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1.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1810, 2021 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34625060

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity, diabetes, and hypertension, as three of the most prevalent chronic diseases, remain a daunting health challenge. However, to our knowledge, no study has made a thorough examination of the association between the three chronic diseases and daytime napping, a widely accepted behavior in many countries. This is especially necessary among Tibetan populations, whose lifestyles and health outcomes may be unique, yet patterns of chronic diseases and napping are under-examined. Thus, we sought to explore the aforementioned association in the Tibetan population of China. METHODS: A total of 2902 participants aged 45-79 in 2019 were included. Multivariate logistic regressions were conducted in 2020. The sex disparity was examined through interaction and stratified analyses. RESULTS: Hypertension (40.7%) was more prevalent than obesity (20.2%) and diabetes (21.6%). Comparing to non-nappers, those who napped were more likely to have any conditions (OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.04-1.62 for 1-59 min/day group and OR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.10-1.80 for ≥60 min/day group). Participants who had 1-59 min/day of napping were more likely to develop obesity (OR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.07-1.75), and ≥ 60 min/day of napping was associated with diabetes (OR = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.01-1.74). The interactions between napping and sex were not statistically significant in the models. CONCLUSIONS: The study revealed napping was unfavorably associated with obesity, diabetes, and any conditions in Tibetan people living on the Tibetan Plateau. Future interventions regarding the three chronic diseases may pay more attention to napping. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Not applicable.


Assuntos
Sono , China/epidemiologia , Doença Crônica , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Tibet/epidemiologia
2.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(7): e0009547, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34252103

RESUMO

Echinococcosis, caused by genus Echinococcus, is the most pathogenic zoonotic parasitic disease in the world. In Tibet of the People's Republic of China, echinococcosis refers principally to two types of severe zoonosis, cystic echinococcosis (CE) and alveolar echinococcosis (AE), which place a serious burden on public health and economy in the local community. However, research on the spatial epidemiology of echinococcosis remains inadequate in Tibet, China. Based on the recorded human echinococcosis data, maps of the spatial distribution of human CE and AE prevalence in Tibet were produced at city level and county level respectively, which show that the prevalence of echinococcosis in northern and western Tibet was much higher than that in other regions. We employ a geographical detector to explore the influencing factors for causing CE and AE while sorting information on the maps of disease prevalence and environment factors (e.g. terrain, population, and yak population). The results of our analysis showed that biological factors have the most impact on the prevalence of echinococcosis, of which the yak population contributes the most for CE, while the dog population contributes the most for AE. In addition, the interaction between various factors, as we found out, might further explain the disease prevalence, which indicated that the echinococcosis prevalence is not simply affected by one single factor, but by multiple factors that are correlated with each other complicatedly. Our results will provide an important reference for the evaluation of the echinococcosis risk, control projects, and prevention programs in Tibet.


Assuntos
Equinococose/parasitologia , Equinococose/veterinária , Echinococcus/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Equinococose/epidemiologia , Echinococcus/classificação , Echinococcus/genética , Humanos , Prevalência , Tibet/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/parasitologia
3.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(7): e0009443, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34237061

RESUMO

Echinococcosis is a serious zoonotic parasitic disease transmitted from canines to humans and livestock. Periodic deworming is recommended by the WHO/OIE as a highly effective measure against echinococcosis. However, manual deworming involves significant challenges, particularly in remote areas with scarce resources. The insufficient awareness delivering praziquantel (PZQ) baits for dogs leads to low compliance rate. The aim of this study was therefore to develop a novel smart collar for dogs to address these challenges. We developed a smart Internet of Things (IoT)-based deworming collar which can deliver PZQ baits for dogs automatically, regularly, quantitatively with predominant characteristics of being waterproof, anti-collision, cold-proof and long life battery. Its performance was tested in two remote locations on the Tibetan Plateau. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to evaluate the compliance of the dog owners. Further, a randomized controlled study was performed to evaluate the difference between smart-collar deworming and manual deworming. The collar's effectiveness was further assessed on the basis of Generalized Estimation Equations (GEE). The testing and evaluation was done for 10 smart deworming collars in factory laboratory, 18 collars attached for 18 dogs in Seni district, Tibet Autonomous Region, China, and 523 collars attached for 523 dogs in Hezuo city, Gansu province, China. The anti-collision, waterproof, and coldproof proportion of the smart collars were 100.0%, 99.5%, and 100.0%, respectively. When compared to manual deworming, the dogs' risk of infection with Echinococcus on smart-collar deworming is down to 0.182 times (95% CI: 0.049, 0.684) in Seni district and 0.355 (95%CI: 0.178, 0.706) in Hezuo city, the smart collar has a significant protective effect. The owners' overall compliance rate to attach the smart collars for their dogs was 89%. The smart deworming collar could effectively reduce the dogs' risk of infection with Echinococcus in dogs, significantly increase the deworming frequency and coverage and rapidly remove worm biomass in dogs. Thus, it may be a promising alternative to manual deworming, particularly in remote areas on the Tibetan Plateau.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Equinococose/veterinária , Praziquantel/administração & dosagem , Animais , China , Estudos Transversais , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Equinococose/tratamento farmacológico , Equinococose/epidemiologia , Equinococose/parasitologia , Echinococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Echinococcus/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Tibet/epidemiologia
4.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 6646664, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34046499

RESUMO

Mycoplasma bovis (M. bovis) is one of the most important pneumonia pathogens in yaks. It may result in more economic losses due to the cold and anoxia condition at Qinghai Tibetan plateau. However, to date, limited information on M. bovis infection in yaks is available in China. For this purpose, the seroprevalence of M. bovis was investigated in yaks living in the mentioned area through commercial ELISA kits. A total of 959 yaks were incorporated into this study. The prevalence of the disease in yaks was 48.70%. The serological results revealed a relatively high prevalence of M. bovis infection in yaks. The present study may greatly contribute to the prevention of this disease. More importance should be given to the potential threat caused by M. bovis in the special plateau.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/epidemiologia , Mycoplasma bovis , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , China/epidemiologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Masculino , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Tibet/epidemiologia
5.
Parasite ; 28: 43, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34009120

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular parasite that is extensively prevalent globally. Studies have indicated the presence of T. gondii infection in animals in some provinces of China, but little is known about T. gondii infection in yaks (Bos grunniens) on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. In the current study, to determine the seroprevalence and associated risk factors of T. gondii, a total of 2784 serum samples were collected from 18 different sampling sites in eight counties of the Qinghai and Tibet regions of China from 2018 to 2019. Serum antibodies against T. gondii were detected in 261 yaks (9.38%) via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We found that seroprevalence differed significantly among different counties (ranging from 5.41% in Gangcha to 19.79% in Datong), by year in the Tibet Autonomous Region (from 2.34% in 2018 to 13.24% in 2019), and by age (from 5.59% in 0 < year ≤ 1 to 11.76% in year > 7) (p < 0.05). Climate, geographical conditions, and age are the main factors influencing T. gondii infection in yaks in these regions. Therefore, our study provides a data reference for public health and prevention of yak toxoplasmosis.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos , Toxoplasma , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Tibet/epidemiologia
6.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 10(1): 50, 2021 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33849655

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As a neglected cross-species parasitic disease transmitted between canines and livestock, echinococcosis remains a global public health concern with a heavy disease burden. In China, especially in the epidemic pastoral communities on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, the harsh climate, low socio-economic status, poor overall hygiene, and remote and insufficient access to all owned dogs exacerbate the difficulty in implementing the ambitious control programme for echinococcosis. We aimed to design and implement a remote management system (RMS) based on internet of things (IoT) for control and surveillance of echinococcosis by combining deworming devices to realise long-distance smart deworming control, smooth statistical analysis and result display. New methods and tools are urgently needed to increase the deworming coverage and frequency, promote real-time scientific surveillance, and prevent transmission of echinococcosis in remoted transmission areas. METHODS: From 2016 to 2019, we had cooperated and developed the smart collar and smart feeder with the Central Research Institute of Shanghai Electric Group Co., Ltd. (Shanghai, China) and Shenzhen Jizhi Future Technology Co., Ltd. (Shenzhen, China). From September 2019 to March 2020, We had proposed the RMS based on IoT as a novel tool to control smart deworming devices to deliver efficient praziquantel (PZQ) baits to dogs regularly and automatically and also as a smart digital management platform to monitor, analyse, and display the epidemic trends of echinococcosis dynamically, in real time in Hezuo City, Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Gansu Province, China. Starting from January 2018, The RMS has been maintained and upgraded by Shanghai Yier Information Technology Co., Ltd (Shanghai, China). The database was based on MySQL tools and the Chi-square test was used to probe the difference and changes of variables in different groups. RESULTS: The smart collars are fully capable of anti-collision, waterproof, and cold-proof performance, and the battery's energy is sufficient, the anti-collision rate, water-proof rate, cold-proof rate and voltage normal rate is 99.6% (521/523), 100.0% (523/523), 100.0% (523/523) and 100.0% (523/523), respectively. The RMS can accurately analyse the monitoring data and parameters including positive rates of canine faeces, and the prevalence of echinococcosis in the general population livestock, and children. The data of dogs deworming and surveillance for echinococcosis is able to be controlled using RMS and has expanded gradually in townships to the whole Hezuo region. The automatic delivering PZQ rate, collar positioning rate, deliver PZQ reminding rate, and fault report rate is 91.1% (1914/2102), 92.1% (13 580/14 745), 92.1% (1936/2102) and 84.7% (1287/1519), respectively. After using the RMS from 2019, the missing rate of monitoring data decreased from 32.1% (9/28) to 0 (0/16). A total of 48 administrators (3, 3, 8, 11, 23 at the provincial, municipal, county, township, village levels, respectively) participated in the questionnaire survey, with 93.8% of its overall satisfaction rate. CONCLUSIONS: The existing difficulties and challenges in the way of prevention and control for echinococcosis can partially be resolved using the innovative, IoT-based technologies and tools. The proposed RMS advance the upgrade of existing manual prevention and control models for echinococcosis, especially in the current ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, as social distance and community blockade continue.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Equinococose/veterinária , Monitoramento Epidemiológico/veterinária , Robótica , Animais , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Cães , Equinococose/prevenção & controle , Internet das Coisas , Pandemias , Quarentena , Robótica/instrumentação , Robótica/métodos , Tibet/epidemiologia
7.
Reprod Health ; 18(1): 63, 2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33731153

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Western China has undergone substantial sociodemographic change, yet little is known about the health status of ethnic minority populations living in these areas. METHODS: We report findings from two cross-sectional surveys conducted with female Tibetan nomads living in rural areas of Western China/Eastern Tibet. We present results of descriptive analyses of data collected from reproductive-aged females who attended community health fairs in 2014 (n = 193) and 2016 (n = 298). RESULTS: On average, sexual debut preceded marriage among study participants, with fertility near replacement levels (2.7 and 2.1 in 2014 and 2016, respectively). Contraceptive use was common, and dominated by use of IUDs and female sterilization. Although over three-quarters (76%) of 2016 survey participants reported ever having at least one sexually transmitted infection (STI) symptom, there was low awareness of STIs (59%) and action to prevent STIs (21%). Younger women (< 40) were more likely to report having had had an STI symptom, as compared to older women (84% versus 71%; p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate feasibility of collecting data with this hard-to-reach population. Reporting of STI symptoms warrants further investigation to identify and address health conditions in this population of Tibetan nomadic women, especially amidst broader social and contextual changes that may affect the Tibetan population.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Saúde Reprodutiva/etnologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grupos Minoritários , Gravidez , População Rural , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Tibet/epidemiologia
8.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(3): e0008690, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33720943

RESUMO

Human echinococcosis is present worldwide but it is in China that disease prevalence is the highest. In western China, especially in the Tibetan Plateau, the burden of echinococcosis is the most important. Dogs are a major definitive host of Echinococcus and monitoring the presence of Echinococcus worms in dogs is therefore essential to efficiently control the disease. Detection kits based on three different technologies including sandwich ELISA, (indirect) ELISA, and gold immunodiffusion, are currently marketed and used in China. The objective of this work was to assess the efficacy of these kits, in particular with respect to sensitivity and specificity. Four fecal antigen detection kits for canine infection reflecting the three technologies were obtained from companies and tested in parallel on 220 fecal samples. The results indicate that the performance is lower than expected, in particular in terms of sensitivity. The best results were obtained with the sandwich ELISA technology. The gold immunofiltration yielded the poorest results. In all cases, further development is needed to improve the performance of these kits which are key components for the control of echinococcosis.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Protozoários/análise , Equinococose/diagnóstico , Equinococose/epidemiologia , Echinococcus granulosus/imunologia , Echinococcus multilocularis/imunologia , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Fezes/parasitologia , Humanos , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Tibet/epidemiologia
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(12): e25229, 2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33761712

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: This study aimed to explore the relationship between H558R polymorphism of the SCN5A gene and atrial fibrillation (AF) in Tibetan and Han nationalities at high altitude.A total of 50 Tibetan and 50 Han patients with AF at the same altitude (2260 m) were included. Meanwhile, the general clinical data of patients without AF (50 Tibetan and 50 Han) matched with the data of patients with AF were included during the same period. The blood samples of patients were collected to extract DNA. The DNA sequencing was performed by Xi'an Zhenpin Biotechnology Co., Ltd. The mutation loci of the sequence were located and identified by DNA sequencing. The general information, laboratory examination, color Doppler echocardiography, and genotypes and alleles of each group were analyzed. The multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the independent risk factors for AF.The genotype and allele frequencies of the H558R locus of the SCN5A gene in the AF groups of Tibetan and Han nationalities were significantly different from those in the non-AF groups (P < .05). The genotype and allele frequency of the H558R locus of the SCN5A gene in the AF group of Tibetan nationalities were not significantly different from those in the AF group of Han nationalities (P > .05). The logistic regression analysis of the total population revealed that coronary heart disease, age, total cholesterol (TC), left atrial diameter, and G allele were independent risk factors for AF occurrence.The occurrence of AF in Tibetan and Han nationalities at high altitude is associated with the polymorphism of H558R locus of the SCN5A gene. The G allele is an independent risk factor for the occurrence of AF in Tibetan and Han nationalities.


Assuntos
Altitude , Fibrilação Atrial/genética , Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.5/genética , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/etnologia , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , China/epidemiologia , Ecocardiografia Doppler em Cores/métodos , Ecocardiografia Doppler em Cores/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Tibet/epidemiologia
10.
BMC Vet Res ; 17(1): 94, 2021 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33639942

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trichinellosis, caused by Trichinella spiralis, is a serious foodborne parasitic zoonosis. Tibetan pig is an infrequent, endemic plateau pig species, mainly distributed in Tibet Plateau, China. Because of the free-range system, Tibetan pigs are at risk of infection with Trichinella. The present study aimed to primarily profile the characteristics of T. spiralis infection in Tibetan pigs, including IgG levels, larvae burdens, and cytokines. RESULTS: The immune responses to Chinese Tibet T. spiralis isolate infection in Tibetan pigs with different doses were investigated in a tracking duration of 49 days. The muscle larvae per gram (lpg) were evaluated at 105 days post-infection (dpi). The results showed that the mean larval number of T. spiralis in Tibetan pigs increased with infective dose, with average lpg values of 3.5, 50.4 and 115.6 for Tibetan pigs infected with 200, 2,000, and 20,000 muscle larvae (ML) of T. spiralis. The anti-Trichinella IgG increased with inoculum dose and dpi, and peaked at 49 dpi. The kinetics of cytokines in the sera was detected by microarray, including interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-8, IL-12, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, Granulocyte-macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß1. The Th1/Th2 mixed cytokines were detectable in all samples. Interleukin-12 demonstrated the highest concentration compared to other cytokines and peaked at 42 dpi. Almost all cytokines were maintained at a high level at 42 dpi. Additionally, we also report a Trichinella seropositive rate of 43.9 % (18 out of 41) from field samples of Tibetan pigs. CONCLUSIONS: The present study showed an increased Th1/Th2 mixed cytokines in Tibetan pigs elicited by T. spiralis. The high seroprevalence of Trichinella infection in field samples of Tibetan pigs further raises serious concern for the prevention and control of trichinellosis in this host for public health safety.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia , Trichinella spiralis/imunologia , Triquinelose/veterinária , Animais , Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/sangue , Citocinas/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Larva/imunologia , Músculos/parasitologia , Prevalência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/imunologia , Tibet/epidemiologia , Trichinella spiralis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Trichinella spiralis/isolamento & purificação , Triquinelose/epidemiologia , Triquinelose/imunologia
11.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e928568, 2021 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33579890

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH), the leading cause of maternal death, is defined as a blood loss >500 mL within 24 h after vaginal delivery or >1000 mL within 24 h after cesarean section. This study aimed to investigate the incidence of PPH and assess its risk factors in pregnant women in Tibet to provide a reference for clinicians in this region. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 4796 pregnant women with gestational age ≥28 weeks who were admitted to hospitals in Tibet between December 2010 and December 2016 were involved in this study. Patient sociological and clinical data and pregnancy outcomes were collected. The related risk factors of PPH were analyzed by univariate and multivariable logistic regression. The area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic curves was used to evaluate the effect of the PPH prediction model. RESULTS PPH occurred in 95 women, with an incidence of 1.98%. The following factors were associated with higher risk for PPH: maternal age ≥35 (odds ratio [OR]=1.96; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18-3.27; P=0.010), history of preterm birth (OR=2.66; 95% CI, 1.60-4.42; P<0.001), cesarean section (OR=6.69; 95% CI, 4.30-10.40; P<0.001), neonatal weight >4 kg (OR=3.92; 95% CI, 1.75-8.81; P<0.001) and occurrence of neonatal asphyxia (OR=5.52; 95% CI, 2.22-13.74; P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS Maternal age ≥35, history of preterm birth, cesarean section, newborn weight >4 kg, and neonatal asphyxia were risk factors of PPH, which can help evaluate PPH in Tibet.


Assuntos
Hemorragia Pós-Parto/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Pós-Parto/prevenção & controle , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adulto , Área Sob a Curva , Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Parto Obstétrico/mortalidade , Parto Obstétrico/tendências , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Gestantes , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Tibet/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 101, 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33482746

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Echinococcosis is considered a neglected zoonotic disease and has been a major worldwide public health problem. Although it is known that health literacy is closely related to health behaviours and health outcomes, few studies have paid attention to echinococcosis related health literacy. This study aims to examine the association between echinococcosis-specific health literacy (ES-HL) and behavioural intention to prevent echinococcosis (BIPE) among herdsmen on the Tibet Plateauin in China. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 401 Tibetan herdsmen was conducted in Gande county of Qinghai Province, China. Participants were recruited from August to September 2018 and from February to March 2019. A self-developed questionnaire was used to measure demographic information, ES-HL and BIPE. Hierarchical regression analysis was done to identify the factors associated with BIPE. RESULTS: In the hierarchical regression analysis, we entered age, sex, education level, marital state and family monthly income per capita into model 1 which explained a significant amount of variance in BIPE (Adjusted R2 change = 0.029, P = 0.006). Sex (ß = - 0.125, P = 0.013) and family monthly income per capita (ß = - 0.133, P = 0.009) were found to be associated with BIPE. Subsequently, the three factors of ES-HL were added to Model 1 to create Model 2. In Model 2, the two factors of ES-HL, perceived echinococcosis information support (ß = 0.229, P < 0.001) and echinococcosis-specific self-management ability (ß = 0.252, P < 0.001), were significantly associated with BIPE, while the information acquisition and evaluation ability factor (ß =0.093, P = 0.089) was not found to be associated with BIPE. The model improved significantly when ES-HL was included (Model 2) explaining the 25.8% of variance of BIPE (Adjust R2 change =0.229, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: ES-HL is an important predictor of whether individuals take preventive actions against echinococcosis. An ES-HL promotion action project should be developed targeting specific populations to enhance the prevention of echinococcosis.


Assuntos
Equinococose/prevenção & controle , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Letramento em Saúde , Adulto , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Equinococose/epidemiologia , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Letramento em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autogestão , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tibet/epidemiologia
13.
Public Health Nutr ; 24(13): 4017-4022, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33472721

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of thinness, overweight and obesity among Tibetan adolescents aged 12-17 years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Shigatse City of Tibet municipality, with an average altitude of more than 4000 m. PARTICIPANTS: Study participants included 2642 adolescents aged 12-17 years selected from six schools using a convenient cluster sampling method. RESULTS: The prevalence of thinness/overweight/obesity among Tibetan adolescents was 9·4 %/5·4 %/1·4 % (China definition), 14·7 %/4·4 %/0·7 % (International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) definition), and 2·8 %/5·7 %/0·9 % (WHO definition). The prevalence of thinness and overweight was significantly different between both sexes based on each of three BMI classification criteria (P < 0·001). There was no significant difference in the prevalence of obesity between both sexes according to each of three BMI criteria. There was no clear trend in the prevalence of thinness across ages according to the China or IOTF definition (both P > 0·05), whereas an upward trend was observed for thinness in boys according to the IOTF definition (Pfor trend <0·05). In contrast, the prevalence of thinness tended to decrease with increasing age in girls according to the IOTF definition and in total sample according to the WHO definition (Pfor trend <0·05). CONCLUSIONS: Among Tibetan adolescents, the prevalence of overweight and obesity is relatively low, while the prevalence of thinness is high, especially in boys. These data suggest urgent attention is needed to control adolescent thinness in Tibet.


Assuntos
Sobrepeso , Magreza , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Magreza/epidemiologia , Tibet/epidemiologia
14.
Parasitol Res ; 120(2): 615-628, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33415392

RESUMO

Cryptosporidium and Giardia are important intestinal zoonotic pathogens that can infect various hosts and cause diarrhoeal diseases. There are few reports of the epidemiological prevalence and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in wild birds around Qinghai Lake and in the surrounding areas on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, Northwest China. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis genotypes and their epidemiological prevalence in wild birds by PCR amplification. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a variety of Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis infections in wild birds from that area, with overall prevalence rates of 8.98% (61/679) and 3.39% (23/679), respectively. Furthermore, PCR sequencing confirmed the presence of Cryptosporidium baileyi (n = 3), Cryptosporidium parvum (n = 58), and G. duodenalis assemblage B (n = 19) and E (n = 4) in wild birds from the areas around Qinghai Lake. The results of the present study demonstrated the wide distribution of Cryptosporidium and Giardia among wild birds, which has potential public health significance. Moreover, the study findings also provided useful molecular epidemiological data for monitoring and investigating the two parasitic protozoa in wild animals and surrounding environments.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Diarreia/veterinária , Giardia lamblia/isolamento & purificação , Giardíase/veterinária , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Aves , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/parasitologia , Genótipo , Giardia lamblia/genética , Giardíase/epidemiologia , Giardíase/parasitologia , Lagos , Epidemiologia Molecular , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Prevalência , Tibet/epidemiologia
15.
Postgrad Med ; 133(2): 173-180, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32926805

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the association between arterial stiffness and orthostatic hypotension (OH) and orthostatic blood pressure (BP) changes among Tibetans living at high altitude. METHODS: A total of 630 high-altitude Tibetans were included (56.53 ± 10.16 years; 246 men). Arterial stiffness was assessed by brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV). OH was defined as a decrease in systolic BP (SBP) >20 mmHg or a decrease in diastolic BP (DBP) >10 mmHg after 1 min or 3 min of moving from supine to standing position. RESULTS: The prevalence of OH in this population was 6.3%. Compared with subjects without OH, the subjects with OH had a higher baPWV (P < 0.001). Multiple logistical regression found that baPWV was significantly associated with the occurrence of OH (OR 1.147, CI 95% 1.028-1.280, P = 0.014). Spearman correlation analysis showed that baPWV was negatively associated with orthostatic changes in SBP and DBP(r = -0.256, P < 0.001 and r = -0.194, P < 0.001, respectively). Further multiple stepwise linear regression analysis showed that baPWV was independently correlated with orthostatic BP changes (SBP: ß = -0.599, P < 0.001; DBP: ß = -0.333, P < 0.001). Moreover, increased baPWV was correlated with attenuation of orthostatic heart rate changes. No significant association was observed between hematocrit or hemoglobin concentration and OH. CONCLUSION: BaPWV was significantly associated with the occurrence of OH and orthostatic changes in the SBP and DBP, which suggests that arterial stiffness may be a potential mechanism of impaired hemodynamic response to orthostatic challenges among high-altitude Tibetans.


Assuntos
Altitude , Hipotensão Ortostática , Rigidez Vascular/fisiologia , Índice Tornozelo-Braço , Pressão Atmosférica , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/estatística & dados numéricos , Correlação de Dados , Feminino , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Hipotensão Ortostática/diagnóstico , Hipotensão Ortostática/epidemiologia , Hipotensão Ortostática/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Tibet/epidemiologia
16.
Parasitol Int ; 81: 102272, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33321222

RESUMO

Blastocystis is a common intestinal protozoan parasite of humans and a variety of animal species. To date, the prevalence of Blastocystis and major subtypes distribution in the domestic animals inhabiting in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau Area (QTPA) of China is yet poorly studied. In this study, we investigated the distribution and genetic diversity of Blastocystis in seven animal species in QTPA in China. Four hundred and five fresh fecal samples were collected from domestic animals in Qinghai, Yunnan, and Tibet of China and analyzed using nested PCR and SSU rRNA gene sequencing. It was found that the overall prevalence of Blastocystis infection was 40.2% (163/405) in the animals studied. The most predominant subtype of Blastocystis was ST10 (57.7%) followed by ST14 (28.8%) and ST2 (13.5%). These results reveal the epidemiological features of Blastocytis infection in animals in the high altitude plateau area. The finding of presence of ST2 in a number of animal species suggests a zoonotic nature of Blastocystis and might be of importance of public health.


Assuntos
Infecções por Blastocystis/veterinária , Blastocystis/isolamento & purificação , Gado , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Infecções por Blastocystis/epidemiologia , Infecções por Blastocystis/parasitologia , Tibet/epidemiologia
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 754: 142229, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33254864

RESUMO

Cystic echinococcosis (CE), which is caused by Echinococcus granulosus, is a worldwide helminthozoonosis that is highly endemic in the Tibet Autonomous Region of China and has important public health and economic impacts. However, the spatial epidemiological characteristics of CE in Tibet are still unclear. Based on recorded human CE cases and the use of a geographic information system, the spatial distribution patterns of CE prevalence at three different scales were analyzed. In addition, a spatial agglomeration map of CE prevalence was generated based on cold/hot spot analysis. By combining maps of environmental and biological covariates with information about known human CE cases, the links between CE prevalence and relevant covariates were explored, revealing that the annual average precipitation, elevation, water accessibility and animal population (dog and yak) were associated with the prevalence of CE at the significance level of P < 0.05. Our results provide a novel insight and better understanding of the current situation of and the factors influencing CE in Tibet, which can help public health authorities develop disease prevention and control strategies.


Assuntos
Equinococose , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Cães , Equinococose/epidemiologia , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Humanos , Prevalência , Saúde Pública , Tibet/epidemiologia
18.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(10): 1601-1605, 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33297615

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the characteristics of COVID-19 case spectrum and spread intensity in different provinces in China except Hubei province. Methods: The daily incidence data and case information of COVID-19 were collected from the official websites of provincial and municipal health commissions. The morbidity rate, severity rate, case-fatality rate, and spread ratio of COVID-19 were calculated. Results: As of 20 March, 2020, a total of 12 941 cases of COVID-19 had been conformed, including 116 deaths, and the average morbidity rate, severity rate and case-fatality rate were 0.97/100 000, 13.5% and 0.90%, respectively. The morbidity rates in Zhejiang (2.12/100 000), Jiangxi (2.01/100 000) and Beijing (1.93/100 000) ranked top three. The characteristics of COVID-19 case spectrum varied from province to province. The first three provinces (autonomous region, municipality) with high severity rates were Tianjin (45.6%), Xinjiang (35.5%) and Heilongjiang (29.5%). The case-fatality rate was highest in Xinjiang (3.95%), followed by Hainan (3.57%) and Heilongjiang (2.70%). The average spread ratio was 0.98 and the spread intensity varied from province to province. Tibet had the lowest spread ratio (0), followed by Qinghai (0.20) and Guangdong (0.23). Conclusion: The intervention measures were effective in preventing the spread of COVID-19 and improved treatment effect in China. However, there were significant differences among different regions in severity, case-fatality rate and spread ratio.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pequim/epidemiologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Morbidade , Tibet/epidemiologia
19.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(11): 1843-1847, 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33297649

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the tuberculosis (TB) clustering areas and changing tendency in China from 2013 to 2018, so as to provide evidence for improving the control and prevention programs on TB. Methods: Spatial distribution of TB in China from 2013 to 2018 was studied using data from TB information management system of Chinese disease prevention and control information system. The SaTScan 9.6 software was used to detect and analyze the TB clusters and relative risks. Likelihood ratio and P value under the scan windows were used as the main index to define the clusters. Results: The TB registration rate declined in China from 2013 to 2018. High-risk clusters were mainly located in western regions of Xinjiang, Tibet, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Chongqing, Yunnan, Guizhou, Guangxi provinces and central and eastern regions of Inner Mongolia, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, Guangdong and Hainan provinces. The number of counties with TB clusters declined slowly, from 1 112 in 2013 to 806 in 2018. In comparison with areas other than the clusters, the RR of TB in the clusters remained at high levels in southern Xinjiang and western Tibet from 2013 to 2018 (RR>3.0). Conclusions: The number of the counties with TB clustering declined slowly from 2013 to 2018, and most of them were located in western and central China. Early detection and health education should be focused on TB patients to prevent the spread of TB. Management programs set for TB patients should be strengthened, especially in the western parts of the country where TB clusters and high relative risks existed.


Assuntos
Tuberculose , China/epidemiologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Humanos , Análise Espacial , Tibet/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/epidemiologia
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33375039

RESUMO

Kashin-Beck Disease (KBD) is one of major endemic diseases in China. In this study, we estimated the health loss from KBD in Qamdo district of Tibet using the years lived with disability (YLD) metric and investigated the influence of environmental selenium (Se) on it by multiple regression model. The results showed that YLD rates produced a different ranking of health loss of KBD from that produced by prevalence rates between Basu and Luolong County, with higher health loss from KBD (43.61 YLD/1000) but lower prevalence (17.86%) in Basu County. YLD rates in two counites were both highest for the 45-64 years age group. Compared with the prevalence rate, the YLD rate had a closer relation to environmental Se and was significantly negatively correlated with Se in both soil and highland barley. The multiple linear regression further revealed that Se contents in cultivated soil and highland barley were main influencing factors for the health loss of KBD, which could explain 90.5% of the variation in YLD rates. The information obtained highlights the significance of the YLD metric in exploring the environmental etiology of KBD and provides important information on which to base decisions on future prevention and control of endemic diseases.


Assuntos
Doença de Kashin-Bek , Selênio , Hordeum/química , Humanos , Doença de Kashin-Bek/epidemiologia , Doença de Kashin-Bek/etiologia , Selênio/efeitos adversos , Selênio/análise , Solo/química , Tibet/epidemiologia
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