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1.
Phytochemistry ; 183: 112628, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33412403

RESUMO

Nine undescribed guaiane-type sesquiterpenoids stelleraterpenoids A‒I, along with seven reported congeners, were isolated and identified from the 70% EtOH extract of the roots of Stellera chamaejasme L. Their chemical structures were elucidated on the basis of various spectral data. The relative configurations were determined by their NOESY spectra and comparison between their experimental and calculated NMR data. The absolute configurations were established by the comparison between the experimental and calculated ECD spectra and further by X-ray single-crystal diffraction analysis. The neuroprotective effects of these compounds on the H2O2-induced damage in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells were evaluated. Stelleraguaianone B exhibited the better activity with 71.62% cell viability compared to the positive control Trolox (65.05%) at 12.5 µM, which might be achieved by inhibiting the apoptosis of SH-SY5Y cells based on an annexin V-FITC/PI staining experiment.


Assuntos
Fármacos Neuroprotetores , Sesquiterpenos , Thymelaeaceae , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Estrutura Molecular , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Sesquiterpenos de Guaiano
2.
Phytochemistry ; 183: 112630, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33378718

RESUMO

Nine undescribed sesquiterpenes, which include five guaiane and four humulene-type, were isolated from the agarwood of Aquilaria malaccensis. The structures of these undescribed sesquiterpenes were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including UV, HRESI-MS, 1D and 2D-NMR, ECD, and X-ray diffraction (Cu Kα). The isolated compounds were tested for their inhibitory effect against LPS-induced NO production in RAW 264.7 cells. In particular, one sesquiterpene (1α,7α-dihydroxy-8oxo-4αH,5αH-guaia-9(10),11(13)-dien-12-oate) showed significant inhibition of NO production in LPS-stimulated macrophage RAW 264.7 cells with an IC50 value of 18.8 µM.


Assuntos
Sesquiterpenos , Thymelaeaceae , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Células RAW 264.7 , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia
3.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 31(9): 2977-2984, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33345498

RESUMO

Stellera chamaejasme is one of most common poisonous plant species in degraded grasslands of China. S. chamaejasme could dominate the community in some severely degraded grasslands, which is a serious threat to the sustainable development of animal husbandry in natural grasslands. In this study, S. chamaejasme population was divided into 10 age classes according to the number of branches. We investigated the age structure of S. chamaejasme population and population dynamic indices, and quantified the survival status of S. chamaejasme population by compiling a static life table, drawing a survival curve, conducting survival analysis. The age structure of S. chamaejasme population in the study area was growth type. The number of individuals in Ⅰ age class was sufficient but with relatively low survival rate. The population structure of S. chamaejasme was fitted the growing type. The development process of population was fluctuating. The number of individuals would drop sharply in Ⅱ and Ⅷ, indicating that these two age classes were the bottleneck period in the development of S. chamaejasme population. The survival curves of S. chamaejasme population was the Deevey-Ⅱ type. The results of survival analysis showed that the population had a sharp decrease in the early stage and was stable in the later stage, which was because the value of fx and λx of S. chamaejasme in Ⅰ or Ⅱ age class were the highest. In conclusion, sufficient young individuals (Ⅰ) was the basis for the expansion of S. chamaejasme population in the degraded typical steppe. The low transformation rate of young individuals to adults might be one of the reasons explaining why S. chamaejasme population could not expand rapidly in the early stage of grassland degradation. Therefore, it was suggested to intervene early when the number of S. chamaejasme was limited.


Assuntos
Thymelaeaceae , Animais , China , Humanos
4.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(15): 3651-3658, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893554

RESUMO

As an important substitute for agarwood, mountain-agarwood, belonging to the family Oleaceae, comes from the root, stem and thick branch of Syringa pinnatifolia, which has a wide range of application in Inner Mongolia, China. It has good clinical efficacy in the use of cardiovascular diseases. However, the formation speed of mountain-agarwood is extremely slow, and its cultivated seedlings have low resin content. Therefore, how to speed up the formation of mountain-agarwood and increase the resin content is a hot research topic in this field. In this work, 16 S rDNA amplicon sequencing method was used to systematically analyze the bacterial communities of different samples of mountain-agarwood. Our data revealed that the samples of mountain-agarwood had more obvious species diversity than the ones of non-mountain-agarwood, especially the wild mountain-agarwood samples. By analysis of bacterial community composition and species abundance, Sphingomonas, Modestobacter and unidentified Cyanobacteria genus were three dominant bacterial genera in all samples. In addition, there are two identified genera of dominant bacteria, namely Actinoplanes and Microbacterium in both wild and cultivated mountain-agarwood, by bacterial community composition and species richness analysis. Meanwhile, Roseomonas was the dominant bacterial genus in both wild and cultivated non-mountain-agarwood samples. Our work could provides basic data for exploring the mechanism of the mountain-agarwood formation, and help to exploit resource of endophytic bacteria reasonably.


Assuntos
Thymelaeaceae , Bactérias/genética , China , DNA Ribossômico , Resinas Vegetais
5.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(16): 3797-3804, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893573

RESUMO

Mountain-agarwood plays an important role in ethnic medicine in China for its pharmaceutical value. Modern pharmacological researches demonstrated that mountain-agarwood was effective for its anti-myocardial ischemia, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antitumor and analgesic effects. Mountain-agarwood derives from the peeled roots, stems or twigs of Syringa pinnatifolia which belongs to Syringa genus. It often depends on the purple substance and fragrance to estimate the formation of mountain-agarwood. However, the mechanism of mountain-agarwood formation has not been reported. To observe the microcosmic change in the process during the formation of mountain-agarwood, this study described the microscopic and histochemical characteristics of mountain-agarwood formation through histochemical staining. Our results showed that a significant difference of the distribution of tyloses existed during mountain-agarwood formation. It was observed that inchoate mountain-agarwood had more starch granules and viable cells than mountain-agarwood formed with high level or low level. The amount of polysaccharide and degree of lignification were increased during the mountain-agarwood formation. The results indicated that the mountain-agarwood, which meets the quality requirements for pharmaceutical use, contained the following characteristics: a large amount of purple tyloses in heartwood; yellow-brown tyloses distributing in heartwood and sapwood which were less in the latter; lignification with high level; a few viable cells; lots of polysaccharide and few starch granules in xylem rays cell. This study is aimed to reveal the change of histochemical characteristics during mountain-agarwood formation, and lay the foundation for exploring the mechanism of mountain-agarwood formation.


Assuntos
Isquemia Miocárdica , Syringa , Thymelaeaceae , China , Humanos
6.
Toxicon ; 186: 46-57, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730770

RESUMO

Pimelea poisoning of cattle, historically known as St. George Disease or Marree Disease, is a prevailing issue in arid grazing regions of inland Australia. Ingestion of the toxic native Pimelea species that contain the secondary metabolite simplexin, a diterpene orthoester with potent protein kinase C activity, induces diarrhoea, characteristic oedema and potentially fatal right-sided heart failure in cattle. Outbreaks of toxic Pimelea in the grazing field depend on seasonal prevalence. However, all stages of the plant carry the toxin, from seeds, juvenile plants to dead plant material. Livestock generally avoid consuming green Pimelea plants and only consume toxic Pimelea when pasture is minimal or where Pimelea growing through grass tussocks results in inadvertent ingestion. Our knowledge base of Pimelea poisoning has greatly improved with past research, yet the health hazards for livestock grazing in Pimelea affected pastures remains a significant issue whilst the ongoing search to develop effective strategies to mitigate poisoning continues. The goal of this review is to collate historical and recent research giving an overview of the current understandings of Pimelea poisoning, the toxin, its toxic effects and progress made towards remedies to alleviate the effects of Pimelea intoxication.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Intoxicação por Plantas/veterinária , Thymelaeaceae , Animais , Bovinos , Diterpenos , Gado , Intoxicação por Plantas/epidemiologia , Terpenos , Toxinas Biológicas
7.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(10): 2374-2381, 2020 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32495595

RESUMO

To explore the diversity of bacterial community structure between different layers of agarwood, Hiseq(high-throughput sequencing) was used to analyze the bacterial community structure of samples from different layers of agarwood. Our results showed that 1 150 096 optimized sequences and 9 690 OTUs were obtained from 15 samples of 5 layers of agarwood, which belonged to 28 bacterial phyla, 61 classes, 110 orders, 212 families and 384 genera. Further analysis revealed that the normal layer(NL) had the lowest bacterial species richness and the smallest number of OTUs. And the total number of OTUs of the agarwood layer(AL) and NL was zero, which was quite different.At the same time, there were significant differences in bacterial community structure and species diversity between NL and the other four layers. While there were some common dominant bacterial genera in both transition layer(TL) and NL. The similarity of bacterial distribution in 4 non-NL layers was relatively high, which had four common genera, such as Acidibacter, Bradyrhizobium, Acidothemus and Sphingomonas. While Acidibacter, Bradyrhizobium and Acidothemus were the dominant bacterial genus of DA and AL, and all of these layers contained volatile oil. In addition, the Bradyrhizobium was the most abundant in agarwood layer. Our results showed that bacterial community diversity and abundance were decreasing from DL to AL, and different layers showed significant differences in bacterial enrichment. It provided the clues to investigate how bacteria participate in the formation of agarwood.


Assuntos
Óleos Voláteis , Thymelaeaceae/genética , Bactérias , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala
8.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(7): 1641-1647, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32489044

RESUMO

Aquilaria sinensis is a typical inducible medicinal plant, that can produce agarwood only after it is wounded by external stimuli. Alternative oxidase(AOX) is one of the terminal oxidases of the plant mitochondrial electron transport, which plays an important role in plants' response to environmental stress. In order to reveal the physiological function of AOX gene in the process of agarwood formation from A.sinensis induced by wounding, AOX gene was cloned based on the transcriptome database and then identified by the bioinformatics analysis, and their expression pattern in different tissues and under wounding stress were detected by qRT-PCR. The results as follows. Three AOX genes were cloned from A.sinensis for the first time. They were named AsAOX1a, AsAOX1d and AsAOX2, respectively. The tissue expression shown that AsAOX1a is mainly expressed in the stem and the seed, and the AsAOX1d and AsAOX2 genes are mainly expressed in the pulp and the stem. AsAOX1a and AsAOX1d genes are highly responsive to wounding stress, and their response time was different. In addition, the expression of AsAOX1a and AsAOX2 induced by wounding are reduced by H_2O_2 treatment, but promoted by AsA treatment. The cloning, bioinformatics analysis and expression characteristics of AOX genes from A.sinensis provided basic information for further study the function of AOX genes in the development of A.sinensis, especially in the process of agarwood formation of A. sinensis induced by wounding.


Assuntos
Thymelaeaceae , Biologia Computacional , Proteínas de Plantas , Estresse Fisiológico , Transcriptoma
9.
J Nat Med ; 74(3): 561-570, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32335822

RESUMO

Agarwood has been used as an incense and in traditional medicines as aphrodisiac, sedative, cardiotonic, and carminative. In this study, five new 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones (2, 13-16) and eleven known compounds (1, 3-12) were isolated from the agarwood. The structures of the new compounds were determined by 1H-, 13C-, and two-dimensional NMR together with electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectroscopy. All isolated compounds were evaluated for the phosphodiesterase (PDE) 3A and 5A1 inhibitory activity by the fluorescence polarization method. Dimeric 2-(2-phenylehyl)chromones (13, 14, 16) had potent inhibitory activity to PDE 5A1 with IC50 values of micro molar range (13: 4.2 µM, 14: 7.9 µM, 16: 4.3 µM), whereas they had weak activity to PDE 3A. In contrast, compound (15), which has a phenylpropionic acid moiety instead of the 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromone moiety in the dimers, showed moderate inhibition of both PDE 3A (IC50: 42.6 µM) and PDE 5A1 (IC50: 15.1 µM).


Assuntos
Flavonoides/química , Inibidores de Fosfodiesterase/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Thymelaeaceae/química , Cromonas/química , Cromonas/isolamento & purificação , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Estrutura Molecular , Inibidores de Fosfodiesterase/isolamento & purificação , Thymelaeaceae/microbiologia
10.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 149: 132-143, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32062590

RESUMO

As a class of peptide hormone, plant natriuretic peptides (PNPs) play an important role in maintaining water and salt balance in plants, as well as in the physiological processes of biotic stress and pathogen resistance. However, in plants, except for some PNPs, such as the Arabidopsis thaliana PNP-A (AtPNP-A), of which the function has not yet been thoroughly revealed, few PNPs in other plants have been reported. In this study, a PNP-A (ScPNP-A) has been identified and characterized in Stellera chamaejasme for the first time. ScPNP-A is a double-psi beta-barrel (DPBB) fold containing protein and is localized in the extracellular (secreted) space. In S. chamaejasme, the expression of ScPNP-A was significantly up-regulated by salt, drought and cold stress. Changes at the physiological and biochemical levels and the expression of resistance-related genes indicated that overexpression of ScPNP-A can significantly improve salt, drought and freezing tolerance in Arabidopsis. ScPNP-A could stimulate the opening, not the closing of stomata, and its expression was not enhanced by external application of ABA. Furthermore, overexpression of ScPNP-A resulted in the elevated expression of genes in the ABA biosynthesis and reception pathway. These suggested that there may be some cross-talk between ScPNP-A and the ABA-dependent signaling pathways to regulate water related stress, however further experimentation is required to understand this relationship. In addition, overexpression of ScPNP-A can enhance the resistance to pathogens by enhancing SAR in Arabidopsis. These results indicate that ScPNP-A could function as a positive regulator in plant response to biotic stress and abiotic stress.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Peptídeos Natriuréticos , Estresse Fisiológico , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Secas , Expressão Gênica , Peptídeos Natriuréticos/genética , Peptídeos Natriuréticos/metabolismo , Estômatos de Plantas/genética , Estômatos de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Thymelaeaceae/genética
11.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(10): 3214-3219, 2020 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32079394

RESUMO

Four terpene synthases for the biosynthesis of volatile terpenoids were identified from the transcriptome of Stellera chamaejasme L. flowers, including SchTPS1, SchTPS2, SchTPS3, and SchTPS4. Their functions were characterized by synthetic biology approaches in Escherichia coli and in vitro enzymatic assays. SchTPS1, SchTPS2, and SchTPS3 are guaiene synthases, while SchTPS4 is an (E,E)-geranyl linalool synthase. Next, SchTPS1 and α-guaiene 2-oxidase VvSTO2 were co-expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to reconstruct the biosynthetic pathway of (-)-rotundone, which is a unique aroma compound in fruits, vegetables, and wines. This is the first report for the construction of a (-)-rotundone-producing microbial platform.


Assuntos
Alquil e Aril Transferases/metabolismo , Azulenos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Sesquiterpenos de Guaiano/metabolismo , Sesquiterpenos/metabolismo , Thymelaeaceae/enzimologia , Alquil e Aril Transferases/genética , Vias Biossintéticas , Flores/enzimologia , Flores/genética , Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Thymelaeaceae/genética
12.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 3018, 2020 02 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32080225

RESUMO

The WRKY proteins are a superfamily of transcription factor that regulate diverse developmental and physiological processes in plants. Completion of the whole-genome sequencing of Aquilaria sinensis allowed us to perform a genome-wide investigation for WRKY proteins. Here, we predicted 70 WRKY genes from the A. sinensis genome and undertaken a comprehensive bioinformatic analysis. Due to their diverse structural features, the 70 AsWRKY genes are classified into three main groups (group I-III), with five subgroups (IIa-IIe) in group II, except two belong to none of them. Distinct expression profiles of AsWRKYs with RNA sequencing data revealed their diverse expression patterns among different tissues and in the process of whole-tree-inducing agarwood formation. Based on the expression characteristics, we predict some AsWRKYs are pseudogenes, and some may be involved in the biosynthesis of agarwood sesquiterpenes as activators or repressors. Among the tested genes treated with MeJA and H2O2, most of them are induced by H2O2, but downregulated by MeJA, implying the complexity of their involvement in signal transduction regulation. Our results not only provide a basic platform for functional identification of WRKYs in A. sinensis but important clues for further analysis their regulation role in agarwood formation.


Assuntos
Genoma de Planta , Thymelaeaceae/genética , Thymelaeaceae/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Acetatos/farmacologia , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Sequência Conservada/genética , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Genes de Plantas , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Motivos de Nucleotídeos/genética , Especificidade de Órgãos/efeitos dos fármacos , Especificidade de Órgãos/genética , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Thymelaeaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Madeira/genética
13.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 31(1): 249-258, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31957402

RESUMO

Stellera chamaejasme is one of the most serious weeds in Qinhai-Tibetan Plateau, the rapid expansion of which exerts an increasing effect on the alpine meadow ecosystem. With high-throughput sequencing technology, geostatistics and GIS method, the spatial heterogeneity of soil fungal diversity in Stellera occurrence area and the spatial correlation between Stellera coverage and soil fungal diversity were investigated in a typical degraded alpine meadow of the Qilian Mountain. Compared to no-Stellera area, the fungi richness in Stellera area decreased, the dominance increased, and the α-diversity reduced. The difference of fungal species composition enhanced and ß-diversity significantly increased. The spatial pattern of soil fungal diversity was affected by the invasion of Stellera, resulting in higher fragmentation in occurrence area. Spatial heterogeneity of species composition increased remarkably, and spatial stability of α-diversity and ß-diversity decreased. The portion of positive correlation and negative correlation interlaced, indicating no clear spatial correlation between Stellera coverage and soil fungal diversity. Our results indicate that the spatial pattern of soil fungal diversity was affected by the interaction of soil and vegetation in Stellera invaded meadows.


Assuntos
Solo , Thymelaeaceae , Ecossistema , Fungos , Pradaria , Microbiologia do Solo
14.
Phytochem Anal ; 31(5): 583-593, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31990133

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Recently, the fresh leaves of Aquilaria trees have been processed as food products such as agarwood tea due to its beneficial medicinal properties. However, there have not been any reported analytical methods to quantify the bioactive principles in the processed products. OBJECTIVE: A rapid and sensitive ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled with electrospray ionisation (ESI) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of 10 bioactive components in Aquilaria leaf tea. METHODS: The UHPLC-MS/MS was used for quantification operated in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The optimised chromatographic parameters were conducted on a Shim-pack XR-ODS II column and mobile phases consisted of acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid in water. RESULTS: All the samples were analysed within 20 min. The established method showed excellent linearity (R2 > 0.9988), good repeatability with all the relative standard deviation values lower than 3.27%, and satisfactory recovery (79.72-119.22%). The matrix effect factors ranged from 87.65 to 97.27% in the examination. The developed method was applied to the determination of 10 bioactive principles (1-10) in six different Aquilaria leaf tea samples. Among the analytes, mangiferin (1) and iriflophenone 2-O-α-l-rhamnopyranoside (2) were the most abundant compounds in the extracts of Aquilaria leaf tea, and it indicated that these biotech products may possess laxative effects. CONCLUSION: This proposed method appeared to be a useful tool for the quality control of commercial products of Aquilaria leaf tea and thus provided an analytical reference for herbal drinks.


Assuntos
Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Thymelaeaceae , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Folhas de Planta , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Chá
15.
Phytochemistry ; 171: 112231, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31901473

RESUMO

Daphne giraldii Nitsche., a member of the genus Daphne (Thymelaeaceae), is a deciduous shrub with mild toxicity. Its rhizome bark, generally called 'Zushima' in Chinese, has many medicinal folkloric uses and good therapeutic effects. Previous studies investigating the chemical constituents and pharmacological activities of D. giraldii have focused on several major classes of compounds, such as coumarins, lignans and flavonoids, especially the interesting enantiomeric flavans. Extracts and pure compounds of D. giraldii were found to possess anti-inflammatory, anti-nociceptive, cytotoxicity, antimalarial, immunomodulating, sedative and hypnotic effects. They have also been reported to influence the cardiovascular functions and blood activities. This comprehensive review will describe the advances in the phytochemistry, pharmacology, medicinal uses and clinical applications of D. giraldii and its formulations covering the literature published from 1970 to 2018. Almost half of the reviewed studies were originally published in non-English languages (mainly in Chinese). Collectively, the aim of this article is to open new avenues for further in-depth pharmacological studies on D. giraldii.


Assuntos
Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Thymelaeaceae/química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/química , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Fármacos Antiobesidade/química , Fármacos Antiobesidade/isolamento & purificação , Fármacos Antiobesidade/farmacologia , Antimaláricos/química , Antimaláricos/isolamento & purificação , Antimaláricos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/química , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/isolamento & purificação , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacologia , Fatores Imunológicos/química , Fatores Imunológicos/isolamento & purificação , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação
16.
J Nat Med ; 74(1): 98-105, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392566

RESUMO

Agarwood, which is used as medicine and incense, contains sesquiterpenes and chromones. Agarotetrol is a chromone derivative found in high concentrations in the water-extract fraction of agarwood and thus may be present in pharmaceutical products made from decoctions of agarwood. Agarotetrol has been reported to be present at the early stages of cell death in calli. We therefore examined the presence of agarotetrol in medical- and incense-grade agarwood, in agarwood-source plants lacking resin deposits, and in artificially made agarwood. Agarotetrol appeared as a large peak in the HPLC chromatograms of all samples of medical-grade and artificially made agarwood, and in most incense-grade agarwood samples. In contrast, agarwood samples lacking resin deposits did not contain agarotetrol. These results show that agarotetrol is characteristic of resin formation. Agarotetrol was also detected in decoctions of agarwood. A newly developed TLC method for the detection of agarotetrol in agarwood is described.


Assuntos
Cromonas/análise , Cromonas/química , Resinas Vegetais/análise , Thymelaeaceae/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Extratos Vegetais , Resinas Vegetais/química , Sesquiterpenos/metabolismo
17.
J Nat Med ; 74(1): 323-330, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31555997

RESUMO

Agarwood is a type of resinous wood found in the trunks of Aquilaria and some other genera. It is widely used as an herbal medicine for sedation, detoxification, and treatment of stomachaches, as well as for incense sticks. However, the number of source plants is decreasing, and in 2005, they were added to Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). To identify source species of agarwood, we previously developed a DNA-barcoding method using resin deposition sites. In this study, to identify additional agarwood source species, the barcoding method was applied to source plants and commercial agarwood samples collected from Sumbawa, Lombok, Sulawesi, and Kalimantan in Indonesia, a major agarwood-producing country. In addition, the method was also applied to incense stick samples labeled as agarwood. As a result, several samples were identified as Gyrinops, which is not currently listed as an agarwood source plant in the Japanese standards for non-Pharmacopoeial crude drugs 2018 (Non-JPS 2018). From the viewpoint of securing future resources, these findings suggest that Gyrinops species should, therefore, be added to the list of agarwood source species.


Assuntos
Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico/métodos , Plantas Medicinais/química , Resinas Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Thymelaeaceae/química , Thymelaeaceae/classificação , Comércio , DNA , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Indonésia , Internacionalidade , Fitoterapia/métodos , Plantas Medicinais/classificação
18.
Nat Prod Res ; 34(12): 1721-1727, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30580631

RESUMO

Two new chromone derivatives, 7-hydroxy-2-[2-(3'-methoxy-4'-hydroxyphenyl)-ethyl]chromone (1), and 6,7-dimethoxy-2-[2-(3'-hydroxyphenyl)-ethyl]chromone (2) were isolated from the EtOH extract of agarwood of Aquilaria sinensis, together with eleven known analogues. Their structures were established by detailed HR-ESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis, as well as comparison with the literature data. Selected the isolates (1, 2, 4-8, 10, 11) were tested for their antitumor activities against SMMC-7721, MGC-803 and OV-90 cell lines using the MTT method with cisplatin and paclitaxel as the positive control. All the tested compounds showed weak cytotoxic activities with IC50 values ranged from 18.82 to 37.95 µg/ml.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/isolamento & purificação , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Thymelaeaceae/química , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cromonas/química , Cromonas/isolamento & purificação , Cromonas/farmacologia , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Estrutura Molecular
19.
J Nat Med ; 74(1): 42-50, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250369

RESUMO

Agarwood is a type of resinous wood found in the trunks of Aquilaria, Gonystylus, and Gyrinops species [1]. High-quality agarwood is extraordinarily expensive and therefore its source plant species have become depleted due to exploitation. In 2005, these species were added to Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora [1]. Because these wild agarwood resources have become depleted, commercial production of agarwood has long been a desirable goal. In addition, inauthentic agarwood is sometimes produced from non-agarwood species. Few reports have attempted to identify source species in order to distinguish genuine from false agarwood. In this study, DNA was extracted from putative agarwood samples collected from Japanese, Indonesian, Thai, and Vietnamese markets. The trnL-trnF region and matK gene were amplified from each sample by PCR to serve as DNA barcodes for identifying the plant species to which each sample belonged. One of the wood samples did not originate from a genuine agarwood species. Although some species were identified, sequence data for agarwood source species currently available in GenBank is insufficient to identify the species to which all of these putative agarwood samples belonged. Thus, positive identification of remaining samples will require further exploration.


Assuntos
Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico/métodos , Thymelaeaceae/genética , Madeira/classificação , Sequência de Bases , Madeira/química , Madeira/genética
20.
J Asian Nat Prod Res ; 22(7): 626-631, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31045437

RESUMO

Two new sesquiterpenoids (1 and 2), together with two known sesquiterpenoids (3 and 4), were isolated from agarwood originated from Aquilaria sp. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR, IR, HRESIMS, and comparison with the literatures. All compounds were evaluated for cytotoxicity against five human cancer cell lines, but none of them displayed significant activity. [Formula: see text].


Assuntos
Sesquiterpenos , Thymelaeaceae , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Madeira
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