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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33374772

RESUMO

This study uses canonical correlation analyses to explore the relationship between multiple predictors of school readiness (i.e., academic readiness, social readiness, and teacher-child relationship) and multiple temperamental traits using data from the second wave (age 54 months, n = 1226) of the longitudinal Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD; NICHD ECCRN 1993). This longitudinal study collected data on a large cohort of children and their families from birth through age 15. For academic readiness, only one temperamental constellation emerged, representing the construct of effortful control (i.e., high attentional focusing, high inhibitory control). For peer interactions, two significant constellations emerged: "dysregulated" (low inhibitory control, low shyness, and high activity), and "withdrawn" (high shyness, low inhibitory control, low attentional focusing). Finally, the analyses exploring child-teacher relationships revealed two significant constellations: "highly surgent" (high activity, low inhibitory control, low shyness) and "emotionally controlled" (low anger/frustration and high inhibitory control). Results of this study form a more nuanced exploration of relationships between temperamental traits and indicators of school readiness than can be found in the extant literature, and will provide the groundwork for future research to test specific hypotheses related to the effect temperamental constellations have on children's school readiness.


Assuntos
Relações Interpessoais , Grupo Associado , Estudantes/psicologia , Temperamento , Adolescente , Ira , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Frustração , Humanos , Inibição Psicológica , Estudos Longitudinais , Instituições Acadêmicas , Timidez
2.
Codas ; 32(5): e20190097, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053085

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of shyness in university students and to analyze among the sociodemographic and public communication factors, those that are most related to their presence. METHOD: A cross-sectional analytical study was carried out with 1124 university students aged between 17 and 63 years old. It was used a questionnaire with questions related to sociodemographic characteristics; frequency of participation in public speaking activities; self-report of fear of speaking; self-perception of non-verbal aspects of oral communication: tone of voice, speed of speech, voice intensity, vocal projection, eye contact with the audience during the speech, use hands in public presentations; self-assessment of public speaking (Scale for Self-Assessment in Public Speaking) and self-perception of shyness (Revised Shyness Scale). The analysis of factors associated with shyness and with the other variables was performed by Pearson's chi-square test and univariate and multivariate logistic regression. The level of significance adopted was 5%. RESULTS: The majority of the university population self-reported traces of shyness and fear of speaking in public. There was an association of shyness with the age of 17 to 30 years, fear of speaking in public, little participation in public speaking activities, negative self-perception of speech and with non-verbal communication aspects. CONCLUSION: Shyness is prevalent in young university students, who participate in few public speaking activities, who are afraid to speak in public, self-report speaking at low intensity and who are unable to use their hands naturally during public presentations.


Assuntos
Fala , Voz , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autoimagem , Timidez , Adulto Jovem
3.
Rev. neurol. (Ed. impr.) ; 71(2): 61-68, 16 jul., 2020. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-195447

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: Se discute si la consanguinidad es un factor de riesgo para sufrir trastorno bipolar o esquizofrenia. Los árboles genealógicos de las casas reales son una oportunidad para estudiarlo. Felipe V posiblemente sufrió un trastorno mental grave, como también su hijo Fernando VI. Sin embargo, Carlos III, también hijo de Felipe V, pero fruto de otro matrimonio, aparentemente no. Se mantiene la hipótesis de que la consanguinidad podría haber sido un factor de riesgo para ello. SUJETOS Y MÉTODOS: Se analizan las biografías de estos tres reyes para detectar si sufrieron algún trastorno mental de acuerdo con el DSM-5 y la CIE-11. Se estudia su coeficiente de consanguinidad mediante el programa PedPro con una base de datos de 25.776 individuos. RESULTADOS: Felipe V y Fernando VI podrían haber sido diagnosticados de trastorno bipolar, mientras que Carlos III podría haberlo sido de un leve trastorno de la personalidad. Felipe V y Fernando VI tenían un coeficiente de consanguinidad elevado (0,091109 y 0,095023, respectivamente), mientras que en Carlos III era sólo de 0,038264. El coeficiente de los dos primeros es mayor que el de los hijos de primos hermanos (0,0625). CONCLUSIONES: Felipe V y Fernando VI sufrieron un trastorno bipolar. El análisis de los árboles genéticos mediante el coeficiente de consanguinidad es una valiosa herramienta para el estudio de la heredabilidad del trastorno bipolar. La endogamia acumula alelos patógenos y el riesgo de sufrirlo. En estos sujetos, la alta consanguinidad fue un importante factor etiopatogénico de la enfermedad que sufrieron. Una elevada consanguinidad supone un factor de riesgo de sufrir trastorno bipolar


INTRODUCTION: There is an argument about inbreeding as a risk factor in the development of major mental illnesses like bipolar disorder or schizophrenia. The genealogical trees of European royal dynasties represent an opportunity to study this relationship. Felipe V was the first Bourbon king to rule in Spain, who was thought to have possibly suffered a severe mental disorder. Felipe's son Fernando VI, also had a mental disease. Nevertheless Carlos III, Felipe V's son born from a different, unrelated mother, apparently showed no trace of such disorder. We hypothesize that consanguinity or inbreeding could explain the tendency in the acquiring of severe mental disorders. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Biographies of three Spanish Bourbon kings (Felipe V, Fernando VI and Carlos III) were analysed in order to evaluate if they were likely to have suffered from some mental disorder, according to DSM-5 and ICD-11 criteria. An inbreeding coefficient was determined with the PedPro Program. RESULTS: Felipe V and Fernando VI could have been diagnosed with bipolar disorder, whereas Carlos III could have been diagnosed with a mild personality disorder. Both Felipe V and Fernando VI had a high inbreeding coefficient (0.091109 and 0.095023, respectively), while Carlos III had a lower one (0.038264). The inbreeding coefficient of siblings of couples of first grade cousins is 0.0625. CONCLUSIONS: A high inbreeding coefficient is a risk factor in developing bipolar disorder. Felipe V and Fernando VI suffered from bipolar disorder. The analysis of genetic trees by the inbreeding coefficient is a valuable tool in the study of heredability of bipolar disorder. Endogamy accumulates pathogenic alleles and increases risk to suffer it. These kings had a high consanguinity which was an important risk factor to the illness. High consanguinity is a risk factor to suffer bipolar disorder


Assuntos
Humanos , História do Século XVIII , Consanguinidade , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Transtornos Mentais/história , Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Transtorno Bipolar/história , Timidez , Medo , Depressão
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32106623

RESUMO

In an attempt to reduce the negative consequences of adolescent media use, parents often monitor their children's online activities. However, research suggests that parental monitoring often does not reduce children's problematic mobile phone use as expected. Based on the results of a survey of 584 Chinese adolescents, we found that parental monitoring positively predicted children's problematic mobile phone use (PMPU) within a Chinese cultural context. The results also showed that children's escape motivation partially mediated this relationship, while their level of shyness moderated both the mediated path and the direct impact of parental monitoring on children's PMPU. The findings suggested that a higher level of shyness increased the likelihood that parental monitoring would increase the child's escape motivation and PMPU. The study results provide guidelines for parents and educators regarding interventions for adolescents' problematic phone use.


Assuntos
Uso do Telefone Celular , Motivação , Timidez , Adolescente , Humanos , Pais , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Aggress Behav ; 46(1): 16-24, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31613405

RESUMO

The general aggression model (GAM) has suggested that the interaction between person factors (e.g., personality variables) and situation factors (e.g., playing violent video games [VVGs]) can increase individuals' aggressive behaviors through their cognition (e.g., hostile attributions), affect (e.g., negative affect), and/or arousal. The present study employed a modified competitive reaction time task to test the effects of shyness, violent (vs. nonviolent) gameplay, and shyness on individuals' positive-negative affect, hostile attributions, and aggressive behaviors. In addition, the present study also employed structural equation modeling (SEM) to test the mediation (by cognition and affect) and moderation (by shyness). Results showed that playing a VVG increased aggressive behaviors, negative affect, and hostile attributions primarily among shy participants. In addition, the results of SEM also revealed that this moderating role was mediated by negative affect and hostile attributions. The present study supported GAM and showed that individuals' aggressive behaviors are differentially susceptible to VVGs, depending on their level of shyness in a "for bad and for worse" manner.


Assuntos
Agressão , Jogos de Vídeo , Hostilidade , Humanos , Timidez
6.
Int J Psychol ; 55(4): 601-608, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588565

RESUMO

The purpose of this study is to examine the reported level of self-disclosure in online communication and understand the relationship between perceived interpersonal competence and self-disclosure in an online context, taking into account the moderating role of shyness. The study sample consists of university students (N = 585). Hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses revealed that, controlling for participants' online media use, shyness moderated the relationship between online self-disclosure and perceived interpersonal competence. Moderation results showed that the relationship between online self-disclosure and perceived interpersonal competence was weaker for individuals with higher levels of shyness, and stronger for those with moderate or low scores on the shyness measure. The study's implications and contributions to the existing literature are discussed.


Assuntos
Intervenção Baseada em Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Relações Interpessoais , Autorrevelação , Timidez , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
7.
Dev Psychopathol ; 32(2): 455-464, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30924438

RESUMO

Although shyness is a ubiquitous phenomenon with early developmental origins, little research has examined the influence of prenatal exposures on the developmental trajectory of shyness. Here, we examined trajectories of shyness from childhood to adulthood in three groups (N = 254), with varying degrees of prenatal adversity as indicated by the number of stressful exposures: extremely low birth weight (ELBW; <1000 g) survivors prenatally exposed to exogenous corticosteroids (ELBW+S, n = 56); ELBW survivors not prenatally exposed to exogenous corticosteroids (ELBW+NS, n = 56); and normal birth weight (NBW, n = 142) controls. Multilevel modeling revealed that the ELBW+S individuals exhibited the highest levels of childhood shyness, which remained stable into adulthood. The ELBW+NS and NBW controls had comparably low levels of childhood shyness; however, the ELBW+NS individuals experienced patterns of increasing shyness, while NBW controls displayed decreases in shyness into adulthood. We speculate that individuals exposed to multiple prenatal stressors (i.e., ELBW+S) may be developmentally programmed to be more sensitive to detecting social threat, with one manifestation being early developing, stable shyness, while increasing shyness among ELBW+NS individuals may reflect a later developing shyness influenced by postnatal context. We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding the developmental origins and developmental course of human shyness from childhood through adulthood.


Assuntos
Recém-Nascido de Peso Extremamente Baixo ao Nascer , Timidez , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Sobreviventes , Adulto Jovem
8.
Emotion ; 20(4): 605-612, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30714781

RESUMO

The opponent process theory of emotion posits that emotional states evoke opposite emotion states as they wane, resulting in sequential approach and withdrawal motivations. However, whether opponent processes are associated with individual differences in personality remains an empirical question. Using visual afterimage responses to emotional faces as an index of opponent processes, we found that young adults (N = 101; Mage = 19.41 years, SD = 2.06 years) characterized by relatively high shyness and high sociability (i.e., conflicted shyness) were more likely to perceive a negative face emotion afterimage after adapting to happy faces and a positive face emotion afterimage after adapting to angry faces, compared with young adults classified by other combinations of high and low shyness and sociability. We speculate that conflicted shyness may result from strong opponent processes to both positive and negative emotions to real or anticipated social situations in some individuals, resulting in conflicting social motivations. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Pós-Imagem/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Personalidade/fisiologia , Timidez , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
9.
Dev Psychobiol ; 62(3): 324-338, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31531858

RESUMO

Maternal psychological factors are known to play a critical role in children's socioemotional development, particularly in pro- and anti-social behaviors. Although shyness is a ubiquitous phenomenon and associated with social anxiety, relatively few have examined the relation between maternal shyness and children's socioemotional development. We explored the moderating influence of children's resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and RSA change on the relation between maternal shyness and children's shyness, empathy, and aggression in 129 (62 males) typically developing 4- (n = 81) and 6- (n = 48) year-olds. We found that 6-year-olds' RSA change score from baseline to a cognitive challenge task acted as a moderator on the relation between mother's shyness and child observed empathy but not for maternal report of child aggression or child's observed shyness. These results were not found in the 4-year-olds. Six-year-olds with relatively high RSA change and relatively low maternal shyness displayed the highest levels of empathy. These results suggest that the maternal caregiving environment and biological characteristics of the child may confer individual differences in prosocial behaviors in children. Findings are discussed in terms of age-related differences in socioemotional behaviors in children of shy mothers.


Assuntos
Agressão/fisiologia , Comportamento Infantil/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Empatia/fisiologia , Mães , Arritmia Sinusal Respiratória/fisiologia , Autocontrole , Timidez , Comportamento Social , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
10.
Ágora (Rio J. Online) ; 22(3): 343-352, set.-dez. 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-1043571

RESUMO

RESUMO: Este artigo tem como objetivo refletir acerca da não comunicação reativa - conceito desenvolvido por D. W. Winnicott, que corresponde a uma reclusão patológica. Para tanto, traz o relato do atendimento psicanalítico a um adolescente que apresentava um estado de isolamento. O artigo se reporta ao modo de funcionamento psicopatológico apresentado segundo a matriz ferencziana de adoecimento psíquico, caracterizada por Luís Claudio Figueiredo. As estratégias técnicas assinaladas baseiam-se, fundamentalmente, nos conceitos de reclamação/reivindicação da psicanalista Anne Alvarez, que postula uma abordagem mais ativa no sentido de o analista ir ao alcance do paciente, configurando, assim, uma clínica revitalizadora.


Abstract: This article aims to reflect on non-reactive communication - concept developed by D. W. Winnicott that corresponds to a pathological reclusion. For that, it brings the report of psychoanalytic care to a teenager who was in a state of isolation. The article refers to the understanding the mode of psychopathological functioning presented according to the Ferenczian matrix of psychic illness, characterized by Luís Claudio Figueiredo. The technical strategies pointed out are fundamentally based on the concepts of complaint/claim of psychoanalyst Anne Alvarez, who postulates a more active approach in the sense of the analyst reaching the patient, thus configuring a revitalizing clinic.


Assuntos
Humanos , Adolescente , Tédio , Timidez , Comportamento do Adolescente , Comunicação
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31652716

RESUMO

Selective mutism (SM) is an anxiety disorder that impacts communication. Children with SM present concerns to parents and teachers as they consistently do not speak in situations where there is an expectation to speak, such as at school, but speak in other settings where they feel more comfortable, such as at home. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between parents' and teachers' perceptions of children with SM on behavioral rating scales and language measures. Forty-two children (22 boys and 20 girls, ranging from 2.4 to 13.8 years, with a mean age of 7.1 years) took part in this study. Parents and teachers completed the Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC-3) measuring internalizing behaviors, externalizing behaviors, adaptive skills, and behavioral symptoms. Frequency of speaking and language abilities were also measured. Parents and teachers both identified withdrawal as the most prominent feature of SM but parents saw children as significantly more withdrawn than did their teachers. Both rated children similarly at-risk on scales of functional communication and social skills. Higher adaptive skills (including functional communication and social skills) were positively correlated with vocabulary, narrative language, and auditory serial memory according to teachers. Parent and teacher rating scales provide valuable information for diagnosis and progress monitoring. Children with SM can benefit from mental health practitioners who can identify and enhance their emotional well-being.


Assuntos
Mutismo/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adolescente , Criança , Comportamento Infantil , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Pais , Professores Escolares , Timidez , Habilidades Sociais
12.
Scand J Psychol ; 60(6): 637-645, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31608453

RESUMO

This short-term longitudinal study examined the reciprocal associations among shyness, interpersonal relationships, and loneliness in a sample of 361 Chinese college freshmen (138 male students, mean age = 18.57 years). A fully cross-lagged panel design was used in which shyness, interpersonal relationships, and loneliness were assessed at three time points separated by 8 months. The results indicated that the associations among shyness, interpersonal relationships, and loneliness were dynamic and bidirectional. The self-report scores and the pattern of cross-lagged associations among shyness, interpersonal relationships, and loneliness were the same for male and female students at all three times. Implications for loneliness interventions and future research directions are provided.


Assuntos
Relações Interpessoais , Solidão/psicologia , Timidez , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
13.
Evol Psychol ; 17(3): 1474704919872416, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542947

RESUMO

Several people today experience poor mating performance, that is, they face difficulties in starting and/or keeping an intimate relationship. On the basis of an evolutionary theoretical framework, it was hypothesized that poor mating performance would be predicted by poor flirting skills, poor mate signal-detection ability, and high shyness. By employing a sample of 587 Greek-speaking men and women, we found that more than 40% of our participants experienced difficulties in starting and/or keeping an intimate relationship. We also found that poor flirting skills, poor mate signal-detection ability, and high shyness were associated with poor performance in mating, especially with respect to starting an intimate relationship. The effect sizes and the odds ratios indicated that flirting skills had the largest effect on mating performance, followed by the mate signal-detection ability and shyness.


Assuntos
Corte/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Timidez , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
14.
Psychiatr Danub ; 31(Suppl 3): 386-389, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488757

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nowadays, anxiety disorders are becoming more and more important in our population. And if there is one category of people more vulnerable to this problem, it is the teenagers. In addition, more and more children and teenagers are diagnosed with an IQ greater than 130, causing all the stress and questions that it generates. In this project, we are comparing two groups of adolescents, one with an IQ over 130, the other with an IQ less than 130. We are wondering if there is any difference between these groups, in terms of phobia and other psychopathologies. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A sample of 35 teenagers, from 12 to 16 years old, separated in two groups (IQ over 130 and IQ below 130), fulfilled the following questionnaires: the School Rehabilitation Assessment Scale-Revised (SARS-R), the "Family Adaptability and Cohesiveness Evaluation Scale III" (FACES III), and the "Kiddie- SADS-lifetime" (K-SADS-PL), and a social data collection questionnaire. RESULTS: At the end of this study, we can retain the following relevant elements: adolescents with IQs greater than 130 are statistically more likely to be the eldest siblings (Cochran Test F=9.159, p=0.010). They do not develop more phobias, but are more shy (t=4.375, p=0.036) than the control population. These high-potential and shy teenagers have a whole list of commonalities, such as being easily irritable, being easily distracted, ect... They have fewer friends in real life (t=2.255, p=0.033), fewer virtual friends (t=4.346, p=0.000) and fewer virtual relationships (t=2.431, p=0.021). Their families are very cohesive (Test t=0.004). There is no significant role of the socio-professional class of parents playing in the value of the IQ of their children (t=4.667, p=0.323). CONCLUSION: To conclude, being a teenager and having an IQ greater than 130 is not always a pleasure. Our results showed us that the majority of these young people consider themselves as shy, unsure of themselves and claim to have many fears. This is evidence of an increased anxiety component compared to the control sample. It seems important to insist on the need to be able and to know how to identify these young people as soon as possible, in order to propose appropriate therapeutic management.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Testes de Inteligência/estatística & dados numéricos , Inteligência , Psicopatologia , Timidez , Adolescente , Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Transtornos de Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Medo , Amigos/psicologia , Humanos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
J Theor Biol ; 483: 110001, 2019 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499036

RESUMO

We investigate the coevolution of cannibalistic predators and timid prey, which seek refuge upon detecting a predator. To understand how the species affect each other's evolution, we derived the ecological model from individual-level processes using ordinary differential equations. The ecological dynamics exhibit bistability between equilibrium and periodic attractors, which may disappear through catastrophic bifurcations. Using the critical function analysis of adaptive dynamics, we classify general trade-offs between cannibalism and prey capture that produce different evolutionary outcomes. The evolutionary analysis reveals several ways in which cannibalism emerges as a response to timidity of the prey. The long-term coevolution either attains a singularity, or becomes cyclic through two mechanisms: genetical cycles through Hopf bifurcation of the singularity, or ecogenetical cycles involving abrupt switching between ecological attractors. Further diversification of cannibalism occurs through evolutionary branching, which is predicted to be delayed when simultaneous prey evolution is necessary for the singularity's attainability. We conclude that predator-prey coevolution produces a variety of outcomes, in which evolutionary cycles are commonplace.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Comportamento Predatório/fisiologia , Timidez , Animais , Modelos Biológicos , Análise Numérica Assistida por Computador
16.
J Theor Biol ; 479: 1-13, 2019 10 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31265847

RESUMO

We investigate the evolution of timidity in a prey species whose predator has cannibalistic tendencies. The ecological model is derived from individual-level processes, in which the prey seeks refuge after detecting a predator, and the predator cannibalises on the conspecific juveniles. Bifurcation analysis of the model reveals ecological bistability between equilibrium and periodic attractors. Using the framework of adaptive dynamics, we classify ten qualitatively different evolutionary scenarios induced by the ecological bistability. These scenarios include ecological attractor switching through catastrophic bifurcations, which can reverse the direction of evolution. We show that such reversals often result in evolutionary cycling of the level of timidity. In the absence of cannibalism, the model never exhibits ecological bistability nor evolutionary cycling. We conclude that cannibalistic predator behaviour can completely change both the ecological dynamics and the evolution of prey.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Canibalismo , Modelos Biológicos , Timidez , Animais , Ecossistema , Cadeia Alimentar , Comportamento Predatório
17.
Codas ; 31(3): e20180149, 2019 Jun 27.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271582

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To verify the relation between the self-reported shyness and perceived vocal handicap in teachers from Early childhood and Primary education (elementary and middle school). METHODS: 200 teachers (mean age 41.8 years old) without vocal complaint answered to personal identification protocol, work characterization information, the Vocal Handcap Index and the Shyness Scale. RESULTS: From the total sample, 142 (71%) teachers had no vocal disadvantage, 42% (n = 59) were shy and 58% (n = 83) were non-shy. Among the 58 (29%) teachers with vocal disadvantage, most of them were shy (64%) instead of non-shy (26%). Considering the shy teachers, most of them worked in Early Childhood Education, were aged between 20-30 years old, had from 1 to 10 years of teaching experience and were working in a noisy classroom. The presence of upper airway affections was more frequent in shy teachers without vocal disadvantage and this was the only aspect that differentiated shy and non-shy teachers. CONCLUSION: Shy teachers showed higher frequency of vocal disadvantage when compared to non-shy teachers. Teachers between 20 and 30 years old, with up to 10 years of teaching experience and who teach in Early Childhood Education reported shyness, but there was no relation with vocal disadvantage.


Assuntos
Fonação , Timidez , Distúrbios da Voz/psicologia , Qualidade da Voz , Adulto , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Profissionais/diagnóstico , Doenças Profissionais/psicologia , Professores Escolares , Autoimagem , Percepção da Fala , Inquéritos e Questionários , Distúrbios da Voz/diagnóstico , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Pers Soc Psychol ; 117(5): 900-924, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31169388

RESUMO

Despite warnings not to "judge a book by its cover," people rapidly form facial impressions. In Oosterhof and Todorov's (2008) two-dimensional model of facial impressions, trustworthiness, and dominance underlie impressions and primarily function to signal the potential threat of others. Here, we test a key assumption of these models, namely that these dimensions are functional, by evaluating whether the adult-face dimensions apply to young children's faces. Although it may be functional for adults to judge adult faces on dimensions that signal threat, adults associate different social goals with children, and these goals are likely to impact the impressions adults make of such faces. Thus, a functional approach would predict that the dimensions for children's faces are not threat focused. In Studies 1 and 2, we build a data-driven model of Caucasian adults' impressions of Caucasian children's faces, finding evidence for two dimensions. The first dimension, niceness, is similar (although not identical) to the adult dimension of trustworthiness. However, we find a second dimension, shyness, that is clearly dissociable from dominance (Study 3), and critically, is not focused on threat. We demonstrate that adults are sensitive to subtle facial manipulations of these dimensions (Studies 4 and 5) and that these impressions impact adults' behavioral expectations of children (Study 6). Finally, we show that niceness and shyness dimensions generalize to an independent sample of ambient images, demonstrating their robustness (Study 7). Our results suggest that social goals have the power to drive functional impressions and highlight the flexibility of our visual system when forming such inferences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Expressão Facial , Generalização Psicológica , Percepção Social , Adulto , Atitude , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Timidez , Adulto Jovem
19.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0217722, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31163051

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In recent years, researchers have begun to explore the implications of shyness for the psychosocial wellbeing of children and adolescents, exploring its association with internalizing problems. Research in an Italian context is hindered by the lack of a validated self-report measure of shyness. We report two studies aimed to assess the psychometric properties of an Italian translation of the Children's Shyness Questionnaire (CSQ-it) and investigate its correlations with convergent and divergent constructs. The first study aimed to examine associations between CSQ-it and self-report measures of anxiety and somatic symptoms and attachment with parents and peers. The second study aimed to investigate its relations to internet addiction. METHODS: The self-report measures were completed by 550 participants in the first study and 131 participants in the second study. Parents provided information on their child's problems. Psychometric properties were assessed by Cronbach's alpha in both studies and by exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis in Study 1. The relations between shyness and measures of internalizing problems and attachments were analyzed by correlational methods. In Study 2 a moderated mediation model tested the hypothesis that the relationship between shyness and internet addiction is mediated by somatic symptoms and that shyness moderates the relationship between somatic symptoms and internet addiction. RESULTS: The reliability and validity of the Italian Version of the Children's Shyness Questionnaire were satisfactory. Results from confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the single-factor model of the questionnaire previously identified in North American and Chinese studies. There were significant correlations between shyness, anxious and somatic symptomatology, impaired psychosocial functioning and specific components of attachment relationships. In Study 2 the indirect effect of shyness on internet addiction through somatic symptoms was significant as well as significantly moderated for high shyness scores but not for low levels of shyness. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge this is the first study that explored the psychometric proprieties of the Children's Shyness Questionnaire in the Italian context. Findings demonstrated that this self-reported measure of shyness has sound psychometric properties and can be used as a sensitive and appropriate instrument for the assessment of shyness in children and adolescents.


Assuntos
Psicometria , Timidez , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adolescente , Criança , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
20.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 186: 83-98, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31203109

RESUMO

Gentle encouragement to approach appears to reduce risk for anxiety and is commonly incorporated into parenting interventions for inhibited preschoolers, yet little is known regarding whether gentle encouragement facilitates in-the-moment regulation as shy or inhibited children face social novelty, particularly during the toddler period. The current study used a sample of 55 temperamentally shy toddlers (21-24 months old) to examine toddler regulation in novel social contexts in relation to parental gentle encouragement to engage. Contexts included low-threat social novelty (i.e., a clown and puppets) and moderately threatening social novelty (i.e., strangers). Using an experimental design, parents were randomly assigned to provide behaviors thought to represent gentle encouragement: warm responsiveness to toddler fear and encouragement of toddler autonomy, prompt to engage, both warmth and prompt, or remaining uninvolved (no-encouragement control). Relative to toddlers in the no-encouragement control condition, toddlers whose parents were instructed to provide warmth showed less fear and more engagement in moderately threatening social contexts, and toddlers whose parents were instructed to provide both warmth and prompts showed greater suppression of respiratory sinus arrhythmia in low-threat social contexts. Findings suggest that parental gentle encouragement may promote regulated responses in social contexts in shy toddlers. Encouragement of toddler autonomy and warm responsiveness to toddlers in particular may help shy toddlers to engage with, rather than withdraw from, new people.


Assuntos
Medo/fisiologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Arritmia Sinusal Respiratória/fisiologia , Timidez , Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Medo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Comportamento Social
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