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1.
J Psychopathol Clin Sci ; 131(4): 407-421, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35511526

RESUMO

Bifactor models are a promising strategy to parse general from specific aspects of psychopathology in youth. Currently, there are multiple configurations of bifactor models originating from different theoretical and empirical perspectives. We aimed to test the reliability, validity, measurement invariance, and the correlation of different bifactor models of psychopathology using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). We used data from the Reproducible Brain Charts (RBC) initiative (N = 7,011, ages 5 to 22 years, 40.2% females). Factor models were tested using the baseline data. To address our aim, we (a) searched for the published item-level bifactor models using the CBCL; (b) tested their global model fit; (c) calculated model-based reliability indices; (d) tested associations with symptoms' impact in everyday life; (e) tested measurement invariance across many characteristics, and (f) analyzed the observed factor correlation across the models. We found 11 bifactor models ranging from 39 to 116 items. Their global model fit was broadly similar. Factor determinacy and H index were acceptable for the p-factors, internalizing, externalizing, and somatic specific factors in most models. However, only the p- and attention factors predicted daily life symptoms' impact in all models. Models were broadly invariant across different characteristics. P-factors were highly correlated across models (r = .88 to .99) and homotypic specific factors were highly correlated. These results suggest that regardless of item selection and strategy to compose CBCL bifactor models, they assess very similar constructs. Taken together, our results support the robustness of the p-factor across distinct bifactor models and studies of distinct characteristics. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Modelos Psicológicos , Psicopatologia , Adolescente , Lista de Checagem/métodos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Testes de Personalidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
2.
J Affect Disord ; 309: 259-265, 2022 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35460738

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the utility of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) to identify meaningful subtypes of emotional dysregulation in an outpatient pediatric psychiatry clinic. METHODS: The sample consisted of 417 newly referred youth 6-18 years of age. Parents completed the CBCL and rating scales measuring executive function deficits, social functioning, and quality of life. Patients were stratified into subtypes of emotional dysregulation and compared on clinical correlates based on the A-A-A profile consisting of the CBCL Anxious/Depressed, Aggressive Behavior, and Attention Problems (A-A-A) scales. RESULTS: 67% of youth had emotional dysregulation (CBCL A-A-A T-score ≥ 180) and of these, 39% had a positive CBCL-Bipolar (BP) profile (A-A-A T-score ≥ 210), 24% had depression without the BP profile (CBCL Anxious/Depressed and/or Withdrawn/Depressed T-scores ≥70 and A-A-A T-score ≥ 180 and ã€ˆ210), and 37% had emotional impulsivity (A-A-A T-score ≥ 180 and <210) with normal CBCL Anxious/Depressed and Withdrawn/Depressed T-scores. Patients with the CBCL-BP profile were significantly more impaired on all measures of social and executive functioning compared to the other two groups. LIMITATIONS: Since our findings relied on the CBCL, other instruments may have led to different results. Because we included youth from a single clinic, largely Caucasian and referred, our findings may not generalize to other ethnic groups or settings. CONCLUSIONS: The CBCL can aid in the identification of subtypes of emotional dysregulation affecting youth seeking mental health services.


Assuntos
Lista de Checagem , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil , Adolescente , Criança , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Humanos , Testes de Personalidade , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Qualidade de Vida
3.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262465, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35025932

RESUMO

Despite the widespread use of the HEXACO model as a descriptive taxonomy of personality traits, there remains limited information on the test-retest reliability of its commonly-used inventories. Studies typically report internal consistency estimates, such as alpha or omega, but there are good reasons to believe that these do not accurately assess reliability. We report 13-day test-retest correlations of the 100- and 60-item English HEXACO Personality Inventory-Revised (HEXACO-100 and HEXACO-60) domains, facets, and items. In order to test the validity of test-retest reliability, we then compare these estimates to correlations between self- and informant-reports (i.e., cross-rater agreement), a widely-used validity criterion. Median estimates of test-retest reliability were .88, .81, and .65 (N = 416) for domains, facets, and items, respectively. Facets' and items' test-retest reliabilities were highly correlated with their cross-rater agreement estimates, whereas internal consistencies were not. Overall, the HEXACO Personality Inventory-Revised demonstrates test-retest reliability similar to other contemporary measures. We recommend that short-term retest reliability should be routinely calculated to assess reliability.


Assuntos
Inventário de Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicometria/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Personalidade/classificação , Inventário de Personalidade/normas , Testes de Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Pesquisadores
4.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257793, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34570818

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Social anxiety disorder (SAD) develops in the early teens and is a common disorder among university students. Understanding the predictive factors of SAD comorbid with major depressive episode (MDE) is important for student mental health care. The aim of this study was to identify the personality traits that predict SAD with MDE by analyzing longitudinal data of Japanese university students. METHODS: In this retrospective study, Japanese university students who visited the health care center of Hokkaido University for the first time were divided into the following four groups: "Control" (n = 43), "MDE" (n = 16), "SAD" (n = 28), and "SAD with MDE" (n = 61) based on the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, and core anxiety symptoms for SAD in the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview during screening. Predictors for SAD with MDE were identified by a four-group comparison of the Temperament and Character Inventory and PHQ-9 data previously obtained at the enrollment using analysis of variance and post-hoc tests. RESULTS: Upon comparing the four groups using analysis of variance, there were significant differences in the baseline PHQ-9 summary score, Harm-Avoidance (HA), and Self-Directedness (SD). According to results of the post-hoc test, all three showed a significant difference between the "Control" and "SAD with MDE." Furthermore, there was a significant difference in HA scores between "SAD" and "Control." In all the groups, the mean time from enrollment to the first visit to the center was >2 years. CONCLUSION: A higher HA score at baseline is a predictor of SAD with or without MDE. Higher PHQ-9 summary and lower SD scores at baseline are predictive factors of SAD with MDE.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico , Fobia Social/diagnóstico , Estudantes , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Testes de Personalidade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 82(4): 1809-1822, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34219716

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Greater neuroticism has been associated with higher risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia. However, the directionality of this association is unclear. We examined whether personality traits differ between cognitively-unimpaired carriers of autosomal-dominant AD (ADAD) and non-carriers, and are associated with in vivo AD pathology. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether personality traits differ between cognitively unimpaired ADAD mutation carriers and non-carriers, and whether the traits are related to age and AD biomarkers. METHODS: A total of 33 cognitively-unimpaired Presenilin-1 E280A mutation carriers and 41 non-carriers (ages 27-46) completed neuropsychological testing and the NEO Five-Factor Personality Inventory. A subsample (n = 46; 20 carriers) also underwent tau and amyloid PET imaging. RESULTS: Carriers reported higher neuroticism relative to non-carriers, although this difference was not significant after controlling for sex. Neuroticism was positively correlated with entorhinal tau levels only in carriers, but not with amyloid levels. CONCLUSION: The finding of higher neuroticism in carriers and the association of this trait with tau pathology in preclinical stages of AD highlights the importance of including personality measures in the evaluation of individuals at increased risk for cognitive impairment and dementia. Further research is needed to characterize the mechanisms of these relationships.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Neuroticismo , Presenilina-1/genética , Sintomas Prodrômicos , Proteínas tau/metabolismo , Adulto , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação/genética , Testes Neuropsicológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Testes de Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons
6.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 45(10): 2244-2251, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34247202

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Many personality traits correlate with BMI, but the existence and direction of causal links between them are unclear. If personality influences BMI, knowing this causal direction could inform weight management strategies. Knowing that BMI instead influences personality would contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms of personality development and the possible psychological effects of weight change. We tested the existence and direction of causal links between BMI and personality. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We employed two genetically informed methods. In Mendelian randomization, allele scores were calculated to summarize genetic propensity for the personality traits neuroticism, worry, and depressive affect and used to predict BMI in an independent sample (N = 3 541). Similarly, an allele score for BMI was used to predict eating-specific and domain-general phenotypic personality scores (PPSs; aggregate scores of personality traits weighted by BMI). In a direction of causation (DoC) analysis, twin data from five countries (N = 5424) were used to assess the fit of four alternative models: PPSs influencing BMI, BMI influencing PPSs, reciprocal causation, and no causation. RESULTS: In Mendelian randomization, the allele score for BMI predicted domain-general (ß = 0.05; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.08; P = 0.003) and eating-specific PPS (ß = 0.06; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.09; P < 0.001). The allele score for worry also predicted BMI (ß = -0.05; 95% CI: -0.08, -0.02; P < 0.001), while those for neuroticism and depressive affect did not (P ≥ 0.459). In DoC, BMI similarly predicted domain-general (ß = 0.21; 95% CI:, 0.18, 0.24; P < 0.001) and eating-specific personality traits (ß = 0.19; 95% CI:, 0.16, 0.22; P < 0.001), suggesting causality from BMI to personality traits. In exploratory analyses, links between BMI and domain-general personality traits appeared reciprocal for higher-weight individuals (BMI > ~25). CONCLUSIONS: Although both genetic analyses suggested an influence of BMI on personality traits, it is not yet known if weight management interventions could influence personality. Personality traits may influence BMI in turn, but effects in this direction appeared weaker.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Personalidade/classificação , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Causalidade , Correlação de Dados , Estônia , Testes Genéticos/instrumentação , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Testes Genéticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Testes de Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos
7.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 353, 2021 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33947356

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pelvic girdle pain (PGP) is a multifactorial condition with a partly unknown etiology. This condition can be mentally and physically compromising both during and after pregnancy. To provide all-around preventive measures to improve the recovery from PGP, it is a necessity for obstetricians and orthopaedists to develop predictive studies about the worse prognosis for this condition. Therefore, this study aims to determine whether personality traits can predict the consequences of long-term pregnancy-related PGP. METHODS: This was a prospective study conducted from January 2015 to August 2018. A total of 387 pregnant women were enrolled in this study. According to whether they had experienced PGP during the past 4 weeks, the subjects were classified into no PGP and PGP groups. Persistent PGP after the pregnancy was defined as a recurrent or continuous visual analog score (VAS) pain rating of ≥3 for more than 1 week. The Quick Big Five Personality Test (QBFPT) was used to assess personality traits. Data were obtained by mail or in the clinic. The authors collected data including age, BMI, educational level, annual household income, cesarean delivery, breastfeeding, unexpected sex of the baby, parity, sick leave, no or rare ability to take rest breaks at work, and PGP in the previous pregnancy. RESULTS: Of 387 included women, 264 subjects experienced PGP during the pregnancy with a mean age of 26.3 ± 4.5 years. A total of 80 of 264 (30.3%) women experienced persistent PGP after the pregnancy. Persistent PGP after the pregnancy was associated with higher levels of neuroticism (OR = 2.12, P = 0.001). Comparing women with persistent PGP, those who reported higher levels of extraversion and conscientiousness were more likely to recover from this condition (OR = 0.65, P = 0.001; OR = 0.78, P = 0.010, respectively). Besides, neuroticism was positively associated with higher pain scores (r = 0.52, P = 0.005). However, extraversion and conscientiousness domains showed negative correlations with pain score (r = - 0.48, P = 0.003; r = - 0.36, P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Personality traits were significantly associated with the outcomes of PGP.


Assuntos
Dor da Cintura Pélvica/psicologia , Personalidade , Complicações na Gravidez/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Medição da Dor , Testes de Personalidade , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
8.
Cancer Cell ; 39(6): 747-749, 2021 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34019808

RESUMO

In this issue of Cancer Cell, Bagaev et al. discover conserved relationships between immune and stroma activity that are prognostic and predictive of response to immunotherapy across cancer types. The authors develop a visualization tool, akin to a tumor personality test, to integrate genomic and microenvironmental profiling and guide therapeutic decision-making.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Tomada de Decisões , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/terapia , Testes de Personalidade , Prognóstico
9.
Psychosom Med ; 83(4): 363-367, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33790198

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended behavioral measures to slow the spread of COVID-19, such as social distancing and wearing masks. Although many individuals comply with these recommendations, compliance has been far from universal. Identifying predictors of compliance is crucial for improving health behavior messaging and thereby reducing disease spread and fatalities. METHODS: We report preregistered analyses from a longitudinal study that investigated personality predictors of compliance with behavioral recommendations in diverse US adults across five waves from March to August 2020 (n = 596) and cross-sectionally in August 2020 (n = 405). RESULTS: Agreeableness-characterized by compassion-was the most consistent predictor of compliance, above and beyond other traits, and sociodemographic predictors (sample A, ß = 0.25; sample B, ß = 0.12). The effect of agreeableness was robust across two diverse samples and sensitivity analyses. In addition, openness, conscientiousness, and extraversion were also associated with greater compliance, but effects were less consistent across sensitivity analyses and were smaller in sample A. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals who are less agreeable are at higher risk for noncompliance with behavioral mandates, suggesting that health messaging can be meaningfully improved with approaches that address these individuals in particular. These findings highlight the strong theoretical and practical utility of testing long-standing psychological theories during real-world crises.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Modelos Psicológicos , Personalidade , Adulto , COVID-19/psicologia , Empatia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Máscaras/estatística & dados numéricos , Testes de Personalidade , Distanciamento Físico , Estados Unidos
10.
Psychol Assess ; 33(7): 619-628, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793263

RESUMO

The 20-Item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) is the most widely used measure to assess the personality construct of alexithymia and is composed of three-factor analytically derived subscales. These subscales measure and represent three critical, theoretically based facets of alexithymia. The subscales are distinct, yet highly interrelated and only as a collective body do they reflect adequately the alexithymia construct. Although different studies using both university student and community samples suggest that TAS-20 total scores are largely reflective of variation on a single construct, and that subscale scores do not provide unique and reliable information beyond total scores, many users of the scale frequently continue to employ and even rely more heavily on subscale scores rather than total scale scores when interpreting research study outcomes. Our goal in this study is to provide clinicians and researchers with replicable psychometric information for the TAS-20 estimated from bifactor modeling in an attempt to provide further support for using total rather than subscale scores. In general, our findings were consistent with previous studies indicating that TAS-20 total scores can be considered indicative of a single construct. The replication of these earlier results from previous investigations provides additional support for the use of a total TAS-20 score and questions the utility of using TAS-20 subscale scores. Based on these results, we recommend that researchers and clinicians use a single total TAS-20 score and not subscale scores. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Sintomas Afetivos/diagnóstico , Testes de Personalidade , Personalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Psicológicos , Modelos Estatísticos , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
11.
Psicothema ; 33(2): 259-267, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33879299

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This article explores the suitability of a proposed "Dual" model, in which both people and items are sources of measurement error, by assessing how the test scores are expected to behave in terms of marginal reliability and external validity when the model holds. METHOD: Analytical derivations are produced for predicting: (a) the impact of person and item errors in the amount of marginal reliability and external validity, as well as the occurrence of "ceiling" effects; (b) the changes in test reliability across groups with different average amounts of person error, and (c) the phenomenon of differential predictability. Two empirical studies are also used both as an illustration and as a check of the predicted results. RESULTS: Results show that the model-based predictions agree with existing evidence as well as with basic principles in classical test theory. However, the additional inclusion of individuals as a source of error leads to new explanations and predictions. CONCLUSIONS: The proposal and results provide new sources of information in personality assessment as well as of evidence of model suitability. They also help to explain some disappointing recurrent results.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Personalidade , Personalidade , Humanos , Testes de Personalidade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
12.
Estud. Interdiscip. Psicol ; 12(1, Supl): 154-179, jan-abr.2021.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1337877

RESUMO

O Depoimento Especial de crianças e adolescentes vítimas de violência sexual vem sendo realizado por psicólogos judiciários. O objetivo deste artigo é discutir um modelo de avaliação psicológica prévia ao depoimento, voltada à ocorrência de danos psíquicos ou revitimização a ele associados. Para tanto, apresenta-se síntese reflexiva da experiência profissional dos autores em processos criminais envolvendo violência contra crianças e adolescentes, debatida à luz da literatura especializada nas áreas da Avaliação Psicológica e Psicologia Forense. Na dimensão intrapsíquica do dano, sugere-se a avaliação de fantasias, ansiedades e mecanismos de defesa da criança associados ao depor. Na dimensão intersubjetiva, aprecia-se seu nível de desenvolvimento cognitivo, raciocínio moral e vinculação ao entrevistador. Observou-se a aplicabilidade das técnicas projetivas temáticas ­ CAT-A, TAT e Procedimento de Desenhos-Estórias ­ para avaliar tais constructos, utilizando-se vinhetas clínico-forenses para ilustrar o raciocínio avaliativo. Conclui-se qu


The Special Inquiry of child and adolescent sexually assaulted has been discharged by forensic psychologists. This article aims to discuss a model of psychological assessment prior to the inquiry, targeted to the occurrence of psychological damage or revictimization associated with it. For this, a reflexive synthesis of the authors' professional experience in criminal proceedings involving violence against children is presented, discussed within the specialized literature in Psychological Assessment and Forensic Psychology In the damage's intrapsychic dimension, it is suggested to assess child's fantasies, anxieties and defense mechanisms regarding testifying. In the intersubjective dimension, their level of cognitive development, moral reasoning and attachment to the interviewer is evaluated. The applicability of thematic projective techniques ­ CAT-A, TAT and Drawing-Stories Procedure - was observed to approach such constructs, using clinical-forensic vignettes to illustrate the evaluative reasoning. It is concluded that protecting the child from the criminal suit is protecting the criminal suit itself.


El Testimonio Especial de niños y adolescentes víctimas de violencia sexual ha sido realizado por psicólogos judiciales. El objetivo de este artículo es discutir un modelo de evaluación psicológica previa a la inquisición, dirigido a la ocurrencia de daños psicológicos o revictimización correlativos. Para eso, se presenta una síntesis reflexiva de la experiencia profesional de los autores en procesos penales de violencia infanto-juvenil, debatida con la literatura especializada en las áreas de Evaluación Psicológica y Psicología Forense. En la dimensión intrapsíquica del daño, evaluanse fantasías, ansiedades y mecanismos de defensa del niño. En la dimensión intersubjetiva, apreciase su nivel de desarrollo cognitivo, razonamiento moral y vinculación al entrevistador. Se observó la aplicabilidad de las técnicas proyectivas temáticas ­ CAT-A, TAT y Procedimiento de Dibujo-Cuentos ­ en la evaluación, usándose viñetas clínico-forenses para ilustrar el razonamiento evaluativo. Se concluye que proteger al niño del proceso penal es proteger el proprio proceso penal.


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Adolescente , Testes de Personalidade , Abuso Sexual na Infância , Psicologia Forense
13.
Av. psicol. latinoam ; 39(1): 1-16, ene.-abr. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1339253

RESUMO

Resumo O presente estudo objetivou conhecer o poder preditivo dos traços de personalidade, dos valores humanos e do perfeccionismo para com a procrastinação acadêmica, propondo um modelo explicativo. Participaram 348 universitários, a maioria do sexo feminino (58.4 %), com idade média de 22 anos (DP = 5.9). Estes, responderam a Escala de Procrastinação Acadêmica; a Escala de Quase Perfeição - Revisada; o Questionário dos Valores Básicos; o Inventário dos Cinco Grandes Fatores da Personalidade e perguntas demográficas. Baseado na regressão, propôs-se um modelo explicativo no qual a conscienciosidade predisse as dimensões de perfeccionismo (adaptativo e desadaptativo) e estas, por sua vez, predisseram a procrastinação acadêmica. Os resultados apontam para um ajuste satisfatório deste modelo que contribuem para o entendimento da procrastinação acadêmica.


Resumen Este estudio tuvo como objetivo comprender el poder predictivo de los rasgos de personalidad, los valores humanos y el perfeccionismo hacia la procrastinación académica, proponiendo un modelo explicativo. Participaron 348 estudiantes universitarios, la mayoría mujeres (58.4 %), con una edad media de 22 años (DE = 5.9). Estas respondieron a la Escala de Procrastinación Académica; la Escala de Casi Perfección - Revisada; el Cuestionario de Valores Básicos; el Inventario de los Cinco Grandes Factores de la Personalidad y preguntas demográficas. A partir de un análisis de regresión, se propuso un modelo explicativo en el que la escrupulosidad predijo las dimensiones del perfeccionismo (adaptativo y desadaptativo) y estas, a su vez, predijeron la procrastinación académica. Los resultados apuntan a un ajuste satisfactorio de este modelo que contribuye a la comprensión de la procrastinación académica.


Abstract The present study aimed at discerning the predictive power of personality traits, human values, and perfectionism towards academic procrastination, proposing an explanatory model. Participants were 348 undergraduates, most of them female (58.4 %), with a mean age of 22 years (SD = 5.9). They answered the Academic Procrastination Scale, the Almost Perfect Scale - Revised, the Basic Values Survey, the Big Five Inventory, and demographic questions. Based on regression analysis, an explanatory model was proposed where conscientiousness predicted the dimensions of perfectionism (adaptive and maladaptive) that in turn predicted academic procrastination. Results suggested a satisfactory fit of the model to the indices that contributes to the understanding of academic procrastination.


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Procrastinação , Testes de Personalidade , Análise de Regressão , Perfeccionismo
14.
Psico USF ; 26(1): 77-89, Jan. 2021. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1287594

RESUMO

O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar se existe diferença no desempenho entre meninos e meninas no teste de Zulliger, pelo Sistema Compreensivo ZSC. A amostra constituiu-se de 623 crianças com idades entre 6 a 14 anos, provenientes da região Sudeste do Brasil, divididas em quatro faixas etárias, a saber, seis a sete anos, oito a nove, dez a onze e doze a quatorze anos. As médias foram comparadas por meio do teste t. Os resultados indicaram que algumas diferenças foram significativas, embora o número de variáveis tenha sido reduzido consideravelmente, quando comparado com a literatura. Os achados são discutidos junto a estudos com técnicas projetivas e outros de personalidade. Conclui-se que, embora muitas variáveis sejam corroboradas na literatura, são necessários mais estudos com amostras mais homogêneas, por exemplo, controlando nível cognitivo e variáveis sociodemográficas. (AU)


The objective of this study was to verify possible differences in performance between boys and girls in the Zulliger Comprehensive System (ZSC). The sample consisted of 623 children aged from 6 to 14, from the Southeast region of Brazil, divided into four age groups: six to seven years, eight to nine, ten to eleven, and twelve to fourteen years. The means were compared using the t-test. The results indicated that some differences remained significant even after the Bonferroni correction, although the number of variables was reduced considerably when compared to the literature. The findings are discussed together with studies with projective techniques as well as other personality techniques. It was concluded that, although many variables were corroborated in the literature, more studies with more homogenous samples are needed, including, for example, control for the cognitive level and sociodemographic variables. (AU)


El objetivo de este estudio fue verificar si existe diferencia en el rendimiento entre niños y niñas en la prueba de Zulliger, por el Sistema Comprensivo ZSC. Las medias se compararon usando el t test. La muestra estuvo conformada por 623 niños con edades entre 6 y 14 años, provenientes de la región Sudeste de Brasil, dichos niños fueron divididos en cuatro grupos de edad: de seis a siete, de ocho a nueve, de diez a once y de doce a catorce años. Los resultados indicaron que, incluso con la corrección de Bonferroni, algunas diferencias se mantuvieron significativas, aunque el número de variables se redujo considerablemente en comparación con la literatura. Los hallazgos son discutidos junto con estudios con técnicas proyectivas y otras técnicas de personalidad. Se concluye que, aunque muchas variables se corroboran en la literatura, son necesarios más estudios con muestras más homogéneas, por ejemplo, controlando el nivel cognitivo y las variables sociodemográficas. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Personalidade , Testes de Personalidade , Técnicas Projetivas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores Etários
15.
Rev. psicol. clín. niños adolesc ; 8(1): 16-23, ene. 2021. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-200365

RESUMO

Entre los países de habla hispana existen limitantes cuando se desea investigar el rol de la tristeza en la adolescencia debido a que no existen instrumentos en español válidos y confiables que permitan evaluar la regulación de ésta emoción en población en desarrollo. Por esta razón se realizó la adaptación lingüística y validación psicométrica de la Escala Infantil para el Manejo de la Tristeza CSMS (Zeman, Shipman, & Penza-Clyve, 2001) con una muestra de 597 adolescentes Colombianos entre 11 y 18 años de edad (48% sexo femenino). A partir del método del comité se hicieron adecuaciones en el lenguaje de la prueba para su ajuste cultural a la población hispanoparlante. El comportamiento psicométrico de la escala fue analizado en dos pasos: en el primero se observaron diez modelos factoriales posibles (Análisis Factorial Exploratorio), y en el segundo se descartaron los de menor ajuste (Análisis Factorial Confirmatorio), hasta elegir el óptimo. Los resultados señalan que la versión en español del CSMS-E ("E" por Español), mantiene validez de constructo comparable a la original, con una estructura de tres componentes que revisan estrategias adaptativas y maladaptativas para regular la tristeza: afrontamiento, inhibición y desregulación. Se ofrece un baremo para su corrección


Among the Spanish-speaking countries there are constraints for studying the roll of sadness in adolescence due to the absence of valid instruments in Spanish for evaluating the regulation of this emotions during the development. For this reason, following the committee procedure we adapted to Spanish the Children's Sadness Management Scale CSMS (Zeman et al., 2001), and conducted its psychometric validation with a sample of 597 Colombian adolescents, between 11 and 18 years of age (48% girls). The psychometric analyses were performed in two steps: (a) observing ten possible models (Exploratory Factor Analysis), (b) discarding those with least adjustment (Confirmatory Factor Analysis), and retaining the structure of best statistical fit. The results indicated that the optimal factorial model is a structure of three components, comparable to the original CSMS. The CSMS-E scale (E for Spanish) maintains comparable construct validity as the American version, and has attested to be a reliable tool in the assessment of adaptive and maladaptive strategies for the regulation of sadness: coping, inhibition and dysregulation. We offer a scoring notation table


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Adaptação Psicológica , Luto/psicologia , Linguística , Psicometria/instrumentação , Testes de Personalidade/normas , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Análise Fatorial , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica
16.
J Mol Neurosci ; 71(2): 252-261, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32607757

RESUMO

To feel other's pain would elicit empathy. Some theorists hypothesized that observing other's pain may activate the primary emotion of maternal care instinct, which may function as a precursor of empathy. The maternal care instinct and empathy share the same genetic background and neuroendocrine underpinnings. An extensive body of research has shown that maternal behaviors relate to the oxytocinergic system, which has a strong influence on empathy. These studies suggest that the maternal care instinct may mediate the effect of oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) on empathy. To provide evidence for this mediation, we used the subscale of CARE in Affective Neuroscience Personality Scales (ANPS) to measure the maternal care instinct and tested two OXTR single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs53576 and rs13316193, in 880 high school participants (588 females, 292 males; Mage = 16.51 years old, SD = 0.65). Results showed that the genotype of rs13316193 was indirectly associated with empathy via CARE, suggesting a mediating role of CARE in the pathway from OXTR to empathy. These findings may contribute to an understanding of how empathy emerges when one witnesses another person in pain.


Assuntos
Empatia/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptores de Ocitocina/genética , Adolescente , /psicologia , Empatia/fisiologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Sistema Límbico/fisiologia , Masculino , Comportamento Materno/fisiologia , Ocitocina/fisiologia , Testes de Personalidade , Psicologia do Adolescente , Receptores de Ocitocina/fisiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
Assessment ; 28(3): 918-927, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32613838

RESUMO

Limited psychometric information is available to guide best practices for measuring youth irritability. This report compares performance of irritability measures using item response theory (IRT). Study 1 used a sample of 482 early adolescents and compared the parent- and youth-report affective reactivity index (ARI) and irritability factors derived from the parent-report Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and clinician-administered Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders (K-SADS). Study 2 combined data from three childhood samples (N = 811) and compared performance of the parent-report ARI and CBCL and the clinician-administered Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment (PAPA). The ARI emerged as the best measure of childhood irritability across the developmental periods, while the CBCL and K-SADS provided an adequate amount of information in early adolescents. No measure reliably assessed irritability at modest severity levels. Using IRT across large pools of developmental samples and measures is needed to guide the field in the measurement of youth irritability.


Assuntos
Humor Irritável , Transtornos do Humor , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Testes de Personalidade , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
18.
J Pers Assess ; 103(2): 174-182, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32267173

RESUMO

The Severity Indices of Personality Problems (SIPP; Verheul et al., 2008) is a popular self-report questionnaire that measures severity of maladaptive personality functioning. Two studies demonstrated the utility of the short form (SIPP-SF) among older adults but validation in clinical settings is lacking. Therefore, we examined the psychometric properties of the SIPP-SF in a large sample of older adult Dutch outpatients (N = 124; age range = 60-85 years, M = 69.8, SD = 5.3). The SIPP-SF domains showed good to excellent internal reliability (Cronbach's α = .75-.91) and effectively discriminated between participants with and without a personality disorder, as assessed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders (SCID-II). Convergent validity of the SIPP-SF was examined with instruments for measuring personality pathology among older adults (Informant Personality questionnaire [HAP]; Gerontological Personality Disorders Scale [GPS]). The GPS generally correlated with the SIPP-SF domains in expected directions, with small to large effect sizes. For the HAP, only 1 scale correlated with all SIPP-SF domains. No associations were found between the SIPP-SF and psychiatric symptomatology as measured by the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). The SIPP-SF appears to be a promising instrument for assessing maladaptive personality functioning among older adult outpatients.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Testes de Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Personalidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Feminino , Psiquiatria Geriátrica/normas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicometria/instrumentação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Autorrevelação , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
J Acad Consult Liaison Psychiatry ; 62(3): 337-344, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33358452

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) are still poorly understood and difficult to treat. Attachment theory could add new aspects to the understanding of the multifactorial genesis and maintenance of PNES and the therapeutic needs of this patient group. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study is to systematically assess attachment in adult patients with PNES with a focus on the role of unresolved/disorganized attachment. METHODS: A cross-sectional design was chosen to compare patients with confirmed PNES (n = 44) and healthy controls (n = 44) matched for gender, age, and education. Attachment was assessed using the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System. Psychometric questionnaires included the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire; Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) axis II disorders, Patient Questionnaire; the Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire; and the Patient Health Questionnaire. RESULTS: We found significantly less secure (P = 0.006) and more unresolved/disorganized (P = 0.041) attachment classifications in the PNES group. Among patients with PNES, 7% were classified secure and 43% were classified unresolved/disorganized. Patients with an unresolved attachment representation were significantly more likely to be screened positive for personality pathology in the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV axis II disorders, Patient Questionnaire (P = 0.03) and to report more emotional abuse in the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (P = 0.007) than patients with other attachment classifications. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that unresolved/disorganized attachment might be the predominant attachment style in patients with PNES and might be associated with more severe personality pathology. This could be of therapeutic relevance. The present study is the first to assess adult attachment in patients with PNES using a semi-structured interview in comparison to matched healthy controls.


Assuntos
Transtornos Dissociativos , Convulsões , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Testes de Personalidade
20.
Nurs Open ; 8(1): 147-155, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33318822

RESUMO

Aim: To investigate the psychological status of medical staff with medical device-related nasal and facial pressure ulcers (MDR PUs) during the outbreak of COVID-19, analyse the correlation between their psychological status and personality traits, so as to provide a reference for personalized psychological support. Design: A total of 207 medical staff who were treating the COVID-19 epidemic from Hunan and Hubei provinces were enrolled in this analytic questionnaire-based study. Methods: We used these measures: Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Short Scale (EPQ-RSC), Social Appearance Anxiety Scale (SAAS), Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS) and demographic information forms online. Results: Medical staff wearing protective equipment are particularly susceptible to nasal and facial MDR PUs, which is increasing their social appearance anxiety; neuroticism is significantly related to social appearance anxiety and negative emotion. We should pay more attention to their psychological state, cultivate good personality characteristics and reduce negative emotions, and thereby alleviate their MDR PUs-related appearance anxiety.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Traumatismos Faciais/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/efeitos adversos , Lesão por Pressão/psicologia , Adulto , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , COVID-19/psicologia , COVID-19/terapia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Traumatismos Faciais/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Testes de Personalidade , Lesão por Pressão/etiologia , SARS-CoV-2
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