Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 63
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Food Chem ; 307: 125521, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31655264

RESUMO

The essential oils and antioxidant activity of four Thymus species were evaluated under five light spectra (namely, red, blue, red-blue, white, and greenhouse condition). The highest essential oil yield (4.17%) was observed under red light in T. migricus, while the lowest (1.05%) was observed in T. carmanicus under greenhouse conditions. Light quality also led to difference in essential oil constituents. The highest thymol (66%) was found in T. migricus exposed to blue light, while the least (1.69%) was observed in T. kotschyanus grown under red-blue light. The LED treatments did not induce any significant effect on carvacrol of Thymus species in comparison to the greenhouse condition. Finally, the analysis of variance indicates that the effect of light varied with the studied species. T. migricus performed the highest antioxidant capacity (IC50 = 176.8 µg/mL) under blue light. Overall, essential oil components as well as antioxidants showed significant responses to light emitting diodes wavelengths.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Luz , Timol/metabolismo , Thymus (Planta)/química , Análise de Variância , Antioxidantes/química , Cromatografia Gasosa , Análise por Conglomerados , Efeito Estufa , Óleos Voláteis/química , Análise de Componente Principal , Timol/química , Thymus (Planta)/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Thymus (Planta)/metabolismo
2.
Br Poult Sci ; 60(5): 589-596, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31195808

RESUMO

1. The purpose of this study was to examine if the concentration of thymol as the main compound of Thymus vulgaris essential oil (TEO) influenced the antioxidant defence system in broilers. 2. Twenty-four broiler chickens were randomly divided at the day of hatching into three dietary treatment groups (0%, 0.05% and 0.1%, w/w TEO) with eight birds in each and were fed until four weeks of age. 3. Thymol content in plasma, duodenal wall and breast muscle significantly increased when 0.1% of thyme oil was added to the diet (P < 0.05). Thymol concentration in plasma significantly correlated with levels measured in the duodenal wall and feed (rs = 0.7857, P < 0.05; rs = 0.7647, P < 0.05). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity increased, and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in blood from chickens fed 0.1% TEO supplementation. Although the thymol concentration did not significantly decrease MDA amounts in breast muscle, a declining trend was observed. 4. The trial data confirmed the efficient absorption of thymol from the digestive tract into the systemic circulation, but only traces were found in breast muscle. Thymol content was sufficient for expressing its antioxidant properties in blood, but its low content in breast muscle was insufficient to significantly affect lipid oxidation and fatty acid composition.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/fisiologia , Galinhas/imunologia , Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta/metabolismo , Óleos Voláteis/metabolismo , Timol/metabolismo , Thymus (Planta)/química , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Galinhas/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Óleos Voláteis/administração & dosagem , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Timol/administração & dosagem , Timol/análise
3.
J Anim Sci ; 97(7): 2901-2913, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31119279

RESUMO

The thyme (Thymus vulgaris) essential oil was assessed as antibiotic growth promoter replacement in quail chick diet and in vitro test. In total, 250-d-old Japanese quail chicks (mixed sex) were allocated into 5 dietary treatments of 5 replications (6 females and 4 males in each cage with the size of 40× 90× 25 cm) under a completely randomized design. The dietary treatments were included the control diet, control diet without any additive, control diet plus 100 ppm flavophospholipol as an antibiotic growth promoter, control diet plus 200 ppm TVE, control diet plus 300 ppm TVE, and control diet plus 400 ppm T. vulgaris essential (TVE) oil. Feed intake, BW gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR), organs weight, morphology of intestine, serum lipids, and microbial population were measured on day 35. Lipid oxidation of stored muscle tissue was measured by TBARS test. GC-MS assay, DPPH method, and well diffusion method were evaluated for determination of components, antioxidant, and antimicrobial properties, respectively. FCR improved significantly in 400 ppm TVE compared with 200 and 300 ppm TVE (P < 0.05). The serum triglyceride decreased significantly in both sexes receiving 400 ppm TVE compared with control. Villi height increased significantly in duodenum accompanied by decreasing crypt dept at all TVE levels compared with control and antibiotic. The breast muscle tissue of quail fed on 300 and 400 ppm TVE reduced the rate of oxidation during refrigerated storage compared with control. Thymol was the main component (35.40%) of the thymus oil. The considerable antioxidant activity of TVE was identified by IC50 of 58.48 µg/mL. Moreover, zones of growth inhibition of Gram-positive bacteria and Escherichia coli were numerically greater in different doses of TVE than antibiotics. Therefore, The TVE is suitable alternative component for antibiotic growth promoters by dosing consideration. However, it is possible that antibiotic resistance would increase for these natural compounds along the time.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Coturnix/fisiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Thymus (Planta)/química , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/microbiologia , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Timol/metabolismo
4.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 128: 893-901, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30708006

RESUMO

Thymol and usnic acid as the important secondary metabolites of respectively Artemisia haussknechtii and Protoparmeliopsis muralis were used for reduction and stabilizing of AgNO3 and CuSO4 in metal nanoparticles (MNPs) biosynthesis process. Antibacterial effects of prepared Ag-thymol (ATNPs), Ag-usnic acid (AUNPs), Cu-thymol (CTNPs), and Cu-usnic acid (CUNPs) on multi drug resistant (MDR) bacteria including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (gram positive), Acinetobacter baumannii (A52), and Klebsiella pneumonia (K38) (gram negative) were compared with thymol, usnic acid, AgNO3, CuSO4, and tetracycline. Results of this study showed higher antibacterial activities of usnic acid, CUNPs, and CTNPs with MIC/MBC values (20, 40, and 40 µg/mL, respectively) than ATNPs and AUNPs against MRSA bacteria. Leakage of macromolecules involving nucleic acids and proteins from bacteria under stress of MNPs, thymol, and usnic acid proved significant antibacterial activities of usnic acid, and Cu NPs. In addition, SEM images illustrated different patterns of aggregation in biofilms resulted from interactions of these antibacterial agents with bacterial macromolecules. Totally, this investigation illustrated new green method of Ag and Cu NPs biosynthesis with suitable antibacterial properties.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Benzofuranos/metabolismo , Cobre/química , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Prata/química , Timol/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/síntese química , Antibacterianos/química , Benzofuranos/química , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Química Sintética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Timol/química
5.
Animal ; 13(2): 318-325, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29983133

RESUMO

Chronic heat stress (CHS) exposure negatively impairs avian' immunoneuroendocrine interplay. Thymol has shown several bioactive properties including antioxidant, bactericidal, antifungal and gamma-aminobutyric acid modulator activities. Indeed, supplementation with thymol has been used with positive effects on poultry production and immune-related variables. This study evaluates whether a thymol dietary supplementation can be used as a new functional feed strategy to mitigate CHS deleterious effects on endocrine, biochemical and immune-related variables. Starting at 100 days of age, 24 fully adult Japanese quail were fed with a diet supplemented with thymol (≈80 mg/quail per day) and other 24 quail remained non-supplemented (control diet). Between 119 and 127 days of age, half of the quail within those groups were submitted to a CHS by increasing environmental temperature from 24°C to 34°C during the light phase and the other half remained at 24°C (non-stressed controls). A period of 3 days after CHS ended (during the recovery period), corticosterone, albumin, total proteins and globulins and glucose concentrations, inflammatory response, antibody production and heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L) ratio were assessed. No differences between groups were found in basal corticosterone concentrations. Total proteins, total globulins and glucose concentrations were found elevated in the previously CHS group compared with their control counterparts. Regardless of the previous CHS exposure, thymol supplementation increased albumin concentrations and inflammatory responses and decreased antibody titers. An interaction between thymol supplementation and prior CHS exposure was found on the H/L ratio. Quail previously exposed to CHS and supplemented with thymol showed similar H/L values than their control non-stressed counterparts, suggesting that thymol has a stress preventive effect on this variable. The present findings together with the already reported thymol bioactive properties, suggest that feed supplementation with this compound could be a useful strategy to help overcoming some of the CHS induced alterations.


Assuntos
Coturnix/fisiologia , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/veterinária , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/efeitos dos fármacos , Timol/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Feminino , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/prevenção & controle , Timol/administração & dosagem
6.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 13405, 2018 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30194320

RESUMO

Thymol, as a dietary monoterpene, is a phenol derivative of cymene, which is the major component of the essential oil of Trachyspermum ammi (L.). It shows multiple biological activities: antifungal, antibacterial, antivirus and anti-inflammatory. T. ammi, commonly known as ajowan, belongs to Apiaceae and is an important medicinal seed spice. To identify the putative genes involved in thymol and other monoterpene biosynthesis, we provided transcriptomes of four inflorescence tissues of two ajowan ecotypes, containing different thymol yield. This study has detected the genes encoding enzymes for the go-between stages of the terpenoid biosynthesis pathways. A large number of unigenes, differentially expressed between four inflorescence tissues of two ajowan ecotypes, was revealed by a transcriptome analysis. Furthermore, differentially expressed unigenes encoding dehydrogenases, transcription factors, and cytochrome P450s, which might be associated with terpenoid diversity in T. ammi, were identified. The sequencing data obtained in this study formed a valuable repository of genetic information for an understanding of the formation of the main constituents of ajowan essential oil and functional analysis of thymol-specific genes. Comparative transcriptome analysis led to the development of new resources for a functional breeding of ajowan.


Assuntos
Apiaceae , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Plantas Medicinais , Timol/metabolismo , Transcriptoma/fisiologia , Apiaceae/genética , Apiaceae/metabolismo , Vias Biossintéticas/fisiologia , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/biossíntese , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/genética , Inflorescência/citologia , Inflorescência/metabolismo , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Oxirredutases/biossíntese , Oxirredutases/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/biossíntese , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas Medicinais/genética , Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
7.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 84(22)2018 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30217837

RESUMO

Thymol, carvacrol, and trans-cinnamaldehyde are essential oil (EO) compounds with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities against foodborne pathogens, including Escherichia coli O157:H7. However, little is known regarding direct resistance and cross-resistance development in E. coli O157:H7 after adaptation to sublethal levels of these compounds, and information is scarce on microbial adaptive responses at a molecular level. The present study demonstrated that E. coli O157:H7 was able to grow in the presence of sublethal thymol (1/2T), carvacrol (1/2C), or trans-cinnamaldehyde (1/2TC), displaying an extended lag phase duration and a lower maximum growth rate. EO-adapted cells developed direct resistance against lethal EO treatments and cross-resistance against heat (58°C) and oxidative (50 mM H2O2) stresses. However, no induction of acid resistance (simulated gastric fluid, pH 1.5) was observed. RNA sequencing revealed a large number (310 to 338) of differentially expressed (adjusted P value [Padj ], <0.05; fold change, ≥5) genes in 1/2T and 1/2C cells, while 1/2TC cells only showed 27 genes with altered expression. In accordance with resistance phenotypes, the genes related to membrane, heat, and oxidative stress responses and genes related to iron uptake and metabolism were upregulated. Conversely, virulence genes associated with motility, biofilm formation, and efflux pumps were repressed. This study demonstrated the development of direct resistance and cross-resistance and characterized whole-genome transcriptional responses in E. coli O157:H7 adapted to sublethal thymol, carvacrol, or trans-cinnamaldehyde. The data suggested that caution should be exercised when using EO compounds as food antimicrobials, due to the potential stress resistance development in E. coli O157:H7.IMPORTANCE The present study was designed to understand transcriptomic changes and the potential development of direct and cross-resistance in essential oil (EO)-adapted Escherichia coli O157:H7. The results demonstrated altered growth behaviors of E. coli O157:H7 during adaptation in sublethal thymol, carvacrol, and trans-cinnamaldehyde. Generally, EO-adapted bacteria showed enhanced resistance against subsequent lethal EO, heat, and oxidative stresses, with no induction of acid resistance in simulated gastric fluid. A transcriptomic analysis revealed the upregulation of related stress resistance genes and a downregulation of various virulence genes in EO-adapted cells. This study provides new insights into microbial EO adaptation behaviors and highlights the risk of resistance development in adapted bacteria.


Assuntos
Acroleína/análogos & derivados , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Escherichia coli O157/fisiologia , Monoterpenos/metabolismo , Óleos Voláteis/metabolismo , Timol/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética , Acroleína/metabolismo , Acroleína/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Escherichia coli O157/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli O157/genética , Escherichia coli O157/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Genoma Bacteriano , Temperatura Alta , Ferro/metabolismo , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Timol/farmacologia , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
Chem Biol Interact ; 296: 83-88, 2018 Dec 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30243740

RESUMO

Recent evidences demonstrated that ingestion of several monoterpenes cause hepatic and renal damage due to impairment on mitochondrial energy production, eliciting a collapse on adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis and consequently impairment on bioenergetic homeostasis. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether phosphotransfer network, catalyzed by creatine kinase (CK), adenylate kinase (AK), and pyruvate kinase (PK), can be a pathway to explain hepatic and renal bioenergetics homeostasis impairment due to thymol ingestion. Daily intake of thymol (40 mg/kg) significantly cause a decreased kidney weight and relative kidney weight compared to control group. The same dose of thymol inhibited renal cytosolic and mitochondrial CK activity as well as renal PK activity compared to control group. Finally, thymol (40 mg/kg) elicited a significant increase on renal reactive oxygen species and lipid damage levels, as well as an inhibition on antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals and non-protein thiol levels, which did not occur liver. Doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg of thymol administered orally for 30 consecutive days non-changed these variables. Based on these evidence, the data supported that intake of a high dose of thymol severely inhibits cytosolic and mitochondrial CK activity, a crucial enzyme to maintain cellular energy homeostasis. Moreover, high dietary thymol intake impaired communication between CK isoenzymes, which inhibits the attempts to regenerate ATP or to facilitate the CK/PCr shuttle to improve the intracellular ATP utilization and consumption. Moreover, the inhibition of renal CK and PK activities appears to be mediated by the renal oxidation of lipids and thiol groups, as well as by the reduction of the renal antioxidant capacity.


Assuntos
Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Timol/farmacocinética , Animais , Rim/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Timol/metabolismo
9.
Bioelectrochemistry ; 124: 172-184, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30081218

RESUMO

Thymol (Thy) is a hydrophobic active ingredient present in thyme essential oils. It is marginally soluble in water which is one of the challenging limitations for its application in foods or as drugs. An important aspect of our understanding from this system is to quantitatively comprehend how albumin interacts with Thy. Herein, this study has been focused on the interactions between thymol and bovine serum albumin (BSA) using electrochemical methods and ultraviolet and visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. Due to the overlap between obtained signals of existing species, it is apparent that multivariate methods can resolve overlapping signal trough unique decomposition. These obtained profiles are then analyzed to give the thermodynamic parameters, concentration and structural information of BSA binds to Thy. The thermodynamic results show that hydrogen bonding formation and van der Waals forces play major role in the binding process. Also, docking studies suggested that Thy binds mainly to the subdomain IIA of BSA through the formation of hydrogen bonding with Arg 217. Good agreement was found between the results obtained from experimental and theoretical studies. Thus, the current approaches seem to be promising that are not only for the transport of thymol in blood but also for its effective action in food applications.


Assuntos
Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Soroalbumina Bovina/metabolismo , Timol/metabolismo , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Ligações de Hidrogênio , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Ligação Proteica , Solubilidade , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Termodinâmica , Timol/farmacologia
10.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 119: 1298-1310, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30096398

RESUMO

Xanthine oxidase (XO) can catalyze xanthine to uric acid and has also been linked with the extension of some serious diseases such as cancer, gout, diabetes and so on. Thymol is a part of diet in the form of spices. Due to the high antioxidant activity, its inhibitory effect on XO was studied in the present work. XO organized in four redox domains which exhibiting electrochemical signals. Therefore, voltammetric methods can be used to obtain the valuable information about the action mechanism of thymol on XO. However, there are extreme complexities in these biological sample matrices which make the deeper understanding of inhibition mechanism of thymol on XO activity is difficult. Thus, development of electrochemical techniques coupled with the four-way parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) has provided promising solutions for analyzing of complex matrix. To better explore this inhibitory effect, electrochemical technologies have been used as a complement with ultraviolet and visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy and molecular docking studies. For the first time, molecular docking studies were used to gain a fundamental understanding to explain how the electron transfer coupling occurs at XO active sites in the presence of thymol. It is in good agreement with the experimental data. These studies reveal that thymol could enter into the catalytic centers of XO. Also, it inhibits the XO activity through the direct binding to flavin adenine dinucleotides (FAD) center. The results display dose-dependent inhibition of XO with thymol. Its inhibitory activity was linked to its antioxidant properties to reduce the formation of free radicals (FRs) and related diseases.


Assuntos
Inibidores Enzimáticos/metabolismo , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Timol/metabolismo , Timol/farmacologia , Xantina Oxidase/antagonistas & inibidores , Adsorção , Animais , Bovinos , Eletroquímica , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Oxirredução , Conformação Proteica , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Propriedades de Superfície , Timol/química , Xantina/metabolismo , Xantina Oxidase/química , Xantina Oxidase/metabolismo
11.
Food Res Int ; 106: 1042-1048, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29579896

RESUMO

The present study provides molecular insight into the effect of thymol and carvacrol on the oxidative damage caused to myofibrillar proteins by a hydroxyl-radical generating system (HRGS). An innovative model system was designed, in which gels, prepared with increasing levels of myofibrillar proteins, were oxidized by a HRGS (Fe3+/H2O2, 60 °C and 7 days) in the presence of lipids. The molecular affinity between myofibrillar proteins and both terpenes, as well as their effect on the oxidative stability of the gel systems, were studied using a non-destructive and solvent-free procedure based on fluorescence spectroscopy. Carvacrol displayed more affinity than thymol for establishing chemical interactions with protein residues. Both terpenes exhibited a significant antioxidant potential against the generation of lipid-derived volatile carbonyls and against the formation of protein crosslinking. This procedure may be applied to meat products to assess the effectiveness of a given antioxidant additive without size reduction or sample processing.


Assuntos
Carne/análise , Monoterpenos , Proteínas Musculares , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Timol , Animais , Conservação de Alimentos , Monoterpenos/química , Monoterpenos/metabolismo , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Proteínas Musculares/química , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Miofibrilas/química , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Suínos , Timol/química , Timol/metabolismo , Timol/farmacologia , Triptofano
12.
Chem Biodivers ; 15(3): e1800005, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29393581

RESUMO

A greenhouse experiment was conducted to study the effects of four irrigation intervals (4, 8, 12, and 16 days) and six harvests (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 months after transplanting) on biomass, essential oil content, and composition of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. Fresh weight and essential oil yield decreased with increasing irrigation interval; whereas, essential oil content was stimulated by water stress and increased as the irrigation interval increased. Fresh weight of Plectranthus amboinicus irrigated every 4 days peaked when harvested at 6 months, but essential oil content peaked when irrigated every 16 days and harvested at 2 months after transplantation. On the other hand, essential oil yield peaked when irrigated every 8 days and harvested at 6 months. Thymol, p-cymene, γ-terpinene, and ß-caryophyllene were the major compounds, and they peaked at different irrigation intervals and harvest times. This study showed biomass, essential oil content, and yield as well as the major and minor constituents of Plectranthus amboinicus are influenced by irrigation interval and the timing of harvest.


Assuntos
Irrigação Agrícola/métodos , Produção Agrícola/métodos , Monoterpenos/análise , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Plectranthus/química , Sesquiterpenos/análise , Timol/análise , Biomassa , Monoterpenos/metabolismo , Óleos Voláteis/metabolismo , Plectranthus/metabolismo , Sesquiterpenos/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Timol/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo , Água/química
13.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 150: 436-451, 2018 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29291586

RESUMO

Protein glycation in the body is one of the main reasons of diabetes complications. The electrochemical studies on the inhibitory mechanism of glycation are rather scarce. Thus, it is important to investigate the role of electrochemistry in the glycation process with basic chemometric frameworks. The aim of the current study is to investigate the anti-glycation effects of candidate compounds from thyme species i.e. thymol and p-cymene. To gain this objective, the electrochemical and absorption responses of glycated bovine serum albumin (BSA) in the absence and presence of inhibitors were recorded after 20 day of incubation. Due to the presence of multiple binding sites on BSA for the interaction with glucose, there are overlapping between the signals of these sites. Therefore, it is reasonable to use chemometric methods such as parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) and alternating penalty trilinear decomposition (APTLD). The obtained results from chemometric methods showed that the solution of thymol at 5.0 mg mL-1 mixture with p-cymene (2.5 mg mL-1) was effective than thymol of 5.0 mg mL-1. Computational docking studies revealed the interaction pattern of thymol with BSA. The binding affinity of thymol was greater than glucose which it is in well agreement with the experimental data.


Assuntos
Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/antagonistas & inibidores , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional/efeitos dos fármacos , Soroalbumina Bovina/antagonistas & inibidores , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Timol/farmacologia , Arginina , Sítios de Ligação , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/química , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/metabolismo , Glicosilação , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Hipoglicemiantes/metabolismo , Cinética , Lisina , Monoterpenos/química , Monoterpenos/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica , Soroalbumina Bovina/química , Soroalbumina Bovina/metabolismo , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Timol/química , Timol/metabolismo
14.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 70: 164-173, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28882791

RESUMO

An 8-week feeding trial was undertaken to evaluate supplemental effects of AviPlus® (AP), a blend of organic acids [citric acid, 25%; sorbic acid, 16.7%] and essential oils [thymol, 1.7%; vanillin, 1.0%], on growth, gut microbiota, innate immunity and disease resistance of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) against Vibrio parahaemolyticus. A basal experimental diet was formulated and supplemented with 0, 0.3, 0.6, 0.9 and 1.2 g kg-1 AP to produce five test diets (Con, AP0.3, AP0.6, AP0.9 and AP1.2). Each diet was fed to triplicate groups of shrimp (0.2 ± 0.01 g, mean ± SE) to apparent satiation three times daily. Growth performance and survival rate were not significantly influenced by AP supplementation (P > 0.05). Significantly (P < 0.05) higher serum total protein was found in groups fed ≥ 0.6 g kg-1 AP compared to control. Serum alkaline phosphatase and phenoloxidase activities were significantly increased in AP0.9 and AP1.2 groups. Also, the group received AP0.6 diet showed significantly higher glutathione peroxidase activity than control. Expression of gut pro-inflammatory genes including TNF-α, LITAF and RAB6A were down-regulated by AP administration. Gut microbiota analysis showed the significant enhancement of the operational taxonomic unit (OTU) diversity and richness indices by AP application. AP supplementation led to increased abundance of Firmicutes and a reduction in abundance of Proteobacteria. Also, dietary inclusion of 1.2 g kg-1 AP led to a significant increase in the abundance of Lactobacillus in shrimp gut. The group offered AP0.3 diet showed significantly higher disease resistance than control group. Furthermore, AP application significantly enhanced relative expression of immune related genes including lysozyme, penaeidin and catalase at 48 h post challenge. In conclusion, these findings show that the tested organic acids and essential oils mixture beneficially affects intestinal microflora and improves immune response and disease resistance of L. vannamei.


Assuntos
Ácido Cítrico/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/metabolismo , Penaeidae/imunologia , Ácido Sórbico/metabolismo , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Benzaldeídos/administração & dosagem , Benzaldeídos/metabolismo , Ácido Cítrico/administração & dosagem , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Óleos Voláteis/administração & dosagem , Penaeidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ácido Sórbico/administração & dosagem , Timol/administração & dosagem , Timol/metabolismo
15.
J Agric Food Chem ; 65(34): 7396-7405, 2017 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28771007

RESUMO

Thymol has been developed as medicine and food preservative due to its immune-regulatory effect and antimicrobial activity, respectively. However, little is currently known about the role of thymol in the modulation of plant physiology. In the present study, we applied biochemical and histochemical approaches to investigate thymol-induced tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa) seedlings against Cd (cadmium) stress. Thymol at 20 µM recovered root growth completely upon CdCl2 exposure. Thymol pronouncedly decreased Cd-induced ROS accumulation, oxidative injury, cell death, and Cd2+ accumulation in roots. Pharmaceutical experiments suggested that endogenous NO mediated Cd-induced phytotoxicity. Thymol decreased Cd-induced NO accumulation by suppressing the activity of NOS (nitric oxide synthase) and NR (nitrate reductase) in root. The application of NO donor (SNP, sodium nitroprusside) resulted in the increase in endogenous NO level, which in turn compromised the alleviating effects of thymol on Cd toxicity. Such findings may helpful to illustrate the novel role of thymol in the modulation of plant physiology, which may be applicable to improve crop stress tolerance.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Oryza/metabolismo , Timol/metabolismo , Cádmio/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase/genética , Óxido Nítrico Sintase/metabolismo , Oryza/enzimologia , Oryza/genética , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estresse Oxidativo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plântula/enzimologia , Plântula/genética , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/metabolismo
16.
Poult Sci ; 96(9): 3214-3220, 2017 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28633498

RESUMO

Antioxidant are regularly included in poultry feed as protection from deterioration during storage. Recently the interest for the use of natural phytochemicals in animal diets has been increased. Thymol (THY) has been proven to be an effective antioxidant for extending broiler meat quality during storage with similar action to the widely used butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). This study evaluates whether THY can also have a protective effect on the feed mash by assessing its antioxidant potential and related changes in fatty acid (FA) balance. Feed mash was assigned to 1 of 4 treatments, control (CON, no additive), vehicle (VEH, ethanol 96%), BHT (400 mg BHT /kg feed) and THY (400 mg THY /kg feed). Three replicates of each treatment were taken after 0, 30, and 60 d of storage at room temperature (23 ± 3°C) and relative humidity (40 ± 5%). Peroxide value (PV), titratable acidity (TA) and FA relative composition were determined. As expected, there were no treatment effects on those variables at 0 d of storage. However, higher PV values were detected in the CON and VEH groups after 30 and 60 d of storage in comparison to the THY and BHT treated samples (CON = VEH > THY = BHT). While a slight increase was also observed in TA through storage time, no particular treatment effects were detected. Relative FA composition changed with storage time only in the CON and VEH group which had a decrease in polyunsaturated fatty acids and an increase in saturated FA. No changes were detected in the Thy and BHT treated feeds. The results suggest a similar THY and BHT protective effect on feed mash lipid oxidation. Thus, THY could be considered as a useful natural alternative to help sustain quality of poultry feed.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Galinhas/fisiologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Timol/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Oxirredução , Timol/administração & dosagem
17.
J Sci Food Agric ; 97(15): 5233-5240, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28474397

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are crucial components of egg yolk and particularly prone to oxidative damage, generating losses of nutrients for embryonic development and influencing the quality of eggs for human consumption. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether dietary thymol (a natural antioxidant) is related to changes in quail egg yolk total (T), triglyceride (TG) and phospholipid (PL) fatty acid composition at different stages of embryo development. Thus female Japanese quail (100 days of age) were assigned to one of two dietary treatments (12 individuals each): CON (basal diet) or THY (0.0016 mol thymol day-1 per bird). After 2 weeks of supplementation, eggs were incubated and samples were obtained at 0, 4 and 16 days of embryonic development. RESULTS: In 0 day THY eggs, α-linolenic acid and n-3 PUFA in T and TG, docosahexaenoic acid and PUFA in T and arachidonic acid in TG were increased, while saturated fatty acids (SFA) in T were reduced. From 4 days on, PUFA, n-3 PUFA and SFA from T and TG in THY eggs were found to be similar to those of CON eggs. The changes in PL throughout incubation were similar in both dietary treatments. CONCLUSION: Thymol would provide the embryo with PUFA for synthesis/deposition in membranes and/or assign to supply energy. Additionally, thymol supplementation would be advisable for the production of healthier table eggs. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Gema de Ovo/química , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Codorniz/metabolismo , Timol/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Gema de Ovo/metabolismo , Ovos/análise , Ácidos Graxos/química , Feminino , Valor Nutritivo , Óvulo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Óvulo/metabolismo , Codorniz/crescimento & desenvolvimento
18.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 115: 152-162, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28365519

RESUMO

Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) is known to produce a variety of phenolic monoterpenes such as thymol and carvacrol. Thymol and carvacrol are health-promoting, biocide and antitoxin compounds and have been considered as the main constituents of essential oils in T. vulgaris. To improve our understanding of the regulation of monoterpene biosynthesis in thyme, the expression of genes related to thymol and carvacrol biosynthesis in different tissues and in response to abiotic elicitors was analyzed. Methyl jasmonate (MeJA), salicylic acid (SA), trans-cinnamic acid (tCA) and UV-C irradiation were applied to T. vulgare leaves and transcript levels of early (DXR) and late (TvTPS1, CYP71D178 and CYP71D180) biosynthetic genes of thymol and carvacrol were measured. The results showed that early step and late step genes in thymol/carvacrol biosynthesis are differentially regulated. DXR was not found to be exclusively expressed in glandular trichomes; in contrast, biosynthetic genes including γ-terpinene synthase (TvTPS1) and two cytochrome P450s, CYP71D178 and CYP71D180, were preferentially expressed in glandular secretory trichomes. The high expression of late biosynthetic genes in glandular trichomes, which also contain the highest concentration of thymol and carvacrol, suggests that glandular trichomes are the structure in which thymol/carvacrol biosynthesis and accumulation occur. Our results indicate that in addition to abiotic elicitors, developmental and spatial factors also play a key role in the biosynthesis of thymol and carvacrol, most likely relating to glandular trichome density and/or activity. Hence optimization of these factors could be considered as a useful strategy to achieve high yield of valuable compounds in T. vulgare or other closely related plant species.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Monoterpenos/metabolismo , Timol/metabolismo , Thymus (Planta)/metabolismo , Flores/metabolismo , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Estrutura Molecular , Monoterpenos/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Timol/química , Transcriptoma , Tricomas/fisiologia
19.
Nat Prod Commun ; 11(10): 1545-1550, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30549619

RESUMO

The absorption and metabolism of phytogenic feed additives in poultry is studied related to the metabolism and deposition of their main compounds in tissues intended for food production. Fifty-six non-sexed Ross 308 broilers were allocated to seven dietary treatments and fed a diet containing graded levels of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) essential oil (EO) (0, 0.01, 0.02, 0.03, 0.04, 0.05, 0.1%, w/w). Thymol concentration was measured in plasma, liver, kidney and breast muscle tissue using solid phase micro-extraction followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. We found the highest concentrations of thymol in kidney and plasma, and the lowest in breast muscle and liver. Thymol content in plasma and kidney significantly increased when 0.05 and 0.1%, w/w, EO and in liver and breast muscle only when 0.1%, w/w, EO was added to the diet (p<0.05). Our results indicate intensive metabolism of thymol in liver and its accumulation in kidney tissue. We confirm low deposition of thymol in the muscle tissue. It is necessary to.-keep in mind the selection of a sufficient concentration of EO in the feed additive for animals without the risk of thymol residues in edible tissues.


Assuntos
Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Timol/metabolismo , Thymus (Planta)/química , Ração Animal , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Galinhas , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Rim/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Óleos Voláteis/farmacocinética , Extração em Fase Sólida , Timol/sangue , Timol/farmacocinética
20.
Br Poult Sci ; 57(1): 114-22, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26595820

RESUMO

An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of dietary supplementation of thymol, synbiotic (Biomin, IMBO) and their combination in laying hen diets on laying performance, egg quality and serum metabolic profile from 24 to 36 weeks of age. Treatment groups were fed on a control diet, the control diet supplemented with thymol (250 mg/kg), the control diet supplemented with synbiotic (250 mg/kg) or the control diet supplemented with a combination of thymol (250 mg/kg) and synbiotic (250 mg/kg). Supplementation of thymol and synbiotic, separately as well as combined, improved egg weight, egg production, egg mass and feed conversion ratio from 24 to 36 weeks of age. The eggs obtained from thymol, synbiotic or their combination treatments displayed higher values of shell thickness, Haugh unit and shell percentage compared to the control. Serum cholesterol significantly decreased in the single or combined form of thymol and synbiotic supplementation treatments.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Galinhas/fisiologia , Metaboloma , Óvulo/fisiologia , Reprodução/fisiologia , Simbióticos/análise , Timol/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Análise Química do Sangue/veterinária , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Feminino , Simbióticos/administração & dosagem , Timol/administração & dosagem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA