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1.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238051, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915796

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to compare the effects of vibration (Vib versus noVib) during a maximal graded cycling exercise on hormonal response, precisely on cortisol (C) and testosterone (T). Twelve active males (25 ± 5yrs; 181 ± 5cm; 80.7 ± 11.1kg) randomly performed two maximal incremental cycling tests on two separate days and at the same time of the day (09:00). The protocol consisted of incremental steps of 3 min duration performed on a PowerBIKETM that induces vibration cycling. The study was a repeated measures design and participants performed the test with and without vibration. Gas exchange and heart rate (HR) were continuously assessed and blood lactate (Bla) was recorded at the end of each incremental stage. Saliva samples were collected before and immediately after the test, and analysed for (C) and (T). The results show that C and T increased in both cycling conditions; however, the C's magnitude of change was significantly higher by 83% after Vib cycling in comparison to the no Vib (p = 0.014), whereas the T's magnitude of change were not statistically different between trials (p = 0.715). Vibration induced a decrease of the T/C ratio (p = 0.046) but no significant changes were observed following noVib (p = 0.476). As a conclusion, the investigation suggests that adding mechanical vibration to cycling may potentiate a catabolic exercise-induced state, which could have potential clinical implications in rehabilitation and injury treatment. Sport experts should take this message home to carefully plan the recovery process and time during training and competitions.


Assuntos
Ciclismo , Saliva/metabolismo , Vibração , Adolescente , Adulto , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/análise , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Masculino , Consumo de Oxigênio , Testosterona/análise , Adulto Jovem
2.
J Chromatogr A ; 1628: 461445, 2020 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822984

RESUMO

Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) have been the most commonly abused substances taken by not only professional sportsmen but also recreational bodybuilders. The detection of micro-dose testosterone (T) misuse is particularly challenging as it possesses pseudo-endogenous origin and is sometimes impossible to be identified in urine samples. Dried blood (DB) obtained by finger pricking has been proven to be an alternative matrix for better correlating to physiological responses. Moreover, the introduction of the volumetric absorptive microsampling (VAMS) technology allows overcoming some major limitations of spotting blood onto a filter paper card. In this work, a fast and sensitive GC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the quantification of AAS in DB collected by means of VAMS. T and the eight top abused synthetic AAS, namely nandrolone, boldenone, mesterolone, drostanolone, metenolone, metandienone, oxandrolone, and dehydrochloromethyl T were selected as the target analytes. The method based on VAMS exhibited good precision, accuracy as well as stability, and superior extraction recoveries over the punched DB spots reported in the literature. The chromatographic separation was achieved within 6.4 min and the detection limit is as little as 50 fg (i.e. able to detect 0.10 ng mL-1 in 20 µL of DB). Confirmed by forty real blood samples, the Deming regression and Bland-Altman analysis revealed that the VAMS DB could be employed for quantifying blood T level in agreement with using the serum specimen. The feasibility of the method was then successfully proven by the analysis of samples collected from a three-arm T administration trial. Our results highlighted that DB total T was a sensitive indicator for identifying transdermal micro-dosing of T. In the groups of receiving T gel administration, T concentrations could rise up to ten times higher than the baseline at 9 h after the application. As a future step, this approach is being expanded to a large cohort screening of bodybuilders at gym and ultimately may allow universal applications on monitoring sports drug misuse.


Assuntos
Androgênios/sangue , Teste em Amostras de Sangue Seco/métodos , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Congêneres da Testosterona/sangue , Testosterona/análise , Humanos
3.
Clín. investig. arterioscler. (Ed. impr.) ; 32(4): 135-143, jul.-ago. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-194693

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the frequency of hypogonadism and its relationship to inflammation and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in male patients with predialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHODS: A total of 105 patients with CKD, 55 (52.4%) as stage 3, 33 (31.4%) as stage 4 and 17 (16.2%) as stage 5, were enrolled into the study. Total testosterone (TT) and free testosterone (FT), interleukin 6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, and CIMT were measured. RESULTS: According to TT and FT, hypogonadism was detected in 18 (17.1%) and 22 (20.9%) patients, respectively. There was no difference in terms of TT and FT, CIMT, CRP and IL-6 between the stages of CKD. According to TT, the patients with hypogonadism had significantly higher CRP and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-cholesterol) levels (p = 0.004 and p = 0.005, respectively). There was no significant difference in other parameters. According to FT, the patients with hypogonadism had significantly higher CRP (p = 0.017), and TT were negatively correlated with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference, and CRP levels. FT was negatively correlated with age, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and CRP. CONCLUSIONS: The frequency of hypogonadism was found around 17-21% among the patients with CKD. Despite similar IL-6 and CIMT levels, CRP was found to be higher in the patients with hypogonadism. We consider that further studies with larger populations are needed to elucidate the entity


OBJETIVO: Investigar la frecuencia de hipogonadismo y su relación con la inflamación y grosor de la íntima-media carotídea (CIMT) en varones con insuficiencia renal crónica (IRC) prediálisis. MÉTODOS: Se incluyó en el estudio a un total de 105 pacientes con IRC, 55 (52,4%) en estadio 3, 33 (31,4%) en estadio 4, y 17 (16,2%) en estadio 5. Se midieron testosterona total (TT) y testosterona libre (TL), interleucina 6 (IL-6), niveles de proteína C reactiva (PCR), y CIMT. RESULTADOS: Con respecto a TT y TL, se detectó hipogonadismo en 18 (17,1%) y 22 (20,9%) pacientes, respectivamente. No se encontraron diferencias en términos de TT y TL, CIMT, PCR e IL-6 entre los diferentes estadios de IRC. Con respecto a TT, los pacientes con hipogonadismo tenían valores significativamente más altos de PCR y colesterol de lipoproteínas de alta densidad (HDL-colesterol) (p = 0,004 y p = 0,005, respectivamente). No se encontraron diferencias significativas en cuanto a otros parámetros. Con respecto a TL, los pacientes con hipogonadismo tenían valores significativamente más altos de PCR (p = 0,017), y TT guardó una correlación negativa con el índice de masa corporal (IMC), perímetro de la cintura, perímetro de la cadera, y niveles de PCR. TL se correlacionó negativamente con la edad, perímetro de cintura, presión arterial sistólica (PAS), presión arterial diastólica (PAD) y PCR. CONCLUSIONES: Se encontró frecuencia de hipogonadismo en cerca del 17-21% de los pacientes con IRC. A pesar de encontrar niveles similares de IL-6 y CIMT, los niveles de PCR fueron más altos en los pacientes con hipogonadismo. Consideramos que son necesarios más estudios, con poblaciones de mayor tamaño, para explicar esta entidad


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hipogonadismo/epidemiologia , Inflamação/patologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/patologia , Aterosclerose/patologia , Testosterona/análise , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea/instrumentação , Hipogonadismo/patologia , Testosterona/sangue , Testosterona/deficiência , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Interleucina-6/análise , Interleucina-6/sangue , Hipogonadismo/diagnóstico , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/sangue
6.
Poult Sci ; 99(3): 1379-1386, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111312

RESUMO

Estrone, 17ß-estradiol, and testosterone are naturally occurring hormones excreted in broiler litter. With some potential for environmental concern from the hormones, understanding management practices effect on hormone concentrations is beneficial for the poultry industry. As the amount of hormones potentially introduced into the environment is directly related to the concentration at the time of land application, the purpose of this study was to investigate hormone dynamics in stacked broiler litter during the storage period before removal from the farm and/or land application. Stack temperatures and hormones concentrations were monitored at 15, 45, 75 cm, and 105 cm (measured from the stack bottom) in 6 different on-farm stack houses over 4 or 8 wk. Significant differences in temperature were determined by height and by stack. Stack temperatures during the first 4 wk ranged from 41.5°C to 54.5°C, and all stacks reached maximum temperature by 7 D. Highest temperatures were observed at the 45-cm or 75-cm height. Average stack temperatures correlated with the ambient temperature. Hormone concentration did not vary with height within each house. In 5 of the 6 stack houses, the concentrations of 17ß-estradiol and/or testosterone significantly decreased after stacking for 4 or 8 wk (35 to 64%) with only one house showing a significant decrease in estrone concentration (72% in 4 wk). The percent change of estrone and 17ß-estradiol mineralization during the first 4 wk was negatively correlated with the 7-D temperature of the pile (r2 = 0.80), indicating that the high temperatures observed during stacking may inhibit estrogen mineralization. In this study, hormone degradation decreased with high temperatures. Therefore, stack management favoring at least a period of low temperatures may help promote mineralization of these hormones and reduce any potential for introduction into the surrounding environment.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Galinhas/metabolismo , Estradiol/análise , Estrona/análise , Esterco/análise , Testosterona/análise , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais , Temperatura
7.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 40(1): 34-38, mar. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1102292

RESUMO

Las mujeres han sido tratadas por décadas con testosterona intentando aliviar una gran variedad de síntomas con riesgos y beneficios inciertos. En la mayoría de los países, la testosterona se prescribe "off-label", de modo que las mujeres están utilizando compuestos y dosis ideadas para tratamientos en hombres. En este sentido, varias sociedades médicas de distintos continentes adoptaron recientemente por consenso una toma de posición sobre los beneficios y potenciales riesgos de la terapia con testosterona en la mujer, explorar las áreas de incertidumbre e identificar prácticas de prescripción con potencial de causar daño. Las recomendaciones con respecto a los beneficios y riesgos de la terapia con testosterona se basan en los resultados de ensayos clínicos controlados con placebo de al menos 12 semanas de duración. A continuación se comentan las recomendaciones. (AU)


There are currently no clear established indications for testosterone replacement therapy for women. Nonetheless, clinicians have been treating women with testosterone to alleviate a variety of symptoms for decades with uncertainty regarding its benefits and risks. In most countries, testosterone therapy is prescribed off-label, which means that women are using testosterone formulations or compounds approved for men with a modified dose for women. Due to these issues, there was a need for a global Consensus Position Statement on testosterone therapy for women based on the available evidence from placebo randomized controlled trials (RCTs). This Position Statement was developed to inform health care professionals about the benefits and potential risks of testosterone therapy intended for women. The aim of the Consensus was to provide clear guidance as to which women might benefit from testosterone therapy; to identify symptoms, signs, and certain conditions for which the evidence does not support the prescription of testosterone; to explore areas of uncertainty, and to identify any prescribing practices that have the potential to cause harm. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Idoso , Testosterona/uso terapêutico , Pós-Menopausa/efeitos dos fármacos , Depressores do Apetite/efeitos adversos , Fenitoína/efeitos adversos , Placebos/administração & dosagem , Psicotrópicos/efeitos adversos , Tamoxifeno/efeitos adversos , Testosterona/administração & dosagem , Testosterona/análise , Testosterona/efeitos adversos , Testosterona/farmacologia , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/efeitos adversos , Indometacina/efeitos adversos , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/efeitos adversos , Pós-Menopausa/fisiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados como Assunto , Antagonistas Colinérgicos/efeitos adversos , Anticoncepcionais Orais/efeitos adversos , Disfunções Sexuais Psicogênicas/etiologia , Disfunções Sexuais Psicogênicas/terapia , Danazol/efeitos adversos , Consenso , Inibidores da Aromatase/efeitos adversos , Uso Off-Label , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Anfetaminas/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas dos Receptores Histamínicos/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas de Androgênios/efeitos adversos , Androgênios/fisiologia , Cetoconazol/efeitos adversos , Entorpecentes/efeitos adversos
8.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 138: 111204, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32081729

RESUMO

A new method, using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the detection of fourteen natural and synthetic hormones in muscles, was validated in other bovine matrices (liver, kidney, bile and hair) according to the Decision Commission 2002/657/EC. As result, this method demonstrates good linearity (R2 > 0.99) as well as accuracy with coefficients of variation for repeatability and reproducibility lower than 23%. Moreover, the values of decision limit (CCα) and detection capability (CCß) were determined indicating values ranging from 0.13 to 0.86 µg/kg and 0.25-1.72 µg/k for the majority of analytes. Recovery rate in the different matrices varied from 51.5 to 107%. Indeed, this method has been successfully applied to detect anabolic hormones in eighty-eight samples (muscle, liver, kidney, and bile) collected from different local slaughterhouses. Results showed that progesterone was found in 30 samples at concentrations ranging from 0.11 to 11.7 µg/kg, while testosterone was detected in 34 samples at concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 9.52 µg/kg. All bile samples contain epi-testosterone at concentration ranging from 0.89 to 280 µg/kg. These obtained data were used to calculate the estimated daily intake, hazard quotient and hazard index as exposure assessment.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Animais , Bile/química , Bovinos , Cabelo/química , Rim/química , Limite de Detecção , Fígado/química , Músculos/química , Progesterona/análise , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Testosterona/análise
9.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 2954, 2020 02 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32075989

RESUMO

The blubber steroid hormone profiles of 52 female humpback whales migrating along the east coast of Australia were investigated for seasonal endocrine changes associated with reproduction. Individuals were randomly sampled during two stages of the annual migration: before reaching the breeding grounds (northward migration; June/July), and after departing from the breeding grounds (southward migration; September/October). Assignment of reproductive status of the sampled individuals was based on season, single-hormone ranks and multi-variate analysis of the hormonal profiles. High concentrations of progesterone (>19 ng/g, wet weight), recognised as an indicator of pregnancy in this species, were only detected in one sample. However, the androgens, testosterone and androstenedione were measured in unusually high concentrations (1.6-12 and 7.8-40 ng/g wet weight, respectively) in 36% of the females approaching the breeding grounds. The absence of a strong accompanying progesterone signal in these animals raises the possibility of progesterone withdrawal prior to parturition. As seen with other cetacean species, testosterone and androstenedione could be markers of near-term pregnancy in humpback whales. Confirmation of these androgens as alternate biomarkers of near-term pregnancy would carry implications for improved monitoring of the annual fecundity of humpback whales via non-lethal and minimally invasive methods.


Assuntos
Androstenodiona/análise , Jubarte/fisiologia , Testes de Gravidez/métodos , Gordura Subcutânea/química , Testosterona/análise , Animais , Biomarcadores/análise , Feminino , Gravidez , Progesterona/análise , Estações do Ano
10.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 375, 2020 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31942026

RESUMO

The Male Warrior Hypothesis (MWH) establishes that men's psychology has been shaped by inter-group competition to acquire and protect reproductive resources. In this context, sex-specific selective pressures would have favored cooperation with the members of one's group in combination with hostility towards outsiders. We investigate the role of developmental testosterone, as measured indirectly through static markers of prenatal testosterone (2D:4D digit ratio) and pubertal testosterone (body musculature and facial masculinity), on both cooperation and aggressive behavior in the context of intergroup conflict among men. Supporting the MWH, our results show that the intergroup conflict scenario promotes cooperation within group members and aggression toward outgroup members. Regarding the hormonal underpinnings of this phenomenon, we find that body musculature is positively associated with aggression and cooperation, but only for cooperation when context (inter-group competition) is taken into account. Finally, we did not find evidence that the formidability of the group affected individual rates of aggression or cooperation, controlling for individual characteristics.


Assuntos
Agressão/psicologia , Comportamento Competitivo , Processos Grupais , Hostilidade , Psicologia Social , Testosterona/metabolismo , Adulto , Conflito Psicológico , Humanos , Masculino , Testosterona/análise , Guerra , Adulto Jovem
11.
Med Sci Monit ; 26: e921811, 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907344

RESUMO

BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to investigate factors affecting the sex lives of middle-aged women, and whether surgical menopause affects sexual function differently from natural menopause, by comparing effects on sexual performance of women with similar demographic features. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study included 151 women with surgical menopause (SM), 357 women with natural menopause (NM), and 186 perimenopausal women (PM). The women were asked to complete a 6-question survey of sexual performance parameters. The relationship between the demographic and clinical features and hormone levels of the groups and sexual function parameters were evaluated. We also compared these parameters between the 3 study groups, and paired comparisons were made between the SM group and the NM group. RESULTS Demographic features, serum DHEA-S, total testosterone, and FSH levels were found to have statistically significant effects on sexual performance of women (p<0.05). The sexual function scores for the frequency of sexual desire, coitus, and orgasm were significantly higher in the PM group, whereas vaginal lubrication scores were lower compared to the NM and SM group (p<0.05). In paired comparison of NM and SM, the scores for the frequency of coitus, orgasm, and vaginal lubrication were significantly higher in the SM group, while sexual desire frequency scores were higher in the NM group (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS Our study approached to this topic in an extended manner and found significant relationships between several demographic-clinical and hormonal factors. SM was found to not affect female sexual performance, except for sexual desire, more than NM.


Assuntos
Menopausa Precoce/fisiologia , Menopausa/fisiologia , Orgasmo/fisiologia , Adulto , Coito/fisiologia , Coito/psicologia , Desidroepiandrosterona/análise , Desidroepiandrosterona/sangue , Feminino , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/análise , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/sangue , Humanos , Libido/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Perimenopausa , Comportamento Sexual/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Testosterona/análise , Testosterona/sangue
12.
J Sci Med Sport ; 23(1): 69-74, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526664

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study profiled the 24h neuromuscular, endocrine and mood responses to a single versus a double training day in soccer players. DESIGN: Repeated measures. METHODS: Twelve semi-professional soccer players performed small-sided-games (SSG's; 4 vs 4+goalkeepers; 6×7-min, 2-min inter-set recovery) with neuromuscular (peak-power output, PPO; jump height, JH), endocrine (salivary testosterone, cortisol), and mood measures collected before (pre) and after (0h, +24h). The following week, the same SSG protocol was performed with an additional lower body strength training session (back-squat, Romanian deadlift, barbell hip thrust; 4×4 repetitions, 4-min inter-set recovery; 85% 1 rep-max) added at 2h after the SSG's. RESULTS: Between-trial comparisons revealed possible to likely small impairments in PPO (2.5±2.2Wkg-1; 90% Confidence Limits: ±2.2Wkg-1), JH (-1.3; ±2.0cm) and mood (4.6; ±6.1AU) in response to the double versus single sessions at +24h. Likely to very likely small favourable responses occurred following the single session for testosterone (-15.2; ±6.1pgml-1), cortisol (0.072; ±0.034ugdl-1) and testosterone/cortisol ratio (-96.6; ±36.7AU) at +24h compared to the double session trial. CONCLUSIONS: These data highlight that performance of two training sessions within a day resulted in possible to very likely small impairments of neuromuscular performance, mood score and endocrine markers at +24h relative to a single training session day. A strategy of alternating high intensity explosive training days containing multiple sessions with days emphasising submaximal technical/tactical activities may be beneficial for those responsible for the design and delivery of soccer training programs.


Assuntos
Afeto , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Hidrocortisona/análise , Futebol/fisiologia , Testosterona/análise , Atletas , Fadiga , Humanos , Masculino , Condicionamento Físico Humano , Saliva/química , Carga de Trabalho , Adulto Jovem
13.
Mol Biol Rep ; 47(1): 247-259, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621018

RESUMO

Permethrin (PER), the prevalent synthetic pyrethroid, was reported to have genotoxic effects along with male reproductive organs impairment. Matrine, the Chinese herb chief alkaloid constituent, is used extensively owing to its recognized pharmacological properties. The study included 30 rats allocated equally into three groups; Group I: Control group, Group II: PER group and Group III: Matrine treated PER group. All groups were subjected to the measurement of Steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) gene expression by PCR technique while testosterone, phosphorylated Extracellular signal-regulated Kinase 1/2 (p-ERK1/2) and Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) levels were assessed by ELISA technique. Malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were also detected spectrophotometrically in addition to assessment of DNA fragmentation. Testicular histological structure as well as sperm count and morphology were studied. Matrine improved testicular toxicity evidenced by significant upregulation of StAR gene expression, elevation of testosterone level and significant decrease of p-ERK1/2 and COX-2 levels. Moreover, enhancements of the antioxidant status together with improvement of the histological findings were observed. These findings could pave the way for matrine to be used as a promising therapeutic agent in treatment of PER toxicity.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/metabolismo , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Quinolizinas/metabolismo , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/fisiologia , Masculino , Malondialdeído/análise , Permetrina/efeitos adversos , Permetrina/toxicidade , Fosfoproteínas/genética , Quinolizinas/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Transdução de Sinais , Espermatozoides/citologia , Espermatozoides/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/citologia , Testículo/metabolismo , Testosterona/análise
14.
Chemosphere ; 241: 124899, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586830

RESUMO

Recent studies have found elevated dioxin levels inside some former US military air bases in Vietnam, known as hotspots. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of dioxin exposure and steroid hormone in preschool children in Vietnam. In 2010, 2011, 52 primiparae mother-infant pairs in the hotspot and 52 pairs in a non-exposure region were enrolled. For the final analysis, 26 vs 26 pairs were selected, who participated at all three surveys. Univariable and multivariable linear regressions were used to evaluate associations between hormone and dioxin congeners. Geometric mean total TEQ of PCDD/DFs in the hotspot were significantly higher than in the non-exposure region, 8.7 and 3.4 pg TEQ/g lipid, respectively. In the hotspot, salivary dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) was significantly higher in 1-year-old children (Boys = 123 pg/mL, Girls = 120 pg/mL) than in the non-exposure region (Boys = 28 pg/mL, Girls = 27 pg/mL). In contrast, DHEA was significantly lower in 5-year-old children (Boys = 70 pg/mL, Girls = 106 pg/mL) in the hotspot than in the non-exposure region (Boys = 496 pg/mL, Girls = 654 pg/mL). Salivary testosterone was significantly lower in the hotspot (Boys = 1.9 pg/mL, Girls = 1.9 pg/m; Boys = 1.0 pg/mL, Girls = 1.1 pg/mL, respectively) than in the non-exposure region (Boys = 3.7 pg/mL, Girls = 3.8 pg/m; Boys = 5.7 pg/mL, Girls = 7.0 pg/mL, respectively) at 3 years and 5 years of age. Higher levels of highly chlorinated dioxins in breast milk were associated with higher DHEA in 1-year-old and lower DHEA and testosterone levels in 5-year-old children. Our findings indicated that dioxins were associated with changes of DHEA and testosterone levels in preschool Vietnamese children.


Assuntos
Dioxinas/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Leite Humano/química , Esteroides/análise , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Desidroepiandrosterona/análise , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Saliva/química , Testosterona/análise , Vietnã
15.
J Strength Cond Res ; 34(1): 145-151, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29210957

RESUMO

Russell, M, Reynolds, NA, Crewther, BT, Cook, CJ, and Kilduff, L. Physiological and performance effects of caffeine gum consumed during a simulated half-time by professional academy rugby union players. J Strength Cond Res 34(1): 145-151, 2020-Despite the prevalence of caffeine (CAF) as an ergogenic aid, few studies have examined the use of caffeinated gums, especially during half-time in team sports. The physiological (blood lactate and salivary hormone concentrations) and performance (repeated sprints and cognitive function) effects of consuming CAF gum during a simulated half-time were examined. Professional academy rugby union players (n = 14) completed this double-blind, randomized, counterbalanced study. After pre-exercise measurements, players chewed a placebo (PLC) gum for 5 minutes before a standardized warm-up and completing repeated sprint testing (RSSA1). Thereafter, during a 15-minute simulated half-time period, players chewed either CAF (400 mg; 4.1 ± 0.5 mg·kg) or PLC gum for 5 minutes before completing a second repeated sprint test (RSSA2). Blood lactate, salivary testosterone and cortisol concentrations, and indices of cognitive function (i.e., reaction time and Stroop test) were measured at baseline, pre-RSSA1, post-RSSA1, pre-RSSA2, and post-RSSA2. Sprint performance was not affected by CAF (p = 0.995) despite slower sprint times after the first sprint of both RSSA tests (all p < 0.002). After half-time, salivary testosterone increased by 70% (+97 ± 58 pg·ml) in CAF vs. PLC (p < 0.001), whereas salivary cortisol remained unchanged (p = 0.307). Cognitive performance was unaffected by time and trial (all p > 0.05). Although performance effects were absent, chewing CAF gum increased the salivary testosterone concentrations of professional rugby union players over a simulated half-time. Practitioners may, therefore, choose to recommend CAF gum between successive exercise bouts because of the increases in salivary testosterone observed; a variable associated with increased motivation and high-intensity exercise performance.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Cafeína/administração & dosagem , Futebol Americano/fisiologia , Substâncias para Melhoria do Desempenho/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Goma de Mascar , Cognição , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/análise , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Masculino , Saliva/química , Testosterona/análise , Exercício de Aquecimento , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Chromatogr A ; 1612: 460648, 2020 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679711

RESUMO

Hair is increasingly used as a biological matrix of interest for the assessment of hormone secretion over extended periods of time. This study described the development and the validation of a sensitive UPLC-MS/MS method for simultaneous analysis of steroid and thyroid hormones in human hair. The gradient designed in this method enables to obtain a satisfactory separation of 9 hormones of interest: cortisol, cortisone, THE, THF, α-THF, triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), estradiol, and testosterone. Several methodological parameters of extraction (such as the used of "cut hair" versus "pulverized hair", the extraction time, the incubation solvent purification on SPE column and hydrolysis) that may influence the determination of hormones levels in human hair, have thus been tested here. Therefore, the results obtained highlighted the necessity of using a C18 SPE purification method for the determination of both steroid and thyroid hormones in hair. This method allows reaching suitable levels of sensitivity for cortisol and cortisone since the results obtained pointed out concentration levels of cortisol in hair of volunteers similar to those observed in the literature. This method could also offer an important impact in the field of hormone analysis since it allows, for the first time, the quantification of both T3 and T4 in human hair.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Cabelo/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Hormônios Tireóideos/análise , Cortisona/análise , Estradiol/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/análise , Masculino , Esteroides/análise , Testosterona/análise , Tiroxina/análise , Tri-Iodotironina/análise
17.
Drug Test Anal ; 12(2): 215-229, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654498

RESUMO

Boldenone (1-dehydrotestosterone) is an exogenous anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) but is also known to be endogenous in the entire male horse and potentially formed by microbes in voided urine, the gastrointestinal tract, or feed resulting in its detection in urine samples. In this study, equine fecal and urine samples were incubated in the presence of selected stable isotope labeled AAS precursors to investigate whether microbial activity could result in 1-dehydrogenation, in particular the formation of boldenone. Fecal matter was initially selected for investigation because of its high microbial activity, which could help to identify potential 1-dehydrogenated biomarkers that might also be present in low quantities in urine. Fecal incubations displayed Δ1-dehydrogenase activity, as evidenced by the use of isotope labeled precursors to show the formation of boldenone and boldione from testosterone and androstenedione, as well as the formation of Δ1-progesterone and boldione from progesterone. Unlabeled forms were also produced in unspiked fecal samples with Δ1-progesterone being identified for the first time. Subsequent incubation of urine samples with the labeled AAS precursors demonstrated that Δ1-dehydrogenase activity can also occur in this matrix. In all urine samples where labeled boldenone or boldione were detected, labeled Δ1-progesterone was also detected. Δ1-progesterone was not detected any non-incubated urine samples or following an administration of boldenone undecylenate to one mare/filly. Δ1-progesterone appears to be a candidate for further investigation as a suitable biomarker to help evaluate whether boldenone present in a urine sample may have arisen due to microbial activity rather than by its exogenous administration.


Assuntos
Anabolizantes/urina , Fezes/química , Cavalos/urina , Testosterona/análogos & derivados , Anabolizantes/análise , Anabolizantes/metabolismo , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida , Doping nos Esportes , Cavalos/fisiologia , Masculino , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Testosterona/análise , Testosterona/metabolismo , Testosterona/urina
18.
Horm Behav ; 117: 104607, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654674

RESUMO

Oxytocin and testosterone coordinate adaptive social behaviors with stimuli in the environment. Administration of oxytocin and testosterone is associated with increased and reduced indicators of empathy, respectively, but how levels of these hormones are jointly affected by naturalistic empathy-inducing stimuli remains unclear. In this study, salivary oxytocin and testosterone levels were measured in 173 healthy adults before and after watching a video involving a gravely ill child. Participants also completed questionnaires to assess psychological variables predicted to affect oxytocin reactivity (Autism-Spectrum Quotient, Interpersonal Reactivity Index, Empathy and Systemizing Quotients). On average, there was a 14% increase in oxytocin (p = 0.003) and 4% decrease in testosterone (p = 0.001) pre- to post-video. Opposite directional changes in hormone levels occurred together, as supported by a chi-square test (p < 0.001) and a circular statistics test (p < 0.05). Considered separately, psychological traits did not predict hormone levels or changes to any appreciable degree. However, oxytocin and testosterone changes were linked with empathy relative to systemizing such that: (1) 'Empathy Bias' was associated with a large oxytocin increase but little change in testosterone, while (2) 'Systemizing Bias' and 'Balance' between empathy and systemizing were associated with a decrease in testosterone but little change in oxytocin. These findings suggest that participants were divisible into 'high oxytocin responders' (relatively empathetic) and 'high testosterone responders' (balanced or systemizing-biased). These findings support a model of joint, opposite changes in oxytocin and testosterone under experimental empathy induction, with high, somewhat predictable, diversity in individual responses.


Assuntos
Empatia/fisiologia , Ocitocina/metabolismo , Testosterona/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ocitocina/análise , Inventário de Personalidade , Testes Psicológicos , Saliva/química , Saliva/metabolismo , Inquéritos e Questionários , Testosterona/análise , Adulto Jovem
19.
Horm Behav ; 119: 104647, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778719

RESUMO

Relatively little is known about the effects of endogenous and exogenous steroid hormones on ecologically relevant behavioral and cognitive phenotypes in women, such as emotion recognition, despite the widespread use of steroid hormone-altering hormonal contraceptives (HCs). Though some previous studies have examined the effect of HC use, estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone on emotion recognition in women, they have been limited by cross-sectional designs, small sample sizes (total n < 100), and compromised statistical power to detect significant effects. Using data from two test sessions in a large sample of naturally cycling women (NC; n = 192) and women on HCs (n = 203), we found no group differences in emotion recognition; further, the lack of group differences in emotion recognition was not modulated by item difficulty or emotional valence. Among NC women who provided saliva samples across two sessions that were assayed for estradiol and progesterone concentrations, we found no compelling evidence across models that between-subject differences and within-subject fluctuations in these ovarian hormones predicted emotion recognition accuracy, with the exception that between-subjects estradiol negatively predicted emotion recognition for emotions of neutral valence (p = .042). Among HC women who provided saliva samples across two sessions that were assayed for testosterone, we found no compelling evidence that between-subjects differences and within-subject fluctuations in testosterone predicted emotion recognition accuracy. Overall, our analyses provide little support for the idea that circulating endogenous or exogenous ovarian hormones influence emotion recognition in women.


Assuntos
Anticoncepcionais Orais Hormonais/farmacologia , Inteligência Emocional/efeitos dos fármacos , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/metabolismo , Reconhecimento Psicológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Inteligência Emocional/fisiologia , Emoções , Estradiol/análise , Estradiol/metabolismo , Feminino , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/análise , Humanos , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovário/metabolismo , Progesterona/análise , Progesterona/metabolismo , Reconhecimento Psicológico/fisiologia , Saliva/química , Saliva/metabolismo , Testosterona/análise , Testosterona/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
20.
Horm Behav ; 119: 104648, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785282

RESUMO

Empathy is a cornerstone of human sociality. It has important consequences for our interpersonal relationships and for navigating our social world more generally. Although research has identified numerous psychological factors that can influence empathy, evidence suggests that empathy may also be rooted in our biology and, in particular, the gonadal steroid hormone testosterone. To date, much of the research linking testosterone and empathy has focused on the 2D:4D ratio (i.e., the ratio of the lengths of the index and ring fingers), and the results have been mixed. These mixed results, however, may be due to reliance on self-report measures to assess empathy, which can be vulnerable to self-presentation, as well as social-cultural norms about gender/sex differences in empathy. Moreover, although some have argued that digit ratio is an indicator of prenatal androgen exposure, the evidence for this to date is weak. Here, we aimed to follow up on this prior work, using a naturalistic empathic accuracy task in which participants dynamically track, in real-time, the emotional state of targets. We show that lower digit ratio (Study 1; N = 107) and higher circulating testosterone (Study 2; N = 76) are associated with poorer empathic accuracy performance; critically, these effects hold when controlling for sex/gender. In neither study, however, did we find effects on self-reported empathy. Our results highlight the limitations of self-report measures and support the notion that endogenous testosterone levels as well as 2D:4D ratio are related to key social-cognitive competencies like empathic accuracy.


Assuntos
Inteligência Emocional/fisiologia , Empatia/fisiologia , Dedos/anatomia & histologia , Comportamento Social , Testosterona/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Emoções , Feminino , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/análise , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Percepção/fisiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Testosterona/análise , Adulto Jovem
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