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1.
Food Chem ; 307: 125521, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31655264

RESUMO

The essential oils and antioxidant activity of four Thymus species were evaluated under five light spectra (namely, red, blue, red-blue, white, and greenhouse condition). The highest essential oil yield (4.17%) was observed under red light in T. migricus, while the lowest (1.05%) was observed in T. carmanicus under greenhouse conditions. Light quality also led to difference in essential oil constituents. The highest thymol (66%) was found in T. migricus exposed to blue light, while the least (1.69%) was observed in T. kotschyanus grown under red-blue light. The LED treatments did not induce any significant effect on carvacrol of Thymus species in comparison to the greenhouse condition. Finally, the analysis of variance indicates that the effect of light varied with the studied species. T. migricus performed the highest antioxidant capacity (IC50 = 176.8 µg/mL) under blue light. Overall, essential oil components as well as antioxidants showed significant responses to light emitting diodes wavelengths.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Luz , Timol/metabolismo , Thymus (Planta)/química , Análise de Variância , Antioxidantes/química , Cromatografia Gasosa , Análise por Conglomerados , Efeito Estufa , Óleos Voláteis/química , Análise de Componente Principal , Timol/química , Thymus (Planta)/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Thymus (Planta)/metabolismo
2.
J Food Sci ; 84(11): 3194-3203, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589346

RESUMO

A multilayer film containing star anise essential oil and thymol coating layers (SAEO and TH, respectively), with insect repellent and antimicrobial properties, has been developed using bar coating and adhesive lamination processes. Our previous study reported the in vitro activities of this polypropylene film (PP)/SAEO/polyethylene terephthalate film (PET)/TH/low-density polyethylene film (LDPE) multilayer film. The current study focused on demonstrating the morphological, optical, and mechanical properties of the film, and evaluating its in vivo activities when used as a bread packaging material. The developed film was 15.03% thicker and 1.86% less transparent than the control film (without active agent coating layers: PP/PET/LDPE). While the color values of the developed film were slightly different from the control film, both films appeared similar to the naked eye. The tensile strength in the developed film was somewhat lower than that of the control film, while both films had statistically comparable values for elongation at break. During storage of sliced bread packaged in the developed film, the film both deterred insects from approaching toward and impeded the growth of microorganisms in the bread. These results suggest the potential applicability of the developed film as an active food packaging material with insect repellent and antimicrobial activities. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: A multilayer film incorporated with insect repellent and antimicrobial coating layers was applied in sliced wheat bread packaging. The developed film effectively inhibited approaches of stored-product insects to packaged bread and growth of microorganisms on the bread surface. It can be used as an active food packaging material that improves the safety and shelf-life of foods.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Pão/análise , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Illicium/química , Repelentes de Insetos/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Timol/química , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pão/microbiologia , Embalagem de Alimentos/instrumentação , Conservação de Alimentos/instrumentação , Repelentes de Insetos/farmacologia , Insetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Insetos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polietileno/química , Polipropilenos/química , Timol/farmacologia , Triticum/química , Triticum/microbiologia
3.
J Appl Microbiol ; 127(4): 1048-1056, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31328837

RESUMO

AIM: The molecular typing and the susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus strains of swine origin to antibiotics, oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) essential oil (EO) and Chilean blackberry maqui (Aristotelia chilensis (Molina) Stuntz) extract were determined. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty S. aureus strains of swine origin were subjected to molecular typing, of which six strains were selected for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The epsilon test (Etest) was used to determine the antibiotic susceptibility. The susceptibility to natural antimicrobials (NAs): oregano EO, maqui extract, thymol (Thy) and carvacrol (Carv), was carried out using the disk diffusion method. The S. aureus strains were genetically diverse. All strains were resistant to at least one class of antibiotic, and two strains were multidrug-resistant. The minimum inhibitory concentration of oregano EO, Thy and Carv was 0·01-0·04%. Maqui extract did not show antistaphylococcal activity. CONCLUSIONS: Natural antimicrobials extracted from oregano have an inhibitory activity against S. aureus strains from swine origin, with no effect using maqui extract. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: This study provides information about the characteristics of S. aureus strains of swine origin, and about the potential use of NAs from oregano to enhance the control of antibiotic-resistant S. aureus strains in the pork supply chain.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Magnoliopsida/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Suínos/microbiologia , Animais , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Tipagem Molecular , Monoterpenos/química , Origanum/química , Staphylococcus aureus/classificação , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Timol/química
4.
Food Chem ; 293: 134-143, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151593

RESUMO

Thymol oil-in-water nanoemulsions as a potential natural alternative for synthetic antioxidant agents were developed. The nanoemulsions were formulated using Quillaja Saponin bio-surfactant and green solvents including high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO), tricaprylin (TC), and cinnamaldehyde (CA). The 4% thymol nanoemulsions containing TC and HOSO remained stable during long-term storage (at least 30 d). The antioxidant activity (AA) of free thymol and thymol nanoemulsions was compared with butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and ascorbic acid. The results obtained from DPPH, FRAP, and CUPRAC antioxidant assays showed a substantial improvement (p < 0.05) of the AA of free thymol through emulsification. The outcomes from the AA of the nanoemulsions in raw chicken breast meat measured by the TBARS assay revealed a significant improvement (p < 0.05) of the AA when thymol was encapsulated. These nanoemulsions may be applicable in the food industry as well as in cosmetic and health care products.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Emulsões/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Saponinas de Quilaia/química , Tensoativos/química , Timol/química , Animais , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Galinhas , Carne/análise , Tamanho da Partícula , Quillaja/química , Quillaja/metabolismo , Sonicação
5.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 305: 108246, 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31238193

RESUMO

Cellulosic pads, amended with emulsions containing essential oils of thyme and oregano, exhibited antimicrobial activity against the psychrophilic microbiota of minced beef. In addition, the pads were active against specific meat bacterial species (Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas fragi, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Enterococcus faecalis and Lactococcus lactis) and some common foodborne pathogens (Salmonella enterica, Campylobacter jejuni and Staphylococcus aureus). Three emulsions, IT131017, Mediterranean and Etnic, containing different percentages of carvacrol, thymol, linalool, and ɑ and ß-pinene, significantly reduced the growth of S. enterica and P. putida. Pads derived from emulsions Mediterranean and Etnic induced slight (0.3-0.8 Log10 CFUs/g) but reproducible reduction of the psychrophilic microbiota in minced meat and hamburger stored for 12 and 15 days at 4 °C.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cinnamomum zeylanicum/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Origanum/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Carne Vermelha/microbiologia , Thymus (Planta)/química , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Compostos Bicíclicos com Pontes , Bovinos , Celulose/química , Emulsões/química , Emulsões/farmacologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Carne/microbiologia , Monoterpenos/química , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Carne Vermelha/análise , Timol/química , Timol/farmacologia
6.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 4676354, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31211137

RESUMO

The incorporation of nanoparticles into endodontic sealers aims at increasing antimicrobial activity of the original material. Aim. The aim of this study is to incorporate the nanostructured silver vanadate decorated with silver nanoparticles (AgVO3, at 2.5%, 5%, and 10%) into three endodontic sealers and evaluate the antibacterial activity of freshly sealers, surface topography and chemical composition, and setting time. Material and Methods. The AgVO3 was incorporated into AH Plus, Sealer 26, and Endomethasone N at concentrations 0%, 2.5%, 5%, and 10% (in mass). The antibacterial activity of freshly sealers was assessed by direct contact with Enterococcus faecalis and CFU/mL count (n=10), surface topography, and chemical composition were measured by SEM/EDS, and the setting time was measured by Gillmore needle (n=10). The Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn statistical tests were applied (α=0.05). Results. All groups of sealers evaluated inhibited E. faecalis (p>0.05). The incorporation of AgVO3 altered the atomic proportions between components of the endodontic sealers, and the percentage of silver (Ag) and vanadium (V) increased proportionally to the concentrations of AgVO3. Topography analysis showed differences in components distribution on the surface of the specimens. The sealers incorporated with AgVO3 of AH Plus presented a lower setting time than the control group (p<0.05). For Sealer 26 and Endomethasone N, the incorporation of AgVO3 increased the setting time in relation to control group (p<0.05). Conclusions. The modification of endodontic sealers by AgVO3 increased the atomic percentage of Ag and V proportionally to the concentration of the nanomaterial and changed the atomic percentage of the sealer components and setting times. It cannot be affirmed that the AgVO3 promote differences in the antimicrobial activity of freshly sealers, and further investigations of the antimicrobial activity of the set sealers should be carried out.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Bismuto , Hidróxido de Cálcio , Enterococcus faecalis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Nanoestruturas/química , Materiais Restauradores do Canal Radicular , Compostos de Prata , Vanadatos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bismuto/química , Bismuto/farmacologia , Hidróxido de Cálcio/química , Hidróxido de Cálcio/farmacologia , Dexametasona/química , Dexametasona/farmacologia , Combinação de Medicamentos , Formaldeído/química , Formaldeído/farmacologia , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/química , Hidrocortisona/farmacologia , Materiais Restauradores do Canal Radicular/química , Materiais Restauradores do Canal Radicular/farmacologia , Compostos de Prata/química , Compostos de Prata/farmacologia , Timol/análogos & derivados , Timol/química , Timol/farmacologia , Vanadatos/química , Vanadatos/farmacologia
7.
Molecules ; 24(10)2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31096594

RESUMO

Background: Insect vector control is facing the challenges of resistance development and environmental hazards caused by synthetic pesticides. This has led to a considerable market opportunity for botanical insecticides. In this scenario, our study investigated the potential of selected bioactive monoterpenoids, carvacrol and thymol, as safe and effective tools to control the West Nile vector Culex pipiens. Furthermore, the combined effect of thymol-carvacrol mixtures and their possible interactions were assessed. Methods: For determining larvicidal and ovicidal 50% lethal concentration (LC50), each monoterpenoid was tested at different concentrations (5-500 mg/L). Then, the fixed ratio method was used for evaluating their combinational efficacy. Results: Carvacrol was more toxic against larvae of Cx. pipiens, with a LC50 value of 14 mg/L, whereas thymol exhibited a LC50 value of 49 mg/L. Comparable trends of efficacy were observed when toxicity on Cx. pipiens eggs was investigated, with LC50 values of 7 and 13 mg/L for carvacrol and thymol, respectively. In combinational toxicity assays, the mixture thymol-carvacrol at 1:4 ratio achieved a synergistic effect against larvae of Cx. pipiens, whereas an additive effect was observed on eggs. Other ratios showed antagonistic effects. Conclusions: Overall, our findings pointed out that the 1:4 ratio of thymol-carvacrol blend can enhance the insecticidal efficacy on Cx. pipiens young instars and can be considered further as active ingredient for developing botanical insecticides to be used in mosquito control operations.


Assuntos
Culex/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Timol/farmacologia , Animais , Culex/virologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Inseticidas/química , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Monoterpenos/química , Mosquitos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Timol/química
8.
J Food Sci ; 84(6): 1513-1521, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31120593

RESUMO

Geotrichum citri-aurantii causes sour rot in citrus fruits and is responsible for important economic losses during storage. However, the availability of chemical fungicides for the control of this pathogen is limited. Thus, the aim of this research was to evaluate the antifungal efficacy of thymol and carvacrol encapsulated in 2-hydroxylpropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HP-ß-CD) (prepared by the microwave irradiation method [MW] and solubility method [S]) for inhibition of G. citri-aurantii using in vitro bioassays broth (micro and macrodilutions methods) and inoculated food testing. Both encapsulated thymol and carvacrol were shown to be effective for inhibiting G. citri-aurantii growth in in vitro assays. Thymol was more effective in inhibiting G. citri-aurantii, while better encapsulation was provided by MW. HP-ß-CD-thymol encapsulated by MW (HP-ß-CD-thymol-MW) showed the lowest 50% effective dose (ED50 = 1.16 mM), minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC = 5.06 mM), and minimum fungicide concentration (MFC = 52.6 mM). HP-ß-CD-thymol-MW was found highly effective in reducing the growth rate and mycelial growth inhibition. Finally, HP-ß-CD-thymol-MW and HP-ß-CD-carvacrol-MW showed a higher persistent effect than thymol and carvacrol in their natural form in inhibiting this fungus. Therefore, HP-ß-CD-thymol-MW could be a promising alternative to synthetic fungicides for controlling G. citri-aurantii, the causal agent of citrus sour rot. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Encapsulated thymol and carvacrol in HP-ß-Cyclodextrins are effective for controlling G. citri-aurantii in in vitro experiments. Encapsulation of thymol and carvacrol by microwave irradiation method (MW) was more effective than the solubility (S) method. Thymol was more effective than carvacrol, and the best results on G. citri-auriantii inhibition were achieved using the HP-ß-CD-thymol-MW method (which gave the lowest ED50 , MIC, and MFC).


Assuntos
Citrus/microbiologia , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Geotrichum/efeitos dos fármacos , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Timol/farmacologia , beta-Ciclodextrinas/química , Fungicidas Industriais/química , Geotrichum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Monoterpenos/química , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Timol/química
9.
Int J Pharm ; 563: 406-412, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30978488

RESUMO

The time-temperature superposition principle (TTSP) was applied to the destabilization kinetics of a pharmaceutical emulsion. The final goal of this study is to predict precisely the emulsion stability after long-term storage from the short-period accelerated test using TTSP. As the model emulsion, a cream preparation that is clinically used for the treatment of pruritus associated with chronic kidney disease was tested. After storage at high temperatures ranging from 30 to 45 °C for designated periods, the emulsion state was monitored using magnetic resonance imaging, and then the phase separation behaviors observed were analyzed according to the Arrhenius approach applying TTSP. The Arrhenius plot showed a biphasic change around 35 °C, indicating that the separation behaviors of the sample were substantially changed between the lower (30-35 °C) and higher (35-45 °C) temperature ranges. This study also monitored the coalescence behavior using a backscattered light measurement. The experiment verified that the destabilization was initiated by coalescence of oil droplets and then it eventually led to obvious phase separation via creaming. Furthermore, we note the coalescence kinetics agreed well with the phase separation kinetics. Therefore, in the case of the sample emulsion, the coalescence behavior has a dominant influence on the destabilization process. This study offers a profound insight into the destabilization process of pharmaceutical emulsions and demonstrates the promising applicability of TTSP to pharmaceutical research.


Assuntos
Emulsões/química , Creme para a Pele/química , Cânfora/química , Difenidramina/química , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Etanol/química , Cinética , Mentha , Mentol/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Temperatura Ambiente , Timol/química , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(7)2019 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30934738

RESUMO

Parkinson's disease (PD), a multifactorial movement disorder that involves progressive degeneration of the nigrostriatal system affecting the movement ability of the patient. Oxidative stress and neuroinflammation both are shown to be involved in the etiopathogenesis of PD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic potential of thymol, a dietary monoterpene phenol in rotenone (ROT)-induced neurodegeneration in rats that precisely mimics PD in humans. Male Wistar rats were injected ROT at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg body weight for 4 weeks, to induce PD. Thymol was co-administered for 4 weeks at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight, 30 min prior to ROT injection. The markers of dopaminergic neurodegeneration, oxidative stress and inflammation were estimated using biochemical assays, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, western blotting and immunocytochemistry. ROT challenge increased the oxidative stress markers, inflammatory enzymes and cytokines as well as caused significant damage to nigrostriatal dopaminergic system of the brain. Thymol treatment in ROT challenged rats appears to significantly attenuate dopaminergic neuronal loss, oxidative stress and inflammation. The present study showed protective effects of thymol in ROT-induced neurotoxicity and neurodegeneration mediated by preservation of endogenous antioxidant defense networks and attenuation of inflammatory mediators including cytokines and enzymes.


Assuntos
Dieta , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/patologia , Degeneração Neural/prevenção & controle , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Parkinson/patologia , Timol/uso terapêutico , Animais , Catalase/metabolismo , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Neostriado/efeitos dos fármacos , Neostriado/patologia , Degeneração Neural/patologia , Neuroglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Neuroglia/metabolismo , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar , Rotenona , Substância Negra/efeitos dos fármacos , Substância Negra/patologia , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Timol/química , Timol/farmacologia , Tirosina 3-Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo
11.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0213393, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30849129

RESUMO

The essential oils of the fresh and dry flowers, leaves, branches, and roots of Lippia thymoides were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed using gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry (MS). The acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of the essential oil of fresh leaves was investigated on silica gel plates. The interactions of the key compounds with acetylcholinesterase were simulated by molecular docking and molecular dynamics studies. In total, 75 compounds were identified, and oxygenated monoterpenes were the dominant components of all the plant parts, ranging from 19.48% to 84.99%. In the roots, the main compounds were saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, having contents varying from 39.5% to 32.17%, respectively. In the evaluation of the anticholinesterase activity, the essential oils (detection limit (DL) = 0.1 ng/spot) were found to be about ten times less active than that of physostigmine (DL = 0.01ng/spot), whereas thymol and thymol acetate presented DL values each of 0.01 ng/spot, equivalent to that of the positive control. Based on the docking and molecular dynamics studies, thymol and thymol acetate interact with the catalytic residues Ser203 and His447 of the active site of acetylcholinesterase. The binding free energies (ΔGbind) for these ligands were -18.49 and -26.88 kcal/mol, demonstrating that the ligands are able to interact with the protein and inhibit their catalytic activity.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Colinesterase/química , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Lippia/citologia , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Acetilcolinesterase/química , Animais , Domínio Catalítico , Electrophorus/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Monoterpenos/química , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Timol/análogos & derivados , Timol/química , Timol/farmacologia
12.
Food Chem ; 287: 139-150, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30857683

RESUMO

A novel synergistic formulation (TML) based on the combination of thymol (T), methyl cinnamate (M), and linalool (L) has been prepared using the mixture design assay. Nanoencapsulation of developed formulation TML (Ne-TML) was prepared and characterised by SEM, XRD and FTIR. The Ne-TML was assessed for its antifungal and anti-aflatoxin B1 potential in vitro and in the food systems (Pennisetum glaucum L.), and also examined its effects on organoleptic properties. The Ne-TML cause complete inhibition of growth and AFB1 production at 0.3 µl/ml and 0.2 µl/ml. In-situ results revealed that Ne-TML exhibited maximum protection from fungal (75.40%) and aflatoxin B1 contamination (100%) at 0.3 µl/ml during six months of storage. The speculated antifungal mode of action of Ne-TML was related to the decrease in ergosterol content, membrane ions leakage, impairment in carbon-source utilization, mitochondrial functioning, anti-oxidative defence system (SOD, CAT, and GR) and Ver-1 gene of aflatoxin B1 biosynthesis.


Assuntos
Aflatoxina B1/antagonistas & inibidores , Antifúngicos , Aspergillus flavus/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanocápsulas/química , Extratos Vegetais , Antifúngicos/química , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Composição de Medicamentos , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Monoterpenos/química , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Timol/química , Timol/farmacologia
13.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 128: 893-901, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30708006

RESUMO

Thymol and usnic acid as the important secondary metabolites of respectively Artemisia haussknechtii and Protoparmeliopsis muralis were used for reduction and stabilizing of AgNO3 and CuSO4 in metal nanoparticles (MNPs) biosynthesis process. Antibacterial effects of prepared Ag-thymol (ATNPs), Ag-usnic acid (AUNPs), Cu-thymol (CTNPs), and Cu-usnic acid (CUNPs) on multi drug resistant (MDR) bacteria including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (gram positive), Acinetobacter baumannii (A52), and Klebsiella pneumonia (K38) (gram negative) were compared with thymol, usnic acid, AgNO3, CuSO4, and tetracycline. Results of this study showed higher antibacterial activities of usnic acid, CUNPs, and CTNPs with MIC/MBC values (20, 40, and 40 µg/mL, respectively) than ATNPs and AUNPs against MRSA bacteria. Leakage of macromolecules involving nucleic acids and proteins from bacteria under stress of MNPs, thymol, and usnic acid proved significant antibacterial activities of usnic acid, and Cu NPs. In addition, SEM images illustrated different patterns of aggregation in biofilms resulted from interactions of these antibacterial agents with bacterial macromolecules. Totally, this investigation illustrated new green method of Ag and Cu NPs biosynthesis with suitable antibacterial properties.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Benzofuranos/metabolismo , Cobre/química , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Prata/química , Timol/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/síntese química , Antibacterianos/química , Benzofuranos/química , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Química Sintética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Timol/química
14.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(6): 1736-1741, 2019 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30676718

RESUMO

The application of the nanofiber film in the field of food preservation was an emerging research direction in recent years. With the functionalization of nanofibers, the quality and safety of food can be better guaranteed. In the present work, thymol as an antibacterial agent was encapsulated into poly(lactide- co-glycolide) to form core-shell nanofibers by coaxial electrospinning. With such a core-shell nanofiber film, thymol can be slowly released to headspace between food and the nanofiber film, inhibiting the growth of bacteria on the surface of food. The morphology and core-shell structure of nanofibers were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The antibacterial and fruit preservation abilities of the nanofiber film were tested on strawberries. Studies have shown that it can effectively inhibit the growth of bacteria, fungi, and yeast and extend the shelf life of fruit. This novel antibacterial packaging material with excellent biocompatibility, biodegradability, and good sustained release performance would have a broad application prospect in the field of food preservation.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Fragaria/química , Frutas/química , Nanofibras/química , Timol/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Composição de Medicamentos , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Embalagem de Alimentos/instrumentação , Conservação de Alimentos/instrumentação , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Fragaria/microbiologia , Frutas/microbiologia , Poliglactina 910/química , Timol/farmacologia
15.
Nat Prod Res ; 33(9): 1345-1348, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29781299

RESUMO

Four thymol derivatives and two phenolic compounds were isolated from the aerial parts of Eupatorium fortunei. The new structures were elucidated to be 7,8,9-trihydroxythymol (1), and 8,10-didehydro-7,9-dihydroxythymol (2) by means of MS and NMR analysis. The known compounds were identified as 8,9,10-trihydroxythymol (3), 10-acetoxy-8,9-dihydroxythymol (4), o-coumaric acid (5) and 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)benzaldehyde (6). Compound 3 showed strongest inhibitory effect on the growth of Microcystis aeruginosa in comparison with CuSO4.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Eupatorium/química , Fenóis/química , Antibacterianos/química , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Microcystis/efeitos dos fármacos , Estrutura Molecular , Fenóis/farmacologia , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Timol/química , Timol/farmacologia
16.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 208: 339-348, 2019 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30343222

RESUMO

Cyclodextrins have a wide range of applications in different areas of drug delivery and pharmaceutical industry due to their complexation ability and other versatile characteristics. Here we have studied the binding interactions of a small biologically important phenolic molecule, Thymol (Th), with both α and ß cyclodextrins (CDs), which are well known drug delivery vehicles. Extent of encapsulation has been determined using several spectroscopic techniques. In fluorescence experiments, significant increase in fluorescence intensities have been discerned for both the CDs but there had been a much early saturation for αCD. Anisotropy experiments have been performed too and very surprisingly no appreciable increase in anisotropy value was observed in either case. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) data, however, show signature of binding of Th with the ßCD. These intriguing results were explained with the help of molecular docking and dynamics simulation studies. The docking calculations have shown that Th goes inside both α and ßCD. In keeping with the final NMR data and molecular dynamics we have ultimately concluded that solvated Th molecules are the main participants in the interaction with CDs which is responsible for these intriguing behaviors. Finally we have also performed an antioxidant assay to reveal the practical application of such encapsulation. It has been found that on encapsulation there is an enhancement of the antioxidant behavior of Th. Then we have also performed an antibacterial assay to show the unchanged antibacterial properties of Th on encapsulation. Hence it can be deduced that Th can be safely delivered through CDs in living system without hampering its beneficial properties.


Assuntos
Modelos Teóricos , Análise Espectral , Timol/farmacologia , beta-Ciclodextrinas/química , Anisotropia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Bacillus subtilis/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Calorimetria , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/química , Ligações de Hidrogênio , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Picratos/química , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Timol/química
17.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 121: 508-523, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30321636

RESUMO

Nano-biocomposite films based on plasticized cellulose acetate/triethyl citrate (CA/TEC) were prepared with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs)/gelatin-modified montmorillonite nanofiller (AgM) and thymol (Th). AgNPs were biosynthesized in situ the clay using Curcuma longa (C. longa) tuber extract. Full characterization of clay and the formulated films was conducted including morphological, physical and functional properties. From the results, the AgNPs showed spherical shape, face centred cubic crystalline structure, and small average size with narrow distribution. Intercalated structure of films was achieved with some exfoliated platelets and clay aggregates. The glass transition temperature (Tg) of CA increased slightly by the added clay but decreased by Th due to its plasticizing effect. Also, the thermal stability of CA was enhanced only by the added clay. Increasing contents of both additives into films declined the optical clarity but enhanced greatly the UV barrier ability. The clay improved the tensile and oxygen barrier properties, while the Th initiated an antagonist effect. Besides, the radical 2,2­diphenyl­1­picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) tests highlighted antioxidant activities of Th-included films. The films showed antimicrobial activities against bacteria and fungi, where Escherichia coli (E. coli) was the most sensitive, with an efficient growth inhibition in vapour-phase method. These materials with antimicrobial/antioxidant properties are promising active packaging.


Assuntos
Celulose/análogos & derivados , Argila/química , Embalagem de Alimentos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Prata/química , Timol/química , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Celulose/química , Fenômenos Mecânicos , Fenômenos Ópticos , Oxigênio/química , Temperatura Ambiente
18.
IUBMB Life ; 71(1): 9-19, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30308112

RESUMO

This review aims to summarize the anticancer effects of the natural monoterpene phenol derivative of cymenethymol and its derivatives as well as further molecular docking study to correlate the interaction of thymol and biomacromolecules that involved in cancer cell growth. For this, an up-to-date (till July 2018) literature study were made through using PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, Scopus, The American Chemical Society, Clinicaltrials.gov, and Google Scholar databases. Literature study demonstrated that thymol, melasolv (3,4,5-Trimethoxycinnamate thymol ester), and Mannich bases of thymol have potential anticancer effects in various test systems, including mice, rats and cultured cancer cells through various anticancer pathways such as antioxidant/oxidative stress induction, apoptosis, anti-inflammatory/immunomodulatory, anti-genotoxicity, chemo-, and radiopreventive ways. A few earlier scientific evidences showed that thymol is less toxic to mammalian systems. In silico study of thymol and its derivatives against 17 essential proteins revealed that 6BVH (PARP-1) and 5LIH (protein kinase C) are the most efficient receptor protein for interaction and binding of thymol and melaslov for the cancer prevention and initiation. On the basis of the summary of this review and docking study, it is evident that thymol may be one of promising plant-derived cancer chemotherapeutic agents. © 2018 IUBMB Life, 71(1):9-19, 2019.


Assuntos
Anticarcinógenos/química , Cinamatos/química , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Timol/química , Animais , Anticarcinógenos/farmacologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Cinamatos/farmacologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Neoplasias/genética , Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerase-1/genética , Proteína Quinase C/genética , Ratos , Timol/farmacologia
19.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 29(1): 56-58, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30446314

RESUMO

Carvacrol (1) and thymol (2) were converted to their alkyl 4-oxobutanoate derivatives (7-20) in three steps, and evaluated for tyrosinase inhibitory activity. The compounds showed structure-dependent activity, with all alkyl 4-oxobutanoates, except 7 and 20, showing better inhibitory activity than the precursor 4-oxobutanoic acids (5 and 6). In general, thymol derivatives exhibited a higher percent inhibitory activity than carvacrol derivatives at 500 µM. Derivatives containing three-carbon and four-carbon alkyl groups gave the strongest activity (carvacrol derivatives 9-12, IC50 = 128.8-244.1 µM; thymol derivatives 16-19, IC50 = 102.3-191.4 µM).


Assuntos
Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Timol/farmacologia , Agaricales/enzimologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Inibidores Enzimáticos/síntese química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Estrutura Molecular , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Monoterpenos/síntese química , Monoterpenos/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Timol/síntese química , Timol/química
20.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 122: 452-460, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30385344

RESUMO

Bacterial cellulose is well known for its excellent contributions in biomedical applications due to its superior properties. However the lack of antimicrobial property restricts its use in wound healing. To address the complications in third degree burns, thymol enriched bacterial cellulose hydrogel (BCT) was developed in this study. The incorporation of thymol into bacterial cellulose along with its chemical and thermal changes were investigated by FTIR, TGA and DSC respectively. Antimicrobial studies revealed that BCT possess excellent biocidal activity against burn specific pathogens. The in vitro biocompatibility studies were carried out in mouse 3T3 fibroblast cells. The BCT hydrogel facilitated the growth of fibroblast cells, exhibiting low toxicity, and increased cell viability. The burn wound healing efficiency of the BCT hydrogel was examined in vivo using female albino Wistar rats. Histopathological studies reveal that the wound treated with BCT hydrogel showed faster wound closure than BC and control groups. All these findings, suggest that BCT hydrogel can be used as resourceful and natural burn wound dressing material.


Assuntos
Queimaduras/fisiopatologia , Celulose/química , Celulose/farmacologia , Gluconacetobacter xylinus/química , Hidrogéis/química , Timol/química , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Queimaduras/tratamento farmacológico , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Celulose/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Camundongos , Células NIH 3T3 , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
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