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1.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 14733, 2020 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895447

RESUMO

Nitazoxanide (NTZ) is effective against helminths and numerous microorganisms, including bacteria and viruses. In vivo, NTZ is metabolized into Tizoxanide (TIZ), which is the active circulating metabolite. With the emergence of SARS-Cov-2 as a Pandemic agent, NTZ became one of the molecules already approved for human use to engage clinical trials, due to results in vitro showing that NTZ was highly effective against the SARS-Cov-2, agent of COVID-19. There are currently several ongoing clinical trials mainly in the USA and Brazil involving NTZ due not only to the in vitro results, but also for its long-known safety. Here, we study the response of Vero cells to TIZ treatment and unveil possible mechanisms for its antimicrobial effect, using a label-free proteomic approach (LC/MS/MS) analysis to compare the proteomic profile between untreated- and TIZ-treated cells. Fifteen differentially expressed proteins were observed related to various biological processes, including translation, intracellular trafficking, RNA processing and modification, and signal transduction. The broad antimicrobial range of TIZ points towards its overall effect in lowering cell metabolism and RNA processing and modification. The decreased levels of FASN, HNRNPH and HNRNPK with the treatment appear to be important for antiviral activity.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Proteoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Tiazóis/farmacologia , Animais , Chlorocebus aethiops , Ácido Graxo Sintases/genética , Ácido Graxo Sintases/metabolismo , Proteoma/genética , Proteoma/metabolismo , Ribonucleoproteínas/genética , Ribonucleoproteínas/metabolismo , Células Vero
2.
Life Sci ; 258: 118179, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758626

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether approved gastroprokinetic agent, acotiamide exerts a direct excitatory effect on bladder to help explain the reported meaningful reduction of post-void residual urine volume (PVR) in detrusor underactivity (DU) patients after thrice daily oral intake of acotiamide 100 mg for 2 weeks. METHODS: Effect of acotiamide [1-16 µM] was assessed on nerve-mediated contractions evoked by electrical field stimulation (EFS) for 5 s with 5 ms pulse trains of 10 V in longitudinal, mucosa intact rat and human bladder strips to construct frequency response curve (1-32 Hz) and repeat 10 Hz stimulation at 60s interval. Effect of acotiamide 2 µM on spontaneous and carbachol evoked contractions was also assessed. RESULTS: Acotiamide 2 µM significantly enhanced the Atropine and Tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive EFS evoked contractions of rat and human bladder at 8-32 Hz (Two-way ANOVA followed Sidak's multiple comparison; *p < 0.01) and on repeat 10 Hz stimulation (Paired Student's t-test; *p < 0.05), while producing a modest effect on the spontaneous contractions and a negligible effect on the carbachol evoked contractions. CONCLUSIONS: Enhancement of TTX-sensitive evoked contractions of rat and human bladder by acotiamide is consistent with the enhancement of excitatory neuro-effector transmission mainly through prejunctional mechanisms. Findings highlight immense therapeutic potential of antimuscarinics with low M3 receptor affinity like acotiamide in Underactive bladder (UAB)/DU treatment.


Assuntos
Benzamidas/uso terapêutico , Tiazóis/uso terapêutico , Bexiga Inativa/tratamento farmacológico , Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Animais , Benzamidas/química , Benzamidas/farmacologia , Carbacol/farmacologia , Estimulação Elétrica , Humanos , Masculino , Contração Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Tiazóis/química , Tiazóis/farmacologia , Bexiga Urinária/efeitos dos fármacos , Bexiga Urinária/inervação
3.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236175, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32697798

RESUMO

Adenoviruses cause upper respiratory infections, conjunctivitis, keratitis, and gastrointestinal illness. These can be fatal in immunocompromised individuals. Adenoviruses have also been engineered into viral vectors to deliver therapeutic genes or induce immunity as vaccine carriers. The success of ocular gene therapy is driven partly by the immunologic and biochemical influences of the intraocular environment. We have shown that versican and hyaluronan modulate adenoviral vector transgene expression through CD44 signaling. Herein we explored the role of these pathways on virus replication and viral protein expression of wild type adenovirus. We report that the addition of vitreous humor (which contains both versican and hyaluronan) increases viral hexon protein levels. Vitreous humor also increased wild type adenovirus DNA replication in vitro. Metalloproteinase and γ-secretase inhibitors, which inhibit CD44 proteolytic activation, blocked adenoviral replication in vitro. Similarly, protein kinase C and RhoA kinase inhibitors, both proteins associated with CD44 mediated pathways, also inhibited wild type adenoviral replication in vitro. Application of metalloproteinase and γ-secretase inhibitors to human conjunctival explants sharply decreased adenoviral vector gene expression. Our results demonstrate that pharmacologic delivery of these inhibitors is easily achievable. The inhibition of these enzymes should be explored as potential therapies of wild type adenoviral infections.


Assuntos
Infecções por Adenoviridae/tratamento farmacológico , Adenoviridae/efeitos dos fármacos , Antivirais/farmacologia , Vetores Genéticos/efeitos dos fármacos , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Adenoviridae/fisiologia , Infecções por Adenoviridae/virologia , Administração Oftálmica , Amidas/farmacologia , Amidas/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Túnica Conjuntiva/metabolismo , DNA Viral/genética , DNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Diaminas/farmacologia , Diaminas/uso terapêutico , Dipeptídeos/farmacologia , Dipeptídeos/uso terapêutico , Terapia Genética/métodos , Vetores Genéticos/administração & dosagem , Vetores Genéticos/fisiologia , Células HeLa , Humanos , Receptores de Hialuronatos/metabolismo , Ácido Hialurônico/metabolismo , Ácidos Hidroxâmicos/farmacologia , Ácidos Hidroxâmicos/uso terapêutico , Indóis/farmacologia , Indóis/uso terapêutico , Maleimidas/farmacologia , Maleimidas/uso terapêutico , Metaloproteases/antagonistas & inibidores , Metaloproteases/metabolismo , Permeabilidade , Proteína Quinase C/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteína Quinase C/metabolismo , Proteólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Piridinas/farmacologia , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Tiazóis/farmacologia , Tiazóis/uso terapêutico , Versicanas/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Corpo Vítreo/metabolismo , Quinases Associadas a rho/metabolismo
4.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 401: 115080, 2020 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497533

RESUMO

Upregulation of ABCB1/MDR1 (P-gp) and BIRC5/Survivin promotes multidrug resistance in a variety of human cancers. LCL161 is an anti-cancer DIABLO/SMAC mimetic currently being tested in patients with solid tumors, but the molecular mechanism of action of LCL161 in cancer cells is still incompletely understood. It is still unclear whether LCL161 is therapeutically applicable for patients with ABCB1-overexpressing multidrug resistant tumors. In this study, we found that the potency of LCL161 is not affected by the expression of ABCB1 in KB-TAX50, KB-VIN10, and NTU0.017 cancer cells. Besides, LCL161 is equally potent towards the parental MCF7 breast cancer cells and its BIRC5 overexpressing, hormone therapy resistance subline MCF7-TamC3 in vitro. Mechanistically, we found that LCL161 directly modulates the ABCB1-ATPase activity and inhibits ABCB1 multi-drug efflux activity at low cytotoxic concentrations (i.e. 0.5xIC50 or less). Further analysis revealed that LCL161 also decreases intracellular ATP levels in part through BIRC5 downregulation. Therapeutically, co-treatment with LCL161 at low cytotoxic concentrations restored the sensitivity to the known ABCB1 substrate, paclitaxel, in ABCB1-expressing cancer cells and increased the sensitivity to tamoxifen in MCF7-TamC3 cells. In conclusion, LCL161 has the potential for use in the management of cancer patients with ABCB1 and BIRC5-related drug resistance. The findings of our study provide important information to physicians for designing a more "patient-specific" LCL161 clinical trial program in the future.


Assuntos
Adenosina Trifosfatases/antagonistas & inibidores , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/farmacologia , Proteínas Mitocondriais/farmacologia , Survivina/antagonistas & inibidores , Tiazóis/farmacologia , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/antagonistas & inibidores , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Adenosina Trifosfatases/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/química , Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/química , Materiais Biomiméticos/química , Materiais Biomiméticos/farmacologia , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/fisiologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Baixo/fisiologia , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Proteínas Mitocondriais/química , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Survivina/biossíntese , Survivina/genética , Tiazóis/química
5.
Arch Med Res ; 51(5): 375-383, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32448490

RESUMO

At the end of the year 2019, the novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) was spreading in Wuhan, China, and the outbreak process has a high speed. It was recognized as a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) on 11 March 2020. Coronaviruses are enveloped and single-stranded RNA that have several families including Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS). The pathogenesis mechanism and disease outcomes of SARS and MERS are now clear to some extent, but little information is available for 2019-nCoV. This newly identified corona virus infection represents flu-like symptoms, but usually the first symptoms are fever and dry cough. There has been no specific treatment against 2019-nCoV up to now, and physicians only apply supportive therapy. In the present article, we made an attempt to review the behavior of the virus around the world, epidemiology, a pathway for influx into the host cells, clinical presentation, as well as the treatments currently in use and future approaches; nitazoxanide may be our dream drug. We hope that this review has a positive impact on public knowledge for helping to deal with the 2019-nCoV and move one step forward toward its treatment in the near future.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Tiazóis/farmacologia
6.
Mol Pharmacol ; 98(1): 61-71, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358165

RESUMO

The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is essential for the maintenance of homeostasis in the brain. Brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs) comprise the BBB, and thus a delicate balance between their proliferation and death is required. Although the activity of ion channels in BCECs is involved in BBB functions, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, the molecular components of Ca2+-activated Cl- (ClCa) channels and their physiological roles were examined using mouse BCECs (mBCECs) and a cell line derived from bovine BCECs, t-BBEC117. Expression analyses revealed that TMEM16A was strongly expressed in mBCECs and t-BBEC117 cells. In t-BBEC117 cells, whole-cell Cl- currents were sensitive to the ClCa channel blockers, 100 µM niflumic acid and 10 µM T16Ainh-A01, and were also reduced markedly by small-interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown of TMEM16A. Importantly, block of ClCa currents with ClCa channel blockers or TMEM16A siRNA induced membrane hyperpolarization. Moreover, treatment with TMEM16A siRNA caused an increase in resting cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]cyt). T16Ainh-A01 reduced cell viability in a concentration-dependent manner. Either ClCa channel blockers or TMEM16A siRNA also curtailed cell proliferation and migration. Furthermore, ClCa channel blockers attenuated the trans-endothelial permeability. In combination, these results strongly suggest that TMEM16A contributes to ClCa channel conductance and can regulate both the resting membrane potential and [Ca2+]cyt in BCECs. Our data also reveal how these BCECs may be involved in the maintenance of BBB functions, as both the proliferation and migration are altered following changes in channel activity. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: In brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs) of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), TMEM16A is responsible for Ca2+-activated Cl- channels and can regulate both the resting membrane potential and cytosolic Ca2+ concentration, contributing to the proliferation and migration of BCECs. The present study provides novel information on the molecular mechanisms underlying the physiological functions of BCECs in the BBB and a novel target for therapeutic drugs for disorders associated with dysfunctions in the BBB.


Assuntos
Anoctamina-1/metabolismo , Barreira Hematoencefálica/metabolismo , Encéfalo/citologia , Cálcio/metabolismo , Canais de Cloreto/metabolismo , Animais , Anoctamina-1/antagonistas & inibidores , Barreira Hematoencefálica/citologia , Barreira Hematoencefálica/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Bovinos , Linhagem Celular , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Células Endoteliais/citologia , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Potenciais da Membrana/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Ácido Niflúmico/farmacologia , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Tiazóis/farmacologia
7.
Muscle Nerve ; 62(1): 128-136, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32304242

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD) is a disease characterized by skeletal muscle wasting, major tendon contractures, and cardiac conduction defects. Mutations in the gene encoding emerin cause EDMD1. Our previous studies suggested that emerin activation of histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) to reduce histone 4-lysine 5 (H4K5) acetylation (ac) is important for myogenic differentiation. METHODS: Pharmacological inhibitors (Nu9056, L002) of histone acetyltransferases targeting acetylated H4K5 were used to test whether increased acetylated H4K5 was responsible for the impaired differentiation seen in emerin-deficient myogenic progenitors. RESULTS: Nu9056 and L002 rescued impaired differentiation in emerin deficiency. SRT1720, which inhibits the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)+ -dependent deacetylase sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), failed to rescue myotube formation. DISCUSSION: We conclude that emerin regulation of HDAC3 activity to affect H4K5 acetylation dynamics is important for myogenic differentiation. Targeting H4K5ac dynamics represents a potential new strategy for ameliorating the skeletal muscle wasting seen in EDMD1.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Histona Acetiltransferases/antagonistas & inibidores , Distrofia Muscular de Emery-Dreifuss/tratamento farmacológico , Distrofia Muscular de Emery-Dreifuss/patologia , Células-Tronco/efeitos dos fármacos , Tiazóis/uso terapêutico , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Células Cultivadas , Histona Acetiltransferases/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Células-Tronco/patologia , Tiazóis/farmacologia
8.
J Toxicol Sci ; 45(4): 227-236, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32238697

RESUMO

A growing body of experimental evidence strongly suggests that cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), a major component of the fiber-type cannabis plant, exerts a variety of biological activities. We have reported that CBDA can abrogate cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression and its enzymatic activity. It is established that aberrant expression of COX-2 correlates with the degree of malignancy in breast cancer. Although the reduction of COX-2 expression by CBDA offers an attractive medicinal application, the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects have not fully been established. It has been reported that COX-2 expression is positively controlled by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ß/δ (PPARß/δ) in some cancerous cells, although there is "no" modulatory element for PPARß/δ on the COX-2 promoter. No previous studies have examined whether an interaction between PPARß/δ-mediated signaling and COX-2 expression exists in MDA-MB-231 cells. We confirmed, for the first time, that COX-2 expression is positively modulated by PPARß/δ-mediated signaling in MDA-MB-231 cells. CBDA inhibits PPARß/δ-mediated transcriptional activation stimulated by the PPARß/δ-specific agonist, GW501516. Furthermore, the disappearance of cellular actin stress fibers, a hallmark of PPARß/δ and COX-2 pathway activation, as evoked by the GW501516, was effectively reversed by CBDA. Activator protein-1 (AP-1)-driven transcriptional activity directly involved in the regulation of COX-2 was abrogated by the PPARß/δ-specific inverse agonists (GSK0660/ST-247). Thus, it is implicated that there is positive interaction between PPARß/δ and AP-1 in regulation of COX-2. These data support the concept that CBDA is a functional down-regulator of COX-2 through the abrogation of PPARß/δ-related signaling, at least in part, in MDA-MB-231 cells.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/enzimologia , Canabinoides/farmacologia , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/genética , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/genética , PPAR delta/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , PPAR delta/agonistas , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Sulfonas/farmacologia , Tiazóis/farmacologia , Tiofenos/farmacologia , Fator de Transcrição AP-1/fisiologia , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
9.
Arch Biochem Biophys ; 684: 108327, 2020 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32142890

RESUMO

Endometrial carcinoma is a type of gynecological cancer that originates in the endometrial epithelial tissue. Due to its high proliferation and ability to invade muscle tissue, it is one of the most common malignant tumors in the female reproductive system. Fatostatin is a small molecule non-sterol diarylthiazole derivative that acts as a chemical inhibitor of the sterol regulatory-element binding protein (SREBP) pathway. Previous studies have shown that fatostatin has an anti-tumor effect in some cancers. In this study, we investigated the effect of fatostatin on the growth, proliferation, apoptosis, migration and cell cycle of human endometrial carcinoma cells (HEC-1A and AN3 CA cells) using cholecystokinin (CCK) -8 method, clonogenicity assay, wound closure assay, Transwell migration assay and flow cytometer. We also examined its effect on the expression of apoptosis-associated protein (Caspase-3, Caspase-8 and Caspase-9) and level of lipid metabolism-related proteins, free fatty acid, and total cholesterol in cells. The growth of endometrial carcinoma xenografts was measured to confirm the effect of fatostatin in vivo. Our results showed that fatostatin inhibited the growth and proliferation of human endometrial carcinoma cells, changed their cell cycle and induced apoptosis. Based on the preliminary animal experiments, fatostatin also exhibited antitumor activity. The present study adds a new dimension to our understanding of the antitumor effects of fatostatin and provides an experimental basis for its use, and supports its potential value for clinical application.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias do Endométrio/tratamento farmacológico , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Tiazóis/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Caspase 8/metabolismo , Caspase 9/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Colesterol/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Piridinas/farmacologia , Tiazóis/farmacologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
10.
Med Mycol J ; 61(1): 11-13, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32115444

RESUMO

Ravuconazole (RVCZ) is a newly available human azole drug in Japan since 2018 and is a broad-spectrum antifungal agent that exhibits excellent activity against Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans (formerly: Cryptococcus grubii). The drug is also highly active against isolates that are resistant to fluconazole (FLCZ). In the present study, the in vitro susceptibility to ravuconazole (RVCZ) of Japanese clinical isolates and multi-azole-resistant strains of C. neoformans was investigated using the Clinical & Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M27-A3 test. The minimum inhibitory concentrations for the 14 clinical isolates and the multi-azole-resistant strains were 0.003125-0.125 mg/L and 0.25-0.5 mg/L for RVCZ, respectively. RVCZ is as effective as ITCZ and VRCZ for treating clinical isolates from cats and humans. Moreover, RVCZ is highly effective against multi-azole-resistant strains that encode a protein with a G344S substitution in ERG11. Consequently, RVCZ has considerable potential for use as a therapeutic agent for multi-azole resistant cryptococcosis.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Cryptococcus neoformans/efeitos dos fármacos , Tiazóis/farmacologia , Triazóis/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Fúngica
11.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 81(2)2020 03 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32220153

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Patients with schizophrenia and comorbid alcohol use disorder remain understudied. This post hoc analysis evaluated data from Phase 1 of the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness in Schizophrenia study (January 2001-December 2004). METHODS: Patients without substance abuse (except marijuana use) in the month before study entry were categorized into those with a history of alcohol use disorder (SZ + AUD) within 5 years before study entry and those without alcohol use disorder (SZ-only) per DSM-IV criteria. Time to first and recurrent exacerbations and hospitalizations were compared between disease states and between olanzapine and perphenazine, quetiapine, risperidone, and ziprasidone. RESULTS: A total of 1,338 patients (SZ + AUD = 22.6%; SZ-only = 77.4%) were included. Time to first exacerbation of SZ was significantly shorter in the SZ + AUD versus SZ-only population (median = 5.4 vs 6.4 months; hazard ratio [HR] = 1.20 [95% CI, 1.01-1.42]; P = .039). Similar findings were observed for first hospitalization (HR = 1.63 [95% CI, 1.20-2.22]; P = .002) and recurrent hospitalizations (HR = 1.60 [95% CI, 1.18-2.15]; P = .002). The most common reasons leading to exacerbation in both groups were an increase in symptom severity and lack of efficacy. In patients with SZ + AUD related or unrelated to marijuana, perphenazine, quetiapine, risperidone, and ziprasidone were associated with significantly shorter time to first exacerbation versus olanzapine. CONCLUSIONS: This post hoc analysis confirmed that patients with SZ + AUD had a worse illness course than patients with SZ-only and suggests that olanzapine may be associated with a longer time to first and recurrent exacerbations versus other antipsychotics in this difficult-to-treat population. Further research is needed to identify effective treatments for this important yet understudied patient population. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00014001.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Antipsicóticos/farmacologia , Hospitalização , Olanzapina/farmacologia , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Transtornos Psicóticos/tratamento farmacológico , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Exacerbação dos Sintomas , Adulto , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Perfenazina/farmacologia , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/epidemiologia , Fumarato de Quetiapina/farmacologia , Risperidona/farmacologia , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Tiazóis/farmacologia , Fatores de Tempo
12.
J Infect Public Health ; 13(4): 472-479, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32139293

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present work is an extension of ongoing efforts toward the development and identification of new molecules as monotherapy displaying anti-inflammatory and anti-infective activities and a wide-range of gastrointestinal selectivity. A series of novel set of trisubstituted thiazole compounds (AR-17a to AR-27a) have synthesized and evaluated for their in-vitro and in-vivo anti-inflammatory activities. Synthesized trisubstituted thiazole compounds were also evaluated for their potential antibacterial activity against clinical pathogens causing infectious disease. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The structures of synthesized compounds were characterized by FTIR, 1H NMR, Mass spectroscopic techniques and evaluated for their in-vitro and in-vivo anti-inflammatory effects using the human red blood cell (HRBC) membrane stabilization method and a carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema model, respectively, Diclofenac sodium and Ibuprofen were used as standard drugs. The synthesized compounds AR-17atoAR-27a screened for their in-vitro antibacterial activity against the gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC25923) and Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC29212) and the gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli (ATCC8739) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC9027) using ciprofloxacin and cefdinir as standard drugs. RESULT: Compounds AR-17a and AR-27a elicited maximum anti-inflammatory activity, providing 59% and 61% protection at 20mg/kg, respectively, in the inflamed paw model. Among the tested compounds, AR-17a (6.25), (54) and AR-27a (1.56), (52) had the least minimum inhibitory concentration values and the highest zone of inhibition, indicating their marked antibacterial activities. The lowest conc. were observed at 1.56, 6.25µg/mL for inhibition of bacteria by most of the compounds. CONCLUSION: Novel set of trisubstituted thiazole compounds (AR-17a to AR-27a) have synthesized and characterized successfully. The preliminary screening revealed that these compounds possess promising anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activities. In addition, the objective of the study was achieved with few of the promising structures like AR-17a to AR-27a, which are prove to be potential monotherapy candidates for the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases and bacterial infections.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Tiazóis/farmacologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/síntese química , Anti-Inflamatórios/síntese química , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Fluoroquinolonas/síntese química , Fluoroquinolonas/farmacologia , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Ratos , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Tiazóis/síntese química
14.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e190348, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049098

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It was previously demonstrated that CMC-20, a nitazoxanide and N-methyl-1H-benzimidazole hybrid molecule, had higher in vitro activity against Giardia intestinalis WB strain than metronidazole and albendazole and similar to nitazoxanide. OBJETIVES: To evaluate the in vitro activity of CMC-20 against G. intestinalis strains with different susceptibility/resistance to albendazole and nitazoxanide and evaluate its effect on the distribution of parasite cytoskeletal proteins and its in vivo giardicidal activity. METHODS: CMC-20 activity was tested against two isolates from patients with chronic and acute giardiasis, an experimentally induced albendazole resistant strain and a nitazoxanide resistant clinical isolate. CMC-20 effect on the distribution of parasite cytoskeletal proteins was analysed by indirect immunofluorescence and its activity was evaluated in a murine model of giardiasis. FINDINGS CMC-20: showed broad activity against susceptible and resistant strains to albendazole and nitaxozanide. It affected the parasite microtubule reservoir and triggered the parasite encystation. In this process, alpha-7.2 giardin co-localised with CWP-1 protein. CMC-20 reduced the infection time and cyst load in feces of G. muris infected mice similar to albendazole. MAIN CONCLUSIONS: The in vitro and in vivo giardicidal activity of CMC-20 suggests its potential use in the treatment of giardiasis.


Assuntos
Albendazol/farmacologia , Antiprotozoários/farmacologia , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/efeitos dos fármacos , Giardia lamblia/efeitos dos fármacos , Tiazóis/farmacologia , Albendazol/química , Animais , Antiprotozoários/química , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo , Humanos , Camundongos , Testes de Sensibilidade Parasitária , Tiazóis/química , Fatores de Tempo
15.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0229030, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078633

RESUMO

While many studies have examined the effects of neonicotinoid insecticides and the parasitic mite Varroa destructor on honey bees (Apis mellifera), more information on the combined effects of such stressors on gene expression, including neural related genes, and their impact on biological pathways is needed. This study analyzed the effects of field realistic concentrations of the neonicotinoid clothianidin on adult bees infested and not infested with V. destructor over 21 consecutive days and then determined bee survivorship, weight, deformed wing virus (DWV) levels and gene expression. V. destructor parasitism with or without clothianidin exposure was significantly associated with decreased survivorship, weight loss and higher DWV levels, while clothianidin exposure was only associated with higher levels of DWV. Expression analysis of the neural genes AmNlg-1, BlCh and AmAChE-2 showed that V. destructor caused a significant down-regulation of all of them, whereas clothianidin caused a significant down-regulation of only AmNrx-1 and BlCh. An interaction was only detected for AmNrx-1 expression. RNAseq analysis showed that clothianidin exposure resulted in 6.5 times more up-regulated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) than V. destructor alone and 123 times more than clothianidin combined with V. destructor. Similar results were obtained with down-regulated DEGs, except for a higher number of DEGs shared between V. destructor and the combined stressors. KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) biological pathway analysis of the DEGs showed that the stressor linked to the highest number of KEGG pathways was clothianidin, followed by V. destructor, and then considerably fewer number of KEGG pathways with the combined stressors. The reduced numbers of DEGs and KEGG pathways associated with the DEGs for the combined stressors compared to the stressors alone indicates that the interaction of the stressors is not additive or synergistic, but antagonistic. The possible implications of the antagonistic effect on the number of DEGs are discussed.


Assuntos
Abelhas/efeitos dos fármacos , Abelhas/genética , Abelhas/parasitologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Guanidinas/farmacologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/efeitos dos fármacos , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/genética , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Neonicotinoides/farmacologia , Tiazóis/farmacologia , Animais , Biologia Computacional , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier
16.
Arch Biochem Biophys ; 684: 108297, 2020 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32035098

RESUMO

Although rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has long posed a major threat to global health, the mechanisms driving the development and progression of RA remain incompletely understood. In the present study, we investigated the effects of G protein-coupled receptor 43 (GPR43/FFAR2) in various aspects of the pathogenesis of RA. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that GPR43 is expressed on human fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS). Furthermore, we show that GPR43 is upregulated in FLS exposed to tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Importantly, our findings demonstrate that activation of GPR43 using its specific agonist significantly suppressed expression of the following key factors of RA: cytokines, such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, high mobility group protein 1 (HMG-1); chemokines, such as monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), and vascular cellular adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1); markers of oxidative stress, such as production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and 4-hydroxynoneal (4-HNE); degradative enzymes, such as matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) and MMP-13; and activation of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) inflammatory signaling pathway. These results suggest a promising potential role for GPR43 as a specific target in the treatment and prevention of RA.


Assuntos
Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo , Sinoviócitos/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/farmacologia , Células A549 , Aldeídos/metabolismo , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Reumatoide/metabolismo , Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Metaloproteinase 13 da Matriz/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 3 da Matriz/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Receptores de Superfície Celular/agonistas , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Tiazóis/farmacologia , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
J Med Chem ; 63(4): 1724-1749, 2020 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32031803

RESUMO

We previously reported a milestone in the optimization of NBD-11021, an HIV-1 gp120 antagonist, by developing a new and novel analogue, NBD-14189 (Ref1), which showed antiviral activity against HIV-1HXB2, with a half maximal inhibitory concentration of 89 nM. However, cytotoxicity remained high, and the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) data showed relatively poor aqueous solubility. To optimize these properties, we replaced the phenyl ring in the compound with a pyridine ring and synthesized a set of 48 novel compounds. One of the new analogues, NBD-14270 (8), showed a marked improvement in cytotoxicity, with 3-fold and 58-fold improvements in selectivity index value compared with that of Ref1 and NBD-11021, respectively. Furthermore, the in vitro ADME data clearly showed improvements in aqueous solubility and other properties compared with those for Ref1. The data for 8 indicated that the pyridine scaffold is a good bioisostere for phenyl, allowing the further optimization of this molecule.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Proteína gp120 do Envelope de HIV/antagonistas & inibidores , Piridinas/farmacologia , Pirróis/farmacologia , Tiazóis/farmacologia , Fármacos Anti-HIV/síntese química , Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacocinética , Células CACO-2 , Células HEK293 , Proteína gp120 do Envelope de HIV/metabolismo , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estrutura Molecular , Piridinas/síntese química , Piridinas/farmacocinética , Pirróis/síntese química , Pirróis/farmacocinética , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Tiazóis/síntese química , Tiazóis/farmacocinética
18.
Biochem Pharmacol ; 174: 113845, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032581

RESUMO

The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor. Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is the most aggressive breast cancer subtype. TNBC expresses AHR and AHR ligands have anti-cancer activity in TNBC. The aggressiveness of TNBC is due in part to JAG1-NOTCH1 signaling. ITE is a putative endogenous AHR ligand. We show that ITE reduces the expression of JAG1 the amount of Notch 1 intracellular domain (NICD1) and the phosphorylation of STAT3 (at tyrosine 705) in TNBC MDA-MB-231 cells. The STAT3 inhibitor STATTIC also reduced JAG1. STAT3, thus, mediates regulation of JAG1 in MDA-MB-231 cells. Reducing the expression of JAG1 with short interfering RNA decreases the growth, migration and invasiveness of MDA-MB-231 cells. JAG1, therefore, has cellular effects in MDA-MB-231 cells under basal conditions. We consequently evaluated if exposing cells to greater amounts of JAG1 would counteract ITE cellular effects in MDA-MB-231 cells. The results show that JAG1 does not counteract the cellular effects of ITE. JAG1, thus, has no effect on growth or invasiveness in MDA-MB-231 cells treated with ITE. JAG1, therefore, has context dependent roles in MDA-MB-231 cells (basal versus ITE treatment). The results also show that other pathways, not inhibition of the JAG1-NOTCH1 pathway, are important for mediating the growth and invasive inhibitory effect of ITE on MDA-MB-231 cells.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/metabolismo , Indóis/metabolismo , Proteína Jagged-1/metabolismo , Receptor Notch1/metabolismo , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/metabolismo , Tiazóis/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Indóis/farmacologia , Indóis/uso terapêutico , Proteína Jagged-1/antagonistas & inibidores , Ligantes , Células MCF-7 , Receptor Notch1/antagonistas & inibidores , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Tiazóis/farmacologia , Tiazóis/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico
19.
Oncol Rep ; 43(4): 1331-1337, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32020226

RESUMO

Patients with urothelial carcinoma frequently fail to respond to first­line chemotherapy using cisplatin and gemcitabine due to development of resistant tumor cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether an alternative treatment with tumor necrosis factor­related apoptosis­inducing ligand (TRAIL) that induces tumor cell death via the extrinsic apoptotic pathway may be effective against chemotherapy­resistant urothelial cancer cell lines. The viability of the urothelial cancer cell line RT112 and its chemotherapy­adapted sublines was investigated by MTT assay. The expression of anti­apoptotic proteins was determined by western blotting and the individual roles of cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein (cIAP)1, cIAP2, x­linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) and induced myeloid leukemia cell differentiation protein (Mcl­1) were investigated by siRNA­mediated depletion. In particular, the bladder cancer sublines that were resistant to gemcitabine and cisplatin were cross­resistant to TRAIL. Resistant cells displayed upregulation of anti­apoptotic molecules compared with the parental cell line. Treatment with the second mitochondrial activator of caspases (SMAC) mimetic LCL­161 that antagonizes cIAP1, cIAP2 and XIAP resensitized chemoresistant cells to TRAIL. The resensitization of tumor cells to TRAIL was confirmed by depletion of antiapoptotic proteins with siRNA. Collectively, the findings of the present study demonstrated that SMAC mimetic LCL­161 increased the sensitivity of the parental cell line RT112 and chemotherapy­resistant sublines to TRAIL, suggesting that inhibiting anti­apoptotic molecules renders TRAIL therapy highly effective for chemotherapy­sensitive and ­resistant urothelial cancer cells.


Assuntos
Proteína 3 com Repetições IAP de Baculovírus/genética , Proteínas Inibidoras de Apoptose/genética , Ligante Indutor de Apoptose Relacionado a TNF/genética , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Inibidoras de Apoptose Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/genética , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína 3 com Repetições IAP de Baculovírus/antagonistas & inibidores , Caspase 3/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Caspase/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cisplatino/efeitos adversos , Cisplatino/farmacologia , Desoxicitidina/efeitos adversos , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Proteínas Inibidoras de Apoptose/antagonistas & inibidores , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Ligante Indutor de Apoptose Relacionado a TNF/antagonistas & inibidores , Tiazóis/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/genética , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Urotélio/efeitos dos fármacos , Urotélio/metabolismo , Urotélio/patologia , Proteínas Inibidoras de Apoptose Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/antagonistas & inibidores
20.
Pharmacol Res Perspect ; 8(1): e00564, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32030913

RESUMO

Today, monotherapy is the most common pharmacological treatment option for patients suffering from overactive bladder (OAB). Recent reports have indicated potential benefits of combination therapy, using a muscarinic antagonist and a ß3 -adrenoceptor agonist. This may be of particular interest for therapy-resistant patients with OAB and concomitant cystitis. The objective of the current study was to assess how combination therapy affects bladder parameters in health and cystitis and if the efficacy of the drugs can be linked to altered release of nitric oxide (NO). Rats were pretreated with either a combination of the muscarinic antagonist tolterodine and ß3 -selective adrenoceptor agonist mirabegron or saline for 10 days. Forty-eight hours prior to assessing micturition parameters in a metabolic cage, the rats were intraperitoneally injected with cyclophosphamide, causing cystitis, or saline. Urine samples were collected and analyzed for NO content. Bladder contractile properties were assessed in an organ bath setup. Induction of cystitis led to bladder overactivity. Combination therapy normalized bladder parameters. Both induction of cystitis and drug treatment increased the release of NO. The innate contractile properties of the bladder were unaffected by combination therapy. This study demonstrates positive effects of combination drug therapy on symptoms of OAB, possibly indicating it to be a good option for treatment of OAB during concomitant cystitis. It remains to be determined if increased release of NO is crucial for successful pharmacological treatment of bladder overactivity during cystitis.


Assuntos
Acetanilidas/administração & dosagem , Cistite/induzido quimicamente , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Tiazóis/administração & dosagem , Tartarato de Tolterodina/administração & dosagem , Bexiga Urinária Hiperativa/tratamento farmacológico , Acetanilidas/farmacologia , Animais , Ciclofosfamida/efeitos adversos , Cistite/tratamento farmacológico , Cistite/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Quimioterapia Combinada , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Tiazóis/farmacologia , Tartarato de Tolterodina/farmacologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Bexiga Urinária Hiperativa/metabolismo
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