, performed mental arithmetic tasks for 10 min, and then underwent measurement of changes in their taste and ability to discern pungency. Taste was measured with the "Taste Disk®," and pungency was measured by a filter-paper disc method using capsaicin solution. Subjects were not told the order of the reagent solutions used. To quantify pain sensation, a weak current applied to the central inner forearm skin by a Pain Vision® quantitative pain sensation analyzer was gradually increased. The degree of stress was measured by portable electrocardiography (ECG). During mental stress, the cognitive threshold of salty taste, sweet taste, and bitterness was significantly decreased, whereas the sensations of pungency and forearm skin pain were increased and showed significant correlation. Based on sympathetic nerve activity analyzed with the ECG, the subjects were divided into the mental stress group and non-mental stress group. The mental stress group experienced an increase in the pungency threshold and sensation of forearm skin pain with significantly high correlations obtained, whereas no correlation was found between these factors in the non-mental stress group. Acute mental stress increased the sensitivity to taste but decreased the sensitivity to the sensation of pungency on the tongue and pain on the skin. Sympathetic activity activated by stress may affect taste and the sensation of pungency.


Assuntos
Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Paladar/fisiologia , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Testes de Inteligência , Masculino , Matemática , Medição da Dor , Sistema Nervoso Parassimpático/fisiologia , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/fisiologia , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adulto Jovem
14.
Georgian Med News ; (289): 120-126, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215892

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to determine the level of intelligence in people with schizophrenia from childhood and adolescence. It is noteworthy that such studies were not conducted in Georgia. A total of 250 schizophrenic patients under the age of 45 who had the disease started before the age of 18 and who were treated in a psychiatric institution were examined. The study analyzed the obtained data on the level of intelligence from the point of view of age, sex, age of onset of the disease and its type, diagnosis and education. As a result of the study, it was found that a high premorbidal intellectual level contributes to combating the symptoms of the disease, high motivation, less resistance to the conducted drug and other treatment methods, the desire to cooperate with specialists, which helps maintain the level of functioning, including the desire to get an education. No correlation was discovered between the type of disease (negative or positive symptoms) and the IQ (intelligence quotient). To maintain the daily functioning of schizophrenic patients, it is very important to maintain intellectual abilities at the onset of the disease, for which, along with pharmacological treatment, it is necessary to provide cognitive exercises and psychosocial support.


Assuntos
Inteligência , Esquizofrenia , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Testes de Inteligência , Adulto Jovem
15.
Psychol Assess ; 31(9): 1168-1173, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31192630

RESUMO

An important component of neuropsychological testing is assessment of premorbid intelligence to estimate a patient's ability independent of neurological impairment. A common test of premorbid IQ-namely, the Reading section of the Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT)-has been shown to have high measurement error in the high ability range, is unnecessarily long (55 items), and is proprietary. We describe the development of an alternative, nonproprietary, computerized adaptive test for premorbid IQ, the Penn Reading Assessment (PRA-CAT). PRA-CAT items were calibrated using a 1-parameter item response theory model in a large community sample (N = 9,498), Ages 8 to 21, and the resulting parameters were used to simulate computerized adaptive testing sessions. Simulations demonstrated that the PRA-CAT achieves low measurement error (0.25; equivalent to Cronbach's alpha = .94) and acceptable measurement error (0.40; Cronbach's alpha = .84) after only 18 and 6 items, respectively (on average). Correlation of WRAT and PRA-CAT scores with numerous clinical, cognitive, demographic, and neuroimaging criteria suggests that validity of PRA-CAT score interpretation is comparable (and sometimes superior) with the WRAT. The fully functioning PRA-CAT for public use (including item parameter estimates reported here) has been built using the open-source program Concerto, and can be installed by anyone on a local computer or on the "cloud." Given the length and proprietary nature of the WRAT, the PRA-CAT shows promise as a potential alternative (and with minimal or no cost). Further validation in the context of neurological injury is needed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Testes de Inteligência , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Leitura , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Computadores , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
16.
Schmerz ; 33(4): 303-311, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31147770

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To date only few studies have addressed the level of intelligence of children and adolescents with chronic pain. The few currently available studies suggest a cognitive performance of pediatric pain patients in the average range (IQ 85-115); however, only little is known about the relationship between pain characteristics and cognitive skills. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to retrospectively examine the intelligence scores of severely impaired pediatric chronic pain patients to improve the knowledge about the association of pain and cognitive performance and to create a basis for further prospective studies. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the exploratory evaluation data from N = 180 children and adolescents who were treated as inpatients at the German Pediatric Pain Center in Datteln in 2016 were included. Due to the standardization of the IQ scores a comparison within the sample was possible as well as a comparison to the norm sample. RESULTS: The intelligence level of severely impaired pediatric pain patients fell within the normal range (M = 99.32; SD = 14.13). Neither the main pain location nor the emotional variables or pain parameters (e.g. pain intensity) had a significant association with the IQ scores. Compared to the norm sample, pediatric pain patients had a higher processing speed. Intraindividual comparisons showed a significantly lower verbal IQ than performance IQ and a lower verbal comprehension compared to perceptual organization and processing speed. Moreover, there was a negative association between pain intensity, the verbal IQ and verbal comprehension. CONCLUSION: The results support the assumption that the intellectual performance of pediatric pain patients lies within the average range; however, the results indicate a limited competence in verbal abstraction and expressiveness of pediatric pain patients, which are negatively related to pain intensity. Further studies to examine causal relationships are needed.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica , Inteligência , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Testes de Inteligência , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos
17.
BMC Public Health ; 19(Suppl 4): 541, 2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196019

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic factors and nutritional status have been associated with childhood cognitive development. However, previous Malaysian studies had been conducted with small populations and had inconsistent results. Thus, this present study aims to determine the association between socioeconomic and nutritional status with cognitive performance in a nationally representative sample of Malaysian children. METHODS: A total of 2406 Malaysian children aged 5 to 12 years, who had participated in the South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS), were included in this study. Cognitive performance [non-verbal intelligence quotient (IQ)] was measured using Raven's Progressive Matrices, while socioeconomic characteristics were determined using parent-report questionnaires. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated using measured weight and height, while BMI-for-age Z-score (BAZ) and height-for-age Z-score (HAZ) were determined using WHO 2007 growth reference. RESULTS: Overall, about a third (35.0%) of the children had above average non-verbal IQ (high average: 110-119; superior: ≥120 and above), while only 12.2% were categorized as having low/borderline IQ (< 80). Children with severe obesity (BAZ > 3SD), children from very low household income families and children whose parents had only up to primary level education had the highest prevalence of low/borderline non-verbal IQ, compared to their non-obese and higher socioeconomic counterparts. Parental lack of education was associated with low/borderline/below average IQ [paternal, OR = 2.38 (95%CI 1.22, 4.62); maternal, OR = 2.64 (95%CI 1.32, 5.30)]. Children from the lowest income group were twice as likely to have low/borderline/below average IQ [OR = 2.01 (95%CI 1.16, 3.49)]. Children with severe obesity were twice as likely to have poor non-verbal IQ than children with normal BMI [OR = 2.28 (95%CI 1.23, 4.24)]. CONCLUSIONS: Children from disadvantaged backgrounds (that is those from very low income families and those whose parents had primary education or lower) and children with severe obesity are more likely to have poor non-verbal IQ. Further studies to investigate the social and environmental factors linked to cognitive performance will provide deeper insights into the measures that can be taken to improve the cognitive performance of Malaysian children.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/epidemiologia , Obesidade Mórbida/psicologia , Pobreza/psicologia , Classe Social , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Cognição , Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Testes de Inteligência/estatística & dados numéricos , Malásia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estado Nutricional , Obesidade Mórbida/epidemiologia , Pais , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 68(5): 402-418, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250720

RESUMO

Having an Eye for Families? - Standardized Family Diagnostics in Socialpediatric Centres In socialpediatric centres (SPZ) children and adolescents with mental and/or physical disorders/impairments are diagnosed and treated together with their families. This cross-sectional study researches to what extent standardized family diagnostic questionnaires are used in this context. One third of the 152 German SPZ participated in this questionnaire study (N = 50). While nearly all SPZ use intelligence tests (98 %) and symptom questionnaires (100 %) (s. Sydow u. Homes, in prep.), family diagnostic is applied remarkably seldom in German socialpediatric centres up to now: Only 14 of 28 family questionnaires whose use we had evaluated systematically, ever were used by the participating SPZs. Implications for research and clinical practice are derived.


Assuntos
Saúde da Família , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Pessoas com Deficiência/psicologia , Alemanha , Humanos , Testes de Inteligência , Transtornos Mentais/terapia
19.
Neuropsychology ; 33(7): 986-995, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31204815

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of this study was to examine theory of mind (ToM) and its relationship to social competence in children and adolescents with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). The secondary aim was to explore the relationship between ToM, social competence, epilepsy variables, and executive functioning (EF). METHOD: Twenty-two children and adolescents (8-16 years old) with TLE and 22 typically developing controls completed two advanced behavioural tests of ToM (faux-pas, strange stories), measures of EF and verbal IQ. Parents completed questionnaires assessing ToM and social competence of their child. Epilepsy variables were obtained from treating neurologists and interviews with parents. RESULTS: Children and adolescents with TLE had significant impairments in cognitive and affective ToM, reduced social competence, and lower verbal IQ than controls. Although verbal IQ was reduced in the TLE group, it was not related to ToM or social functioning. ToM impairment (a single score encompassing cognitive and affective ToM) was significantly correlated with social competence problems in our TLE group. Longer duration of epilepsy was related to reduced ToM and social competence, while earlier onset of seizures was related to social competence problems only. Finally, EF was neither impaired nor related to ToM or social problems in children and adolescents with TLE. CONCLUSION: This study revealed marked ToM impairments and associated social difficulties in children and adolescents with TLE. The results support studies demonstrating similar impairments in children with other epilepsy subtypes and highlight the importance of detecting and treating ToM and social difficulties in this group. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/psicologia , Habilidades Sociais , Teoria da Mente , Adolescente , Idade de Início , Criança , Função Executiva , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Inteligência , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Pais , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Neurology ; 93(2): e200-e209, 2019 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31217257

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor everolimus can improve intellectual disability, autism, and other neuropsychological deficits in children with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). METHODS: In this 12-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we attempted to enroll 60 children with TSC and IQ <80, learning disability, special schooling, or autism, aged 4-17 years, without intractable seizures to be assigned to receive everolimus or placebo. Everolimus was titrated to blood trough levels of 5-10 ng/mL. Primary outcome was full-scale IQ; secondary outcomes included autism, neuropsychological functioning, and behavioral problems. RESULTS: Thirty-two children with TSC were randomized. Intention-to-treat analysis showed no benefit of everolimus on full-scale IQ (treatment effect -5.6 IQ points, 95% confidence interval -12.3 to 1.0). No effect was found on secondary outcomes, including autism and neuropsychological functioning, and questionnaires examining behavioral problems, social functioning, communication skills, executive functioning, sleep, quality of life, and sensory processing. All patients had adverse events. Two patients on everolimus and 2 patients on placebo discontinued treatment due to adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Everolimus did not improve cognitive functioning, autism, or neuropsychological deficits in children with TSC. The use of everolimus in children with TSC with the aim of improving cognitive function and behavior should not be encouraged in this age group. CLINICALTRIALSGOV IDENTIFIER: NCT01730209. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class I evidence that for children with TSC, everolimus does not improve intellectual disability, autism, behavioral problems, or other neuropsychological deficits.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico/tratamento farmacológico , Everolimo/uso terapêutico , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Deficiência Intelectual/tratamento farmacológico , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/antagonistas & inibidores , Esclerose Tuberosa/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Transtorno Autístico/etiologia , Transtorno Autístico/psicologia , Criança , Comunicação , Método Duplo-Cego , Função Executiva , Feminino , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/etiologia , Testes de Inteligência , Masculino , Comportamento Problema , Qualidade de Vida , Sono , Comportamento Social , Esclerose Tuberosa/complicações , Esclerose Tuberosa/psicologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA