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1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 110980, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888623

RESUMO

Pesticides can enter aquatic environments potentially affecting non-target organisms. Unfortunately, the effects of such substances are still poorly understood. This study investigated the effects of the active neonicotinoid substance thiacloprid (TH) and the commercial product Calypso 480 SC (CA) (active compound 40.4% TH) on Mytilus galloprovincialis after short-term exposure to sublethal concentrations. Mussels were tested for seven days to 0, 1, 5 and 10 mg L-1 TH and 0, 10, 50 and 100 mg L-1 CA. For this purpose, several parameters, such as cell viability of haemocytes and digestive cells, biochemical haemolymph features, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) enzymatic activity of gills and digestive gland, as well as histology of such tissues were analysed. The sublethal concentrations of both substances lead to abatement or completely stopping the byssal fibres creation. Biochemical analysis of haemolymph showed significant changes (P < 0.01) in electrolytes ions (Cl-, K+, Na+, Ca2+, S-phosphor), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzyme activity and glucose concentration following exposure to both substances. The TH-exposed mussels showed significant imbalance (P < 0.05) in CAT activity in digestive gland and gills. CA caused significant decrease (P < 0.05) in SOD activity in gills and in CAT activity in both tissues. Results of histological analyses showed severe damage in both digestive gland and gills in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. This study provides useful information about the acute toxicity of a neonicotinoid compound and a commercial insecticide on mussels. Nevertheless, considering that neonicotinoids are still widely used and that mussels are very important species for marine environment and human consumption, further researches are needed to better comprehend the potential risk posed by such compounds to aquatic non-target species.


Assuntos
Brânquias/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemolinfa/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Mytilus/efeitos dos fármacos , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade , Tiazinas/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Catalase/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Brânquias/enzimologia , Hemócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda
2.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 110946, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888619

RESUMO

Zebrafish embryos are highly sensitive to toxicant exposure and have been used to evaluate the potential eco-toxicity caused by organic pollutants in the aquatic environment. This study was to develop four quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models based on norm descriptors for acute toxicity of different exposure times toward zebrafish embryo of organic compounds with various structures. Norm descriptors were obtained by calculating the norm index of the atomic distribution matrix, which was composed of atomic spatial distribution and atomic properties. These norm index-based QSAR models presented satisfactory results with R2 of 0.8549, 0.9162, 0.8335 and 0.8119 for 48, 96, 120 and 132 h, respectively. Validation results including cross validation, external validation, Y-randomized test and applicability domain analysis indicated that the proposed models were stable, robust and reliable. Accordingly, these norm descriptors might be effective in predicting the acute toxicity of various organics to zebrafish embryos, which might be useful for evaluating the potential hazards of organic pollutants to aquatic environment.


Assuntos
Embrião não Mamífero/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Orgânicos , Relação Quantitativa Estrutura-Atividade , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Compostos Orgânicos/química , Compostos Orgânicos/toxicidade , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda
3.
SAR QSAR Environ Res ; 31(10): 785-801, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878491

RESUMO

Reviewing the toxicological literature for over the past decades, the key elements of QSAR modelling have been the mechanisms of toxic action and chemical classes. As a result, it is often hard to design an acceptable single model for a particular endpoint without clustering compounds. The main aim here was to develop a Pass-Pass Quantitative Structure-Activity-Activity Relationship (PP QSAAR) model for direct prediction of the toxicity of a larger set of compounds, combing the application of an already predicted model for another species, and molecular descriptors. We investigated a large acute toxicity data set of five aquatic organisms, fish, Daphnia magna, and algae from the VEGA-Hub, as well as Tetrahymena pyriformis and Vibrio fischeri. The statistical quality of the models encouraged us to consider this alternative for the prediction of toxicity using interspecies extrapolation QSAAR models without regard to the toxicity mechanism or chemical class. In the case of algae, the use of activity values from a second species did not improve the models. This can be attributed to the weak interspecies relationships, due to different aquatic toxicity mechanisms in species.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Quantitativa Estrutura-Atividade , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Aliivibrio fischeri/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Daphnia/efeitos dos fármacos , Peixes , Regulamentação Governamental , Microalgas/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Químicos , Medição de Risco , Tetrahymena pyriformis/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Aquat Toxicol ; 227: 105582, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32823071

RESUMO

While it is likely that ENPs may occur together with other contaminants in nature, the combined effects of exposure to both ENPs and environmental contaminants are not studied sufficiently. In this study, we investigated the acute and sublethal toxicity of PVP coated silver nanoparticles (AgNP) and ionic silver (Ag+; administered as AgNO3) to the marine copepod Calanus finmarchicus. We further studied effects of single exposures to AgNPs (nominal concentrations: low 15 µg L-1 NPL, high 150 µg L-1 NPH) or Ag+ (60 µg L-1), and effects of co-exposure to AgNPs, Ag+ and the water-soluble fraction (WSF; 100 µg L-1) of a crude oil (AgNP + WSF; Ag++WSF). The gene expression and the activity of antioxidant defense enzymes SOD, CAT and GST, as well as the gene expression of HSP90 and CYP330A1 were determined as sublethal endpoints. Results show that Ag+ was more acutely toxic compared to AgNPs, with 96 h LC50 concentrations of 403 µg L-1 for AgNPs, and 147 µg L-1 for Ag+. Organismal uptake of Ag following exposure was similar for AgNP and Ag+, and was not significantly different when co-exposed to WSF. Exposure to AgNPs alone caused increases in gene expressions of GST and SOD, whereas WSF exposure caused an induction in SOD. Responses in enzyme activities were generally low, with significant effects observed only on SOD activity in NPL and WSF exposures and on GST activity in NPL and NPH exposures. Combined AgNP and WSF exposures caused slightly altered responses in expression of SOD, GST and CYP330A1 genes compared to the single exposures of either AgNPs or WSF. However, there was no clear pattern of cumulative effects caused by co-exposures of AgNPs and WSF. The present study indicates that the exposure to AgNPs, Ag+, and to a lesser degree WSF cause an oxidative stress response in C. finmarchicus, which was slightly, but mostly not significantly altered in combined exposures. This indicated that the combined effects between Ag and WSF are relatively limited, at least with regard to oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Copépodes/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Petróleo/toxicidade , Prata/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Copépodes/genética , Copépodes/metabolismo , Interações Medicamentosas , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Íons , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Água do Mar/química , Prata/química , Solubilidade , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda , Testes de Toxicidade Subaguda , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
5.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 110998, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32778532

RESUMO

Relative ecotoxicity of approved neonicotinoids (i.e. imidacloprid, clothianidin, acetamiprid, thiacloprid, thiamethoxam and dinotefuran) and diamides (i.e. chlorantraniliprole, cyantraniliprole and flubendiamide) was examined on population growth parameters of Zygogramma bicolorata Pallister on parthenium under laboratory conditions at 27 ± 1 °C, 65 ± 5% relative humidity and 10 L : 14D photoperiod. The dose of all tested insecticides in the bioassay procedure was within a minimum range of their recommended field rate. In acute toxicity trial, imidacloprid caused highest rate of mortality in treated adults of Z. bicolorata, however, it was lowest in flubendiamide treatment followed by cyantraniliprole and chlorantraniliprole. Further, based on toxicity coefficient (E) value in acute toxicity trial, all were classified as harmful (H) and diamides were classified as moderately harmful (MH) as per IOBC classification. Moreover, chronic toxicity trials were carried out through life table response experiments (LTREs) in the F1 progeny of acute toxicity experienced group. Prolonged development with the highest mortality was evident in as compared to diamides. Furthermore, population growth parameters i.e. potential fecundity (Pf), natality rate (mx), intrinsic rate of increase (rm), net reproductive rate (R0) and finite rate of increase (λ) was greatly reduced in Z. bicolorata treated with neonicotinoids as compared with diamides. However, mean generation time (Tc), corrected generation time (τ) and the doubling time (DT) was prolonged in neonicotinoids followed by diamides. Furthermore, proportion of females was greatly reduced (0.43-0.48 females) in neonicotinoids as comparison to diamides (0.53-0.55 females) and control (0.67 females). On the basis of ecotoxicity trials, the tested neonicotinoids were highly toxic to Z. bicolorata than diamides. Therefore, diamide insecticides could be used with Z. bicolorata, however, for validation experimentation need to be done under natural field conditions.


Assuntos
Besouros/efeitos dos fármacos , Diamida/toxicidade , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade , Animais , Besouros/fisiologia , Ecotoxicologia , Feminino , Crescimento Demográfico , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda
6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 202: 110922, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800257

RESUMO

Fluorene-9-bisphenol (BHPF) is a substitute for bisphenol A (BPA), which is widely used to manufacture plastic products. Previous studies indicate that BHPF has an anti-estrogenic effect and induces cytotoxicity in mice oocytes. However, the effects of acute BHPF exposure on the aquatic organism obtain little attention. In this study, a series of BHPF concentrations (1 µM, 2 µM, 5 µM, 10 µM, 20 µM) was used to exposed zebrafish embryos from 2 h post-fertilization (hpf). The results showed the LC50 at 96hpf was 2.88 µM (1.01 mg/L). Acute exposure induced malformation in morphology, and retarded epiboly rate at 10hpf, increased apoptosis. Moreover, acute BHPF exposure led cardiotoxicity, by impeding cardiac looping, decreasing cardiac contractility (reducing the stroke volume and cardiac output, decreasing fractional shortening of ventricle). Besides that, BHPF exposure altered the expression of cardiac transcriptional regulators and development related genes. In conclusion, acute BHPF exposure induced developmental abnormality, retarded cardiac morphogenesis and injured the cardiac contractility. This study indicated BHPF would be an unneglected threat for the safety of aquatic organisms.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Fenóis/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Cardiotoxicidade/metabolismo , Embrião não Mamífero/efeitos dos fármacos , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/efeitos dos fármacos , Fluorenos/toxicidade , Camundongos , Oócitos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plásticos , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra
7.
SAR QSAR Environ Res ; 31(9): 655-675, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32799684

RESUMO

We report new consensus models estimating acute toxicity for algae, Daphnia and fish endpoints. We assembled a large collection of 3680 public unique compounds annotated by, at least, one experimental value for the given endpoint. Support Vector Machine models were internally and externally validated following the OECD principles. Reasonable predictive performances were achieved (RMSEext = 0.56-0.78) which are in line with those of state-of-the-art models. The known structural alerts are compared with analysis of the atomic contributions to these models obtained using the ISIDA/ColorAtom utility. A benchmarking against existing tools has been carried out on a set of compounds considered more representative and relevant for the chemical space of the current chemical industry. Our model scored one of the best accuracy and data coverage. Nevertheless, industrial data performances were noticeably lower than those on public data, indicating that existing models fail to meet the industrial needs. Thus, final models were updated with the inclusion of new industrial compounds, extending the applicability domain and relevance for application in an industrial context. Generated models and collected public data are made freely available.


Assuntos
Daphnia/efeitos dos fármacos , Peixes , Microalgas/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Quantitativa Estrutura-Atividade , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte
8.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(30): 38360-38369, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32748353

RESUMO

Ecotoxicological bioassays have been widely applied to evaluate the toxicity of substances in standardized test organisms. Nevertheless, the main challenge for researchers is the use of native species to express the effects of pollutants on aquatic biota. Thirty years ago, Smith and collaborators evaluate the possible use of Pristina longiseta (as Pristina leidyi) in acute toxicity test, developing some experiments using cadmium and vanadium as toxicants. The present work aimed to update the use of P. longiseta, in acute bioassays, presenting the occurrence and general characteristics of the species; adaptation of cultivation to tropical conditions; sensitivity tests using potassium chloride (KCl) and copper sulfate (CuSO4) as reference substances standardized by OECD, USEPA, and ABNT; and acute exposure to zinc chloride (ZnCl2). The results showed a successful use of this species as tropical test organism, which presented easy laboratory rearing and responded to the classical ecotoxicological index. The present study can increase the utilization of P. longiseta in bioassays for tropical regions and improve the evaluation of environmental impacts using a native species in ecotoxicological studies.


Assuntos
Oligoquetos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Bioensaio , Cádmio , Ecotoxicologia , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda
9.
SAR QSAR Environ Res ; 31(8): 615-641, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32713201

RESUMO

The acute toxicity of organic compounds towards Daphina magna was subjected to QSAR analysis. The two-dimensional simplex representation of molecular structure (2D SiRMS) and the support vector machine (SVM), gradient boosting (GBM) methods were used to develop QSAR models. Adequate regression QSAR models were developed for incubation of 24 h. Their interpretation allowed us to quantitatively describe and rank the well-known toxicophores, to refine their molecular surroundings, and to distinguish the structural derivatives of the fragments that significantly contribute to the acute toxicity (LC50) of organic compounds towards D. magna. Based on the results of the interpretation of the regression models, a molecular design (modification) of highly toxic compounds was performed in order to reduce their hazard. In addition, acceptable classification QSAR models were developed to reliably predict the following mode of action (MOA): specific and non-specific toxicity of organic compounds towards D. magna. When interpreting these models, we were able to determine the structural fragments and the physicochemical characteristics of molecules that are responsible for the manifestation of one of the modes of action. The on-line version of the OCHEM expert system (https://ochem.eu), HYBOT descriptors, and the random forest and SVM methods were used for a comparative QSAR investigation.


Assuntos
Daphnia/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Orgânicos/toxicidade , Relação Quantitativa Estrutura-Atividade , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Estrutura Molecular , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte
10.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 33(6): 403-413, 2020 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641203

RESUMO

Objective: To verify the health advisory for short-term exposure to phenol. Methods: The method of this validation experiment was the same as the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) methodology for toxicology experiments used to determine phenol drinking water equivalent level (DWEL). Pregnant female Sprague-Dawley rats were administered phenol in distilled water by gavage at daily doses of 15, 30, 60, 120, and 240 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) from implantation (the 6th day post-mating) to the day prior to the scheduled caesarean section (the 20th day of pregnancy). The following information was recorded: general behavior; body weight; number of corpus luteum, live birth, fetus, stillbirth, and implantation; fetal gender; body weight; body length; tail length; and abnormalities and pathomorphological changes in the dams. Results: In the 60 mg/kg b.w. dose group, the mortality of pregnant rats increased with increasing doses, suggesting maternal toxicity. Fetal and placental weights decreased as phenol dose increased from 30 mg/kg b.w., and were significantly different compared those in the vehicle control group, which suggested developmental toxicity in the fetuses. However, the phenol-exposed groups showed no significant change in other parameters compared with the vehicle control group ( P > 0.05). Conclusion: Despite using the same method as the US EPA, a different NOEAL of 15 mg/(kg·d) was obtained in this study.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Desenvolvimento Fetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenol/toxicidade , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Gravidez , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda
11.
Chemosphere ; 259: 127481, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32650163

RESUMO

Zinc Oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) has been heavily used in the industry, and increasing concerns on the ecotoxicity has arisen due to the risk of release into the environment. In this work, silkworm was used here as a model organism to study the toxicity of ZnO NPs, due to the presence of a conserved immune response as well as a pharmacokinetics similar to mammals. Zn accumulation, biodistribution and toxicity in silkworms were monitored at different time points after a subcutaneous injection. The highest cumulative content of ZnO NPs was detected in the midgut. The results of catalytic activity studies confirmed that the antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GSH-PX) in midgut cells were expressed in response to ZnO NPs. The expression of genes (Dronc and Caspase-1) related to apoptosis was increased, while the Trt gene was down-regulated. A possible mechanism was proposed for toxicity of ZnO NPs to silkworms.


Assuntos
Bombyx/fisiologia , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Óxido de Zinco/toxicidade , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Apoptose , Bombyx/metabolismo , Nanopartículas , Distribuição Tecidual , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32556791

RESUMO

Effluents are commonly discharged into water bodies, and in order for the process to be as environmentally sound as possible, the potential effects on native water communities must be assessed alongside the quality parameters of the effluents themselves. In the present work, changes in the bacterial diversity of streamwater receiving a tannery effluent were monitored by high-throughput MiSeq sequencing. Physico-chemical and microbiological parameters and acute toxicity were also evaluated through different bioassays. After the discharge of treated effluents that had been either naturally attenuated or bioaugmented, bacterial diversity decreased immediately in the streamwater samples, as evidenced by the over-representation of taxa such as Brachymonas, Arcobacter, Marinobacterium, Myroides, Paludibacter and Acinetobacter, typically found in tannery effluents. However, there were no remarkable changes in diversity over time (after 1 day). In terms of the physico-chemical and microbiological parameters analyzed, chemical oxygen demand and total bacterial count increased in response to discharge of the treated effluents. No lethal effects were observed in Lactuca sativa L. seeds or Rhinella arenarum embryos exposed to the streamwater that had received the treated effluents. All of these results contribute to the growing knowledge about the environmental safety of effluent discharge procedures.


Assuntos
Bufo arenarum , Resíduos Industriais/efeitos adversos , Alface/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Águas Residuárias/análise , Animais , Argentina , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Rios/química , Rios/microbiologia , Curtume , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32588236

RESUMO

High consumption of drugs, combined with their presence in the environment, raises concerns about its consequences. Even though researches are often engaged in analyzing substances separately, that is not the environmental reality. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the acute toxicity of the pharmaceuticals simvastatin, metformin, omeprazole and diazepam, and all possible mixtures between them, to the organism Aliivibrio fischeri, verifying possible synergistic or antagonistic effects and assessing byproducts formation. In terms of individual toxicity, omeprazole is the most toxic of the active ingredients, followed by simvastatin, diazepam and, finally, metformin. When the toxicity of mixtures was tested, synergism, antagonism and hormesis were perceived, most probably generated due to byproducts formation. Moreover, it was observed that even when compounds are at concentrations below the non-observed effect concentration (NOEC), there may be toxicity to the mixture. Hence, this work points to the urgent need for more studies involving mixtures, since chemicals are subject to interactions and modifications, can mix, and potentiate or nullify the toxic effect of each other.


Assuntos
Aliivibrio fischeri/efeitos dos fármacos , Diazepam/toxicidade , Metformina/toxicidade , Omeprazol/toxicidade , Sinvastatina/toxicidade , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda
14.
Chemosphere ; 258: 127216, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32535436

RESUMO

The degradation of fluopyram (FLP) was investigated under ozone-microbubble treatment (OMBT). Kinetic models were established to study the influence of three treatments: ozonated water, microbubbles (MCB), and OMBT. FLP degraded completely in OMBT, and a clearance rate of 89.8-100% was achievable. Three direct transformation products [product 1 (F1), product 2 (F2), and product 3(F3)] were isolated and identified using a hybrid ion trap-orbitrap mass spectrometer. Moreover, a transformation theory of FLP degradation was developed according to targeted fragmentation, accurate mass measurements, and degradation profiles. These analyses showed that the products originated from a series of chemical reactions involving dechlorination, hydroxyl substitution, cleavage and oxidation, and were further confirmed based on molecular electrostatic potential and molecular orbital theory. In addition, the stability and toxicity of FLP and its transformation products were tested using the Toxicity Estimation Software Tool (T.E.S.T.) and the Ecological Structure Activity Relationships (ECOSAR) program. Products F1, F2 and F3 were found to be toxic substances, but their toxicity to aquatic organisms was lower than that of FLP. However, they were more toxic to rats than FLP, and their physicochemical properties were more stable. Overall, OMBT is a highly effective method for FLP removal during wastewater treatment.


Assuntos
Benzamidas/análise , Microbolhas , Ozônio/química , Piridinas/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água/métodos , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos/efeitos dos fármacos , Benzamidas/toxicidade , Radical Hidroxila/química , Cinética , Dose Letal Mediana , Oxirredução , Piridinas/toxicidade , Ratos , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda , Águas Residuárias/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
15.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(2): e20180445, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32556045

RESUMO

The present work evaluated the ecological risk of glyphosate by its commercial formulation (Roundup Original®) used to control floating aquatic macrophytes. Exposure analysis and ecological effects were performed from microcosm studies. The risk characterization was performed based on the calculation of the risk quotient. The commercial formulation of glyphosate had high toxicity when it was assessed separately. On the other hand, ecotoxicological evaluation of water samples from microcosms did not present toxicity to any tested organisms, however, glyphosate application is recommended exclusively to water bodies that have the surface completely covered by macrophytes.


Assuntos
Glicina/análogos & derivados , Herbicidas/farmacologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/farmacologia , Animais , Glicina/farmacologia , Modelos Biológicos , Medição de Risco , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda/métodos
16.
Chemosphere ; 257: 127240, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516670

RESUMO

Exaiptasia pallida has been applied as a cnidarian model to assess the toxicity of various contaminants using endpoints related to growth, reproduction and mortality. However, increasingly accepted behavioural and biochemical endpoints are underrepresented in ecotoxicity testing with cnidarian species. The aim of this study was to assess the suitability of tentacle retraction and superoxide dismutase activity as behavioural and biochemical endpoints for ecotoxicity testing with E. pallida. A concentration-dependent, tentacle retraction response was found in sub-lethal toxicity testing for anemones exposed to 1-65 µg L-1 Cu and 2-630 µg L-1 Zn for 24 and 96 h. Semi-quantitative and quantitative approaches to tentacle retraction analysis showed a difference in response sensitivity, however, both methods resulted in similar 24- and 96-h EC50 values for Cu and Zn. Additionally, tentacle retraction analysis provided the benefit of identifying recovery in anemones previously exposed to 359 µg L-1 Zn following a 96-h recovery period. Conversely, no significant difference in superoxide dismutase activity was detected in anemones exposed to the Cu and Zn solutions compared with controls, after either 24- or 96-h exposures. These findings support the ease of application and sensitivity of tentacle retraction as an endpoint in ecotoxicity testing with E. pallida and recommend its suitability for use in acute, sub-lethal toxicity testing. Moreover, evidence of recovery in E. pallida following exposure suggests that recovery should be incorporated into future toxicity assessments.


Assuntos
Anêmonas-do-Mar/fisiologia , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Cobre/toxicidade , Anêmonas-do-Mar/crescimento & desenvolvimento
17.
J Environ Sci Health B ; 55(8): 749-755, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32558613

RESUMO

This study assessed the hematological, enzymatic and osmoregulatory responses of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) exposed to sublethal concentrations (1.125 and 3.750 µg/L) of a commercial thiamethoxam-containing insecticide used on rice crops. Groups of 6 fish per tank (in triplicate, n = 3, total 54 fish) were exposed for up to 96 h to different concentrations of the compound. After this period, fish were placed in clean water for 48 h. Two fish from each tank (6 per treatment) that had been exposed to the insecticide for 24 h were anesthetized with eugenol and blood was collected to evaluate hematological and biochemical parameters. Blood, liver and muscle were collected for determination of metabolic parameters, plasma cortisol, Cl-, Na+ and K+ levels and H+-ATPase and Na+/K+-ATPase activity in the gill. H+-ATPase activity was higher in fish exposed to 1.125 µg/L insecticide at 24 h compared to control (0.0 µg/L). Differences in cortisol levels were evidenced throughout the experimental period. These results indicated that exposure to the insecticide changed the hematological, biochemical and metabolic profile of the animals, suggesting concern about environmental safety. Therefore, we discourage the use of this pesticide in areas that come into contact with water bodies inhabited by fish.


Assuntos
Peixes-Gato/fisiologia , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Tiametoxam/toxicidade , Adenosina Trifosfatases/metabolismo , Animais , Peixes-Gato/sangue , Ecotoxicologia/métodos , Brânquias/efeitos dos fármacos , Brânquias/metabolismo , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculos/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculos/metabolismo , Potássio/metabolismo , Sódio/metabolismo , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32468518

RESUMO

Bifenthrin (BF) and acetochlor (AT) are widely used as an insecticide and herbicide, respectively, which are introduced to the aquatic environment as a natural result. Although the thyroid active substances may coexist in the environment, their joint effects on fish have not been identified. We examined the joint toxicity of BF and AT in zebrafish (Danio rerio) in this study. An acute lethal toxicity test indicated that the median lethal concentration (LC50) values of BF and AT under 96 h treatment were 0.40 and 4.56 µmol L-1, respectively. The binary mixture of BF + AT displayed an antagonistic effect on the acute lethal toxicity. After 14 days post fertilization (dpf) with exposure to individual pesticides at sub-lethal concentrations of, no effects were observed on the catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) activities, while the binary mixtures (except for the 7.2 × 10-3 µmol L-1 BF + 1.2 × 10-2 µmol L-1 AT exposure group) significantly induced the CAT activity. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and triiodothyronine (T3) level were significantly increased in all exposure groups. The thyroxine (T4) level remained unchanged after exposure to individual pesticides, but significantly increased in the 7.2 × 10-3 µmol L-1 BF + 1.2 × 10-2 µmol L-1 AT group. The expressions of the genes Dio2, TRa, TSHß and CRH in the thyroid hormone (TH) axis were significantly up-regulated in the 7.2 × 10-3 µmol L-1 BF + 0.4 × 10-2 µmol L-1 AT group. Our data indicated that the binary mixture of BF + AT significantly altered the antioxidant enzyme activities and gene expressions in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis and changed the TH levels.


Assuntos
Herbicidas/toxicidade , Piretrinas/toxicidade , Hormônios Tireóideos/metabolismo , Toluidinas/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia , Animais , Embrião não Mamífero/efeitos dos fármacos , Glândula Tireoide/efeitos dos fármacos , Hormônios Tireóideos/genética , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda
19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(23): 13000-13011, 2020 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32434918

RESUMO

Extensive studies in prostate cancer and other malignancies have revealed that l-methionine (l-Met) and its metabolites play a critical role in tumorigenesis. Preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated that systemic restriction of serum l-Met, either via partial dietary restriction or with bacterial l-Met-degrading enzymes exerts potent antitumor effects. However, administration of bacterial l-Met-degrading enzymes has not proven practical for human therapy because of problems with immunogenicity. As the human genome does not encode l-Met-degrading enzymes, we engineered the human cystathionine-γ-lyase (hMGL-4.0) to catalyze the selective degradation of l-Met. At therapeutically relevant dosing, hMGL-4.0 reduces serum l-Met levels to >75% for >72 h and significantly inhibits the growth of multiple prostate cancer allografts/xenografts without weight loss or toxicity. We demonstrate that in vitro, hMGL-4.0 causes tumor cell death, associated with increased reactive oxygen species, S-adenosyl-methionine depletion, global hypomethylation, induction of autophagy, and robust poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage indicative of DNA damage and apoptosis.


Assuntos
Cistationina gama-Liase/farmacologia , Metionina/antagonistas & inibidores , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cistationina gama-Liase/genética , Cistationina gama-Liase/isolamento & purificação , Cistationina gama-Liase/uso terapêutico , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios Enzimáticos , Humanos , Masculino , Metionina/sangue , Metionina/metabolismo , Camundongos , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/uso terapêutico , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
20.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 200: 110757, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32454264

RESUMO

Triphenyl phosphate (TPHP) is one of the most widely used organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) and is frequently detected in a variety of environmental media. Previous studies reported that TPHP had toxic effects on vertebrates, but little toxic information was available in lower trophic aquatic organisms which were more sensitive to the exposure of many toxic substances. In this study, protozoa Tetrahymena thermophila (T. thermophila) were exposed to 0, 0.01, 0.17 or 2.35 mg/L TPHP for 5 days to study the effects of sub-chronic exposure on theoretical population, cell viability, cell size and number of cilia. Additionally, the effects of TPHP on gene transcription were assessed by transcriptome sequencing technique (RNA-Seq). Cell viability and number of cilia were significantly reduced in all TPHP exposure groups compared with the control. In addition, exposure to 0.17 or 2.35 mg/L TPHP significantly reduced the theoretical population, circumference and body width, and there was a significant decrease in body length in the 2.35 mg/L exposure group. Comparative transcriptome sequencing identified a total of 4105 up- and 4487 down-regulated genes after exposure to 2.35 mg/L TPHP for 5 days compared with the control. KEGG analysis showed that dysfunction of pathways associated with ribosome, spliceosome, phagosome, proteasome and protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum in this study might be responsible for the toxicity of T. thermophila caused by TPHP. In general, the results indicated that TPHP had an adverse effect on the protozoa T. thermophila.


Assuntos
Retardadores de Chama/toxicidade , Organofosfatos/toxicidade , Tetrahymena thermophila/efeitos dos fármacos , Cílios/efeitos dos fármacos , Tetrahymena thermophila/genética , Tetrahymena thermophila/metabolismo , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos
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