Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 10.466
Filtrar
1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5328, 2020 10 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33087704

RESUMO

There is an urgent need to develop simple and fast antimicrobial susceptibility tests (ASTs) that allow informed prescribing of antibiotics. Here, we describe a label-free AST that can deliver results within an hour, using an actively dividing culture as starting material. The bacteria are incubated in the presence of an antibiotic for 30 min, and then approximately 105 cells are analysed one-by-one with microfluidic impedance cytometry for 2-3 min. The measured electrical characteristics reflect the phenotypic response of the bacteria to the mode of action of a particular antibiotic, in a 30-minute incubation window. The results are consistent with those obtained by classical broth microdilution assays for a range of antibiotics and bacterial species.


Assuntos
Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Bactérias/química , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenômenos Biofísicos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Impedância Elétrica , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Klebsiella pneumoniae/química , Klebsiella pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Meropeném/administração & dosagem , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/instrumentação , Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas/instrumentação , Técnicas Analíticas Microfluídicas/métodos
2.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239775, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33036019

RESUMO

In this study, we evaluated the antibacterial activities of the essential oils (EOs) of Thymus serrulatus and Thymus schimperi collected from Ofla (Ofl), Alamata (Ala), Yilmana Densa (Yil), Tarmaer (Tar), Butajira (Buta), and Bale (Bal) in Ethiopia against cariogenic bacteria (Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus) isolated from human teeth. Inhibition zones (IZs), minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were measures of the antibacterial activity. Significant bacterial inhibitions resulted in a dose-and EO-dependent manner. At 128 µl/mL, IZs against S. mutans were 37.33 mm (Tar), 36.00 mm (Bal), 33.67 mm (Yil), 33.33 mm (Ofl), 30.00 (Ala), and 29.67 mm (Buta) and IZs against Lactobacillus were 31.00 mm (Tar), 30.67 mm (Yil), 27.67 (Bal), 27.00 (Buta), 26.67 (Ofl), and 21.33 (Ala). The respective inhibition zones due to 3% DMSO (negative control) and 3% H2O2 (positive control) were 0.00 mm/30.00 mm against S. mutans and 0.00 mm/29.00 mm against Lactobacillus. At 128 µl/mL dose, all the EOs resulted in significantly higher inhibition zones than that of 3% H2O2 against S. mutans and Lactobacillus.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cárie Dentária/tratamento farmacológico , Cárie Dentária/microbiologia , Lactobacillus/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Streptococcus mutans/efeitos dos fármacos , Thymus (Planta)/química , Etiópia , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos
3.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239312, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941534

RESUMO

Contaminated poultry meat is considered to be the main source of human infection with Campylobacter spp., a pathogen that asymptomatically colonizes broiler chickens during fattening and contaminates carcasses during slaughter. To prevent or reduce the colonization of broiler flocks with Campylobacter spp., applying different organic acids, especially in combinations, via feed or drinking water seems to be a promising approach. However, only very few combinations of organic acids have been tested for their antibacterial efficacy against Campylobacter spp. Therefore, the in vitro susceptibility of 30 Campylobacter spp. isolates (20 C. jejuni and ten C. coli) to ten organic acids and ten combinations was determined. The testing of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values was performed at pH 6.0 and 7.3 by using the broth microdilution method and included the following organic acids: Caprylic acid, sorbic acid, caproic acid, benzoic acid, ascorbic acid, propionic acid, acetic acid, formic acid, fumaric acid and tartaric acid and combinations thereof. The lowest MIC values were seen for caprylic acid (MIC range at pH 7.3: 0.5-2 mmol/L) and sorbic acid (MIC range at pH 7.3: 1-4 mmol/L). One to two dilution steps lower MIC values were determined at the lower pH value of 6.0. Furthermore, ten combinations consisting of three to five organic acids were developed. In addition to the tested antibacterial activity, other criteria were included such as approval as feed additives, reported synergistic effects and chemical properties. For nine of ten combinations, the MIC90 values of the organic acids decreased 1.25- to 241.5-fold compared to the MIC90 values for the individual substances. Furthermore, nine of ten combinations exhibited synergistic activities against two or more of the tested C. jejuni and C. coli isolates. A combination of caprylic acid, sorbic acid and caproic acid exhibited synergistic activities against the largest number of Campylobacter spp. isolates (six C. jejuni and four C. coli) with fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) indices (∑FIC) ranging from 0.33 to 1.42. This study shows in vitro synergistic activities of different organic acids in combinations against the major Campylobacter species and could therefore be a promising basis for reducing Campylobacter spp. in vivo.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Campylobacter/efeitos dos fármacos , Caproatos/farmacologia , Caprilatos/farmacologia , Conservantes de Alimentos/farmacologia , Ácido Sórbico/farmacologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Campylobacter/patogenicidade , Caproatos/toxicidade , Caprilatos/toxicidade , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Conservantes de Alimentos/toxicidade , Inocuidade dos Alimentos/métodos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Ácido Sórbico/toxicidade
4.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238428, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941438

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC) causes significant morbidity. Candida albicans is the main pathogen associated with both sporadic and recurrent candidiasis. Due to unsatisfactory treatment effect, the impact of chlorhexidine digluconate and fluconazole alone or in combination on C. albicans and biofilm was investigated. METHODS: Vaginal C. albicans isolates from 18 patients with recurrent candidiasis and commensals from 19 asymptomatic women were isolated by culture. Crystal violet, XTT and colony forming unit assay were used to analyze the effect of chlorhexidine digluconate and fluconazole on growth of C. albicans, formation of new and already established, mature, biofilm. RESULTS: Fluconazole reduced the growth of planktonic C. albicans. However, in established biofilm, fluconazole had no effect on the candida cells and was not able to disperse and reduce the biofilm. By contrast, chlorhexidine digluconate had a direct killing effect on C. albicans grown both planktonically and in biofilm. Chlorhexidine digluconate also dispersed mature biofilm and inhibited formation of new biofilm. No major differences were observed between commensal isolates and candida causing recurrent vulvovaginitis with respect to biofilm or growth after chlorhexidine digluconate treatment. CONCLUSION: Biofilm is a problem in patients with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis reducing the effect of antifungal treatment. Development of new treatment strategies are urgently needed to decrease the recurrences. In already established biofilm, chlorhexidine digluconate dispersed the biofilm and was more effective in eradicating candida compared to fluconazole. Future treatment strategy may thus be a combination of chlorhexidine digluconate and fluconazole and prophylactic use of chlorhexidine digluconate to prevent biofilm formation and restrict infections.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Clorexidina/análogos & derivados , Adulto , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/isolamento & purificação , Candidíase/tratamento farmacológico , Candidíase Vulvovaginal/tratamento farmacológico , Candidíase Vulvovaginal/microbiologia , Clorexidina/metabolismo , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Feminino , Fluconazol/farmacologia , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Vagina/microbiologia
5.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 412(28): 7685-7699, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870351

RESUMO

Pathogen-host cell interactions play an important role in many human infectious and inflammatory diseases. Several pathogens, including Escherichia coli (E. coli), Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb), and even the recent 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), can cause serious breathing and brain disorders, tissue injury and inflammation, leading to high rates of mortality and resulting in great loss to human physical and mental health as well as the global economy. These infectious diseases exploit the microbial and host factors to induce serious inflammatory and immunological symptoms. Thus the development of anti-inflammatory drugs targeting bacterial/viral infection is an urgent need. In previous studies, YojI-IFNAR2, YojI-IL10RA, YojI-NRP1,YojI-SIGLEC7, and YojI-MC4R membrane-protein interactions were found to mediate E. coli invasion of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which activated the downstream anti-inflammatory proteins NACHT, LRR and PYD domains-containing protein 2(NLRP2), using a proteomic chip conjugated with cell immunofluorescence labeling. However, the studies of pathogen (bacteria/virus)-host cell interactions mediated by membrane protein interactions did not extend their principles to broad biomedical applications such as 2019-nCoV infectious disease therapy. The first part of this feature article presents in-depth analysis of the cross-talk of cellular anti-inflammatory transduction signaling among interferon membrane protein receptor II (IFNAR2), interleukin-10 receptor subunit alpha (IL-10RA), NLRP2 and [Ca2+]-dependent phospholipase A2 (PLA2G5), based on experimental results and important published studies, which lays a theoretical foundation for the high-throughput construction of the cytokine and virion solution chip. The paper then moves on to the construction of the novel GPCR recombinant herpes virion chip and virion nano-oscillators for profiling membrane protein functions, which drove the idea of constructing the new recombinant virion and cytokine liquid chips for HTS of leading drugs. Due to the different structural properties of GPCR, IFNAR2, ACE2 and Spike of 2019-nCoV, their ligands will either bind the extracellular domain of IFNAR2/ACE2/Spike or the specific loops of the GPCR on the envelope of the recombinant herpes virions to induce dynamic charge distribution changes that lead to the variable electron transition for detection. Taken together, the combined overview of two of the most innovative and exciting developments in the immunoinflammatory field provides new insight into high-throughput construction of ultrasensitive cytokine and virion liquid chips for HTS of anti-inflammatory drugs or clinical diagnosis and treatment of inflammatory diseases including infectious diseases, acute or chronic inflammation (acute gouty arthritis or rheumatoid arthritis), cardiovascular disease, atheromatosis, diabetes, obesity, tissue injury and tumors. It has significant value in the prevention and treatment of these serious and painful diseases. Graphical abstract.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/instrumentação , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/instrumentação , Animais , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Bacterianas/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Descoberta de Drogas/instrumentação , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Desenho de Equipamento , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Vírion/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírion/imunologia , Viroses/tratamento farmacológico , Viroses/imunologia
6.
PLoS Biol ; 18(9): e3000856, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941420

RESUMO

Antibiotic combination therapies are important for the efficient treatment of many types of infections, including those caused by antibiotic-resistant pathogens. Combination treatment strategies are typically used under the assumption that synergies are conserved across species and strains, even though recent results show that the combined treatment effect is determined by specific drug-strain interactions that can vary extensively and unpredictably, both between and within bacterial species. To address this problem, we present a new method in which antibiotic synergy is rapidly quantified on a case-by-case basis, allowing for improved combination therapy. The novel CombiANT methodology consists of a 3D-printed agar plate insert that produces defined diffusion landscapes of 3 antibiotics, permitting synergy quantification between all 3 antibiotic pairs with a single test. Automated image analysis yields fractional inhibitory concentration indices (FICis) with high accuracy and precision. A technical validation with 3 major pathogens, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus, showed equivalent performance to checkerboard methodology, with the advantage of strongly reduced assay complexity and costs for CombiANT. A synergy screening of 10 antibiotic combinations for 12 E. coli urinary tract infection (UTI) clinical isolates illustrates the need for refined combination treatment strategies. For example, combinations of trimethoprim (TMP) + nitrofurantoin (NIT) and TMP + mecillinam (MEC) showed synergy, but only for certain individual isolates, whereas MEC + NIT combinations showed antagonistic interactions across all tested strains. These data suggest that the CombiANT methodology could allow personalized clinical synergy testing and large-scale screening. We anticipate that CombiANT will greatly facilitate clinical and basic research of antibiotic synergy.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/efeitos dos fármacos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Algoritmos , Andinocilina/administração & dosagem , Andinocilina/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Quimioterapia Combinada/normas , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Escherichia coli/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/instrumentação , Nitrofurantoína/administração & dosagem , Nitrofurantoína/farmacologia , Infecções por Pseudomonas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Pseudomonas/microbiologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolamento & purificação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Trimetoprima/administração & dosagem , Trimetoprima/farmacologia , Infecções Urinárias/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Urinárias/microbiologia
7.
Pharm. pract. (Granada, Internet) ; 18(3): 0-0, jul.-sept. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-194199

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Area under the curve to minimum inhibitory concentration (AUC/MIC) has been recommended by the 2020 updated vancomycin guidelines for dosing vancomycin for both efficacy and safety. Previously, AUC/MIC has been cumbersome to calculate so surrogate trough concentrations of 15-20 mg/dL were utilized. However, trough-based dosing is not a sufficient surrogate as AUC/MIC targets of 400-600 can usually be reached without achieving troughs of 15-20 mg/dL. Targeting higher trough levels may also lead to adverse events including acute kidney injury (AKI) and nephrotoxicity. OBJECTIVE: To compare the mean total first day vancomycin dose in traditional trough-based dosing versus dosing recommended by an AUC/MIC dosing program. METHODS: Adult inpatients who received at least 24 hours of IV vancomycin treatment were included in this single-center, retrospective cohort study. The primary endpoint was difference in mean total first day vancomycin dose in milligrams (mg) received between patients' traditional trough-based dosing and recommended dose via AUC/MIC electronic dosing calculator. Patients served as their own control by analyzing both actual dose received and dose recommended by the electronic AUC/MIC program. Rates of vancomycin induced adverse events, including acute kidney injury, elevated steady-state trough concentrations, and Red Man's syndrome were also compared between patients who received doses consistent with the AUC/MIC dosing recommendation versus those who did not. RESULTS: 264 patients were included in this study. Initial 24-hour vancomycin exposure was significantly lower with the recommended AUC/MIC dose versus the dose received (2380.7; SD 966.6 mg vs 2649.6; SD 831.8 mg, [95% CI 114.7:423.1] p = 0.0007). CONCLUSIONS: Utilizing an electronic AUC/MIC vancomycin dosing calculator would result in lower total first day vancomycin doses


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Vancomicina/classificação , Formas de Dosagem/normas , Vancomicina/administração & dosagem , Estudos de Coortes , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Insuficiência Renal/tratamento farmacológico
8.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238298, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32857802

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The spread of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a leading global public-health challenge. Because not all biological mechanisms of resistance are known, culture-based (phenotypic) drug-susceptibility testing (DST) provides important information that influences clinical decision-making. Current phenotypic tests typically require pre-culture to ensure bacterial loads are at a testable level (taking 2-4 weeks) followed by 10-14 days to confirm growth or lack thereof. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We present a 2-step method to obtain DST results within 3 days of sample collection. The first involves selectively concentrating live mycobacterial cells present in relatively large volumes of sputum (~2-10mL) using commercially available magnetic-nanoparticles (MNPs) into smaller volumes, thereby bypassing the need for pre-culture. The second involves using microchannel Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy (m-EIS) to monitor multiple aliquots of small volumes (~10µL) of suspension containing mycobacterial cells, MNPs, and candidate-drugs to determine whether cells grow, die, or remain static under the conditions tested. m-EIS yields an estimate for the solution "bulk capacitance" (Cb), a parameter that is proportional to the number of live bacteria in suspension. We are thus able to detect cell death (bactericidal action of the drug) in addition to cell-growth. We demonstrate proof-of-principle using M. bovis BCG and M. smegmatis suspended in artificial sputum. Loads of ~ 2000-10,000 CFU of mycobacteria were extracted from ~5mL of artificial sputum during the decontamination process with efficiencies of 84% -100%. Subsequently, suspensions containing ~105 CFU/mL of mycobacteria with 10 mg/mL of MNPs were monitored in the presence of bacteriostatic and bactericidal drugs at concentrations below, at, and above known MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration) values. m-EIS data (ΔCb) showed data consistent with growth, death or stasis as expected and/or recorded using plate counts. Electrical signals of death were visible as early as 3 hours, and growth was seen in < 3 days for all samples, allowing us to perform DST in < 3 days. CONCLUSION: We demonstrated "proof of principle" that (a) live mycobacteria can be isolated from sputum using MNPs with high efficiency (almost all the bacteria that survive decontamination) and (b) that the efficacy of candidate drugs on the mycobacteria thus isolated (in suspensions containing MNPs) could be tested in real-time using m-EIS.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Mycobacterium/efeitos dos fármacos , Escarro/microbiologia , Espectroscopia Dielétrica , Impedância Elétrica , Nanopartículas de Magnetita , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/instrumentação , Mycobacterium/isolamento & purificação , Estudo de Prova de Conceito
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32781601

RESUMO

Distribution, investigation, surveillance and control (DISC) of cholera outbreaks in endemic/non-endemic regions has been a concerted approach towards the management of the causal pathogen. Relevant organization, government, health systems and the public have implemented several steps towards controlling the menace, yet pathogen continues to occur with diverse phenotypes/genotypes of high clinical and epidemiological relevance. The study determines antibiotic susceptibility/resistance pattern of Vibrio cholerae isolates retrieved from six domestic water sources between March and August 2018. Serological and molecular typing methods (polymerase chain reaction or PCR) were used to confirm the isolates identity. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was conducted using six commonly employed antibiotics of V. cholerae according to the recommendation of Clinical Laboratory Standard and European Committee for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing with other relevant antibiotics of investigative epidemiology and infection control, employing both disc diffusion test and PCR gene detection. Samples presumptive counts ranged between 1.10 to 7.91 log10 CFU/mL. Amongst the 759 presumptive isolates retrieved, sixty-one were confirmed as V. cholerae which were further serogrouped as Non-O1/Non-O139 V. cholerae. Various V. cholerae resistant phenotypes/genoytypes were detected vis: carbapenemase (CR-Vc; 31.1%/5.3%). New Delhi Metallobetalactamase (NDM-1-Vc; 23.0%/42.5%), extended spectrum betalactamase (ESBL-Vc; 42.6%/blaTEM:86,7%), chloramphenicol resistance (62.3%/Flor: 46.2%}, tetracycline resistance (70.5%/46.7%), AmpC resistance (21.0 (34.4%/56.7%)) and various other resistant genotypes/phenotypes. It was observed that more than 50% of the confirmed V. cholerae isolates possess resistance to two or more antibiotic classes/groups with multiple antibiotic resistance index (MARI) ranging from 0.031 to 0.5. This observation provides necessary information and updates for surveillance, planning and implementation of control strategies for cholera. It would also encourage decision making, formulation of policy by the government and cholera control authorities.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cólera/tratamento farmacológico , Cólera/prevenção & controle , Vibrio cholerae/efeitos dos fármacos , Vibrio cholerae/isolamento & purificação , Cólera/epidemiologia , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Humanos , Controle de Infecções , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Vibrio cholerae/genética , Abastecimento de Água
10.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 21(7): 246, 2020 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32856115

RESUMO

Enterococcus faecalis infections represent a health concern, mainly in oral diseases, in which treatments with chlorhexidine solution (0.2%) are often used; however, it presents high toxicity degree and several side effects. Based on this, the use of natural products as an alternative to treatment has been explored. Nonetheless, plant extracts have poor organoleptic characteristics that impair theirs in natura use. Therefore, this work aimed to evaluate the analytical profile, biological activity, and cytotoxicity in vitro of S. brasiliensis-loaded chitosan microparticles (CMSb) produced using different aspersion flow rates. The analytical fingerprint was obtained by FTIR and NIR spectra. Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to verify the similarity between the samples. The crystallinity degree was evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Phytochemical screening (PS) was performed to quantify phytocompounds. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Antibiofilm activity and bactericidal kinetics against E. faecalis (ATCC 29212 and MB 146-clinical isolated) were also assessed. The hemolytic potential was performed to evaluate the cytotoxicity. Data provided by FTIR, NIR, and PCA analyses revealed chemical similarity between all CMSb. Furthermore, the results from XRD analysis showed that the obtained CMSb present amorphous characteristic. Tannins and polyphenols were accurately quantified by the PS, but methodology limitations did not allow the flavonoid quantification. The low hemolytic potential assay indicates that all samples are safe. Antimicrobial assays revealed that CMSb were able to inhibit not only the E. faecalis ATCC growth but also the biofilm formation. Only one CMSb sample was able to inhibit the clinical strain. These results highlighted the CMSb antimicrobial potential and revealed this system as a promising product to treat infections caused by E. faecalis.


Assuntos
Anacardiaceae , Anti-Infecciosos/administração & dosagem , Quitosana/administração & dosagem , Enterococcus faecalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Microesferas , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Anti-Infecciosos/isolamento & purificação , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Enterococcus faecalis/fisiologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Tamanho da Partícula , Casca de Planta , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação
11.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0231685, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760069

RESUMO

Mycobacterium ulcerans, a non-tuberculous mycobacterium responsible for Buruli ulcer, resides in poorly defined environmental niches in the vicinity of stagnant water. Very few isolates have been confirmed. With a view to culturing M. ulcerans from such contaminated environmental specimens, we tested the in vitro susceptibility of the M. ulcerans CU001 strain co-cultivated with XTC cells to anti-infectious molecules registered in the French pharmacopoeia. We used a standardised concentration to identify molecules that were inactive against M. ulcerans and which could be incorporated into a decontaminating solution. Of 116 tested molecules, 64 (55.1%) molecules were ineffective against M. ulcerans CU001. These included 34 (29.3%) antibiotics, 14 (12%) antivirals, eight (6.8%) antiparasitics, and eight (6.8%) antifungals. This left 52 molecules which were active against M. ulcerans CU001. Three of the inactive antimicrobial molecules (oxytetracycline, polymyxin E and voriconazole) were then selected to prepare a decontamination solution which was shown to respect M. ulcerans CU001 viability. These three antimicrobials could be incorporated into a decontamination solution to potentially isolate and culture M. ulcerans from environmental samples.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/análise , Mycobacterium ulcerans/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mycobacterium ulcerans/isolamento & purificação , Úlcera de Buruli/microbiologia , Colistina , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Mycobacterium , Mycobacterium ulcerans/patogenicidade , Oxitetraciclina , Voriconazol
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 543, 2020 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711457

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The main advantage of GeneXpert MTB/RIF® (Xpert) molecular diagnostic technology is the rapid detection of M.tuberculosis DNA and mutations associated with rifampicin (RIF) resistance for timely initiation of appropriate treatment and, consequently, preventing further transmission of the disease. We assessed time to treatment initiation and treatment outcomes of RIF-resistant and RIF-susceptible TB patients diagnosed and treated in Vladimir TB Dispensary, Russia in 2012, before and after implementation of GeneXpert MTB/RIF® diagnostic technology. METHODS: All adult patients suspected of having TB during February-December 2012 underwent a clinical examination, chest x-ray, microscopy, culture, and phenotypic drug susceptibility testing (DST). Starting August 2012 Xpert diagnostic technology became available in the facility. We used logistic regression to compare treatment outcomes in pre-Xpert and post-Xpert periods. Kaplan-Meier curves and log-rank test were used to compare the time to treatment initiation between the groups. RESULTS: Of 402 patients screened for TB during February-December 2012, 338 were diagnosed with TB (280 RIF-susceptible, 58 RIF-resistant). RIF-resistant patients in the post-Xpert group started treatment with second-line drugs (SLD) earlier than those in pre-Xpert group (median 11 vs. 37 days, Log-rank p = 0.02). The hazard ratio for time to SLD treatment initiation was significantly higher in post-Xpert group (HR:2.06; 95%CI:1.09,3.89) compared to pre-Xpert group. Among the 53/58 RIF-resistant TB patients with available treatment outcome, 28 (53%) had successful outcomes (cured/completed treatment) including 15/26 (58%) in post-Xpert group versus 13/27 (48%) in pre-Xpert group. The observed difference, however, was not statistically significant (OR:0.69; 95%CI:0.23,2.06). Among RIF-susceptible TB cases time to treatment initiation was not significantly different between the groups (2 vs. 3 days, Log-rank p = 0.73). Of 252/280 RIF-susceptible TB cases with treatment outcome, 199 (79%) cases had successful outcome including 94/114 (82%) in post-Xpert group versus 105/138 (76%) in pre-Xpert group (OR:0.68; 95%CI:0.36,1.26). CONCLUSION: We observed that availability of Xpert for initial diagnosis significantly reduced the time to SLD treatment for RIF-resistant patients in the Vladimir TB Dispensary. Although implementation of rapid diagnostics did not improve treatment outcomes, early diagnosis of MDR-TB is important for selection of appropriate treatment regimen and prevention of transmission of drug-resistant strains of TB.


Assuntos
Antibióticos Antituberculose/uso terapêutico , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Tempo para o Tratamento , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Estudos Prospectivos , Federação Russa , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Life Sci ; 256: 117977, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603822

RESUMO

AIMS: Silibinin is the major component of flavonolignans complex mixture (Silymarin), which is obtained from Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn. Despite several reports about silibinin, little is known about its effects on gastric diseases. Then, the present study aims to evaluate the silibinin effect against Helicobacter pylori infection, gastric tumor cells and immunomodulation. MAIN METHODS: The anti-H. pylori effect was performed on 43504 and 43629 strains by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination, observing morphological alterations by scanning electron microscopy and in silico evaluation by molecular docking. Immunomodulatory activity (Interleukins-6 and 10, TNF-α and NO inhibition) was determined in H. pylori-stimulated macrophages and the cytotoxic activity on gastric adenocarcinoma cells prior and after metabolization by S9 fraction. KEY FINDINGS: Silibinin showed anti-H. pylori activity with MIC of 256 µg/mL, promoted important morphological changes in the bacterial cell wall, as blebs and clusters, suggesting interaction with Penicillin Binding Protein (PBP) subunits. Immunomodulatory potential was observed at 50 µg/mL with the inhibition of produced cytokines and NO by H. pylori-stimulated macrophages of 100% for TNF-ɑ, 56.83% for IL-6, and 70.29% for IL-10 and 73.33% for NO. Moreover, silibinin demonstrated significant cytotoxic activity on adenocarcinoma cells (CI50: 60.17 ± 0.95 µg/mL) with a higher selectivity index (SI: 1.52) compared to cisplatin. After metabolization silibinin showed an increase of cytotoxicity with a CI50 six-fold decrease (10.46 ± 0.25). SIGNIFICANCE: The use of silibinin may become an important alternative tool in the prevention and treatment of H. pylori infection and, consequently, in gastric cancer.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/prevenção & controle , Helicobacter pylori/efeitos dos fármacos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular/métodos , Silibina/farmacologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/prevenção & controle , Animais , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/uso terapêutico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Mucosa Gástrica/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Gástrica/microbiologia , Mucosa Gástrica/patologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/patologia , Helicobacter pylori/fisiologia , Camundongos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Células RAW 264.7 , Silibina/química , Silibina/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia
14.
Rev Chilena Infectol ; 37(1): 87-88, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730406

RESUMO

Using clinical strains of multidrug resistant (MDR) Gram negative bacilli, we compared MICs obtained from both broth microdilution, the reference method, and sensi-disk elution method. We found that, with A. baumannii exception, results were very similar. Sensi-disk elution method could be a good and reliable alternative for colistin resistance determination.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Colistina , Bactérias Gram-Negativas , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Acinetobacter baumannii/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Colistina/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/normas
15.
Mikrobiyol Bul ; 54(2): 211-222, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Turco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32723277

RESUMO

Members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) are the causative agents of tuberculosis (TB). Rifampin resistance in the clinical isolates of MTBC is an important indicator for multidrug resistant-TB (MDR-TB) cases. In this study, it was aimed to evaluate whether the Sensititre MycoTB plaque method is suitable for the routine use in determining drug susceptibility of rifampin resistant MTBC strains. Xpert MTBC/ RIF positive rifampin resistant 100 MTBC isolates were included in the study. Xpert MTBC/RIF (Cepheid, USA) test were performed after the samples were processed by homogenization and decontamination and acid-fast staining. Rifampin resistant clinical samples were cultured in automated MGIT/BACTEC 960 (Becton Dickinson, USA) system and acid fast bacteria (AFB) were investigated. The anti-TB drug susceptibility tests of all culture positive AFB and cord factor identified as MTBC by using a cart test (MPB64, Capilla TB-Neo, Tauns Laboratories, Inc., Numazu, Japan) were performed with the Löwenstein-Jensen proportion method (LJPM) and Sensititre MycoTB (Trek Diagnostic Systems, Cleveland, OH, USA) methods. For the comparison of the methods used, the tests were performed simultaneously. The standard LJPM was performed according to the previously described procedures by World Health Organization and the Sensititre MycoTB plate method was performed as defined by the manufacturer. The final concentrations of isoniazide, rifampin, rifabutin, ethambutol, ofloxacin, moxifloxacin amikacin, kanamycin, cycloserine, ethionamide and p-aminosalicylic acid in Löwenstein-Jensen media for LJPM were 0.2 µg/ml, 40.0 µg/ml, 20.0 µg/ml, 2.0 µg/ml, 2.0 µg/ml, 1.0 µg/ml, 4.0 µg/ml, 30.0 µg/ml, 30.0 µg/ml, 40.0 µg/ml, 40.0 µg/ml and 1.0 µg/ ml, respectively. The results were obtained in 14 days for all of the drugs in the Sensititre MycoTB plate method and in 28-42 days in the LJPM. In this study, the sensitivity and specificity percentages of the Sensititre MycoTB method and the categorical agreement between the two methods were calculated. The sensitivity and specificity percentages of the Sensititre MycoTB plate method were between 84.4-100% and 95.6- 100%, respectively. The categorical agreements between the two methods were 92-100% for the drugs tested in the study. Ethambutol was found to have the lowest sensitivity (84.4%) and specificity (95.6%). The sensitivities of isoniazide, ofloxacin, streptomycin, kanamycin, ethionamide and p-aminosalicylic acid were 98.8%, 90.0%, 94.3%, 87.5%, 91.7% and 95.6%, respectively, while rifampicin, rifabutin, moxifloxacin, amikacin, cycloserine were calculated as 100%. The specificities of isoniazid, rifampicin, rifabutin, ofloxacin, moxifloxacin, amikacin, kanamycin, and cycloserine were found to be 100%, streptomycin, ethionamide and p-aminosalicylic specificity were 96.9%, 97.4% and 98.9% respectively. The categorical agreement was 96-100% in all tested drugs except ethambutol (92%). As a result, although the cost is high, owing to the short incubation period, easy to perform, the possibility for evaluating both first and second line anti-TB drugs simultaneously, determination of minimum inhibitory concentration values of the drugs, long shelf life, high sensitivity, specificity and the categorical agreement values, the Sensititre MycoTB method was determined as an effective method that can be used especially in laboratories where the workload and the MDR-TB cases are high.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Rifampina , Tuberculose , Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Etambutol/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Rifampina/farmacologia , Tuberculose/microbiologia
16.
Life Sci ; 257: 117999, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32585244

RESUMO

AIM: This paper was mainly aimed at synthesis of Ce-containing nano-Mg-phosphate ceramic as a multifunctional material. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two ceramics based on Mg3(PO4)2 and Ce0.2Mg2.8(PO4)2 formulas (MP and MP-C, respectively) were synthesized. The synthesized powders were characterized by XRD, TEM, Zeta potential, and FTIR. Also, their dissolution behavior was tested in Tris-HCl buffer solution. Moreover, the antimicrobial efficacy was evaluated against gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus sphaericus MTCC 511 &Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 87) and gram-negative bacteria (Enterobacter aerogenes MTCC 111 &Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC 1034) using dick diffusion assay and microdilution method. Furthermore, the cell viability test was performed for the ceramics on Vero cells (African green monkey kidney cells), and their antitumor activity was determined by PC3 cell line (prostatic cancer). Also, the cellular uptake was determined by the flow cytometry. KEY FINDINGS: The results showed that the substitution of Mg by Ce decreased the particle size from 40 to 90 nm for MP sample to 2-10 nm for MP-C sample and increased the degradation rate. Both samples showed excellent antimicrobial activities. Moreover, MP demonstrated more cell viability than MP-C on Vero cells at high concentrations, whereas, MP-C showed more antitumor activity on PC3 cells than MP sample. Moreover, MP-C showed a higher cell uptake than MP due to its smaller size and more negative charge. SIGNIFICANCE: Mg-phosphate ceramic can be used in this study successfully as a delivery system for cerium ions and showed a high antitumor activity, which makes it highly recommended as safe and effective cancer treatment materials.


Assuntos
Cerâmica/farmacologia , Cério/farmacologia , Compostos de Magnésio/farmacologia , Fosfatos/farmacologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Bacillaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Osso e Ossos/microbiologia , Osso e Ossos/cirurgia , Sobrevivência Celular , Cério/metabolismo , Chlorocebus aethiops , Enterobacter aerogenes/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Compostos de Magnésio/metabolismo , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Células PC-3 , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Vero
17.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0235059, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574199

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To support effective antibiotic selection in empirical treatments, infection control interventions, and antimicrobial resistance containment strategies, many medical institutions collect antimicrobial susceptibility test data conducted at their facilities to prepare cumulative antibiograms. AIM: To evaluate how the setpoints of duplicate isolate removal period and data collection period affect the calculated susceptibility rates in antibiograms. METHODS: The Sakai City Medical Center is a regional core hospital for tertiary emergency medical care with 480 beds for general clinical care. In this study, all the Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates collected at the Sakai City Medical Center Clinical Laboratory between July 2013 and December 2018 were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility tests and the resulting data was analyzed. FINDINGS: The longer the duplicate isolate removal period, the fewer the isolates are available for every bacterial species. Differences in the length of the duplicate isolate removal period affected P. aeruginosa susceptibility rates to ß-lactam antibiotics by up to 10.8%. The setpoint of the data collection period affected the antimicrobial susceptibility rates by up to 7.3%. We found that a significant change in susceptibility could be missed depending on the setting of the data collection period, in preparing antibiogram of ß-lactam antibiotics for P. aeruginosa. CONCLUSIONS: When referring to antibiograms, medical professionals involved in infectious disease treatment should be aware that the parameter values, such as the duplicate isolate removal period and the data collection period, affect P. aeruginosa susceptibility rates especially to ß-lactam antibiotics. And antibiogram should be updated within the shortest time period that is practically possible, taking into account restrictions such as numbers of specimen.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Klebsiella pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/normas , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Algoritmos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Escherichia coli/fisiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Klebsiella pneumoniae/fisiologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolamento & purificação , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/fisiologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Fatores de Tempo
18.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233620, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492022

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To reach WHO End tuberculosis (TB) targets, countries need a quality-assured laboratory network equipped with rapid diagnostics for tuberculosis diagnosis and drug susceptibility testing. Diagnostic network analysis aims to inform instrument placement, sample referral, staffing, geographical prioritization, integration of testing enabling targeted investments and programming to meet priority needs. METHODS: Supply chain modelling and optimization software was used to map Lesotho's TB diagnostic network using available data sources, including laboratory and programme reports and health and demographic surveys. Various scenarios were analysed, including current network configuration and inclusion of additional GeneXpert and/or point of care instruments. Different levels of estimated demand for testing services were modelled (current [30,000 tests/year], intermediate [41,000 tests/year] and total demand needed to find all TB cases [88,000 tests/year]). RESULTS: Lesotho's GeneXpert capacity is largely well-located but under-utilized (19/24 sites use under 50% capacity). The network has sufficient capacity to meet current and near-future demand and 70% of estimated total demand. Relocation of 13 existing instruments would deliver equivalent access to services, maintain turnaround time and reduce costs compared with planned procurement of 7 more instruments. Gaps exist in linking people with positive symptom screens to testing; closing this gap would require extra 11,000 tests per year and result in 1000 additional TB patients being treated. Closing the gap in linking diagnosed patients to treatment would result in a further 629 patients being treated. Scale up of capacity to meet total demand will be best achieved using a point-of-care platform in addition to the existing GeneXpert footprint. CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of TB diagnostic networks highlighted key gaps and opportunities to optimize services. Network mapping and optimization should be considered an integral part of strategic planning. By building efficient and patient-centred diagnostic networks, countries will be better equipped to meet End TB targets.


Assuntos
Redes Comunitárias , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Antibióticos Antituberculose/uso terapêutico , Serviços de Laboratório Clínico , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Humanos , Lesoto/epidemiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Modelos Teóricos , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Software , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia
19.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 6: CD009528, 2020 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520436

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinicians typically select the antibiotics used to treat pulmonary infections in people with cystic fibrosis based on the results of antimicrobial susceptibility testing performed on bacteria traditionally grown in a planktonic mode (grown in a liquid). However, there is considerable evidence to suggest that Pseudomonas aeruginosa actually grows in a biofilm (or slime layer) in the airways of people with cystic fibrosis with chronic pulmonary infections. Therefore, choosing antibiotics based on biofilm rather than conventional antimicrobial susceptibility testing could potentially improve response to treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in people with cystic fibrosis. This is an update of a previously published Cochrane Review. OBJECTIVES: To compare biofilm antimicrobial susceptibility testing-driven therapy to conventional antimicrobial susceptibility testing-driven therapy in the treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in people with cystic fibrosis. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis Trials Register, compiled from electronic database searches and handsearching of journals and conference abstract books. Most recent search: 07 April 2020. We also searched two ongoing trials registries and the reference lists of relevant articles and reviews. Most recent searches: 07 April 2020 and 05 September 2017. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of antibiotic therapy based on biofilm antimicrobial susceptibility testing compared to antibiotic therapy based on conventional antimicrobial susceptibility testing in the treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa pulmonary infection in people with cystic fibrosis. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently selected RCTs, assessed their risk of bias and extracted data from eligible trials. Additionally, the review authors contacted the trial investigators to obtain further information. The quality of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE criteria. MAIN RESULTS: The searches identified two multicentre, double-blind RCTs eligible for inclusion in the review with a total of 78 participants (adults and children); one RCT was undertaken in people who were clinically stable, the second was in people experiencing pulmonary exacerbations. Both RCTs prospectively assessed whether the use of biofilm antimicrobial susceptibility testing improved microbiological and clinical outcomes in participants with cystic fibrosis who were infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The primary outcome was the change in sputum Pseudomonas aeruginosa density from the beginning to the end of antibiotic therapy. Although the intervention was shown to be safe, the data from these two RCTs did not provide evidence that biofilm susceptibility testing was superior to conventional susceptibility testing either in terms of microbiological or lung function outcomes. One of the trials also measured risk and time to subsequent exacerbation as well as quality of life measures and did not demonstrate any difference between groups in these outcomes. Both RCTs had an overall low risk of bias and the quality of the evidence using GRADE criteria was deemed to be moderate to high for the outcomes selected. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The current evidence is insufficient to recommend choosing antibiotics based on biofilm antimicrobial susceptibility testing rather than conventional antimicrobial susceptibility testing in the treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa pulmonary infections in people with cystic fibrosis. Biofilm antimicrobial susceptibility testing may be more appropriate in the development of newer, more effective formulations of drugs which can then be tested in clinical trials.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibrose Cística/complicações , Infecções por Pseudomonas/tratamento farmacológico , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções Respiratórias/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Infecções por Pseudomonas/complicações , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/fisiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Infecções Respiratórias/microbiologia , Escarro/microbiologia
20.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2719, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32483195

RESUMO

National networks of laboratory-based surveillance of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) monitor resistance trends and disseminate these data to AMR stakeholders. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) can support surveillance by pinpointing resistance mechanisms and uncovering transmission patterns. However, genomic surveillance is rare in low- and middle-income countries. Here, we implement WGS within the established Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Program of the Philippines via a binational collaboration. In parallel, we characterize bacterial populations of key bug-drug combinations via a retrospective sequencing survey. By linking the resistance phenotypes to genomic data, we reveal the interplay of genetic lineages (strains), AMR mechanisms, and AMR vehicles underlying the expansion of specific resistance phenotypes that coincide with the growing carbapenem resistance rates observed since 2010. Our results enhance our understanding of the drivers of carbapenem resistance in the Philippines, while also serving as the genetic background to contextualize ongoing local prospective surveillance.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Genômica/métodos , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Filipinas/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA