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1.
Nurs Open ; 8(1): 147-155, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33318822

RESUMO

Aim: To investigate the psychological status of medical staff with medical device-related nasal and facial pressure ulcers (MDR PUs) during the outbreak of COVID-19, analyse the correlation between their psychological status and personality traits, so as to provide a reference for personalized psychological support. Design: A total of 207 medical staff who were treating the COVID-19 epidemic from Hunan and Hubei provinces were enrolled in this analytic questionnaire-based study. Methods: We used these measures: Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Short Scale (EPQ-RSC), Social Appearance Anxiety Scale (SAAS), Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS) and demographic information forms online. Results: Medical staff wearing protective equipment are particularly susceptible to nasal and facial MDR PUs, which is increasing their social appearance anxiety; neuroticism is significantly related to social appearance anxiety and negative emotion. We should pay more attention to their psychological state, cultivate good personality characteristics and reduce negative emotions, and thereby alleviate their MDR PUs-related appearance anxiety.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Traumatismos Faciais/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/efeitos adversos , Lesão por Pressão/psicologia , Adulto , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , /terapia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Traumatismos Faciais/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Testes de Personalidade , Lesão por Pressão/etiologia
2.
An. psicol ; 36(3): 521-532, oct. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-195669

RESUMO

Past research shows most women report higher levels of empathy and gratitude than men. Although studies show relations among resilience, gratitude, and empathy, little is known on the influence of gender on the links among. The present study examined the individual difference and relations among young adults' levels of empathy, gratitude, and resilience, particularly how gender influences such relations. Participants were 214 Polish self-identified females and males' young adults, who completed self-report measures of empathy, gratitude, and resilience. Results showed that females scored higher in empathy and gratitude than males, but males reported higher levels of resilience than females. Resilience also served as a mediator between empathy and gratitude and this differed according to self-identified gender. Implications for gendered developmental research in social cognition are discussed


Investigaciones anteriores muestran que la mayoría de las mujeres reportan niveles más altos de empatía y gratitud que los hombres. Aunque los estudios muestran relaciones entre resiliencia, gratitud y empatía, se sabe poco sobre la influencia del género en los vínculos entre ellos. El presente estudio examinó las diferencias individuales y las relaciones entre los niveles de empatía, gratitud y resiliencia de los adultos, particularmente cómo el género influye en tales relaciones. En segundo lugar, se probó el papel de mediación de la resiliencia en las asociaciones entre empatía y gratitud. Los participantes fueron 214 adultos polacos (104 mujeres) autoidentificados, con edades entre 18 y 55 años (M = 28.29 años, DT = 11.19), que completaron medidas de empatía de autoinforme en línea (escala QCAE), gratitud (escala GRAT) y resiliencia (escala SPP-25). El estudio transversal se utilizó para obtener los datos. Los resultados muestran que las mujeres obtuvieron puntuaciones más altas en empatía y gratitud que los hombres, pero los hombres informaron niveles más altos de resistencia que las mujeres. La apertura a nuevas experiencias de vida (dimensión de resiliencia) surgió como el predictor más fuerte de gratitud en ambos grupos. La resiliencia también sirvió como mediador entre la empatía y la gratitud y esto difería según el género autoidentificado. Se discuten las implicaciones para la investigación del desarrollo de género en psicología positiva


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Empatia , Resiliência Psicológica , Fatores Sexuais , Emoções , Otimismo , Inquéritos e Questionários , Testes de Personalidade , Valores de Referência , Relações Interpessoais , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Estudos Transversais
3.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240728, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33091923

RESUMO

As a profession, acting is marked by a high-level of economic and social riskiness concomitantly with the possibility for artistic satisfaction and/or public admiration. Current understanding of the psychological attributes that distinguish professional actors is incomplete. Here, we compare samples of professional actors (n = 104), undergraduate student actors (n = 100), and non-acting adults (n = 92) on 26 psychological dimensions and use machine-learning methods to classify participants based on these attributes. Nearly all of the attributes measured here displayed significant univariate mean differences across the three groups, with the strongest effect sizes being on Creative Activities, Openness, and Extraversion. A cross-validated Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) classification model was capable of identifying actors (either professional or student) from non-actors with a 92% accuracy and was able to sort professional from student actors with a 96% accuracy when age was included in the model, and a 68% accuracy with only psychological attributes included. In these LASSO models, actors in general were distinguished by high levels of Openness, Assertiveness, and Elaboration, but professional actors were specifically marked by high levels of Originality, Volatility, and Literary Activities.


Assuntos
Criatividade , Motivação , Personalidade , Estudantes/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Inteligência Emocional , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes de Personalidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Incerteza , Adulto Jovem
4.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239721, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997723

RESUMO

This paper reports the results of a multi-stage effort to develop a measure of Academic Entitlement. An empirical/rational approach was taken to develop items and reduce the item set for a final version of the Academic Entitlement Scale (AES). The measure includes seven dimensions: Accommodation, Reward for Effort, Responsibility Avoidance, Grade Haggling, Customer Orientation, Customer Service Expectations, and General Academic Entitlement. Fit, using Confirmatory Factor Analysis, for the seven-factor correlated model and a bifactor model including General AE and the six specific factors, was good. The full measure is reported along with descriptive statistics for the scale and preliminary validation evidence.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Testes de Personalidade/normas , Autoimagem , Estudantes/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
5.
Accid Anal Prev ; 145: 105704, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771694

RESUMO

Road user behaviour and personality traits are important determinants of driver crash risk. While a great deal of research has been undertaken to understand the relationships between crash involvement, behaviours and personality traits for motor vehicle drivers, comparatively few studies have considered these factors for cyclists. This manuscript presents the findings of a study conducted amongst a sample of six hundred and fifteen (615) Australian cyclists, investigating these issues. The aim of this research was to establish a structure for a cycling behaviour questionnaire applicable to a cohort of Australian cyclists. Using the dimensions identified from the questionnaire, the research investigated the relationship between self-reported crashes, behaviours and personality traits, in order to further develop our understanding of risk factors associated with cycling. Personality traits (agreeableness, extroversion, conscientiousness, neuroticism and openness to experience) were measured using the Big Five Inventory. While cyclist behaviour was measured using a modified version of the cyclist behaviour questionnaire developed by the Dutch national road safety research centre (SWOV). Principal Components Analysis (PCA) was performed on the cycling behaviour questionnaire to identify underlying subscales of behaviour. The PCA identified a two dimension model representing violations (α = 0.74) and errors (α = 0.65), consisting of 16 items from the original 22 item cyclist behaviour questionnaire. Linear regressions for each of the cyclist behaviour factors identified that age was negatively associated with errors and violations, indicating that older cyclists report fewer errors or violations. Similarly, there was a negative association with average weekly kilometres travelled. Gender was a significant predictor of errors, but not violations, with male cyclists reporting fewer errors than females. When considering personality traits, there was a positive association between extroversion and both errors and violations. Significant negative associations were identified for agreeableness and conscientiousness. Neither neuroticism nor openness to experience were associated with the frequency of errors or violations. The research identified that demographics, travel characteristics and personality traits provide insight into engagement in aberrant cycling behaviours and these behaviours are associated with self-reported crash involvement. The research provides insight into behaviours that could be targeted with appropriate education and enforcement strategies.


Assuntos
Ciclismo/psicologia , Personalidade , Acidentes/psicologia , Adulto , Austrália , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes de Personalidade , Autorrelato , Adulto Jovem
6.
Rev. psicol. trab. organ. (1999) ; 36(2): 157-168, ago. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-194185

RESUMO

The study extends personality and situational judgment test (SJT) research by using an SJT to measure achievement striving in a contextualized manner. Employed students responded to the achievement striving SJT, traditional personality scales, and workplace performance measures. The SJT was internally consistent, items loaded on a single factor, and scores converged with other measures of achievement striving. The SJT provided incremental criterion-related validity for the performance criteria beyond less-contextualized achievement striving measures. Findings suggest that achievement-related work scenarios may provide additional criterion-relevant information not captured by measures that are less contextualized


Este estudio extiende la investigación sobre los tests de juicio situacional (TJS) y la personalidad, usando un TJS para medir el esfuerzo hacia el logro de una manera contextualizada. Estudiantes con empleo respondieron el TJS de esfuerzo hacia el logro, escalas típicas de personalidad y medidas de desempeño en el trabajo. El TJS fue internamente consistente, los ítems cargaron en un único factor y las puntuaciones convergieron con otras medidas de esfuerzo hacia el logro. El TJS añadió validez relacionada con el criterio, para los criterios de desempeño, a la validez de las medidas menos contextualizadas de esfuerzo hacia el logro. Los hallazgos sugieren que escenarios de trabajo relacionados con el logro pueden proporcionar información adicional relevante para el criterio no capturada por medidas menos contextualizadas


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Logro , Avaliação de Desempenho Profissional/métodos , Psicometria/instrumentação , Testes Psicológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Determinação da Personalidade , Testes de Personalidade , Relações Trabalhistas
8.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234232, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-596043

RESUMO

Following the fast spread of Covid-19 across Europe and North America in March 2020, many people started stockpiling commodities like toilet paper. Despite the high relevance for public authorities to adequately address stockpiling behavior, empirical studies on the psychological underpinnings of toilet paper stockpiling are still scarce. In this study, we investigated the relation between personality traits, perceived threat of Covid-19, and stockpiling of toilet paper in an online survey (N = 996) across 22 countries. Results suggest that people who felt more threatened by Covid-19 stockpiled more toilet paper. Further, a predisposition towards Emotionality predicted the perceived threat of Covid-19 and affected stockpiling behavior indirectly. Finally, Conscientiousness was related to toilet paper stockpiling, such that individuals higher in Conscientiousness tended to stockpile more toilet paper. These results emphasize the importance of clear communication by public authorities acknowledging anxiety and, at the same time, transmitting a sense of control.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Colecionismo , Modelos Psicológicos , Personalidade , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Adulto , Aparelho Sanitário , Comportamento do Consumidor , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Higiene , Masculino , América do Norte , Pandemias , Papel , Testes de Personalidade
9.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0232570, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32484832

RESUMO

In the last years, there has been a considerable increase of research into the neuroimaging correlates of inter-individual temperament and character variability-an endeavour for which the term 'personality neuroscience' was coined. Among other neuroimaging modalities and approaches, substantial work focuses on functional connectivity in resting state (rs-FC) functional magnetic resonance imaging data. In the current paper, we set out to independently query the questions asked in a highly cited study that reported a range of functional connectivity correlates of personality dimensions assessed by the widely used 'Big Five' Personality Inventory. Using a larger sample (84 subjects) and an equivalent data analysis pipeline, we obtained widely disagreeing results compared to the original study. Overall, the results were in line with the hypotheses of no relation between functional connectivity and personality, when more precise permutation-based multiple testing procedures were applied. The results demonstrate that as with other neuroimaging studies, great caution should be applied when interpreting the findings, among other reasons due to multiple testing problem involved at several levels in many neuroimaging studies. Of course, the current study results can not ultimately disprove the existence of some link between personality and brain's intrinsic functional architecture, but clearly shows that its form is very likely different and much more subtle and elusive than was previously reported.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Personalidade/fisiologia , Adulto , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Mapeamento Encefálico , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Vias Neurais/diagnóstico por imagem , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Testes de Personalidade , Descanso
10.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234232, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32530911

RESUMO

Following the fast spread of Covid-19 across Europe and North America in March 2020, many people started stockpiling commodities like toilet paper. Despite the high relevance for public authorities to adequately address stockpiling behavior, empirical studies on the psychological underpinnings of toilet paper stockpiling are still scarce. In this study, we investigated the relation between personality traits, perceived threat of Covid-19, and stockpiling of toilet paper in an online survey (N = 996) across 22 countries. Results suggest that people who felt more threatened by Covid-19 stockpiled more toilet paper. Further, a predisposition towards Emotionality predicted the perceived threat of Covid-19 and affected stockpiling behavior indirectly. Finally, Conscientiousness was related to toilet paper stockpiling, such that individuals higher in Conscientiousness tended to stockpile more toilet paper. These results emphasize the importance of clear communication by public authorities acknowledging anxiety and, at the same time, transmitting a sense of control.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Colecionismo , Modelos Psicológicos , Personalidade , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Adulto , Aparelho Sanitário , Comportamento do Consumidor , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Higiene , Masculino , América do Norte , Pandemias , Papel , Testes de Personalidade
11.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 27(2): 260-268, 2020 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32588603

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Marijuana is one of the most widely used psychoactive substance. There is evidence of genetic predisposition for addiction. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study is to evaluate personality traits measured by the NEO Five-Factor Inventory and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, combined with analysis of Tag1B rs1079597 and Tag1D rs1800498 located in the DRD2 gene. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study group consisted of 214 rural cannabinoid users and 301 controls. The same psychometric test and real-time PCR genotyping were performed in both studied groups. RESULTS: The values of Anxiety state, Anxiety trait, NEO FFI: Neuroticism and Openness in the rural cannabis using group were significantly higher than in the control group. On the other hand, lower values were observed among rural people using cannabis compared to the control group for NEO FFI: Extraversion, Agreeability and Conscientiousness. In the Anxiety trait subscale, a 2% association with the polymorphism DRD2 Tag1B rs1079597 was detected in subjects using cannabis. However, for the DRD2 Tag1D rs1800498, there was no effect on the differences in personality traits between rural cannabis users and the control group. CONCLUSIONS: The study shows differences in personality traits between the cannabis using group and controls. Interaction between genetic factors and personality traits was also detected. The association showing the combination of psychological characteristics and genetic variants can bring us closer to the overall picture of the issue of marijuana addiction.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Usuários de Drogas/psicologia , Personalidade/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Receptores de Dopamina D2/genética , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Personalidade , Polônia , Receptores de Dopamina D2/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Clin Nurs ; 29(17-18): 3425-3434, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32562434

RESUMO

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To explore the relationship between personality traits, caring characteristics and abuse tendency among professional caregivers of older people with dementia in long-term care facilities in China. BACKGROUND: Elder abuse is a serious global health problem and human right violation with high incidence among older people with dementia. There are many investigations about impact factors of risk of abuse among family caregivers of older people with dementia. However, in long-term care facilities, the situation of abuse tendency needs further investigation. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: An observational survey was conducted according to the STROBE checklist. We investigated 156 professional caregivers of older people with dementia in three long-term care facilities in Guangzhou, China. Participants completed a demographic questionnaire, the Caregiver Abuse Screen (CASE) and the Neuroticism Extraversion Openness Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). Data were analysed using Mann-Whitney U tests, Kruskal-Wallis tests, Spearman's rank correlation and logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: Over half of the participants (51.9%) reported abuse tendency to the older people with dementia. There was a significant negative correlation between the caregivers' agreeableness scores of NEO-FFI and their CASE scores. Multivariate logistic regression analyses highlighted that protective factors of abuse tendency were caregivers' agreeableness, care recipients' source of finances and their duration of dementia while higher care difficulty and presence of older people's behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) were the risk factors. CONCLUSION: Caregivers' agreeableness personality trait and the caring characteristics of older people with dementia may be relevant to abuse tendency in long-term care facilities. Further study with a larger sample size is needed to validate such a correlation. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Older people with dementia are at high risk for abuse. Prospective caregivers could pay more attention to developing their own agreeableness. The managers might establish monitoring system for reducing the abuse.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/psicologia , Demência/terapia , Maus-Tratos ao Idoso/psicologia , Personalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cuidadores/estatística & dados numéricos , China , Estudos Transversais , Maus-Tratos ao Idoso/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Assistência de Longa Duração/organização & administração , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes de Personalidade , Fatores de Risco , Instituições de Cuidados Especializados de Enfermagem/organização & administração , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Acta Neurol Scand ; 142(3): 210-215, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32386463

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of personality disorders in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) and compare it with general population and analyze their implications on treatment outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: TLE was diagnosed based on clinical history, MRI, and Video EEG data. IPDE-ICD10 screening questionnaire was applied to investigate personality disorder in 120 subjects, 60 cases, and 60 normal controls. Bear-Fedio inventory (BFI) was used to study different behavior traits in patients with TLE and controls. RESULTS: Prevalence of personality disorders was higher (71.7% in cases versus 38.3% in controls) in patients with TLE compared to controls (P < .001). Some personality traits like schizoid (P = .002), dissocial (P = .001), impulsive (P = .003), anankastic (P < .001), anxious (P < .001), and dependent (P < .001) personalities were found to have high prevalence in TLE. Personality disorder was higher among those cases who had been tried on more than two antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) (P = .033) and in those with duration of illness more than 10 years (P = .026). Cases also showed significantly higher score in BFI for all behavioral traits except for aggression. No significant difference of BFI score was seen based on laterality of epileptic focus, gender, duration of illness, or number of AEDs tried. CONCLUSION: There is a significantly higher prevalence of personality disorders in patients with TLE. Specific interventions for these disorders should be considered at the earliest pari passu with AEDs and surgery.


Assuntos
Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/complicações , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/psicologia , Transtornos da Personalidade/etiologia , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticonvulsivantes/efeitos adversos , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Comportamento , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos , Transtornos da Personalidade/epidemiologia , Testes de Personalidade , Prevalência , Esclerose , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
14.
Nat Hum Behav ; 4(7): 713-724, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32251375

RESUMO

Previous attempts to identify personality profiles in the five-factor and HEXACO models of personality have produced inconsistent results. Here, using data from four independent samples, each with approximately 90,000 international respondents to the 100-item HEXACO Personality Inventory-Revised (HEXACO-PI-R), we demonstrated that a five-profile solution fit the data well. Exploratory analyses suggested that this solution was also consistent across gender and age groups. The five-profile structure replicated well with larger subsamples, but could not be reproduced consistently with samples of fewer than 500 individuals. However, even with small samples, the five-profile structure could be applied using the parameters obtained with the larger samples. We used HEXACO theory along with agency-communion and attachment theories to offer preliminary explanations and labels for the five profiles. We discuss how these theories, combined with parameter estimates provided by our research, can be used to generate and test hypotheses to validate the five-profile structure and evaluate its utility for personality research and other applications.


Assuntos
Determinação da Personalidade , Personalidade , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes de Personalidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
15.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0229470, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32251476

RESUMO

The present study used exploratory structural equation modelling (ESEM) to examine the theorized dimension structure of the brief version of the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ-BR) at the scale-level (i.e., 11 lower-order primary factors loading on four higher-order factors) and item-level (sets of 12 items loading on 11 lower-order primary factors). A total of 214 adults from the community addressed the MPQ-BR and the Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS)/Behavioral Approach System (BAS) scales. The findings revealed poor fit and poorly defined factors at the item-level alongside adequate fit and well-defined factors at the scale-level. The higher-order factors in the latter model were supported for external validity in terms of demonstrating the expected theoretical and empirical correlations with the scales of the BIS/BAS scales. Result related implications for professional application, as well as potential revisions of the MPQ-BF are illustrated.


Assuntos
Emoções/fisiologia , Transtornos da Personalidade/genética , Personalidade/genética , Psicometria , Adulto , Agressão/fisiologia , Comportamento/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo/fisiologia , Inibição Psicológica , Análise de Classes Latentes , Masculino , Personalidade/fisiologia , Transtornos da Personalidade/patologia , Transtornos da Personalidade/fisiopatologia , Inventário de Personalidade/normas , Testes de Personalidade , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(17): e19812, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32332624

RESUMO

The European Higher Education Area was implemented more than a decade ago with the aim of improving internationally the competitiveness of European university education putting the spotlight on skills and competence development (and not only on knowledge acquisition). This work intends to analyze the impact of competence-based teaching methodologies on university students, as well as to contribute to the study of the individual personality traits differences regarding this impact. For this, a descriptive, quantitative, cross-sectional study was conducted with a non-randomised sample of university students. The sample was composed of a total of 499 students of the University of Huelva (350 from the Health Sciences degree, and 149 form other degrees), who completed a questionnaire on professional skills and teaching methods developed ad hoc for this research, as well as the brief version of the Spanish adaptation of the NEO Five-Factor Inventory. The results show that Health Sciences students feel more satisfied with the most participative and active methodologies, and they consider these better contribute to their future professional competence development. On the other hand, in relation to the big 5 personality traits studied, links have been found between competence development perception and personal preferences and the dimensions of extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness and openness to experience. This last factor, openness to experience, appears when analyzing the main differences among both groups, being Health Sciences students more intellectually curious, showing more openness and diversity of interests, in addition to being more creative, innovative, and flexible.


Assuntos
Pessoal Técnico de Saúde/educação , Pessoal Técnico de Saúde/psicologia , Inventário de Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoal Técnico de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Educação Baseada em Competências/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes de Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Psychol Assess ; 32(6): 527-540, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191077

RESUMO

The study of psychopathic traits in youth is in its nascent stages and the nature and the structure of these traits is still poorly understood. In one of the most comprehensive analyses to date of the construct validity of the widely used Antisocial Processing Screening Device (APSD), we used two independent samples of youth, one community (N = 2203) and one clinic-referred (N = 534), ages 4 to 19 (51% female), to investigate the external correlates of the Callous-unemotionality (CU), Narcissism, and Impulsivity dimensions of youth psychopathy. We used parent reports of externalizing and internalizing psychopathology, personality, and aggressive behavior to examine the pattern of associations between psychopathic trait dimensions and relevant external correlates. Across both samples, CU was positively related to all forms of externalizing psychopathology and aggression, mostly unrelated to internalizing psychopathology, and negatively related to agreeableness and conscientiousness. Narcissism and Impulsivity were positively related to externalizing psychopathology, and aggression, negatively related to agreeableness and conscientiousness, and weakly positively related to internalizing psychopathology. In most cases, each dimension of the APSD manifested statistically significantly different relations with these external correlates. Many of our findings replicate and extend work conducted with both youth and adults, although others suggest that these dimensions do not distinguish among psychopathological domains in conceptually expected ways. Broadly speaking, these findings provide evidence that psychopathic traits in youth are best characterized by a multidimensional model and bear implications for models integrating normative with pathological personality. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Agressão , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Conduta/diagnóstico , Comportamento Impulsivo , Narcisismo , Personalidade , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Adolescente , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Transtorno da Conduta/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Testes de Personalidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
18.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 18(1): 47, 2020 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111214

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although many people experience loneliness in old age, there is little knowledge of predisposing personality factors. The aim of the present study was to explore to what extent personality traits are associated with the risk of becoming lonely, in women and men aged 60-79 years at baseline. METHODS: The panel data are from The Norwegian study on Life course, Ageing and Generations (NorLAG). Our sample consisted of 516 men and 419 women aged 60-79 years, who were surveyed in both 2002-2003 (baseline) and 2007-2008 (follow-up), and who reported not being lonely at baseline. Personality traits were measured by the Big Five scale. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the association between a personality trait and the risk of becoming lonely, with adjustment for age, mental health and living with a partner. RESULTS: At follow-up 59 women and 54 men reported loneliness (14.1% vs. 10.5%, p = 0.092). Among women, high agreeableness at baseline was significantly associated with a higher risk of becoming lonely. Among men, low agreeableness, low conscientiousness and high neuroticism at baseline were significantly associated with a higher risk of becoming lonely. CONCLUSIONS: Personality traits related differently to loneliness depending on gender. These findings may be useful when developing strategies for preventing loneliness in old age.


Assuntos
Solidão/psicologia , Personalidade , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega , Testes de Personalidade , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0229310, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32074130

RESUMO

There is ample evidence that meditation can regulate emotions. It is questionable, however, whether meditation can down-regulate sensitivity to emotional experience in high-level cognitive representations such as words. The present study shows that adept Zen meditators rated the emotional valence of (low-arousal) positive and (high- and low-arousal) negative nouns significantly more neutral after a meditation session, while there was no change of valence ratings after a comparison intervention in the comparison group. Because the Zen group provided greater "openness to experience" and lower "need for achievement and performance" in the "Big Five" personality assessment, we used these scores as covariates for all analyses. We found no differential emotion effects of Zen meditation during lexical decision, but we replicated the slow-down of low-arousal negative words during lexical decision in both groups. Interestingly, Zen meditation elicited a global facilitation of all response times, which we discuss in terms of increased attentional resources after meditation.


Assuntos
Nível de Alerta , Discriminação Psicológica , Emoções/fisiologia , Idioma , Meditação/psicologia , Processos Mentais/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Individualidade , Inteligência , Masculino , Meditação/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes de Personalidade , Tempo de Reação , Adulto Jovem
20.
BMC Psychol ; 8(1): 9, 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005288

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study intended to examine the comprehensive clinical effects of school sandplay group counseling on the emotions and behaviors of children for the first time in Korea. METHODS: To this objective, 10 sessions of in-school sandplay group counseling were administered to 113 fourth- to sixth-graders in an elementary school located in Cheonan city for 12 weeks from March to July 2015. Each small group consisted of 10 to 16 children and the entire 12 sessions were composed of a baseline test, 10 therapy sessions, and a post-test and evaluation session. The study subjects consisted of 56 boys (49.6%) and 57 girls (50.4%). As the evaluation instruments, an epidemiologic questionnaire and the Korea Child & Youth Personality Test were used during the baseline phase and after the termination of the counseling. RESULTS: The comparison of the scores according to the KCYP clinical scales and detailed evaluation scales before and after the 12-week counseling showed an increase in the self-esteem and a significant decline in depression in the elementary students after the counseling. CONCLUSION: It is deemed that school sandplay group counseling can help elementary school students to solve emotional problems and improve their self-esteem.


Assuntos
Testes de Personalidade , Ludoterapia , Psicoterapia de Grupo , Estudantes/psicologia , Criança , Depressão , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , República da Coreia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Autoimagem , Inquéritos e Questionários
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