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1.
Clin Adv Hematol Oncol ; 20(8): 516-523, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36125958

RESUMO

Patients with gender dysphoria are increasingly seeking gender-affirming therapies, which can have adverse hematologic effects. For example, estrogen can increase the risk for arterial and venous thrombosis, whereas testosterone can cause erythrocytosis. This article reviews the hematologic issues associated with gender-affirming hormone therapies and discusses ways to lessen and monitor the risks. Common consult scenarios are also addressed.


Assuntos
Disforia de Gênero , Pessoas Transgênero , Estrogênios , Disforia de Gênero/terapia , Humanos , Testosterona/efeitos adversos
3.
BMJ Open Qual ; 11(3)2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35914817

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) is the treatment of choice for male hypogonadism. British Society for Sexual Medicine (BSSM) guidelines on adult testosterone deficiency recommend that TRT patients undergo annual monitoring of their testosterone levels and potential complications of treatment; though evidence suggests that substantial numbers of men on TRT are not monitored adequately. METHODS: Review of the electronic patient record from a single general practice in southwest Scotland revealed that only 1 of 26 (4%) TRT patients had been monitored as per BSSM guidelines in the previous 12 months. Additionally, when monitoring was undertaken there was inconsistency in the blood tests requested. The use of quality improvement (QI) tools including process mapping and cause-and-effect diagram identified staff and patient knowledge of monitoring requirements and the lack of an effective recall system as areas for improvement. We tested three change ideas: the utilisation of an existing recall system for long-term therapies; a TRT Ordercomms blood group template (OBGT) to standardise monitoring; and a patient information leaflet (PIL) to improve patient education. The aim of this project was to achieve 60% annual monitoring rate. RESULTS: The percentage of patients monitored for testosterone levels and potential TRT complications increased from 4% (1/26) to 65% (17/26) over a 7-week test period. The utilisation of the existing recall system was a particularly effective intervention, leading to an increase from 4% (1/26) to 31% (8/26) in the first 2 weeks. CONCLUSION: The use of QI tools was associated with over 60% of male TRT patients receiving comprehensive annual monitoring, as per BSSM guidelines. Our findings support the hypothesis that a patient recall system, combined with an OBGT and a PIL led to this increase.


Assuntos
Hipogonadismo , Adulto , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal , Humanos , Hipogonadismo/complicações , Hipogonadismo/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Comportamento Sexual , Testosterona/efeitos adversos
4.
J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep ; 10: 23247096221111774, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35848311

RESUMO

In clinical trials, sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT-2i) use alone in persons with type 2 diabetes (T2D) or testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) prescription alone in men with hypogonadism was shown to lead to a modest but significant increase in red blood cell mass. Recent evidence indicates that combined use of TRT and SGLT-2i in persons with T2D may be associated with risk of erythrocytosis. However, factor(s) that may lead to the development of erythrocytosis in these patients is unknown. We describe here 5 consecutive patients with hypogonadism on chronic TRT who developed erythrocytosis following addition of SGLT-2i empagliflozin for optimization of T2D management. In addition to the careful review of medical history, all patients underwent genetic screening for hereditary hemochromatosis. We have found that none of the patients had C282Y mutation in the HFE (Homeostatic Iron Regulator) gene and 4 out of 5 patients had heterozygosity in the H63D allele. Upon TRT discontinuation or its dose reduction or referral for scheduled phlebotomy, patients showed resolution of erythrocytosis. Our study reaffirms that practitioners should monitor for changes in hematocrit following the initiation of SGLT-2i in persons with T2D and hypogonadism on chronic TRT. Also, for the first time, we showed that in some of the patients receiving combined TRT and SGLT-2i H63D heterozygosity in the HFE gene may mediate the development of new-onset erythrocytosis.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hemocromatose , Hipogonadismo , Policitemia , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Hemocromatose/tratamento farmacológico , Hemocromatose/genética , Humanos , Hipogonadismo/tratamento farmacológico , Hipogonadismo/genética , Masculino , Mutação , Policitemia/induzido quimicamente , Policitemia/genética , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico , Testosterona/efeitos adversos
5.
J Sex Med ; 19(8): 1243-1254, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35753891

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the context of established male hypogonadism, testosterone therapy (TTh) has been employed to regain physiologic levels of circulating testosterone and improve sexual function and overall quality of life. AIM: To assess the risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality as time-dependent outcomes in treated vs TTh untreated hypogonadal men. METHODS: A meta-analysis using weighted time-related measure of risk (hazard ratios (HRs)) for each of the outcome for all included studies was performed. Studies investigating male adults (≥18 years old) diagnosed with hypogonadism and divided into 2 arms (a treatment arm [any TTh] and a control arm [observation or placebo]) and assessing the risk of death and/or cardiovascular events were included. Single arm, non-comparative studies were excluded as well as studies that did not report the HRs for the chosen outcomes. This systemic review was registered on PROSPERO (CRD42022301592) and performed according to MOOSE and PRISMA guidelines. OUTCOMES: Overall mortality and cardiovascular events of any type. RESULTS: Overall, 10 studies were included in the meta-analysis, involving 179,631 hypogonadal men. Hypogonadal men treated with TTh were found to be at lower mortality risk from all causes relative to the control (observation or palcebo) arm (HR: 0.70; 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 0.54-0.90; P < .01), whilst any unfavorable effect of TTh in hypogonadal men in terms of cardiovascular events compared to untreated/observed hypogonadal men was found (HR: 0.98; 95% CI 0.73-1.33; P = .89). CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: TTh in hypogonadal men might play a role in reducing the overall risk of death without increasing cardiovascular events risk. STRENGTHS & LIMITATION: Main limitations are represented by the high heterogeneity among the studies in terms of included population, definition for hypogonadism, type of TTh, definition of cardio-vascular event used, and the length of follow-up. CONCLUSION: According to time-related measures of risk only, an increased risk of long-term morbidity and early mortality for untreated hypogonadal men was depicted, further outlining the clinical importance and safety of TTh in true hypogonadal men, with the urgent need of collecting long-term follow-up data. Fallara G, Pozzi E, Belladelli F, et al. Cardiovascular Morbidity and Mortality in Men - Findings From a Meta-analysis on the Time-related Measure of Risk of Exogenous Testosterone. J Sex Med 2022;19:1243-1254.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal , Testosterona , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Hipogonadismo/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Testosterona/efeitos adversos , Testosterona/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Reprod Biomed Online ; 45(3): 448-456, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35725536

RESUMO

RESEARCH QUESTION: What are the effects of testosterone treatment on oocyte fertilization and preimplantation embryo development among transgender men who have undergone fertility preservation? DESIGN: A retrospective study was undertaken in a university-affiliated tertiary hospital between April 2016 and November 2021. Embryos were divided into three groups by source: 210 embryos from 7 testosterone-exposed transgender men, 135 from 10 cisgender women who cryopreserved embryos, and 276 from 24 cisgender women who underwent fertility treatment. Statistical analyses compared assisted reproductive technology outcomes between the group of transgender men and both groups of cisgender women. Morphokinetic and morphological parameters were compared between the embryos derived from these three groups. RESULTS: The transgender men (30.2 ± 3.5 years of age) were significantly younger than the cisgender women who cryopreserved embryos (35.1 ± 1.8 years; P = 0.005) and the cisgender women who underwent fertility treatment (33.8 ± 3.2 years; P = 0.017). After adjusting for participant age, the fertilization rate was comparable between the transgender men and both groups of cisgender women (P = 0.391 and 0.659). There were no significant differences between the transgender men and the cisgender women who preserved fertility in terms of number of cryopreserved embryos (7.2 ± 5.1 and 3.5 ± 2.6; P = 0.473) or the distribution of embryo age at cryopreservation (P = 0.576). All morphokinetic parameters evaluated by time-lapse imaging, as well as the morphological characteristics, were comparable for the embryos in all three groups. CONCLUSIONS: Testosterone exposure among transgender men has no adverse impact upon fertilization rates or preimplantation embryo development and quality.


Assuntos
Pessoas Transgênero , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Feminino , Fertilização , Humanos , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Testosterona/efeitos adversos
9.
Cancer J ; 28(3): 196-203, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35594467

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Several formulations of intravaginal oestrogen are available for the treatment of genitourinary syndrome of menopause (GSM). These are safe and effective treatments for the symptoms of GSM. Licensed doses of intravaginal oestrogen do not elevate systemic estradiol levels above the normal postmenopausal range with long term use and there is no evidence of an increased risk of coronary heart disease, stroke, thromboembolism, colorectal cancer, endometrial cancer, breast cancer or breast cancer recurrence with their use. This should reassure both women and their healthcare professionals and should lead to more women receiving these localised, vaginally administered hormonal treatments. Available evidence also suggests a positive safety profile for transdermal testosterone treatment when delivered at physiological concentrations.


Assuntos
Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Testosterona , Estrogênios/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Menopausa , Medição de Risco , Síndrome , Testosterona/efeitos adversos
10.
Am J Med Genet A ; 188(9): 2637-2641, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35532976

RESUMO

Hypogonadism is the most frequent hormonal deficiency in individuals with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). This often necessitates testosterone treatment, but limited data are available to guide testosterone treatment in adult men with PWS. We aimed to evaluate the serum testosterone concentrations and adverse effects of testosterone treatment in individuals with PWS attending a specialist obesity management service. A retrospective audit was undertaken at Austin Health, Melbourne between January 2010 and April 2021. Main outcome measures were testosterone formulation and dose, serum total testosterone concentration, and prevalence of polycythemia and behavioral disturbance. Data were available for eight individuals with median baseline age 19 years (range, 19-42) and BMI 37 kg/m2 (range, 27-71). Six men had obstructive sleep apnea; none were smokers. Baseline testosterone concentration was 1.8 nmol/L (IQR, 1.1-3.3) with hematocrit 0.43. Testosterone formulations were intramuscular testosterone undecanoate (TU) 1000 mg (n = 5), transdermal testosterone gel 50 mg daily (n = 1), and oral TU 80-120 mg daily (n = 2). Median total testosterone concentration was 9.7 nmol/L (IQR, 8.5-14.7). Nine of 25 (36%) hematocrit results in six patients measured >0.50 (range, 0.50-0.56). Intramuscular TU was well tolerated and was the only formulation to achieve serum total testosterone concentrations in the adult male reference range. Worsening behavioral disturbance resulted in treatment discontinuation in one individual. Our experience reinforces the need to regular monitoring of hematocrit in men with PWS treated with testosterone. However, a worsening of behavior problems was uncommon in this series.


Assuntos
Hipogonadismo , Síndrome de Prader-Willi , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono , Adulto , Humanos , Hipogonadismo/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Síndrome de Prader-Willi/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Testosterona/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
12.
Endocrinol Diabetes Nutr (Engl Ed) ; 69(4): 279-288, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35636912

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low prolactin levels have been found to impair libido and arousal, as well as to reduce wellbeing in young women. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether drug-induced hypoprolactinaemia affects male sexual function and depressive symptoms. METHODS: The study population consisted of three groups of young and middle-aged men. Two groups were treated with dopamine agonists because of previous hyperprolactinaemia but differed in current prolactin levels, which were <3ng/ml (n=12; group 1) or within the reference range (3-20ng/ml) (n=20; group 2). The control group (group 3) included 24 dopamine agonist-naïve normoprolactinaemic men. During the study, doses of dopaminergic agents in group 1 were reduced by 25-50% compared to doses before the start of the study. Circulating levels of prolactin, testosterone, free calculated testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate, oestradiol and gonadotropins were measured upon enrolment in the study and six months later. Moreover, at the beginning and the end of the study, all men enrolled completed questionnaires assessing sexual functioning (IIEF-15) and depressive symptoms (BDI-II). RESULTS: Group 1 differed from groups 2 and 3 in domain scores for sexual desire and erectile function, and in the overall BDI-II score. It was also characterised by lower levels of total testosterone and calculated free testosterone. Reduction of drug doses normalised sexual desire and erectile function, reduced BDI-II scores and increased prolactin as well as total and free calculated testosterone. Groups 2 and 3 did not differ from each other in sexual functioning, depressive symptoms or hormone levels. CONCLUSIONS: The results obtained indicate that men with dopamine agonist-induced hypoprolactinaemia are characterised by impaired sexual functioning and reduced wellbeing. These disturbances are a consequence of subnormal prolactin levels and do not seem to reflect adverse effects of dopamine agonists.


Assuntos
Disfunção Erétil , Prolactina , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Agonistas de Dopamina/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Doenças Genéticas Inatas , Humanos , Transtornos da Lactação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Prolactina/deficiência , Testosterona/efeitos adversos
13.
Andrology ; 10(5): 894-909, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35438843

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) have been used to treat male infertility for decades. However, due to the lack of large-scale randomized controlled studies and basic research, the efficacy and safety of AIs in the treatment of male infertility remain controversial. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct an evidence-based preliminary evaluation of the existing clinical trials of AIs in the treatment of male infertility. METHOD: A comprehensive literature search was performed in the PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, CNKI, VIP, CBM, and Wanfang databases through August 2021 for all studies. We conducted a systematic review with a meta-analysis of all available studies reporting sperm conventional parameters, gonadotropin and testosterone levels, and/or the pregnancy rate. RESULTS: A total of 10 studies involving 666 patients were included. Letrozole (LE) or anastrozole (AZ) administration significantly increased sperm concentration, total sperm count, serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone (T) levels, and the testosterone-to-estradiol ratio (T/E2), but E2 levels were significantly reduced compared with baseline values. Compared with the control group, which included selective estrogen receptor modulators (SEMRs) or human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), LE, or AZ did not have any significant effect on sperm concentration, motility, and morphology, except that AIs had less effect on sperm motility than the control group (weighted mean difference [WMD]: -2.55; 95% CI: -4.11 to -1.00; p = 0.001). CONCLUSION: AIs may be effective in the treatment of male infertility. For infertile male patients planning assisted reproduction, discontinuation of AIs for 2-7 days prior to sperm retrieval may increase the success rate of fertilization. Further studies with larger sample sizes are needed to validate these findings.


Assuntos
Infertilidade Masculina , Testosterona , Anastrozol/efeitos adversos , Estradiol , Feminino , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante , Humanos , Infertilidade Masculina/tratamento farmacológico , Letrozol/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Gravidez , Sêmen , Motilidade Espermática , Testosterona/efeitos adversos
14.
Aesthet Surg J ; 42(9): 1009-1016, 2022 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35417528

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many providers require cessation of gender-affirming hormone therapy (GAHT) for transgender patients prior to undergoing masculinizing chest surgery (MCS) due to concerns about increased adverse events in the presence of exogenous hormones. Evidence has suggested that continuation of GAHT for certain patients may be safe for gender-affirming procedures. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare adverse event rates for GAHT cessation vs GAHT continuation in patients undergoing MCS. METHODS: This multicenter, retrospective study included patients at the Cleveland Clinic and MetroHealth System who underwent MCS between 2016 and 2020. RESULTS: There were 236 patients who met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 172 (72.9%) discontinued testosterone GAHT prior to surgery and 64 (27.1%) continued the therapy. Mean [standard deviation] age at surgery was 25 [8] years, and mean BMI was 29.5 [6.6] kg/m.2 The median duration of testosterone therapy was 18 months (range, 0-300 months). There was no significant difference in tobacco use (P = 0.73), diabetes (P = 0.54), thrombophilia (P = 0.97), or history of thromboembolism (P = 0.39). Most patients underwent the double-incision free nipple graft technique (77.9%). There was no significant difference in surgical time (P = 0.12), intraoperative complications (P = 0.54), or postoperative complications (P = 0.34). The most common complication was postoperative bleeding/hematoma (7.2%). Other complications included seroma (2.1%), infection (1.3%), and nipple graft failure (0.4%). There were no thromboembolic complications. CONCLUSIONS: There is no significant difference in the incidence of perioperative adverse events for patients who continue GAHT preoperatively vs patients who stop GAHT prior to MCS.


Assuntos
Pessoas Transgênero , Transexualidade , Humanos , Duração da Cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Testosterona/efeitos adversos , Transexualidade/cirurgia
15.
J Sex Med ; 19(6): 933-939, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35437187

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term use of testosterone can be associated with mood destabilizing effects. Most studies investigating psychiatric complications of anabolic steroids have used small samples, but a comprehensive assessment of the risk of developing mental health disorders after testosterone use has not been performed at the population level. AIM: To determine whether testosterone therapy is associated with major depressive disorder or suicide attempts in men. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 70.3 million electronic health records collected from 46 healthcare organizations encompassing flagship hospitals, satellite hospitals, and outpatient clinics since 2008 to determine whether testosterone use is associated with major depressive disorder and suicide attempts in a large population. We included men 18 or older who either used testosterone or did not, defined by reported use, insurance claim, or prescription use of testosterone documented in the electronic health record. We propensity-score matched by age, race, ethnicity, obesity, and alcohol-related disorder. Additionally, a sub-group analysis was performed in testosterone deficient (<300 ng/dL) men comparing those with TD on testosterone therapy to a control group of men with TD who are not using testosterone. OUTCOMES: We determined measures of association with a new diagnosis of major depressive disorder and suicide attempt or intentional self-harm following testosterone use within 5 years. RESULTS: A total of 263,579 men who used testosterone and 17,838,316 men who did not were included in the analysis. Testosterone use was independently associated with both Major Depressive Disorder (OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.94-2.04, P < .0001) and Suicide Attempt/Intentional Self-Harm (OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.40-1.65, P < .0001). Results remained significant in testosterone deficient sub-group analysis. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Men who use testosterone should be screened for and counseled about risks of depression and suicidality. STRENGTHS AND LIMITATIONS: Strengths of this study include a large sample size, the ability to account for chronology of diagnoses, the use of propensity score matching to control for potentially confounding variables, and the consistency of results with sub-group analyses. Limitations include the potential for incorrect coding within the electronic health record, a lack of granular information regarding testosterone therapy adherence, the possibility that unrecorded testosterone or anabolic steroid use were prevalent but not captured within the control group, and a lack of data regarding testosterone withdrawal. CONCLUSION: Testosterone use is independently associated with new-onset mental health disorders. Future studies are necessary to elucidate the role that androgen withdrawal plays and whether a causal relationship exists. Nackeeran S, Patel MS, Nallakumar DT, et al. Testosterone Therapy is Associated With Depression, Suicidality, and Intentional Self-Harm: Analysis of a National Federated Database. J Sex Med 2022;19:933-939.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Comportamento Autodestrutivo , Suicídio , Depressão/induzido quimicamente , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Depressão/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/induzido quimicamente , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/epidemiologia , Testosterona/efeitos adversos
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(7)2022 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35408895

RESUMO

Testosterone is the most important hormone in male health. Aging is characterized by testosterone deficiency due to decreasing testosterone levels associated with low testicular production, genetic factors, adiposity, and illness. Low testosterone levels in men are associated with sexual dysfunction (low sexual desire, erectile dysfunction), reduced skeletal muscle mass and strength, decreased bone mineral density, increased cardiovascular risk and alterations of the glycometabolic profile. Testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) shows several therapeutic effects while maintaining a good safety profile in hypogonadal men. TRT restores normal levels of serum testosterone in men, increasing libido and energy level and producing beneficial effects on bone density, strength and muscle as well as yielding cardioprotective effects. Nevertheless, TRT could be contraindicated in men with untreated prostate cancer, although poor findings are reported in the literature. In addition, different potential side effects, such as polycythemia, cardiac events and obstructive sleep apnea, should be monitored. The aim of our review is to provide an updated background regarding the pros and cons of TRT, evaluating its role and its clinical applicability in different domains.


Assuntos
Disfunção Erétil , Hipogonadismo , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Disfunção Erétil/complicações , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Hipogonadismo/complicações , Hipogonadismo/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Testosterona/efeitos adversos
18.
Probl Endokrinol (Mosk) ; 68(2): 34-39, 2022 01 20.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35488754

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The basis for the management of transgender patients is the use of various hormonal correction schemes necessary for changing the hormonal sex and, possibly, further preparation for surgical correction. Currently, the choice of the starting dose and the scheme is carried out empirically, which lengthens the period of selection of therapy and increases the risk of its complications. Taking into account the individual characteristics of the patient can help in optimizing therapy. AIM: Investigate Factors Affecting the Daily Demand for Testosterone Ester Blends in Transgender MenMATERIALS AND METHODS: This study is a case-control observational study. Patients included prior to initiation of testosterone replacement therapy. The analysis of factors interrelated with the daily requirement of testosterone preparations was carried out. Among the factors of interest, the body mass index (BMI), the results of blood tests for total testosterone and the functional state of the liver and kidneys are considered. Testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) regimens were evaluated in transgender men. For the calculation, we used the formulas for BMI and the average daily dose of testosterone. Based on the data obtained, conclusions were drawn that allow determining the necessary TRT scheme in different trans-gender men at an early stage of hormonal correction. RESULTS: Our study included 58 transgender FtM patients who were prescribed testosterone preparations with an identical composition. We found a positive correlation between BMI and testosterone dose in patients of group II (p = 0.04). CONCLUSION: In the conclusion, the obtained schemes of hormonal sex reassignment with a minimum risk of possible complications are presented. Our results demonstrated a relationship between BMI in overweight and obese patients and the need for TRT. For patients with a BMI of 25 to 29 kg / m2, the interval between injections of a mixture of testosterone esters does not differ significantly from that in the group with a BMI below 25 kg / m2 and averages once every 18 days, and in the group with a BMI ≥ 30 kg / m2 tested testosterone ester preparations should be prescribed once every 2 weeks (14 days).


Assuntos
Pessoas Transgênero , Transexualidade , Índice de Massa Corporal , Ésteres , Humanos , Masculino , Testosterona/efeitos adversos
19.
Am J Manag Care ; 28(3): e78-e79, 2022 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35404550

RESUMO

In response to study findings showing the risk of cardiovascular adverse events associated with testosterone therapy, the FDA issued safety warnings in 2014 and modified testosterone labeling in March 2015 to indicate the increased risk of stroke and heart attack. It is unknown whether there were changes in testosterone marketing practices by pharmaceutical companies following the FDA label warning. Both primary care physicians (PCPs) and non-PCPs prescribe testosterone and are targeted by pharmaceutical marketing representatives to encourage testosterone prescribing. Likewise, pharmaceutical marketing occurs in both urban and rural areas. Our study is the first to examine testosterone marketing practices around the period of the testosterone label warning by physician specialty and rural vs urban primary care service area. In this study, we found that testosterone marketing efforts such as marketing spending per encounter, quarterly marketing spending per physician, and quarterly number of encounters per physician increased among non-PCPs and urban physicians for 4 quarters following an FDA boxed warning in 2015 on testosterone prescriptions. After the black box warning, off-label testosterone advertisements stopped. This reduction in advertising could have made it more attractive for pharmaceutical companies to increase their marketing spending targeting non-PCPs and physicians in urban areas. Understanding responses of pharmaceutical companies to FDA guidelines is important and can help inform future guideline initiatives.


Assuntos
Médicos , Testosterona , Humanos , Marketing , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Padrões de Prática Médica , Testosterona/efeitos adversos , Estados Unidos , United States Food and Drug Administration
20.
Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am ; 51(1): 123-131, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35216711

RESUMO

Hypogonadism is a common clinical condition affecting men, with older men having an increased incidence. Clinicians (endocrinologists and urologists) who may be involved in providing testosterone therapy should be familiar with the effects of testosterone on the prostate. Before initiating testosterone therapy, physicians and patients should partake in shared decision-making, including pretreatment testing, risks and benefits of testosterone therapy relating to benign prostatic hyperplasia and lower urinary tract symptoms, a discussion on prostate cancer in those who have not been diagnosed with malignancy, and a thorough discussion with patients who may have a previous diagnosis of prostate cancer.


Assuntos
Hipogonadismo , Sintomas do Trato Urinário Inferior , Hiperplasia Prostática , Idoso , Humanos , Hipogonadismo/induzido quimicamente , Hipogonadismo/tratamento farmacológico , Sintomas do Trato Urinário Inferior/induzido quimicamente , Sintomas do Trato Urinário Inferior/tratamento farmacológico , Sintomas do Trato Urinário Inferior/patologia , Masculino , Próstata/patologia , Hiperplasia Prostática/induzido quimicamente , Hiperplasia Prostática/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperplasia Prostática/patologia , Testosterona/efeitos adversos
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