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1.
An. psicol ; 35(2): 280-289, mayo 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-181698

RESUMO

This study analyses the relationship between the perfectionism dimensions, i.e. Self-Oriented Perfectionism-Critical (SOP-C) and Self-Oriented Perfectionism-Striving (SOP-S), and affect and the Big Five traits of personality in a sample of 804 Spanish students aged 8 to 11 (M = 9.57; DE = 1.12). Student’s t test, Cohen’s d index and logistic regression analysis were used. The high SOP-C group scored significantly higher than their peers having low SOP-C on Negative Affect and Neuroticism, and lower on Positive Affect, Agreeableness, Consciousness and Openness to Experience. To the contrary, students with high SOP-S scored significantly higher on all adaptive dimensions (i.e. Positive Affect, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Consciousness and Openness to Experience), and lower on Negative Affect and Neuroticism. Effect sizes were small for most of statistically significant differences. These findings were also supported by regression analysis. Results are discussed in light of the debate on the adaptive or maladaptive nature of Self-Oriented Perfectionism


Este estudio analiza la relación entre las dimensiones del perfeccionismo, es decir, el perfeccionismo auto-orientado-críticas (SOP-C) y el perfeccionismo auto-orientado-esfuerzo (SOP-S), y el afecto y los rasgos de personalidad del Big Five en una muestra de 804 españoles entre 8 y 11 años (M = 9.57; DT = 1.12). Se utilizaron la prueba t de Student, el índice d de Cohen y el análisis de regresión logística. El grupo con alto SOP-C obtuvo una puntuación significativamente mayor que la de sus compañeros con bajo SOP-C en Afecto Negativo y Neuroticismo, así como significativamente menor en Afecto Positivo, Amabilidad, Conciencia y Apertura a la Experiencia. Por el contrario, los estudiantes con alto SOP-S obtuvieron puntuaciones significativamente más altas en todas las dimensiones adaptativas (es decir, Afecto Positivo, Extraversión, Amabilidad, Conciencia y Apertura a la Experiencia), y más bajas en Afecto Negativo y Neuroticismo. Los tamaños del efecto fueron pequeños para la mayoría de las diferencias estadísticamente significativas. Estos hallazgos también fueron apoyados por el análisis de regresión. Los resultados se discuten a la luz del debate sobre la naturaleza adaptativa o desadaptativa del perfeccionismo auto-orientado


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Perfeccionismo , Autoimagem , Afeto , Desejabilidade Social , Determinação da Personalidade , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Testes de Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicometria/métodos
2.
Work ; 62(3): 383-392, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30856144

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In literature, there are many instruments for evaluating workaholism; however, they do not have convergent validity, because of the lack of a shared definition of workaholism. OBJECTIVE: We propose a new instrument for evaluating workaholism and work engagement, namely the Work-related Inventory (WI-10), which is based on Loscalzo and Giannini's (2017) comprehensive definition of workaholism. METHODS: We developed a pool of 36 items, covering: 1) addiction symptoms; 2) obsessive-compulsive symptoms, and 3) work engagement. Then, we conducted Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor analyses on a sample of 503 Italian workers (165 males, 337 females, one missing; Mean age = 38.26±10.84) aiming to reduce the number of items. RESULTS: The results showed a 10-items (2 filler) and 2-factor solution: 1) Workaholism and 2) Work Engagement; moreover, the WI-10 has good internal reliability, convergent and divergent validity. CONCLUSIONS: We found good psychometric properties for the WI-10. We also proposed the cut-off scores for the screening of the four kinds of workers proposed by Loscalzo and Giannini (2017): disengaged workaholics, engaged workaholics, engaged workers, and detached workers. The WI-10 will be useful for both research and preventive and clinical purposes.


Assuntos
Satisfação no Emprego , Inventário de Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Equilíbrio Trabalho-Vida/normas , Adulto , Idoso , Comportamento Aditivo/classificação , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/classificação , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/psicologia , Testes de Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicometria/instrumentação , Psicometria/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Equilíbrio Trabalho-Vida/estatística & dados numéricos
3.
Psychol Assess ; 31(6): 741-750, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30730190

RESUMO

It is commonly accepted that gathering information via multiple assessment methods (e.g., interview and questionnaire, self- and informant report) is important for establishing construct validity. Although numerous articles report convergent and discriminant agreement correlations between self- and other ratings of personality, studies of the structure of personality from such ratings are less common. The present study addresses this gap using a meta-analytic data set (N range = 157-9,295) of various versions (i.e., self- and other-report, full-length and short alternative format) of the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP; Clark, 1993; Clark, Simms, Wu, & Casillas, 2014). We hypothesized that (a) structures across all measure formats would be highly comparable and (b) to the extent that they were dissimilar, perspective (self vs. other) and measure format (long vs. short form), respectively, would influence comparability. Results revealed strong congruence among 3-factor structures (Negative Emotionality, Positive Emotionality, and Disinhibition vs. Constraint) across all versions of the SNAP, suggesting that personality as assessed by this broad measure of personality traits across the normal-abnormal spectrum has a robust structure across different rater perspectives and rating formats. Because the comparability analyses were highly congruent and differences among the comparisons were minimal, we concluded-contrary to our expectations-that different formats and different rater perspectives have little effect on structural comparability. Results generally support Funder's (1995) realistic accuracy model, suggesting that trait relevance, cue detection, and information usage are key factors in structuring informant ratings. Limitations of the present study and implications for future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Determinação da Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Inventário de Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Testes de Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Autorrelato , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Pers Soc Psychol ; 117(4): e35-e50, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30047763

RESUMO

Mõttus and colleagues (2017) reported evidence that the unique variance in specific personality characteristics captured by single descriptive items often displayed trait-like properties of cross-rater agreement, rank-order stability, and heritability. They suggested that the personality hierarchy should be extended below facets to incorporate these specific characteristics, called personality nuances. The present study attempted to replicate these findings, employing data from 6,287 individuals from 6 countries (Australia, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Japan, and United States). The same personality measure-240-item Revised NEO Personality Inventory-and statistical procedures were used. The present findings closely replicated the original results. When the original and current results were meta-analyzed, the unique variance of nearly all items (i.e., items' scores residualized for all broader personality traits) showed statistically significant cross-rater agreement (median = .12) and rank-order stability over an average of 12 years (median = .24), and the unique variance of the majority of items had a significant heritable component (median = .14). These 3 item properties were intercorrelated, suggesting that items systematically differed in the degree of reflecting valid unique variance. Also, associations of items' unique variance with age, gender, and body mass index (BMI) replicated across samples and tracked with the original findings. Moreover, associations between item residuals and BMI obtained from one group of people allowed for a significant incremental prediction of BMI in an independent sample. Overall, these findings reinforce the hypotheses that nuances constitute the building blocks of the personality trait hierarchy, their properties are robust and they can be useful. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Caráter , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Testes de Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Austrália , Índice de Massa Corporal , Canadá , Comparação Transcultural , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Transtornos da Personalidade/genética , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Fatores Sexuais
5.
Int. j. psychol. psychol. ther. (Ed. impr.) ; 18(3): 331-343, oct. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-174409

RESUMO

Defensive functioning is considered one of the core aspects of personality functioning and its maturity level is regarded an important predictor of psychopathology and more specific personality pathology. The current investigation assesses the relation between overall defensive functioning, as measured by the Defense Style Questionnaire-42 (DSQ-42), and higher order models of psychopathology as measured by the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF). The DSQ-42 and MMPI-2-RF was completed by 383 patients. We analysed the MMPI-2-RF personality and psychopathology as measured with the Restructured Clinical scales and the Personality Psychopathology Five-revised scales using Goldberg’s Bass Ackwards Method. Higher order dimensions of personality and psychopathology in the current investigation demonstrated structural similarity with previously reported higher order models. Next we examined the optimal level of differentiation of defensive functioning, as measured by the DSQ-42 Total and Overall Defensive Functioning scores, to personality and psychopathology at each succeeding level of the hierarchical factor structures. Results indicated that immature defense mechanisms exemplify strong correlations with internalizing pathology (i.e., Demoralisation and Introversion), but not with externalizing pathology and thought disorder. The differentiation of defensive functioning from higher order models of psychopathology and maladaptive personality traits seems to be limited, based on the current results. The DSQ-42 appeared to have a large overlap and correlations with internalizing pathology, which appeared to be due to its item content: mostly intrapsychic and immature defenses. Theoretical and clinical implications considering the use of the DSQ are discussed


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Mecanismos de Defesa , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Testes Psicológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Testes de Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , MMPI/estatística & dados numéricos , Determinação da Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Inventário de Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Autorrelato
6.
Cuad. psicol. deporte ; 18(3): 129-140, sept. 2018. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-173818

RESUMO

El objetivo de este trabajo fue describir evidencias de validez de criterio de la Escala Multidimensional de Perfeccionismo en el Deporte-2 (Sport-MPS-2) adaptada a población mexicana. Participaron 222 deportistas adultos mexicanos (Medad = 20.14, DT = 3.69) practicantes de diferentes disciplinas deportivas, quienes contestaron una conjunto de cuestionarios. Previamente se analizó la estructura interna del instrumento a través de un análisis factorial confirmatorio. Después se utilizaron la ansiedad competitiva, y la percepción de competencia como medidas de validez de criterio, empleando análisis de correlación bivariada. Los resultados confirmaron la estructura de seis factores independientes, de los cuales la fiabilidad compuesta fue adecuada, excepto para el factor presión del entrenador. Contrariamente, la varianza media extractada careció de buen ajuste, y sólo se asumió la validez discriminante en dos de los seis factores. En adición, los resultados de test criterio sugirieron evidencia poco contundente de validez de criterio del instrumento con esta muestra de estudio, ya que las asociaciones esperadas fueron significativas, pero con coeficientes bajos, por lo que se requieren más estudios con otras muestras de deportistas, para evaluar más adecuadamente las propiedades psicométricas del instrumento, y poder afirmar su uso adecuado


The main purpose of this study was to to describe evidence´s of criterion validity of the Multidimensional Scale of Perfectionism in Sport-2 (Sport-MPS-2) adapted to the Mexican population. Participated 222 Mexican adolescents, youth, and adult athletes (Mage = 20.14, SD = 3.69), from different sports, who answered a several questionnaires. Previously, the internal structure of the instrument was analyzed through a confirmatory factor analysis. Then competitive anxiety and the perception of competence were used as measures of criterion validity, using bivariate correlation analysis. The results confirmed the structure of six independent factors, of which the composite reliability was adequate, except for the pressure factor of the trainer. In constrast the average variance extracted lacked a good fit, and only discriminant validity was assumed in two of the six factors. In addition, the criterion test results suggested little convincing evidence of criterion validity of the instrument with this study sample, since the associations expected were significant, but with low coefficients. Thus, more studies are required with other samples of athletes and sports, in order to evaluate more adequately the psychometric properties of the instrument, and to be able to affirm its proper use


O objetivo deste trabalho consiste em demonstrar criterios de validação da da Escala Multidimensional do Perfeccionismo no Deporto-2 (Sport-MPS-2) para a população mexicana. Participaram neste estudo 222 deportistas adolescentes, jovens e adultos mexicanos (Midade = 20.14, DT = 3.69) praticantes de diferentes modalidades deportivas, que preencheram um conjunto de questionário. Para avaliar o ajustamento do modelo de medida aos dados foi utilziada uma análise fatorial confirmatória. De forma a demonstrar crirérios de validade externa, utilizouse a competência competitiva e a capacidade de avaliação, através de correlação bivariada. Os resultados, demonstram uma estrutura de seis fatores independentes com valores de fiabilidade compósita ajustados, com exceção do fator pressão do treinador. Em contraste, não se verificou variância extraída média em nenhum dos fatores e os faores apenas discriminam em dois dos seis. Não obstante, os resultados da validade externa foram pouco conducentes, ou seja, as assocações foram significativas, mas com coeficientes baixos. Neste sentido mais estudos são necessários, com outras amostras de desportistas, de forma a poder verificar-se melhor as propiedades psicométricas deste instrumento e demonstrar que está válido para ser usado


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Esportes/psicologia , Atletas/psicologia , Desempenho Atlético/psicologia , Psicometria/instrumentação , Perfeccionismo , Determinação da Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Testes de Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
7.
Int. j. psychol. psychol. ther. (Ed. impr.) ; 18(2): 193-205, jun. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-174400

RESUMO

This study examined the possibility that personality would change in the course of a positive psychology intervention, and would add to therapeutic gain. 89 participants were randomly assigned into the intervention group (N= 45) and the waiting-list group (N= 44). The intervention followed 6-week-online-protocol. Participants reported on the Steen Happiness Index (SHI), The Positive Psychotherapy Index (PPTI), and the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SLS) as well as on the temperament scales Harm Avoidance and Persistence, and the character trait Self-Directedness three times: at outset, post-intervention, and four weeks later at follow-up. Hypotheses were tested using growth curve analysis and regression analysis. The intervention group gained in all three happiness measures, in the personality traits Self-Directedness and Persistence and decreased in Harm Avoidance relative to the waiting-list group. Regression analyses revealed that the change in personality traits, and particularly in Self-Directedness mediated the therapeutic gains in the SHI as well as in the PPTI, but not in SLS. Although personality is basically very stable, successful interventions can bring about beneficial changes in personality which may in turn help to maintain therapeutic gains. The role of personality change in psychotherapy should be studied across therapeutic approaches, settings, and psychiatric diagnoses


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Psicoterapia/métodos , Transtornos da Personalidade/terapia , Testes de Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença Crônica/psicologia , Avaliação de Resultado de Intervenções Terapêuticas , Técnicas Psicológicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Determinação da Personalidade , Resultado do Tratamento , Autorrelato , Qualidade de Vida , Perfil de Impacto da Doença , Reforço (Psicologia)
8.
An. psicol ; 34(2): 264-273, mayo 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-172797

RESUMO

The categorical approach of personality disorders (PD) has given way to a dimensional paradigm. Within this, the Five-factor model (FFM) proposes theoretical hypotheses describing personality pathologies and PD empirical prototypes based on the DSM (DSM-PD). Moreover, a methodology to score DSM-PD using the NEO PI-R facets was developed. In this ex post-facto study FFM-PD count norms were developed using data from the NEO PI-R Spanish adaptation. Furthermore, the diagnostic agreement with the IPDE and validity of FFM-PD counts was analyzed in a clinical (n = 222) and non-clinical sample (n = 742). Based on NEO PI-R scores, we presented Spanish FFM-PD normative data. FFMPD benchmarks were highly likely to be exceeded if subjects were classified as a subclinical case in the DSM-PD. Convergent correlations of FFM-PD counts with their equivalent subclinical cases of DSM-PD were statistically significant and outperformed any divergent correlation as well as the average divergent correlations in all FFM-PD. The use of a count technique based on NEO PI-R facets and Spanish FFM-PD normative data facilitate PD understanding and interpretation in various applied psychology fields


La concepción categórica de los trastornos de personalidad (TP) ha dado paso al paradigma dimensional, donde el modelo de los Cinco Factores (MCF) propone hipótesis teóricas para describir la patología de la personalidad y prototipos empíricos de los TP del DSM, además de técnicas para valorarlos en base a facetas del NEO PI-R. En este estudio ex post-facto se han elaborado baremos para el recuento de TP-MCF a partir de la adaptación española del NEO PI-R. Además, se ha comprobado la coherencia diagnóstica con IPDE y la validez de los recuentos de TP-MCF en una muestra clínica (n = 222) y otra no clínica (n = 742). A partir de las puntuaciones en NEO PI-R se elaboró el baremo español de los TP-MCF, cuyas cotas significativas son superadas con elevada probabilidad por casos subclínicos detectados con IPDE. Las correlaciones convergentes entre los recuentos de TP-MCF y los equivalentes casos de TP-DSM fueron estadísticamente significativas y superaron a cualquier correlación divergente y a la correlación divergente media en todos los TP-MCF. El recuento de facetas relevantes en TP-MCF y el baremo español resultante facilitan la comprensión e interpretación de los TP en distintos ámbitos de la psicología aplicada


Assuntos
Humanos , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Testes de Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Psicometria/instrumentação , Teoria da Construção Pessoal , Determinação da Personalidade , Análise Estatística , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais
9.
An. psicol ; 34(1): 1-6, ene. 2018. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-169872

RESUMO

En el comportamiento alimentario de la población obesa pueden influir diversos factores psicológicos como, por ejemplo, la restricción alimentaria, la falta de control o el comer emocional. Aunque en la mayoría de las ocasiones estas variables se han estudiado en la población obesa, este estudio pretende evaluar la relación de estos factores con el comportamiento alimentario de la población no obesa y relacionar este comportamiento con el Síndrome de Edorexia. Se aplica una batería de tests compuesta por el Cuestionario del Síndrome de Edorexia, el Cuestionario de Personalidad BFQ y el Cuestionario de Respuesta de afrontamiento CRI-A a una muestra de 75 alumnos de la Universidad de Murcia. Nuestros resultados muestran cómo el Síndrome de Edorexia se relaciona con una disminución de estabilidad emocional, control emocional y reevaluación positiva, así como con un aumento de la aceptación y resignación. Además, los individuos con Síndrome de Edorexia se relacionan con la realización de dietas, privación de alimentos, realización de actividad física y el consumo sin necesidad. Estos resultados se explican mediante la teoría de las cinco vías (Macht, 2008) que relaciona la falta de habilidades para gestionar las emociones con el abuso incontrolable de alimentos (AU)


The eating beahaviour of obese population can be influenced by various psychological factors such us eating restriction, lack of control or emotional eating. Although in most ocassions this variables have been studied in obese population, the aim of this study is to evaluate the relations between this factors with eating behaviour in non-obese population and relate this behaviour with Edorexia Syndrome. A battery of psychological tests was applied to 75 students of Murcia University, this battery consisted of the Edorexia Syndrome Questionnaire, Big Five Personality Questionnaire and the Coping Response Inventory (CRI-A). The results showed how the Edorexia Syndrome was related with a dicrease in emotional stability, emotional control and positive reevaluation as well as an increase in acceptance and resignation. In addition, people with Edorexia Syndrome were related to dieting, food deprivation, exercising and consumption without needing. This results are explained by the Five Ways Theory (Macht, 2008) which relates the lack of skills to cope with emotions with the uncontrollable abuse of food (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Testes Psicológicos , Determinação da Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Dietoterapia/métodos , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Transtornos da Personalidade/epidemiologia , Testes de Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Obesidade/etiologia , Exercício/psicologia , Análise Estatística , Razão de Chances
10.
Rev. psicol. trab. organ. (1999) ; 33(3): 175-182, dic. 2017. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-168923

RESUMO

This article presents the results of four primary studies that investigated the degree to which the Big Five personality dimensions predict job performance in occupations with a low level of job complexity. Job performance was assessed as overall job performance (OJP), task performance (TP), and contextual performance (CP). The results showed that conscientiousness and emotional stability proved to be predictors of the three performance measures. In addition, extroversion was a relevant predictor of OJP and TP, and agreeableness was a predictor of CP. Implications for the theory and practice of job performance and personnel selection are discussed (AU)


Este artículo presenta los resultados de cuatro estudios primarios que investigaron el grado en que los Cinco Grandes factores de personalidad predecían el desempeño en el trabajo en ocupaciones de bajo nivel de complejidad. El desempeño en el trabajo fue evaluado como desempeño global (DG), desempeño de tarea (DT) y desempeño contextual (DC). Los resultados mostraron que los factores de conciencia y estabilidad emocional fueron predictores de las tres medidas de desempeño. Además, extroversión fue un predictor relevante de DG y DT y amabilidad fue predictor de DC. Finalmente se discuten las implicaciones de los resultados para la teoría y la práctica del desempeño en el trabajo y la selección del personal (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Determinação da Personalidade , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Testes de Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Conscientização , Ajustamento Emocional , Carga de Trabalho
11.
J Surg Res ; 218: 298-305, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28985865

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Big Five framework examines five factors that represent a description of human personality. These factors correlate with success measures and job satisfaction. The Big Five Inventory is a 44-item instrument designed to measure the Big Five framework. Our aim was to document the distribution of Big Five personality traits among Pediatric Surgery fellowship applicants, compare with community norms, surgical residents, between genders, and correlate to the fellowship match results. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty Pediatric Surgery fellowship applicants at a university hospital completed the Big Five Inventory during the interview process. It was analyzed and compared with general surgery residents' results and community norms. The data were compared regarding gender and match results. Continuous variables were compared by unpaired t-tests and Mann-Whitney tests. A P value <0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: The 40 applicants were equally divided between male and female. When compared with general surgery residents and community norms, applicants of both genders scored higher on agreeableness (P < 0.01), conscientiousness (P < 0.01), and emotional stability (P < 0.01). Applicants scored higher on openness when compared with surgical residents (P < 0.01). Male applicants scored higher on emotional stability than females (P = 0.026). Matched applicants scored higher for conscientiousness than unmatched applicants (P = 0.016). CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric Surgery fellowship applicants expressed higher levels of desirable professional traits compared with general surgery residents and community norms. Male applicants demonstrated higher emotional stability than females. Conscientiousness was higher in matching applicants. This first reported experience with personality testing in Pediatric Surgery fellow selection demonstrated potential utility in applicant matching.


Assuntos
Testes de Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pediatria/estatística & dados numéricos , Especialidades Cirúrgicas/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
An. psicol ; 33(3): 589-596, oct. 2017. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-165633

RESUMO

Several studies have shown that personality self-reports may be affected by response biases, and that this may have consequences on their factor structure, especially in samples with little education or in adolescents. The current study aims to understand the effect of social desirability and acquiescence on the factor structure of three questionnaires based on the Five Factor Model of personality: the Big Five Inventory, the Five Factor Personality Inventory and the Overall Personality Assessment Scale. The data was analysed using a new method that removes the effects of both social desirability and acquiescence from the inter-item correlation matrix used for factor analysis. These effects were assessed in a sample of 392 university students, which contained no individuals with low educational levels, children or adolescents. The results showed that, even in samples with no individuals with low educational levels, controlling for social desirability and acquiescence led to a simpler factor structure that is more congruent with the theoretical solution expected from the five factor model. It also seems that in the domain of inventories based upon the five factor model, this effect may be specially due to acquiescence (AU)


Diversos estudios muestran que los tests de personalidad pueden verse afectados por los sesgos de respuesta, lo que puede tener consecuencias en su estructura factorial, especialmente en muestras con bajo nivel educativo o adolescentes. El objetivo del presente estudio consiste en determinar cuál es el efecto de la deseabilidad social y la aquiescencia en la estructura factorial de tres cuestionarios basados en el modelo de los Cinco Grandes factores de personalidad: Big Five Inventory, Five Factor Personality Inventory y Overall Personality Assessment Scale. Los datos se analizaron a partir de un nuevo método que elimina los efectos de la deseabilidad social y la aquiescencia de la matriz de correlaciones inter-item utilizada en el análisis factorial. La muestra está compuesta por 392 estudiantes universitarios, por lo que no incluye individuos con bajo nivel educativo, niños o adolescentes. Los resultados indican que, incluso en muestras sin individuos con bajo nivel educativo, controlar la deseabilidad social y la aquiescencia da lugar a una estructura factorial más simple y congruente con la solución teórica esperada a partir del modelo de los Cinco Grandes. Además, los resultados sugieren que en los tests basados en este modelo, este efecto puede ser debido especialmente a la aquiescencia (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Determinação da Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Inventário de Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Testes de Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Desejabilidade Social , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Psicometria/métodos , Viés , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
13.
Psicothema (Oviedo) ; 29(3): 421-428, ago. 2017. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-165469

RESUMO

Background: Distress tolerance is defined as the individual’s capacity to experience and withstand negative psychological states. The goal of this study was to examine the psychometric properties and the factor structure of the Spanish version of the Distress Tolerance Scale (DTS) and to test its relationship with psychopathological symptoms and personality. Method: A sample of 650 participants completed the DTS, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised-Abbreviated) (EPQR-A), and the Symptom Assessment-45 Questionnaire (SA-45). Results: The DTS showed good internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha) and adequate temporal stability (7-month test-retest). Results of a confirmatory factor analysis supported the hypothesized 4-factor structure (tolerance, appraisal, absorption, and regulation) that load onto a higher-order general factor. A structural equation model (SEM) was tested to provide evidence of construct validity. Neuroticism was inversely associated with distress tolerance, and distress tolerance partially mediated the effects of neuroticism on current symptoms. Results indicated that the Spanish DTS mediated associations between personality traits and current psychiatric symptoms. Conclusions: Results support the use of this version as a useful tool for assessing distress tolerance in clinical and research settings in Spanish-speaking countries. In addition, we found that distress tolerance may form a link between neuroticism and psychopathology (AU)


Antecedentes: la tolerancia al estrés es la capacidad que tiene el individuo para soportar los estados psicológicos negativos. El objetivo del presente estudio consistió en examinar las propiedades psicométricas y la estructura factorial de la versión española de la Distress Tolerance Scale (DTS) y probar su relación con los síntomas psicopatológicos y la personalidad. Método: se utilizó una muestra de 650 participantes que cumplimentó el DTS, el Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised-Abbreviated) (EPQR-A) y el Symptom Assessment-45 Questionnaire (SA-45). Resultados: la DTS resultó tener buena consistencia interna (alfa de Cronbach) y adecuada estabilidad temporal (test-retest 7 meses). Los resultados del análisis factorial confirmatorio apoyan la estructura hipotetizada de 4 factores (tolerancia, evaluación, absorción y regulación) que saturan en un factor general superior. Tras aplicar un modelo de ecuaciones estructurales se constató que el neuroticismo se asociaba de forma inversa con la tolerancia al estrés, actuando esta como factor mediador entre los efectos del neuroticismo sobre los síntomas psicopatológicos. Conclusiones: los resultados apoyan la adecuación de la Spanish DTS para evaluar la tolerancia al estrés en población de habla española. Asimismo, los datos sugieren que la tolerancia al estrés actúa como mediador del efecto del neuroticismo sobre los síntomas psicopatológicos (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Psicometria/instrumentação , Determinação da Personalidade , Testes de Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Adaptação Psicológica , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico
14.
Clín. salud ; 28(2): 59-63, jul. 2017. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-163958

RESUMO

El presente estudio explora la relación entre los tipos de personalidad afectiva construidos a partir de las respuestas a las escalas PANAS de afecto positivo (PA) y afecto negativo (NA) y las dimensiones de personalidad medidas con el NEO FFI. Se obtuvieron también medidas de autoinforme de satisfacción con la vida y de bienestar subjetivo. Participaron 378 estudiantes universitarios españoles, con edades entre 18 y 36 años (media = 22.5 y DT = 2.96), siendo el 54% mujeres. Se clasificó a los participantes en cuatro tipos de personalidad afectiva. Los ANOVA posteriores mostraron diferencias significativas entre ellos, siendo los estudiantes de autorrealización (alto PA y bajo NA) los que tenían el mayor nivel de bienestar subjetivo, mientras que los individuos autodestructivos (bajo PA y alto NA) demostraron el nivel inferior; los afectivos altos fueron más adaptativos que los de tipo afectivo bajo. Los perfiles de personalidad con las dimensiones del NEO-FFI proporcionan una comprensión más profunda de las diferencias individuales entre los estudiantes universitarios (AU)


http://scielo.isciii.es/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1130-52742017000200059&lng=es&nrm=iso


The present study explores the relationship between the affective personality types constructed from responses to the PANAS scales, (PA) positive affect and (NA) negative affect and the personality dimensions evaluated by the NEO FFI. Self-report assessments of satisfaction with life and subjective wellbeing (happiness) were also obtained. Participants were 378 Spanish students, from 18 to 36 years old (mean= 22.5, SD= 2.96), 54% being women. Participants were classified into four affective personality types. Subsequent ANOVAs showed meaningful differences between them, being self-actualization type (high PA and low NA) the one with the highest level of subjective well-being, while the self-destructive type (low PA and high NA) showed the lower level; the high affective personality type was more adaptive than the low affective type. Personality profiles with the NEO-FFI dimensions provide a deeper understanding of individual differences among university students (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Adolescente , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Felicidade , Afeto , Determinação da Personalidade , Testes de Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise de Variância , Satisfação Pessoal , Reforço (Psicologia)
15.
J Pers Disord ; 31(3): 385-398, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27387058

RESUMO

Many argue that current categorical personality disorder (PD) classification systems should be more dimensional and consider personality traits. The present study examined whether a brief PD screening tool, the Standardized Assessment of Personality: Abbreviated Scale (SAPAS) primarily screened for traits of low emotional stability, low extraversion, and low agreeableness, rather than PD per se. A general community sample (n = 237) completed the SAPAS, a personality trait measure, and the International Personality Disorder Examination (IPDE) screening questionnaire. Regressions showed that the SAPAS provided substantial incremental validity over personality trait scores in predicting total IPDE scores, indicating that the SAPAS captures variance unique to PD, rather than just extremes of general disposition. The SAPAS is an empirically valid rapid PD screen for nonclinical populations, correctly identifying 78% of individuals who screen positively for PD on the IPDE. However, the SAPAS was not effective for screening antisocial PD, limiting its utility in forensic settings.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Personalidade/classificação , Testes de Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
16.
Eur J Anaesthesiol ; 33(11): 800-806, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27635952

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Working in anaesthesia is stressful, but also satisfying. Work-related stress can have a negative impact on mental health, whereas work-related satisfaction protects against these harmful effects. OBJECTIVE(S): How work stress and satisfaction are experienced may be related to personality. Our aim was to study the relationship between personality and perception of work in a sample of Dutch anaesthesiologists. DESIGN: Questionnaire survey. SETTING: Data were collected in the Netherlands from July 2012 until December 2012. PARTICIPANTS: We sent electronic questionnaires to all 1955 practising resident and consultant members of the Dutch Anaesthesia Society. Of those, 655 (33.5%) were returned and could be used for analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The questionnaires assessed general work-related stress and satisfaction and anaesthesia-specific stress. A factor analysis was performed on the stress and satisfaction questionnaires. Personality traits were assessed using the Big Five Inventory. To identify personality profiles, a cluster analysis was performed on the Big Five Inventory. Scores of the extracted factors contributing to job stress and satisfaction were compared between the profiles we identified. RESULTS: Our analysis extracted six factors concerning general job stress. Of those, the emotionally difficult caseload contributed the most to job stress. The analysis also extracted four factors concerning general job satisfaction. Good relationships with patients and their families and being appreciated by colleagues contributed the most to satisfaction. The cluster analysis resulted in two distinct personality profiles: a distressed profile (n = 215) and a resilient profile (n = 440). General and anaesthesia-specific job stress was significantly higher and job satisfaction was significantly lower in the distressed profile, compared with the resilient profile. Experience of the emotionally difficult caseload did not differ between the two profiles CONCLUSION: Personality profiles were found to be related to anaesthesiologists' experience of work-related stress and satisfaction. One-third of the anaesthesiologists in our sample were categorised as distressed and are at risk of developing work-related mental health problems.


Assuntos
Anestesiologistas/psicologia , Satisfação no Emprego , Estresse Ocupacional/psicologia , Testes de Personalidade , Personalidade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Anestesiologistas/estatística & dados numéricos , Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Estresse Ocupacional/epidemiologia , Testes de Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos
17.
Psychol Serv ; 13(3): 300-307, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27253319

RESUMO

Stigma has received attention as a major barrier toward effective mental health service delivery, and previous research has demonstrated that the Five-Factor Model (FFM) domain of Openness to Experience is negatively correlated with stigmatized views of mental health. However, a lack of established relationships between personality and self-stigma, as well as how these concepts affect an individual's treatment-seeking intentions, has left a gap in the literature. To address this, our study recruited a low-income community sample and tested (a) the relationship between self-stigma of mental health treatment and the FFM, (b) the relationship between self-stigma and treatment-seeking intentions, and (c) the incremental validity of FFM personality beyond stigma in the prediction of treatment seeking. Results suggest that there is some incongruence with previous research on personality's relationship to stigma, personality does not act as an additive component in the prediction of the relationship between stigma and treatment seeking, and stigma is related only to the perceived need for mental health treatment but not to an individual's openness to seek that treatment. The discussion concludes with implications for the contextualization and treatment of stigma as a barrier for mental health treatment and a general synthesis of the personality trait profiles for those holding stigmatizing views of mental health. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Caráter , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Motivação , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Autoimagem , Estigma Social , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes de Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Pobreza/psicologia , Psicometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
18.
Pap. psicol ; 37(2): 89-106, jun. 2016. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-155060

RESUMO

La evaluación psicológica de los adolescentes infractores es imprescindible en su recorrido por los servicios de justicia juvenil. Gracias a esta evaluación se garantiza la exigencia legal y la eficiencia de las medidas judiciales y educativas que se prescriben en estos servicios. En el presente artículo, el primero de una serie de dos, se revisan las principales pruebas de evaluación psicológica en español disponibles para profesionales de la psicología que trabajan con adolescentes infractores de los países hispanohablantes. Clasificaremos estas herramientas en tres grupos: a) Personológicas adecuadas para cualquier contexto profesional de la Psicología, b) Clínicas, cuya utilidad inicial se circunscribe al trabajo con adolescentes que presentan necesidades de salud mental y c) Forenses, aquellas desarrolladas especialmente para su uso en adolescentes atendidos en los servicios penales. Los instrumentos forenses se describen en la segunda parte de este artículo (Wenger & Andres-Pueyo, 2016 b) (en este mismo número de la revista). Para cada apartado se presentan y revisan los instrumentos más importantes y de utilidad contrastada (AU)


The psychological assessment of offenders is the core of professional activity throughout the juvenile justice system. It ensures the adequacy of the legal and educational measures to be applied in the process. This paper reviews the main tests for psychological assessment available in Spanish, suitable for use by psychology professionals who work with young offenders in the juvenile justice services in Spanish-speaking countries. We classify these tools into three groups: a) Personological, i.e. generic tests, suitable for any professional context in psychology, b) Clinical, i.e. tests whose initial use has been limited to working with adolescents with mental health needs, and c) Forensic, tools that have been specially developed for use in the juvenile justice population. This last group is described in the second part of this article (Wenger & Andres-Pueyo, 2016 b) (which appears in this same issue). The most important instruments of proven utility are presented and reviewed for each group (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Transtornos da Personalidade/diagnóstico , Testes de Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Delinquência Juvenil/psicologia , Aplicação da Lei , Psiquiatria Legal/métodos
19.
Eur Eat Disord Rev ; 24(4): 320-8, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27028106

RESUMO

Facial expressions are critical in forming social bonds and in signalling one's emotional state to others. In eating disorder patients, impairments in facial emotion recognition have been associated with eating psychopathology severity. Little research however has been carried out on how bulimic spectrum disorder (BSD) patients spontaneously express emotions. Our aim was to investigate emotion expression in BSD patients and to explore the influence of personality traits. Our study comprised 28 BSD women and 15 healthy controls. Facial expressions were recorded while participants played a serious video game. Expressions of anger and joy were used as outcome measures. Overall, BSD participants displayed less facial expressiveness than controls. Among BSD women, expressions of joy were positively associated with reward dependence, novelty seeking and self-directedness, whereas expressions of anger were associated with lower self-directedness. Our findings suggest that specific personality traits are associated with altered emotion facial expression in patients with BSD. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.


Assuntos
Ira , Bulimia/psicologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Emoções Manifestas , Testes de Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Expressão Facial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Personalidade , Projetos Piloto , Psicopatologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
20.
Med. clín (Ed. impr.) ; 146(3): 108-111, feb. 2016. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-147821

RESUMO

Introducción y objetivo: La sensibilidad química múltiple (.SQM) es un trastorno multisistémico de etiología controvertida que afecta a algunos sujetos al exponerse a productos químicos a concentraciones no perjudiciales. El objetivo de este trabajo es describir las características epidemiológicas, clínicas y psicológicas de una muestra de pacientes con SQM, para un posterior tratamiento grupal específico. Pacientes y método: Estudio descriptivo de los pacientes diagnosticados de SQM en una unidad de toxicología, mediante la administración del cuestionario Quick Environmental Exposure and Sensitivity Inventory, junto con la entrevista estructurada SCID-II, la escala de ansiedad HAS y el test de personalidad tipo A, PCTA. Resultados: Se incluyeron 73 pacientes, con una edad media de 52,6 años (rango 33-77; DE 9,29), siendo 66 mujeres (90,4%). El 53% estaban clasificados como grado i-ii y ii. Sesenta y un pacientes (83%) presentaron algún tipo de comorbilidad, fundamentalmente dolor crónico, fibromialgia y fatiga crónica, con niveles de ansiedad mayores (puntuación media 19,2), predominio de rasgos de personalidad fóbico-evitativo y patrón de conducta tipo A (31,1%). Conclusiones: La SQM afecta principalmente a mujeres de mediana edad, con comorbilidades (dolor crónico, fibromialgia y fatiga crónica), elevada ansiedad y conductas de evitación. Este análisis previo debería ayudar a ofrecer un abordaje psicoterapéutico específico a estos pacientes (AU)


Introduction and objective: Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is a multisystem disorder of controversial etiology, affecting some subjects when exposed to chemicals at no harmful concentrations. The objective of this paper is to describe the epidemiological, clinical and psychological features of a sample of patients with MCS for further specific group treatment. Patiens and method: Descriptive study of patients diagnosed with MCS in a toxicology unit. We administered the Quick Environmental Exposure and Sensitivity Inventory, the structured interview SCID-II, the anxiety scale HAS and the type A personality test, PCTA. Results: Seventy-three patients were included. The mean age was 52,6 years (range 33-77; SD 9.29). Sixty-six were females (90.4%). Fifty-three percent were classified as i-ii and ii grade. Sixty-one patients (83%) presented some type of comorbidity, mainly chronic pain, fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue. They exhibited higher levels of anxiety (average score of 19.2), prevalence of phobic-avoidant traits of personality and type A behavior in 31.1%. Conclusions: MCS affects middle-aged women with comorbidities (chronic pain, fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue) and high anxiety and avoidance behaviors. This preliminary analysis should help provide a specific therapeutic approach to these patients (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sensibilidade Química Múltipla/complicações , Sensibilidade Química Múltipla/epidemiologia , Sensibilidade Química Múltipla/psicologia , Exposição a Produtos Químicos , Testes de Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Escala de Ansiedade Manifesta/estatística & dados numéricos , Escala de Ansiedade Manifesta/normas , Comorbidade
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