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4.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson ; 23(1): 105, 2021 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34615541

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Relationships between right ventricular (RV) and left ventricular (LV) shape and function may be useful in determining optimal timing for pulmonary valve replacement in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (rTOF). However, these are multivariate and difficult to quantify. We aimed to quantify variations in biventricular shape associated with pulmonary regurgitant volume (PRV) in rTOF using a biventricular atlas. METHODS: In this cross-sectional retrospective study, a biventricular shape model was customized to cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) images from 88 rTOF patients (median age 16, inter-quartile range 11.8-24.3 years). Morphometric scores quantifying biventricular shape at end-diastole and end-systole were computed using principal component analysis. Multivariate linear regression was used to quantify biventricular shape associations with PRV, corrected for age, sex, height, and weight. Regional associations were confirmed by univariate correlations with distances and angles computed from the models, as well as global systolic strains computed from changes in arc length from end-diastole to end-systole. RESULTS: PRV was significantly associated with 5 biventricular morphometric scores, independent of covariates, and accounted for 12.3% of total shape variation (p < 0.05). Increasing PRV was associated with RV dilation and basal bulging, in conjunction with decreased LV septal-lateral dimension (LV flattening) and systolic septal motion towards the RV (all p < 0.05). Increased global RV radial, longitudinal, circumferential and LV radial systolic strains were significantly associated with increased PRV (all p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: A biventricular atlas of rTOF patients quantified multivariate relationships between left-right ventricular morphometry and wall motion with pulmonary regurgitation. Regional RV dilation, LV reduction, LV septal-lateral flattening and increased RV strain were all associated with increased pulmonary regurgitant volume. Morphometric scores provide simple metrics linking mechanisms for structural and functional alteration with important clinical indices.


Assuntos
Insuficiência da Valva Pulmonar , Tetralogia de Fallot , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Insuficiência da Valva Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência da Valva Pulmonar/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tetralogia de Fallot/diagnóstico por imagem , Tetralogia de Fallot/cirurgia , Função Ventricular Direita , Adulto Jovem
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34639849

RESUMO

AIM: This study evaluates the risk factors associated with right ventricular (RV) dilation and dysfunction leading to pulmonary valve replacement (PVR) or adverse cardiac events in repaired Tetralogy of Fallot (rToF) patients. METHODS: Data from all rToF patients who underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evaluation at our hospital between February 2007 and September 2020 were collected. RESULTS: Three hundred and forty-two patients (60% males, 42% older than 18 years), with a median age of 16 years (IQR 13-24) at the time of MRI, were included. All patients underwent complete repair at a median age of 8 months (IQR 5-16), while palliation was performed in 56 patients (16%). One hundred and forty-four patients (42%) subsequently received pulmonary valve replacement (PVR). At the multivariate analysis, male gender was an independent predictor for significant RV dilation, RV and left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. Transventricular ventricular septal defect (VSD) closure and previous palliation significantly affected LV function and RV size, respectively. Male gender and the transventricular VSD closure were independent predictors for PVR. CONCLUSIONS: Male gender and surgical history (palliation, VSD closure approach) significantly affected the long-term outcomes in rToF patients and should be taken into consideration in the follow-up management and in PVR timing in this patient population.


Assuntos
Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca , Insuficiência da Valva Pulmonar , Tetralogia de Fallot , Disfunção Ventricular Direita , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Insuficiência da Valva Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência da Valva Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Insuficiência da Valva Pulmonar/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Tetralogia de Fallot/epidemiologia , Tetralogia de Fallot/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/epidemiologia , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/etiologia , Função Ventricular Direita , Adulto Jovem
6.
BMC Surg ; 21(1): 384, 2021 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34717598

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anomalous aortic origin of a coronary artery (AAOCA) is a rare congenital heart disease, characterized by the coronary artery inappropriately originates from the aorta. It is usually classified according to the sinus where the coronary artery arises from, while anomalous origin of the right coronary being the most common type. CASE PRESENTATION: In this case report, we described a rare case of Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) in a 1-year-old boy, who also had the anomalous right coronary artery that originated from the left coronary sinus without an intramural segment. Besides TOF repair, lateral pulmonary translocation was undertaken in order to avoid risks of myocardial ischemia. CONCLUSION: We successfully completed a one-stage operation consisting of TOF repair and pulmonary artery translocation in a 1-year-old boy. We advocated early operation of pulmonic translocation for AAOCA patients without an intramural segment instead of unroofing procedure.


Assuntos
Anomalias dos Vasos Coronários , Tetralogia de Fallot , Aorta , Anomalias dos Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico , Anomalias dos Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Artéria Pulmonar , Tetralogia de Fallot/complicações , Tetralogia de Fallot/diagnóstico por imagem , Tetralogia de Fallot/cirurgia
7.
Tomography ; 7(3): 412-423, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34564298

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim was to determine the effect of pulmonary artery (PA) morphology on the branch pulmonary artery-regurgitation fraction (BPA-RF), the relationship of pulmonary insufficiency (PI) to BPA-RF and PA-distensibility, and factors (BPA-RF and PA-distensibility) associated with right ventricular function (RVF) in repaired tetralogy of Fallot (rTOF). METHODS: A total of 182 rTOF patients (median age 17.1 years) were analyzed for length, angle of PA, BPA-RF, PI, and PA-distensibility, using magnetic resonance imaging. RESULTS: The left PA had a significant greater RF than the right PA (median (interquartile range)): LPA 43.1% (32.6-51.5) and RPA 35.2% (24.7-44.7), p < 0.001. The LPA was shorter with a narrower angle than the RPA (p < 0.001). The anatomy of the branch-PA was not a factor for the greater LPA-RF (odds ratio, 95% confidence interval: CI, p-value): length 0.44 (0.95-2.00), p = 0.28; angle 0.63 (0.13-2.99), p = 0.56. There was a strong positive correlation between PI and BPA-RF-coefficients (95% CI), p-value: LPA 0.78% (0.70-0.86), p < 0.001; RPA 0.78% (0.71-0.84), p < 0.001 and between BPA-RF and distensibility-coefficients (95%CI), p-value: LPA 0.73% (0.37-1.09), p < 0.001; RPA 1.63% (1.22-2.03), p < 0.001, respectively. The adjusted BPA-RF did not predict RVF, RPA (p = 0.434), LPA (p = 0.268). CONCLUSIONS: PA morphology is not a significant factor for the differential BPA-RF. The vascular wall in rTOF patients responds to chronic increased intravascular volume by increasing distensibility. BPA-RF is not a determinant of RVF.


Assuntos
Insuficiência da Valva Pulmonar , Tetralogia de Fallot , Adolescente , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Artéria Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência da Valva Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência da Valva Pulmonar/etiologia , Tetralogia de Fallot/diagnóstico por imagem , Tetralogia de Fallot/cirurgia , Função Ventricular Direita
8.
Am J Cardiol ; 158: 118-123, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34511183

RESUMO

Tetralogy of Fallot with absent pulmonary valve (TOF-APV) is a rare form of tetralogy with unique challenges due to the combination of pulmonary annular stenosis, severe pulmonary regurgitation, and airway compression secondary to aneurysmal dilatation of the pulmonary arteries. Data on the long-term outcomes of repaired TOF-APV are scarce. We used the Pediatric Cardiac Care Consortium (PCCC), a large US-based registry, to describe the postrepair transplant-free survival of patients with TOF-APV. We queried the PCCC for patients operated for TOF-APV between 1982 and 2003. Death or transplant events were ascertained from the PCCC and by linkage with the US National Death Index and the Organ Procurement Transplantation Network through December 2019. A total of 126 patients were identified with TOF-APV repair (primary n = 119, staged n = 7). The majority of them were repaired with a right ventricular to pulmonary artery conduit (n = 80, 64%) and 43 (34%) with transannular patch. In-hospital mortality occurred in 31 patients (25%); post discharge and over a median period of 19 years (IQR 0.37 to 23.7 years), 5 patients died and 2 underwent heart transplant, one of whom subsequently died. The 25-year transplant-free survival post discharge after TOF-APV repair was 92%, which was similar with the outcome of patients with simple TOF undergoing non-valve sparing procedures (94% log-rank test p = 0.455; aHR 1.37; 95% CI: 0.63 to 2.97, p = 0.432). In conclusion, early in-hospital mortality is high for TOF-APV; however, once repaired and survived to discharge, long term survival is similar to simple TOF with non-valve sparing procedures.


Assuntos
Valva Pulmonar/anormalidades , Tetralogia de Fallot/complicações , Tetralogia de Fallot/mortalidade , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Tetralogia de Fallot/cirurgia , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
9.
Int J Cardiol ; 344: 95-102, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555445

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the impact of pregnancy on cardiac function and fibrosis by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in patients with repaired Tetralogy of Fallot (rToF). BACKGROUND: CMR T1 mapping can assess diffuse myocardial fibrosis which is associated to adverse clinical outcomes. Right ventricular (RV) accelerated remodeling is reported in rToF women with experienced pregnancy. METHODS: We included rToF women from the national registry of congenital heart disease to perform CMR, assessing functional data, T1 mapping/ extracellular volume fraction (ECV). The results including clinical data were compared between women with experienced pregnancy vs non-experienced pregnancy and healthy individuals. RESULTS: Fifty rToF women performed CMR, median age 36 (range 21-67) years. Fifteen were nulliparous. T1 mapping was compared to 30 controls, (14 women) median age 42 (24-64) years. In the left ventricle (LV), T1 times and ECV in all rToF women vs female controls were 1248 ± 61 ms/ 25.8 ± 2.9% vs 1255 ± 40 ms/ 26.8 ± 3.1%, p = 0.7 and p = 0.3, respectively. In rToF, RV T1 times was 1385 ± 124 ms and ECV 37.7 ± 5.4%. There was no association to parity or age in rToF LV T1/ ECV, p = 0.9 for both, or RV T1/ECV, p = 0.4 and p = 0.6, respectively. Indexed LV mass was higher in the rToF pregnancy group, 43 ± 10 vs 38 ± 6 g/m2, p = 0.03 while RV ejection fraction was lower, 49 ± 7% vs 53 ± 6%, p = 0.04. CONCLUSION: Women with rTOF showed evidence of increased RV CMR markers suggestive of diffuse fibrosis while LV CMR markers were within normal values. Having experienced pregnancy might affect RV function, however without association to CMR biomarkers.


Assuntos
Tetralogia de Fallot , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Fibrose , Ventrículos do Coração/patologia , Humanos , Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Volume Sistólico , Tetralogia de Fallot/diagnóstico por imagem , Tetralogia de Fallot/cirurgia , Função Ventricular Direita , Adulto Jovem
10.
Heart Lung Circ ; 30(11): 1602-1612, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34420886

RESUMO

Transposition of the great arteries (TGA), coarctation of the aorta (CoA), single ventricle (SV) and tetralogy of Fallot (ToF) are forms of congenital heart disease (CHD). Despite advances in treatment, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular complications in patients with repaired CHD occur earlier in life compared to healthy subjects. A factor that may contribute to this increased risk is elevated arterial stiffness. This systematic review provides a critical assessment of current evidence on central arterial stiffness in patients with CHD compared to healthy controls. In July 2020, Medline OVID, EMBASE and Scopus were searched using keywords and MeSH terms. Articles were included if they reported indices of aortic or carotid artery stiffness in patients with TGA, CoA, SV or ToF, and compared these to controls. Additional studies were screened from the reference lists of included articles. Of 1,033 studies identified, 43 were included in the final review. Most studies identified at least one index of central arterial stiffness, commonly in the aortic root or ascending aorta, that was higher in patients with CHD compared to controls. The commonly reported surrogate markers of stiffness were pulse wave velocity, aortic distensibility and the ß stiffness index. There was a relatively small number of original studies, and synthesis of data was limited by methodological heterogeneity, highlighting the need for further studies with standardised methods. However, there was consistent evidence of early and/or accelerated arterial stiffening in CHD patients, which may contribute to the increased risk of adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events in this population.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias Congênitas , Tetralogia de Fallot , Transposição dos Grandes Vasos , Rigidez Vascular , Cardiopatias Congênitas/complicações , Humanos , Análise de Onda de Pulso , Tetralogia de Fallot/cirurgia
11.
Cardiovasc Ultrasound ; 19(1): 28, 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34362392

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data about the right ventricular (RV) mechanics adaptation to volume overload in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (rToF) are limited. Accordingly, we sought to assess the mechanics of the functional remodeling occurring in the RV of rToF with severe pulmonary regurgitation. METHODS: We used three-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography (3DTE) to obtain RV data sets from 33 rToF patients and 30 age- and sex- matched controls. A 3D mesh model of the RV was generated, and RV global and regional longitudinal (LS) and circumferential (CS) strain components, and the relative contribution of longitudinal (LEF), radial (REF) and anteroposterior (AEF) wall motion to global RV ejection fraction (RVEF) were computed using the ReVISION method. RESULTS: Corresponding to decreased global RVEF (45 ± 6% vs 55 ± 5%, p < 0.0001), rToF patients demonstrated lower absolute values of LEF (17 ± 4 vs 28 ± 4), REF (20 ± 5 vs 25 ± 4) and AEF (17 ± 5 vs 21 ± 4) than controls (p < 0.01). However, only the relative contribution of LEF to global RVEF (0.39 ± 0.09 vs 0.52 ± 0.05, p < 0.0001) was significantly decreased in rToF, whereas the contribution of REF (0.45 ± 0.08 vs 0.46 ± 0.04, p > 0.05) and AEF (0.38 ± 0.09 vs 0.39 ± 0.04, p > 0.05) to global RVEF was similar to controls. Accordingly, rToF patients showed lower 3D RV global LS (-16.94 ± 2.9 vs -23.22 ± 2.9, p < 0.0001) and CS (-19.79 ± 3.3 vs -22.81 ± 3.5, p < 0.01) than controls. However, looking at the regional RV deformation, the 3D CS was lower in rToF than in controls only in the basal RV free-wall segment (p < 0.01). 3D RV LS was reduced in all RV free-wall segments in rToF (p < 0.0001), but similar to controls in the septum (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: 3DTE allows a quantitative evaluation of the mechanics of global RVEF. In rToF with chronic volume overload, the relative contribution of the longitudinal shortening to global RVEF is affected more than either the radial or the anteroposterior components.


Assuntos
Ecocardiografia Tridimensional , Insuficiência da Valva Pulmonar , Tetralogia de Fallot , Disfunção Ventricular Direita , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Insuficiência da Valva Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Tetralogia de Fallot/diagnóstico por imagem , Tetralogia de Fallot/cirurgia , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/etiologia , Função Ventricular Direita
12.
Semin Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 25(3): 218-228, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380349

RESUMO

Tetralogy of Fallot with pulmonary atresia (ToF-PA) is a rare diagnosis that includes an extraordinarily heterogeneous group of complex anatomical findings with significant implications for physiology and prognosis. In addition to the classic findings of ToF, this particular diagnosis is characterized by complete failure of forward flow from the right ventricle to the pulmonary arterial system. As such, pulmonary blood flow is entirely dependent on shunting from the systemic circulation, most frequently via a patent ductus arteriosus, major aortopulmonary collaterals, or a combination of the two. The pathophysiology of ToF-PA is largely attributable to the abnormalities of the pulmonary vasculature. Ultimately, these patients require operative intervention to create a reliable, controlled source of pulmonary blood flow and ideally complete intracardiac repair. Even after operative correction, these patients remain at risk for pulmonary arterial stenoses and pulmonary hypertension. Although there have been significant advances in surgical and interventional management of ToF-PA leading to dramatic improvements in survival and long-term functional status, there is ongoing debate about the optimal management strategy given the risk of development of irreversible abnormalities of the pulmonary vasculature and the morbidity and mortality associated with sometimes multiple, complex operative interventions often occurring early in infancy. This review will discuss the findings in patients with ToF-PA with a focus on the perioperative and anesthetic management and will highlight challenges faced by the anesthesiologist in caring for these patients.


Assuntos
Anestésicos , Defeitos dos Septos Cardíacos , Atresia Pulmonar , Tetralogia de Fallot , Circulação Colateral , Humanos , Lactente , Atresia Pulmonar/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tetralogia de Fallot/cirurgia
13.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson ; 23(1): 98, 2021 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34412634

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The global effect of chronic pulmonary regurgitation (PR) on right ventricular (RV) dilation and dysfunction in repaired Tetralogy of Fallot (rTOF) patients is well studied by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). However, the links between PR in the RV outflow tract (RVOT), RV dysfunction and exercise intolerance are not clarified by conventional measurements. Not all patients with RV dilation share the same intracardiac flow characteristics, now measurable by time resolved three-dimensional phase contrast imaging (4D flow). In our study, we quantified regional vorticity and energy loss in rTOF patients and correlated these parameters with RV dysfunction and exercise capacity. METHODS: rTOF patients with 4D flow datasets were retrospectively analyzed, including those with transannular/infundibular repair and conduit repair. Normal controls and RV dilation patients with atrial-level shunts (Qp:Qs > 1.2:1) were included for comparison. 4D flow was post-processed using IT Flow (Cardioflow, Japan). Systolic/diastolic vorticity (ω, 1/s) and viscous energy loss (VEL, mW) in the RVOT and RV inflow were measured. To characterize the relative influence of diastolic vorticity in the two regions, an RV Diastolic Vorticity Quotient (ωRVOT-Diastole/ωRV Inflow-Diastole, RV-DVQ) was calculated. Additionally, RVOT Vorticity Quotient (ωRVOT-Diastole/ωRVOT-Systole, RVOT-VQ) and RVOT Energy Quotient (VELRVOT-Diastole/VELRVOT-Systole, RVOT-EQ) was calculated. In rTOF, measurements were correlated against conventional CMR and exercise stress test results. RESULTS: 58 rTOF patients, 28 RV dilation patients and 12 controls were included. RV-DVQ, RVOT-VQ, and RVOT-EQ were highest in rTOF patients with severe PR compared to rTOF patients with non-severe PR, RV dilation and controls (p < 0.001). RV-DVQ positively correlated with RV end-diastolic volume (0.683, p < 0.001), PR fraction (0.774, p < 0.001) and negatively with RV ejection fraction (- 0.521, p = 0.003). Both RVOT-VQ, RVOT-EQ negatively correlated with VO2-max (- 0.587, p = 0.008 and - 0.617, p = 0.005) and % predicted VO2-max (- 0.678, p = 0.016 and - 0.690, p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In rTOF patients, vorticity and energy loss dominate the RVOT compared to tricuspid inflow, correlating with RV dysfunction and exercise intolerance. These 4D flow-based measurements may be sensitive biomarkers to guide surgical management of rTOF patients.


Assuntos
Insuficiência da Valva Pulmonar , Tetralogia de Fallot , Disfunção Ventricular Direita , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tetralogia de Fallot/diagnóstico por imagem , Tetralogia de Fallot/cirurgia , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/etiologia , Função Ventricular Direita
14.
Korean J Radiol ; 22(9): 1525-1536, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34448382

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the feasibility of cine three-dimensional (3D) balanced steady-state free precession (b-SSFP) imaging combined with a non-local means (NLM) algorithm for image denoising in evaluating cardiac function in children with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (rTOF). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-five patients with rTOF (mean age, 12 years; range, 7-18 years) were enrolled to undergo cardiac cine image acquisition, including two-dimensional (2D) b-SSFP, 3D b-SSFP, and 3D b-SSFP combined with NLM. End-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), stroke volume (SV), and ejection fraction (EF) of the two ventricles were measured and indexed by body surface index. Acquisition time and image quality were recorded and compared among the three imaging sequences. RESULTS: 3D b-SSFP with denoising vs. 2D b-SSFP had high correlation coefficients for EDV, ESV, SV, and EF of the left (0.959-0.991; p < 0.001) as well as right (0.755-0.965; p < 0.001) ventricular metrics. The image acquisition time ± standard deviation (SD) was 25.1 ± 2.4 seconds for 3D b-SSFP compared with 277.6 ± 0.7 seconds for 2D b-SSFP, indicating a significantly shorter time with the 3D than the 2D sequence (p < 0.001). Image quality score was better with 3D b-SSFP combined with denoising than with 3D b-SSFP (mean ± SD, 3.8 ± 0.6 vs. 3.5 ± 0.6; p = 0.005). Signal-to-noise ratios for blood and myocardium as well as contrast between blood and myocardium were higher for 3D b-SSFP combined with denoising than for 3D b-SSFP (p < 0.05 for all but septal myocardium). CONCLUSION: The 3D b-SSFP sequence can significantly reduce acquisition time compared to the 2D b-SSFP sequence for cine imaging in the evaluation of ventricular function in children with rTOF, and its quality can be further improved by combining it with an NLM denoising method.


Assuntos
Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética , Tetralogia de Fallot , Criança , Estudos de Viabilidade , Ventrículos do Coração , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Tetralogia de Fallot/diagnóstico por imagem , Tetralogia de Fallot/cirurgia
15.
J Card Surg ; 36(10): 3607-3618, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34338370

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little is known regarding whether hyperoxic reoxygenation was associated with higher risk of cardiovascular disorder following tetralogy of Fallot repair. METHODS: We performed a nested case-control study among patients aged 1 month-18 years undergoing complete repair of tetralogy of Fallot in 2012-2018. We measured the highest perfusate oxygenation (PpO2) during aortic occlusion in 107 cardiovascular disorder cases and in 321 controls matched 1:3 to the cases on date of surgery, sex, and area of residence. We analyzed the association between PpO2 and outcome using multivariable conditional logistic regression adjusted for covariates. We further identified and integrated the risk covariates to build prediction nomograms. RESULTS: Cases had higher percentage of exposure to PpO2 > 200 mmHg (86.0% vs. 76.1%, p = .019) than controls. Patients with PpO2 > 200 mmHg had an increased risk of cardiovascular disorder compared to those with PpO2 ≤ 200 mmHg (odd ratio [OR] = 2.075, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.035, 4.158, p = .039) adjusted for matching, clinical and procedural covariates. Categorical PpO2, lower body mass index, lower SpO2, untreated minor aortopulmonary collateral arteries, high immediately postoperative central venous pressure, and longer cardiopulmonary bypass time were independent risk factors for cardiovascular disorder (all p < .05). Combining PpO2 nomogram slightly improved discrimination compared with covariate-based nomogram alone for training cohort (area under receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC] = 0.768 vs. 0.761) and for internal validation (AUC = 0.759 vs. 0.753). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest association exists between high PpO2 during aortic occlusion and cardiovascular disorder risk, and nomogram integrating clinical and procedural factors may be useful in management of patients with tetralogy of Fallot.


Assuntos
Tetralogia de Fallot , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Lactente , Nomogramas , Fatores de Risco , Tetralogia de Fallot/cirurgia
16.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 96(9): 2398-2406, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34412856

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To report the early postoperative outcomes in adults with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) undergoing cardiac surgery and to identify patient factors associated with complications. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a single-institution retrospective review of adults with TOF who underwent cardiac surgery from January 8, 2008, through June 21, 2018. Patients' characteristics, preoperative imaging, surgical interventions, outcomes, and complications were analyzed. RESULTS: There were 219 adults with TOF (mean age, 40 years; range, 18-83 years; 88 [40%] female) in the study. Surgical interventions included repair or replacement of the pulmonary valve (n=199 [91%]), tricuspid valve (n=70 [32%]), mitral valve (n=13 [5.9%]), and aortic valve (n=8 [3.7%]). Three patients (1.4%) underwent first-time TOF repair. The 30-day mortality rate was 1.4% (n=3). Early postoperative complications occurred in 66 (30%) and included arrhythmias requiring treatment, dialysis requirement, liver dysfunction, respiratory failure, infection, reoperation, cardiac arrest, mechanical circulatory support, and death. Multivariate analysis found older age at current surgery (odds ratio [OR], 1.04 per year; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.06; P<.001), longer cardiopulmonary bypass time (OR, 1.01 per minute; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.02; P<.001), right ventricular systolic dysfunction (OR, 1.31; 95%, CI 1.02 to 1.69; P=.03), diabetes mellitus (OR, 3.50; 95% CI, 1.20 to 10.2; P=.02), and history of initial palliative surgery (OR, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.01 to 3.91; P=.05) as independent predictors of complications. CONCLUSION: Surgical interventions for adult patients with TOF can be performed with low early morbidity and mortality. Clinical characteristics and preoperative testing parameters can predict risk for complications in the postoperative period.


Assuntos
Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Tetralogia de Fallot/cirurgia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Comorbidade , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Tetralogia de Fallot/diagnóstico por imagem , Tetralogia de Fallot/mortalidade
17.
J Card Surg ; 36(11): 4169-4175, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34423465

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Excellent results have been reported regarding pulmonary valve replacement (PVR) for pulmonary valve regurgitation (PR) after intracardiac repair (ICR) in patients with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). However, there are apparently no reports comparing the following procedures: PVR using a bioprosthetic valve and PVR using a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) bicuspid valve. Herein, we retrospectively analyzed the outcomes of PVR for PR after ICR of TOF in our institution and assessed which of the two PVR procedures was better. METHODS: From June 2008 to December 2017, we performed PVR for PR after ICR of TOF in 34 patients. Patients with the right ventricle to the pulmonary artery conduits were excluded. Preoperative and postoperative cardiac magnetic resonance imagings (cMRIs) were performed in all patients. The patients were divided into the bioprosthetic valve group (BV group, n = 17) and the PTFE bicuspid valve group (PTFE group, n = 17). RESULTS: There were no significant differences in the preoperative cMRI data and perioperative factors between the two groups. There were no deaths in either group. Postoperative cMRI showed that the PR fraction and the right ventricular end-diastolic volume index (RVEDVI)/left ventricular end-diastolic volume index ratio were significantly improved in both groups. However, RVEDVI was significantly improved only in the BV group. Re-PVR was required in four patients in the PTFE group. CONCLUSION: PVR using a bioprosthetic valve was more effective for PR treatment after ICR of TOF than PVR using a PTFE bicuspid valve.


Assuntos
Implante de Prótese de Valva Cardíaca , Insuficiência da Valva Pulmonar , Valva Pulmonar , Tetralogia de Fallot , Humanos , Valva Mitral , Politetrafluoretileno , Valva Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Pulmonar/cirurgia , Insuficiência da Valva Pulmonar/etiologia , Insuficiência da Valva Pulmonar/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tetralogia de Fallot/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 117(4): 657-663, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34287569

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endovascular stent placement in the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) has been an alternative to Blalock-Taussig (BT) surgery in the treatment of Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) in symptomatic infants with low birth weight and complex anatomy. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate endovascular stent placement in the RVOT as a primary treatment for infants with TOF who are not candidates for BT surgery, and evaluate medium-term outcomes until the stent is removed during corrective surgery. METHODS: Six infants with TOF were treated with RVOT stenting from October 2015 to April 2018. Hemodynamic parameters were compared between the pre- and post-stenting periods. RESULTS: At the time of stenting, participants had a median age and weight of 146.5 days and 4.9 kg, respectively. Peak systolic gradient decreased from 63.5 mm Hg to 50.5 mm Hg, while the diameter of the left and right pulmonary arteries increased from 3.5 mm to 4.9 mm and 4.3 mm, respectively. The Nakata index increased from 96.5 mm to 108.3 mm; weight increased from 4.9 kg to 5.5 kg; and oxygen saturation, from 83.5% to 93%. There was one case of stent migration and two deaths, one caused by stent embolization and the other unrelated to study procedures. CONCLUSIONS: RVOT stenting is a promising alternative for the palliative treatment of TOF in infants with low birth weight and complex anatomy.


Assuntos
Procedimento de Blalock-Taussig , Tetralogia de Fallot , Humanos , Lactente , Cuidados Paliativos , Artéria Pulmonar/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tetralogia de Fallot/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Pediatr Cardiol ; 42(8): 1805-1817, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34196756

RESUMO

Right ventricular (RV) volumetric cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) criteria serve as indicators for pulmonary valve replacement (PVR) in repaired tetralogy of Fallot (rTOF). Myocardial deformation and tricuspid valve displacement parameters may be more sensitive measures of RV dysfunction. This study's aim was to describe rTOF RV deformation and tricuspid displacement patterns using novel CMR semi-automated software and determine associations with standard CMR measures. Retrospective study of 78 pediatric rTOF patients was compared to 44 normal controls. Global RV longitudinal and circumferential strain and strain rate (SR) and tricuspid valve (TV) displacement were measured. Correlation analysis between strain, SR, TV displacement, and volumes was performed between and within subgroups. The sensitivity and specificity of strain parameters in predicting CMR criteria for PVR was determined. Deformation variables were reduced in rTOF compared to controls. Decreased RV strain and TV shortening were associated with increased RV volumes and decreased RVEF. Longitudinal and circumferential parameters were predictive of RVESVi (> 80 ml/m2) and RVEF (< 47%), with circumferential strain (> - 15.88%) and SR (> - 0.62) being most sensitive. Longitudinal strain was unchanged between rTOF subgroups, while circumferential strain trended abnormal in those meeting PVR criteria compared to controls. RV deformation and TV displacement are abnormal in rTOF, and RV circumferential strain variation may reflect an adaptive response to chronic volume or pressure load. This coupled with associations of ventricular deformation with traditional PVR indications suggest importance of this analysis in the evolution of rTOF RV assessment.


Assuntos
Insuficiência da Valva Pulmonar , Valva Pulmonar , Tetralogia de Fallot , Disfunção Ventricular Direita , Criança , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Valva Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Valva Pulmonar/cirurgia , Insuficiência da Valva Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência da Valva Pulmonar/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tetralogia de Fallot/diagnóstico por imagem , Tetralogia de Fallot/cirurgia , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/etiologia , Função Ventricular Direita
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