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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(39): e16788, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574794

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to observe the effect and safety of Heyan Kuntai Capsule (HYKT) on glucose and lipid metabolism in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). METHODS: Hundred patients with PCOS were randomly divided into HYKT group (n = 50) and placebo groups (n = 50) in which the individuals were treated with HYKT and its placebo continuously for 6 months. Meanwhile, all participants received health education (such as exercise and diet). The primary outcomes were serum sex hormone levels, a series of blood lipid, fasting and postprandial 2 hours blood glucose. Body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), insulin, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and insulin-sensitive index (ISI) were also observed. In addition, adverse events were recorded to evaluate the drug safety. RESULTS: After treatment, the BMI and WHR of all the patients were decreased. The fasting and postprandial 2 hours blood glucose levels were significantly declined when treated with HYKT, which were not observed in the placebo group. Similarly, serum sex hormones including luteinizing hormone (LH), LH/follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and testosterone were lowered after treated with HYKT instead of the placebo. Besides, blood lipids outcomes such as total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, as well as insulin and HOMA-IR were decreased with significance in HYKT group when compared with those in the placebo group, whereas high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and ISI increased obviously. CONCLUSION: HYKT showed the effect on ameliorating the glucose and lipid metabolism disorder and improving insulin resistance and increase insulin sensitivity of PCOS patients, which is similar to insulin sensitizing agent.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/efeitos adversos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Lipídeos/sangue , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/sangue , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Método Duplo-Cego , Estradiol/sangue , Feminino , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/sangue , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Resistência à Insulina , Hormônio Luteinizante/sangue , Prolactina/sangue , Testosterona/sangue , Relação Cintura-Quadril , Adulto Jovem
2.
Harefuah ; 158(9): 568-570, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Hebraico | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31507105

RESUMO

AIMS: To examine statistical correlation between mSASSS and serum levels of testosterone in males suffering from AS. BACKGROUND: Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic progressive inflammatory rheumatic disease primarily involving sacroiliac joints and spine. Structural damage, caused by AS, manifests with development of vertebral syndesmophytes and can be calculated as units of modified Spinal Ankylosing Spondylitis Syndesmophyte Score (mSASSS). The rate of growth of spinal syndesmophytes differs among individual AS patients, while male patients develop significantly more structural damage compared to females in general. METHODS: Twenty males with AS known for at least 5 years (average disease duration 12.8 years) and aged between 25 to 40 years donated 5 ml of peripheral blood for serum testosterone assay, and underwent X-ray films of cervical and lumbar spine. The mSASSS was calculated and correlation with serum testosterone levels was examined using Pearson correlation test. RESULTS: The mSASSS values of patients included in the final analysis ranged from 0-14 units and testosterone levels ranged from 8.4-25.5 nmol/L. No significant correlation was found between mSASSS values and testosterone levels in this cohort. CONCLUSIONS: This study did not find statistical correlation between mSASSS and serum levels of testosterone in males suffering from AS.


Assuntos
Espondilite Anquilosante/sangue , Testosterona/sangue , Adulto , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Vértebras Lombares , Masculino , Radiografia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Coluna Vertebral
3.
Chem Biol Interact ; 312: 108817, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499053

RESUMO

Aconitine might have reproductive toxicity and the effects of aconitine on androgen synthesis in Leydig cells remain unclear. Here, we explore how aconitine affects androgen synthesis and metabolism in rat immature Leydig cells in vitro. Immature Leydig cells were isolated from 35-day-old male Sprague Dawley rats and cultured with 0-50 µM aconitine for 3 h in combination with LH, 8Br-cAMP, 22R-hydroxycholesterol, pregnenolone, progesterone, androstenedione, testosterone, and dihydrotestosterone, respectively. Medium androgens were measured. The levels of Leydig cell mRNAs, Lhcgr, Scarb1, Star, Cyp11a1, Hsd3b1, Cyp17a1, Hsd17b3, Srd5a1, and Akr1c14, were measured by qPCR. ROS and apoptosis were determined after 24-h aconitine treatment. Aconitine inhibited basal androgen production in Leydig cells at 0.05 µM and the higher concentrations. Aconitine blocked pregnenolone, progesterone, and androstenedione mediated androgen outputs without affecting 22R-hydroxycholesterol-mediated androgen production at 5 µM. Aconitine also inhibited LH and 8Br-cAMP stimulated androgen outputs at 5 µM. Further investigation showed that aconitine blocked androgen synthesis via down-regulating the expression of Scarb1, Hsd3b1, Cyp17a1, and Hsd17b3. At 50 µM, aconitine also induced ROS generation and increased apoptotic rate of Leydig cells. Aconitine lowered serum testosterone levels at 1.5 mg/kg after 7 days of oral exposure from postnatal day 35. In conclusion, aconitine inhibits androgen synthesis.


Assuntos
Aconitina/farmacologia , Androgênios/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/citologia , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Receptores do LH/genética , Receptores do LH/metabolismo , Receptores Depuradores Classe B/genética , Receptores Depuradores Classe B/metabolismo , Testosterona/sangue , Testosterona/farmacologia
4.
J Chem Ecol ; 45(8): 673-683, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407198

RESUMO

Animals modulate intraspecific signal shape and intensity, notably during reproductive periods. Signal variability typically follows a seasonal scheme, traceable through the expression of visual, acoustic, chemical and behavioral patterns. The chemical channel is particularly important in lizards, as demonstrated by well-developed epidermal glands in the cloacal region that secrete lipids and proteins recognized by conspecifics. In males, the seasonal pattern of gland activity is underpinned by variation of circulating androgens. Changes in the composition of lipid secretions convey information about the signaler's quality (e.g., size, immunity). Presumably, individual identity is associated with a protein signature present in the femoral secretions, but this has been poorly investigated. For the first time, we assessed the seasonal variability of the protein signal in relation to plasma testosterone level (T), glandular activity and the concentration of provitamin D3 in the lipid fraction. We sampled 174 male common wall lizards (Podarcis muralis) over the entire activity season. An elevation of T was observed one to two months before the secretion peak of lipids during the mating season; such expected delay between hormonal fluctuation and maximal physiological response fits well with the assumption that provitamin D3 indicates individual quality. One-dimensional electrophoretic analysis of proteins showed that gel bands were preserved over the season with an invariant region; a result in agreement with the hypothesis that proteins are stable identity signals. However, the relative intensity of bands varied markedly, synchronously with that of lipid secretion pattern. These variations of protein secretion suggest additional roles of proteins, an issue that requires further studies.


Assuntos
Glândulas Exócrinas/metabolismo , Lipídeos/análise , Lagartos/fisiologia , Proteínas de Répteis/análise , Animais , Desidrocolesteróis/análise , Eletroforese em Gel de Campo Pulsado , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Lipídeos/química , Masculino , Análise de Componente Principal , Estações do Ano , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Testosterona/sangue
5.
Arch Endocrinol Metab ; 63(4): 417-426, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365630

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the associations among visceral adiposity index (VAI), lipid accumulation product (LAP), body fat percentage (%), and android/gynoid ratio (A/G ratio) in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and verify if the parameters representative of visceral obesity correlate with and exhibit the same frequency as body composition variables; anthropometric indices; and metabolic, hormonal, and inflammatory parameters. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study that included 94 women with PCOS. Hormonal, metabolic, and inflammatory parameters were analyzed in all women. Free androgen index (FAI) and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR), as well as LAP, VAI, and anthropometric indices, were calculated. The regions of interest (ROIs) in body composition and body composition indices were evaluated using a dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Overall, 32 variables were selected as markers of body fat distribution. RESULTS: Among the 32 markers evaluated, 29 correlated with LAP, whereas 25 correlated with VAI, 19 with body fat (%), and 30 with A/G ratio. Additionally, some markers correlated with the four adiposity indices evaluated: ROIs, except for total mass and leg fat (%); body composition (body mass index, waist circumference, and hip circumference) indices; fasting insulin; and C-reactive protein. CONCLUSION: LAP and VAI may be sensitive measures for screening and preventing metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in PCOS, with LAP being more sensitive than VAI, and the A/G ratio may be more sensitive than body fat percentage.


Assuntos
Distribuição da Gordura Corporal , Gordura Intra-Abdominal , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/análise , Composição Corporal , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Insulina/sangue , Produto da Acumulação Lipídica , Sobrepeso/sangue , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Globulina de Ligação a Hormônio Sexual/análise , Testosterona/sangue , Adulto Jovem
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(34): e16845, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441858

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The gonads of patients with Turner syndrome (TS) were previously thought to be funicular. There was no increase in androgen level. The gonad that is testis should be taken into account when the patient's serum testosterone level was abnormal and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal disease was excepted. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 16-year-old girl was admitted to our hospital because of chromosomal abnormalities and elevated androgen levels. DIAGNOSIS: Turner syndrome could be diagnosed since her chromosome karyotype was 45, XO. INTERVENTIONS: The patient was given bilateral gonadectomy and hormone replacement therapies. OUTCOME: The level of the patient's serum testosterone was <0.45 nmol/L 2 days after the operation. Postoperative pathology showed that her right gonad was testicular tissue. The patient's menstruation was normal after the treatment of hormone replacement therapy. LESSONS: All TS patients should get Y chromosome material screening. Gonadectomy could be done for Turner syndrome patients who have hyperandrogenism or Y chromosome material.


Assuntos
Gônadas/patologia , Hiperandrogenismo/complicações , Síndrome de Turner/complicações , Adolescente , Feminino , Gônadas/cirurgia , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Testosterona/sangue
7.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 47, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448010

RESUMO

Introduction: Hypogonadism refers to a syndrome that results from failure of gonads to function properly. The main concern is considerable rise in morbidity, as shown by increased cardiovascular risk, infertility, osteoporosis and above all, the psychological impact on the life of the patients with hypogonadism. Judicious steroid replacement and culturally-sensitive psychological support before and during steroid therapy remains the key tool in the management of this condition. The present study aimed at filling the knowledge gap on hypogonadism in Cameroon. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study over a period of 12 months, in 3 reference hospitals of Cameroon. We included males and females diagnosed with hypogonadism, aged 16 to 50 years and 16 to 45 years respectively. After a complete clinical examination, patients were invited to fill the modified middlesex hospital questionnaire for psychoneurotic evaluation. Results: We recruited 59 patients with a sex ratio of 1:1. The mean age of the females and males were 27.7 ± 9.1years and 30.8 ± 11.7 years respectively. Normosmic Idiopathic Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism (NIHH) was the most common presentation. Compulsive obsessive traits, phobic anxiety and hysterical trait, were most pronounced in these patients. Testosterone titers significantly correlated positively with testicular size and negatively with body mass index (BMI). A significant positive correlation was found between the testicular volumes measured with ultrasound (US) and with the orchidometer. Conclusion: Normosmic idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is the most common presentation of hypogonadism in the study population. There is a significant psychosocial impact requiring further investigation and attention.


Assuntos
Hipogonadismo/fisiopatologia , Testículo/diagnóstico por imagem , Testosterona/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Camarões , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hipogonadismo/epidemiologia , Hipogonadismo/psicologia , Histeria/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/epidemiologia , Transtornos Fóbicos/epidemiologia , Ultrassonografia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Environ Res ; 177: 108630, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31421446

RESUMO

There is increasing evidence that several metals are endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). In utero development and adolescence are critical windows of susceptibility to EDC exposure. With the exception of a few heavy metals, few human studies have evaluated the impact of metal exposure on pubertal development. Our aim was to investigate measures of in utero and peripubertal metal exposure in relation to reproductive hormone levels and sexual maturation and progression among girls from the Early Life Exposure in Mexico to Environmental Toxicants (ELEMENT) cohorts. We measured urinary concentrations of aluminum (Al), arsenic (As), barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), antimony (Sb), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn) in samples collected from women during their third trimester of pregnancy and from their female children at 8-13 years (n = 132). We measured serum testosterone, estradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), inhibin B, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) at age 8-13, and assessed Tanner stages for sexual maturation (breast, pubic hair development, and menarche status), at two time points (8-13, 14-18 years). We used linear regression to independently examine in utero and peripubertal metal concentrations as predictors of peripubertal hormones. In a longitudinal analysis using generalized estimation equations, we evaluated Tanner stage and menarche progression in relation to individual in utero and peripubertal metal concentrations. We found that higher in utero Zn was associated with increased inhibin B. Several metals at 8-13 years were associated with higher DHEA-S and estradiol, while Ni was positively but Cu was negatively associated with testosterone. In utero Ni, Al, and Cd were associated with slower progression of breast development after adjustment for child age and BMI z-score. For example, an IQR increase in in utero Al exposure was associated with 0.82 times lower odds of progressing to a higher Tanner stage for breast development per year (95% CI: 0.68, 0.99). Peripubertal concentrations of Ba and Al were also associated with being at a higher pubic hair Tanner stage and menarche at 8-13, but lower odds of progressing to the next stage at 14-18 years. We used Bayesian kernel machine regression (BKMR) to model the joint effect of multiple metals while accounting for correlated exposures, as well as potential non-linear relationships between metals and outcomes of interest, which yielded results similar to individual analyses. These findings suggest that female reproductive development may be vulnerable to the effects of metal exposure, and using both Tanner stages and hormone levels may provide clues about underlying mechanisms in two sensitive periods of development.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos/efeitos adversos , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Metais Pesados/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Maturidade Sexual , Adolescente , Teorema de Bayes , Criança , Cidades , Sulfato de Desidroepiandrosterona/sangue , Disruptores Endócrinos/urina , Estradiol/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Inibinas/sangue , Metais Pesados/urina , México , Gravidez , Globulina de Ligação a Hormônio Sexual/análise , Testosterona/sangue
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(31): e16616, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374027

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To compare the efficacies of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) pulse subcutaneous infusion with combined human chorionic gonadotropin and human menopausal gonadotropin (HCG/HMG) intramuscular injection have been performed to treat male hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) spermatogenesis. METHODS: In total, 220 idiopathic/isolated HH patients were divided into the GnRH pulse therapy and HCG/HMG combined treatment groups (n = 103 and n = 117, respectively). The luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone levels were monitored in the groups for the 1st week and monthly, as were the serum total testosterone level, testicular volume and spermatogenesis rate in monthly follow-up sessions. RESULTS: In the GnRH group and HCG/HMG group, the testosterone level and testicular volume at the 6-month follow-up session were significantly higher than were those before treatment. There were 62 patients (62/117, 52.99%) in the GnRH group and 26 patients in the HCG/HMG (26/103, 25.24%) group who produced sperm following treatment. The GnRH group (6.2 ±â€Š3.8 months) had a shorter sperm initial time than did the HCG/HMG group (10.9 ±â€Š3.5 months). The testosterone levels in the GnRH and HCG/HMG groups were 9.8 ±â€Š3.3 nmol/L and 14.8 ±â€Š8.8 nmol/L, respectively. CONCLUSION: The GnRH pulse subcutaneous infusion successfully treated male patients with HH, leading to earlier sperm production than that in the HCG/HMG-treated patients. GnRH pulse subcutaneous infusion is a preferred method.


Assuntos
Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/uso terapêutico , Hipogonadismo/tratamento farmacológico , Substâncias para o Controle da Reprodução/uso terapêutico , Espermatogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Adulto , Gonadotropina Coriônica/uso terapêutico , Vias de Administração de Medicamentos , Esquema de Medicação , Combinação de Medicamentos , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/sangue , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Bombas de Infusão , Hormônio Luteinizante/sangue , Masculino , Menotropinas/uso terapêutico , Substâncias para o Controle da Reprodução/administração & dosagem , Testosterona/sangue , Adulto Jovem
10.
Toxicol Lett ; 314: 53-62, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319113

RESUMO

Benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) is a widely used plasticizer and has raised public health concerns. Here, we report the effects of BBP on the testis development during rat puberty. BBP (0, 10, 100 or 1000 mg/kg) was gavaged to 35-day-old male Sprague Dawley rats for 21 days. The serum testosterone levels, Leydig cell number, the expressions of Leydig and Sertoli cell genes and proteins were measured. The in vitro effects on steroidogenesis and gene expression in immature Leydig cells were observed. BBP significantly increased serum testosterone level at 10 mg/kg but lowered its level at 1000 mg/kg without affecting serum luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone levels. BBP increased Leydig cell number at all doses but inhibited steroidogenic capacity per Leydig cell at 1000 mg/kg. BBP significantly increased the ratio of phosphos-AKT2 (pAKT2)/AKT2, and phosphos-ERK1/2 (pERK1/2)/ERK1/2 in the testis. Mono-benzyl phthalate (the metabolite of BBP) inhibited steroidogenesis but BBP did not affect androgen production in immature Leydig cells in vitro. In conclusion, BBP non-linearly regulates Leydig cell development by increasing Leydig cell number but inhibiting steroidogenesis.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Ftálicos/toxicidade , Plastificantes/toxicidade , Desenvolvimento Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos , Testosterona/biossíntese , Fatores Etários , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/metabolismo , Células Intersticiais do Testículo/patologia , Masculino , Fosfoproteínas/genética , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores Depuradores Classe B/genética , Receptores Depuradores Classe B/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Testosterona/sangue
11.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(27): e16306, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277170

RESUMO

This study investigated the effect of sex hormones on F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in normal breast tissue.The retrospective study included 249 premenopausal women (median age, 45 years) who were diagnosed with unilateral breast cancer and underwent FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography and hormone tests. The volume of interest was within the contralateral normal breast and the standardized uptake values (SUVs) were measured. The correlations of sex hormones (including estrogen, progesterone, testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone [FSH] and luteinizing hormone [LH]) with the SUVs of the normal breast were analyzed.There was a weak negative correlation between age and breast FDG uptake (P = .012, Spearman coefficient = -.16 for the maximum standardized uptake values [SUVmax]), especially in the luteal phase group (P = .005, Spearman coefficient = -.27 for SUVmax). The SUVs of normal breast tissue were increased when progesterone levels were higher (P = .043, Spearman coefficient = .13 for SUVmax). In the irregular menstrual cycle group, FDG uptake in the breast decreased as FSH (P = .027, Spearman coefficient = -.42 for SUVmax) and LH (P = .048, Spearman coefficient = -.44 for SUVmax) increased.Glucose metabolism of normal breast tissue decreases with age, and progesterone weakly affects breast FDG uptake. Gonadotropins may affect breast FDG uptake in premenopausal women with irregular menstrual cycles.


Assuntos
Mama/metabolismo , Estradiol/sangue , Fluordesoxiglucose F18/farmacocinética , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/sangue , Hormônio Luteinizante/sangue , Progesterona/sangue , Testosterona/sangue , Adulto , Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/farmacocinética , Valores de Referência , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
Zool Res ; 40(4): 305-316, 2019 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310064

RESUMO

Ambient temperature is an important factor influencing many physiological processes, including antioxidant defense and immunity. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that antioxidant defense and immunity are suppressed by high and low temperature treatment in Brandt's voles (Lasiopodomys brandtii). Thirty male voles were randomly assigned into different temperature groups (4, 23, and 32 °C, n=10 for each group), with the treatment course lasting for 27 d. Results showed that low temperature increased gross energy intake (GEI) and liver, heart, and kidney mass, but decreased body fat mass and dry carcass mass. With the decline in temperature, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration, which is indicative of reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, increased in the liver, decreased in the heart, and was unchanged in the kidney, testis, and small intestine. Lipid peroxidation indicated by malonaldehyde (MDA) content in the liver, heart, kidney, testis, and small intestine did not differ among groups, implying that high and low temperature did not cause oxidative damage. Similarly, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) in the five tissues did not respond to low or high temperature, except for elevation of CAT activity in the testis upon cold exposure. Bacteria killing capacity, which is indicative of innate immunity, was nearly suppressed in the 4 °C group in contrast to the 23 °C group, whereas spleen mass and white blood cells were unaffected by temperature treatment. The levels of testosterone, but not corticosterone, were influenced by temperature treatment, though neither were correlated with innate immunity, H2O2 and MDA levels, or SOD, CAT, and T-AOC activity in any detected tissues. Overall, these results showed that temperature had different influences on oxidative stress, antioxidant enzymes, and immunity, which depended on the tissues and parameters tested. Up-regulation or maintenance of antioxidant defense might be an important mechanism for voles to survive highly variable environmental temperatures.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Arvicolinae/imunologia , Arvicolinae/fisiologia , Imunidade Inata , Temperatura Ambiente , Animais , Biomarcadores , Composição Corporal , Catalase/metabolismo , Corticosterona/sangue , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Testosterona/sangue
13.
Int J Sports Med ; 40(8): 511-518, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288290

RESUMO

External counterpulsation (ECP), an electrocardiogram-led sequential compression of lower limbs, has been recently proposed for sports recovery, but research is scant. This study examined the effects of an ECP session upon neuromuscular function (vertical jump and torque/velocity characteristics), biochemical responses (creatine kinase, cortisol, testosterone, alpha-amylase and immunoglobulin-A), and muscle soreness (visual analogue scale) following high-intensity exercise. Twenty-one male team sport athletes (age: 21.6±3.4 yrs; height: 182.7±7.3 cm; body mass: 82.7±9.3 kg) recovered from the fatiguing exercise using either ECP or rest. Data collection was conducted at three separate time points: upon arrival (Pre), post-recovery (Post), and 24 h post-recovery (24hPost). Significant main effects for time were observed for increased torque/velocity slope and for decreased isometric extension peak torque (p<0.001). Significant main effects for time were observed for increased creatine kinase, testosterone, alpha-amylase, and muscle soreness (all p<0.001). Significant interaction effects were observed at post-testing following ECP: Cortisol release and the related decline in testosterone/cortisol ratio were attenuated, and immunoglobulin-A was increased following ECP in comparison to the control (all p<0.05). Following high-intensity exercise, ECP has potentially beneficial effects upon biomarkers of recovery, without affecting the neuromuscular function.


Assuntos
Contrapulsação , Exercício/fisiologia , Fadiga Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Mialgia/fisiopatologia , Esportes/fisiologia , Biomarcadores/análise , Creatina Quinase/sangue , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Imunoglobulina A/análise , Masculino , Saliva/química , Testosterona/sangue , Torque , Adulto Jovem , alfa-Amilases/análise
14.
Chem Biol Interact ; 310: 108742, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295448

RESUMO

Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinological disorder in women of reproductive age and hyperandrogenism is a prominent feature of PCOS resulting in infertility and increased risk of developing metabolic disorders including insulin resistance (IR), abdominal adiposity, glucose intolerance and cardiovascular diseases. Spironolactone (SPL), a non-selective mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonist, has been in wide clinical use for several decades. In this study, we investigated the effects of SPL on IR and metabolic disturbances in letrozole-induced PCOS rats. Eighteen adults female Wistar rats were randomly divided into 3 groups and treated with vehicle, letrozole (LET; 1 mg/kg) and LET + SPL (SPL; 0.25 mg/kg), p.o. once daily for 21 consecutive days. Results showed that LET treatment induced PCOS characterised by elevated plasma testosterone and luteinizing hormone (LH) accompanied with increased body weight and visceral adiposity, IR, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia and altered histomorphological ovaries. Treatment with SPL however attenuated the elevated testosterone in LET-induced PCOS model accompanied with a reversal in all the observed alterations. Taken together, analysis of the physical, biochemical and histological evidences shows that the protective effect of this very low dose spironolactone may be through its anti-androgenic mechanism.


Assuntos
Resistência à Insulina , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/tratamento farmacológico , Espironolactona/farmacologia , Testosterona/sangue , Antagonistas de Androgênios/farmacologia , Antagonistas de Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Animais , Feminino , Letrozol , Hormônio Luteinizante/sangue , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/farmacologia , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Espironolactona/uso terapêutico
15.
Arch Endocrinol Metab ; 63(3): 190-198, 2019 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340240

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To summarize current evidence regarding testosterone treatment for women with low sexual desire. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Female Endocrinology and Andrology Department of the Brazilian Society of Endocrinology and Metabolism invited nine experts to review the physiology of testosterone secretion and the use, misuse, and side effects of exogenous testosterone therapy in women, based on the available literature and guidelines and statements from international societies. RESULTS: Low sexual desire is a common complaint in clinical practice, especially in postmenopausal women, and may negatively interfere with quality of life. Testosterone seems to exert a positive effect on sexual desire in women with sexual dysfunction, despite a small magnitude of effect, a lack of long-term safety data, and insufficient evidence to make a broad recommendation for testosterone therapy. Furthermore, there are currently no testosterone formulations approved for women by the relevant regulatory agencies in the United States, Brazil, and most other countries, and testosterone formulations approved for men are not recommended for use by women. CONCLUSION: Therefore, testosterone therapy might be considered if other strategies fail, but the risks and benefits must be discussed with the patient before prescription. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2019;63(3):190-8.


Assuntos
Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Libido/efeitos dos fármacos , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/tratamento farmacológico , Testosterona/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Androgênios/efeitos adversos , Androgênios/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Sociedades Médicas , Testosterona/efeitos adversos , Testosterona/sangue , Adulto Jovem
16.
Life Sci ; 232: 116640, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295470

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND AIM: Polycystic ovary syndrome is one of the most common causes of female infertility, affecting 5-10% of the population. Women with PCOS manifest hyperandrogenism, hyperinsulinemia, low-grade systemic inflammation, and polycystic ovaries. Unfortunately, current available medications are only symptomatic without relevant reported treatment. Therefore, a pressing need for alternative safe approaches is necessitated. To this end, the present study is designed to investigate therapeutic merits of the edible plant: Ocimum kilimandscharicum (Ok), in a letrozole PCOS rat model, and compare it to metformin. MATERIAL AND METHODS: PCOS rats were treated with Ok total extract and its different fractions at 100 mg/kg orally for 10 consecutive days. Moreover, phytochemical characterization was applied using HPLC/PDA/ESI-MS to identify different secondary metabolites in the bioactive fractions. KEY FINDINGS: Results revealed that the total extract (Ok) and ethyl acetate (EA) fraction improved insulin sensitivity and restored normal hormonal and lipid profiles as well as normal morphological structure of the reproductive system. Furthermore, elevation of SOD and reduction of VEGF levels in comparison with metformin were recorded. SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that Ok extract and EA fraction halt letrozole-induced reproductive dysfunctions and restore normal morphological and physiological functions in PCOS rats, even superior to metformin.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Aromatase/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Letrozol/farmacologia , Metformina/farmacologia , Ocimum/química , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovário/fisiopatologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Glicemia/metabolismo , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Estrogênios/sangue , Estro , Feminino , Glicosídeos/metabolismo , Humanos , Hidroxibenzoatos/metabolismo , Insulina/sangue , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovário/patologia , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/induzido quimicamente , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/patologia , Síndrome do Ovário Policístico/fisiopatologia , Progesterona/sangue , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Testosterona/sangue , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Útero/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 135, 2019 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215433

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sexual problems are widespread and adversely affect the interpersonal relationships and the quality of life. Currently, synthetic drugs improving sexual function are available, but expenditures for such agents are extremely high. To discover relatively inexpensive, widely available and effective natural drugs, we identified a combined extracts from Lepidium meyenii (maca) root and Allium tuberosum Rottl. (Chinese chive) seed, assessed the effects of this combined extracts on erectile dysfunction, and explored its potential mechanisms. METHODS: The extracts were obtained via supercritical fluid extraction. Male BALB/c mice received doses of extract from single plant or the combined extracts (200 mg/kg) by gastric gavage for 14 d, and Viagra was used as the positive control drug. Sexual behaviour was observed, and concentrations of serum testosterone, nitric oxide (NO), and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) in serum as well as in penis were measured. In addition, weights of genital organs were also measured. RESULTS: The combined extracts of maca root and Chinese chive seed (1:1, w/w) had a 45-fold increase in macamide content compared with maca extract. It also led to significantly higher ejaculation frequency (P < 0.05) than single extract from maca root or Chinese chive seed, with no corresponding effect on genital indices. In addition, the NO level in serum (P < 0.01) and penis (P < 0.05) increased notably, as well as the level of cGMP in penis (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The results indicated that the combined extracts produced better synergistic effects on male sexual function than maca extract or Chinese chive extract alone. These positive effects may involve the upregulation of NO and cGMP concentrations in penis.


Assuntos
Cebolinha-Francesa/química , Disfunção Erétil/tratamento farmacológico , Lepidium/química , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Animais , Disfunção Erétil/sangue , Disfunção Erétil/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Ereção Peniana/efeitos dos fármacos , Pênis/efeitos dos fármacos , Pênis/fisiopatologia , Qualidade de Vida , Sementes/química , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Testosterona/sangue
19.
Nat Rev Dis Primers ; 5(1): 38, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31147553

RESUMO

The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is of relevance in many processes related to the development, maturation and ageing of the male. Through this axis, a cascade of coordinated activities is carried out leading to sustained testicular endocrine function, with gonadal testosterone production, as well as exocrine function, with spermatogenesis. Conditions impairing the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis during paediatric or pubertal life may result in delayed puberty. Late-onset hypogonadism is a clinical condition in the ageing male combining low concentrations of circulating testosterone and specific symptoms associated with impaired hormone production. Testosterone therapy for congenital forms of hypogonadism must be lifelong, whereas testosterone treatment of late-onset hypogonadism remains a matter of debate because of unclear indications for replacement, uncertain efficacy and potential risks. This Primer focuses on a reappraisal of the physiological role of testosterone, with emphasis on the critical interpretation of the hypogonadal conditions throughout the lifespan of the male individual, with the exception of hypogonadal states resulting from congenital disorders of sex development.


Assuntos
Hipogonadismo/diagnóstico , Hipogonadismo/terapia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Criança , Humanos , Hipogonadismo/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Testosterona/análise , Testosterona/sangue
20.
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi ; 58(6): 428-434, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31159521

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the clinical features and genotypes of adult patients with simple virilizing form of 21-hydroxylase deficiency (SV 21-OHD). Methods: This is a retrospective study including 33 patients with SV 21-OHD from January 2015 to March 2018 in the Ninth People's Hospital of Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine. Results: The diagnostic age of the patients was (26.3±6.5) years old. All patients presented with signs of masculinization, such as short stature (100%), clitoromegaly/microphallus (89.65%, 26/29), undeveloped breasts (82.76%, 24/29), deep voice (55.17%,16/29) and primary amenorrhea (89.65%, 26/29). The serum levels of 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), androstenedione (AD) and testosterone were significantly elevated in 90.9%, 93.9% and 91.2% of the patients, respectively. Thirteen types of mutations were identified in CYP21A2 from these patients. Among them, I173N accounted for 40% and I2 G accounted for 18.33%. Four patients were found with multiple mutations in CYP21A2. Conclusions: Short stature, clitoromegaly/microphallus and primary amenorrhea are the most common clinical features in adult patients with SV 21-OHD. Serum levels of 17-OHP and AD are important indices for the diagnosis and monitoring of the patients. I173N and I2 G are the two most prevalent mutations in patients of the present study. Limitation of clinical recognition and delay in treatment contribute to the short stature of the SV 21-OHD patients.


Assuntos
Hiperplasia Suprarrenal Congênita/sangue , Hiperplasia Suprarrenal Congênita/diagnóstico , Esteroide 21-Hidroxilase/genética , 17-alfa-Hidroxiprogesterona/sangue , Adulto , Androstenodiona/sangue , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Testosterona/sangue
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