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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 38(3): 558-564, June 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098287

RESUMO

Chronic hepatotoxicity is a debilitating and frequently life-threatening disease resulting in progressive liver failure. The toxic chemical, thioacetamide (TAA) is used to evaluate hepatoprotective agents, and the polyphenolic compound, resveratrol was proposed as a novel treatment for diseases with hyperactivation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) cell signaling pathway. This analysis sought to investigate the potential protective effect of resveratrol against liver injury induced by TAA via the inhibition of hepatic mTOR. Model group rats received several injections of TAA (200 mg/kg; twice a week for 8 weeks) before being sacrificed at week 10 and the protective group was pretreated with resveratrol (20 mg/kg) daily for two weeks prior to TAA injections and continued receiving both agents until the end of the experiment. Harvested liver tissues were examined using light microscopy and liver homogenates were assayed for biomarkers of inflammation and assessed the levels of mTOR protein in all animal groups. In addition, blood samples were assayed for biomarkers of liver injury enzyme. TAA substantially damaged the hepatic tissue of the model group such as infiltration of inflammatory cells, vacuolated cytoplasm, dark pyknotic nuclei, and dilated congested blood vessel that were effectively protected by resveratrol. Resveratrol also significantly (p<0.05) inhibited TAA-induced mTOR, high sensitivity c-reactive protein (hs-CRP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in harvested liver homogenates and blood samples. Thus, we conclude that resveratrol effectively protects against TAA-induced hepatotoxicity in rats, possibly due to the inhibition of mTOR and inflammation.


La hepatotoxicidad crónica es una enfermedad debilitante y potencialmente mortal que produce insuficiencia hepática progresiva. La toxicidad del químico de la tioacetamida (TAA) se utiliza para evaluar los agentes hepatoprotectores y el compuesto polifenólico, resveratrol, se propuso como un nuevo tratamiento para enfermedades con hiperactivación de la vía de señalización celular mTOR (mammalian Target of Rapamycin). Aquí buscamos investigar el posible efecto protector del resveratrol contra la lesión hepática inducida por TAA a través de la inhibición de la vía de señalización mTOR en hepatocitos. Las ratas del grupo modelo recibieron varias inyecciones de TAA (200 mg / kg; dos veces por semana durante 8 semanas) antes de ser sacrificadas en la semana 10 y el grupo protector se trató previamente con resveratrol (20 mg / kg) diariamente durante dos semanas antes de las inyecciones de TAA y continuó recibiendo ambos agentes hasta el final del experimento. Se examinaron los tejidos hepáticos recolectados usando microscopía óptica y se analizaron los homogeneizados hepáticos para detectar biomarcadores de inflamación y se evaluaron los niveles de proteína mTOR en todos los grupos de animales. Además, se analizaron muestras de sangre para detectar biomarcadores de la enzima de lesión hepática. TAA dañó sustancialmente el tejido hepático del grupo modelo, con infiltración de células inflamatorias, citoplasma vacuolado, núcleos picnóticos oscuros y vasos sanguíneos congestionados dilatados que estaban efectivamente protegidos por el resveratrol. El resveratrol también inhibió significativamente (p <0.05) mTOR, proteína C-reactiva (hs-CRP), factor de necrosis tumoral alfa (TNF-α), interleucina-6 (IL-6), alanina aminotransferasa (ALT ) y aspartato aminotransferasa (AST) en las muestras de sangre y de hígados recolectados. En conclusión, el resveratrol protege eficazmente contra la hepatotoxicidad inducida por TAA en ratas, posiblemente debido a la inhibición de mTOR y de la inflamación.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Tioacetamida/toxicidade , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/antagonistas & inibidores , Resveratrol/administração & dosagem , Aspartato Aminotransferases/análise , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/análise , Alanina Transaminase/análise , Modelos Animais de Doenças
2.
Chem Biol Interact ; 317: 108945, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31935363

RESUMO

Liver fibrosis is a common pathological consequence of liver injury, which increases liver failure-related morbidity and mortality. Hence, anti-fibrotic treatment is urgently needed. Oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the progression of liver fibrosis. Thus, targeting ROS may be an effective strategy for liver fibrosis treatment. In this study, we investigated four benzoquinones derivatives, including 5-isopropyl-2-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone (TQ), 2-tert-butyl-1,4-benzoquinone (tBu-Q) 2,5-dimethyl-p-benzoquinone (Dime-Q) and p-benzoquinone (Ph-Q), as well as the evaluation of their antioxidant activity and anti-fibrotic effects on activated hepatic stellate cells and TAA-induced mice. Electrochemical analysis showed that all compounds possessed antioxidant property. The result was first confirmed by in vitro experiments, which revealed potential anti-fibrotic activity of all four compounds at the cellular level. Benzoquinone derivatives act as ROS-scavenging molecules, which modulated the TLR4-CD14 signaling pathway to inhibit the expression of procaspase-1 and IL-1ß in cells, induced apoptosis via a mitochondrial pathway by upregulating the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 and by activating caspase-3, as well as inhibited the expression of the anti-apoptotic proteins FLIP and XIAP in activated LX-2 cells. In addition, a TAA (Thioacetamide)-induced mouse model was used to further validate the results. Treatment with benzoquinone derivatives significantly decreased the levels of liver injury markers and lipid peroxidation caused by excessive ROS, including aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and malondialdehyde (MDA). Moreover, treatment with benzoquinone derivatives significantly inhibited extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition and downregulated the mRNA and protein expression of liver fibrosis markers, such as collagen I, alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and TIMP-1. In summary, these results indicate that benzoquinone derivatives may act as potential therapeutic drugs against liver fibrosis.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Benzoquinonas/farmacologia , Células Estreladas do Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Cirrose Hepática/induzido quimicamente , Cirrose Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Tioacetamida/toxicidade , Actinas/genética , Actinas/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Colágeno Tipo I/genética , Colágeno Tipo I/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Estresse Oxidativo , Inibidor Tecidual de Metaloproteinase-1/genética , Inibidor Tecidual de Metaloproteinase-1/metabolismo
3.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(1): 334-343, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31786756

RESUMO

Brain affection is a common symptom of liver insufficiency. This study aimed to evaluate the role of low-dose γ irradiation (LDR) as a potential therapeutic agent in thioacetamide (TAA)-induced hepatic encephalopathy (HE) in rats. Effects of local and whole-body irradiation (0.5 Gy) on rat brain/liver were evaluated following the induction of HE by TAA (200 mg/kg/day/for 3 successive days). Serum activities of aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) and ammonia level were assessed. The effect of HE on brain was evaluated through the determination of brain contents of malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin-1beta (IL-1ß) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity. Moreover, apoptotic and inflammatory changes in brain and liver tissues were assessed together with alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA); fibrosis marker. Results showed correction of the biochemical parameters which was supported by the results of the immunohistochemical examinations. LDR is a promising hepato- and neurotherapy against HE.


Assuntos
Raios gama , Tioacetamida/toxicidade , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Glutationa/metabolismo , Encefalopatia Hepática/induzido quimicamente , Interleucina-1beta , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Função Hepática , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
4.
Int J Biol Sci ; 15(11): 2296-2307, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31595148

RESUMO

Liver is one of the most vital organs to maintain homeostasis because of its peculiar detoxification functionalities to detoxify chemicals and metabolize drugs and toxins. Due to its crucial functions, the liver is also prone to various diseases, i.e., hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatoma, etc. Additionally, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) has emerged as key regulators which are found to play important roles in transcription, splicing, translation, replication, chromatin shaping and post translational modification of proteins in living cells. However, the underlying mechanisms of biological processes mediated by lncRNA remain unclear. Here, with the aim of disclosing potential lncRNAs implicated in the biological processes in liver in response to cytotoxicity, we performed a co-expression network analysis based on the transcriptome data of the damaged liver tissue of Rattus norvegicus induced by three cytotoxic compounds (carbon tetrachloride, chloroform and thioacetamide). Our analysis unveils that many biological processes and pathways were collectively affected by the three cytotoxic compounds, including drug metabolism, oxidation-reduction process, oxidative stress, glucuronidation, liver development and flavonoid biosynthetic process, etc. Also, our network analysis has identified several highly conserved lncRNA-mRNA interactions participating in those correlated processes and pathways, implying their potential roles in response to the induced cytotoxicity in liver. Our study provides new insights into lncRNA-mRNA regulatory mechanisms in response to pathogenic cytotoxic damaging in liver and facilitates the development of lncRNA-oriented therapies for hepatic diseases in the future.


Assuntos
Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Animais , Tetracloreto de Carbono/toxicidade , Clorofórmio/toxicidade , Ratos , Tioacetamida/toxicidade , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Tissue Cell ; 60: 38-47, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31582017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Improvement of gut microbiota may help in preventing the progression of cirrhosis. We supposed that Lactobacillus Plantarum (L. Plantarum) protects the cirrhotic liver through suppression of TLR4/ CXCL9/ PREX-2. METHODOLOGY: Rats were divided into two groups. Group I, lasts for six weeks and Group II lasts for 12 weeks. Each group was subdivided into: naïve, Lactobacillus Plantarum (L. Plantarum), thioacetamide (TAA) and TAA + L. Plantarum. Liver function tests, α fetoprotein (AFP) levels, CXCL9, PREX-2 and TLR4 expression were assessed. Histological studies were performed. RESULTS: TAA induced significant deterioration in liver functions and increased AFP. There was periportal cirrhosis, vacuolated hepatocytes, decrease hepatocyte parrafin-1 (hep par-1) expression, increase proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) positive nuclei and cytokeratin AE1/AE3. The PCR results showed significant increase in TLR4, CXCL9 and PREX-2 expression. Early administration of L. Plantarum significantly decreased the expression of TLR4, CXCL9 and PREX-2 together with improvement in liver function and prevented the pathological changes. CONCLUSIONS: The cirrhotic complications induced by TAA are through activation of TLR4/ CXCL9/ PREX-2 pathway and could be prevented by the early administration of L. Plantarum.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/prevenção & controle , Lactobacillus plantarum , Cirrose Hepática Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/prevenção & controle , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/etiologia , Quimiocina CXCL9/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/patologia , Cirrose Hepática Experimental/complicações , Cirrose Hepática Experimental/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/etiologia , Masculino , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Tioacetamida/toxicidade , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo
6.
Molecules ; 24(14)2019 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31373296

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of Croton hypoleucus (EC). The present work reports the first pharmacological, toxicological, and antioxidant studies of EC extract on liver injury. Liver necrosis was induced by thioacetamide (TAA). Five groups were established: Croton Extract (EC), thioacetamide (TAA), Croton extract with thioacetamide (EC + TAA), vitamin E with thioacetamide (VE + TAA) and the positive control and vehicle (CT). For EC and EC + TAA, Wistar rats (n = 8) were intragastrically pre-administered for 4 days with EC (300 mg/kg.day) and on the last day, EC + TAA received a single dose of TAA (400 mg/kg). At 24 h after damage induction, animals were sacrificed. In vitro activity and gene expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (Cat), and Nrf2 nuclear factor were measured. The results show that EC has medium antioxidant properties, with an IC50 of 0.63 mg/mL and a ferric-reducing power of 279.8 µM/mg. Additionally, EC reduced hepatic damage markers at 24 h after TAA intoxication; also, it increased SOD and Cat gene expression against TAA by controlling antioxidant defense levels. Our findings demonstrated the hepatoprotective effect of EC by reducing hepatic damage markers and controlling antioxidant defense levels. Further studies are necessary to identify the mechanism of this protection.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Croton/química , Extratos Vegetais , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Catalase/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Necrose , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Tioacetamida/toxicidade
7.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(29): 29930-29945, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407268

RESUMO

Cassia fistula L. (Caesalpinioideae) is a highly admirable medicinal plant and is traditionally recommended for the treatment of rheumatism, liver disorders, jaundice, and other inflammatory diseases. This study was designed to investigate the hepatoprotective properties of ethyl acetate fraction from C. fistula leaves in an animal model. Treatment with thioacetamide significantly elevated the level of serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (1.75-fold), alkaline phosphatase (4.07-fold), and total bilirubin (2.29-fold) as compared to the control. It was found that pretreatment of fraction followed by consecutive 2 days thioacetamide reduced the conversion of thioacetamide carcinogen to its reactive metabolites by phase I enzymes and increased the level of detoxification phase II along with antioxidative enzymes. The histopathological studies revealed the hepatoprotective nature of the fraction in restoring the normal architecture of thioacetamide-intoxicated damaged liver. The fraction showed downregulation in the expression level of p-PI3K, p-Akt, and p-mTOR pointing towards its chemopreventive potential. The HPLC analysis of the fraction had shown the dominance of three phenolic compounds namely, catechin, epicatechin, and chlorogenic acid. The above studies comprising histopathological, immunohistochemical, and hepatic enzymes are strong indicative of the potential protective ability of ethyl acetate fraction phytoconstituents against thioacetamide-induced toxicity. Graphical abstract.


Assuntos
Cassia/química , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Tioacetamida/toxicidade , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Testes de Função Hepática , Masculino , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Folhas de Planta/química , Ratos Wistar
8.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(2): 515-521, June 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002253

RESUMO

SUMMARY: Reproductive dysfunction is a complication for many diseases and toxins. Its early diagnosis and treatment are immensely important. Here the morphological histoarchitecture changes in early testicular and cauda toxicity before and after treatment with angiotensin receptor blockers were evaluated. Low-grade testicular damage was induced using thioacetamide (TAA, 50 mg/kg/day) intraperitoneally for two weeks in rats. The rats were randomly divided into four groups (n = 8) treated daily orally for three weeks as follows: Normal control (distilled water), TAA (positive control), TAA+candesartan (0.2 mg/kg) and TAA+losartan (7.5 mg/kg). Serum testosterone and testicular malondialdehyde and glutathione were measured. The changes in histoarchitecture of testis and cauda epididymis were evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin for general structure, Masson's trichrome for collagen, periodic acid Schiff for basement membrane, and caspase-3 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) for immunohistochemical analysis. The TAA-rats showed decreases of serum testosterone and testicular glutathione, increases in testicular malondialdehyde, degenerative changes and apoptosis in germ cells, thickening of tubular basal lamina and increases in expression of caspase 3, and decreases in expression of PCNA. The ARBs (candesartan and losartan) significantly reversed these changes with non-significant differences in-between. Treatment with ARBs (candesartan and losartan) significantly reversed TAA-induced low-grade testicular and cauda toxicity in rats. This could be potentially useful for early treatment of male patients with occupational toxicant-induced reproductive dysfunction especially if they are using ARBs for other comorbidities.


RESUMEN: La disfunción reproductiva es una complicación por muchas enfermedades y toxinas. Su diagnóstico y tratamiento tempranos son inmensamente importantes. Aquí se evaluaron los cambios morfológicos en la histoarquitectura en la toxicidad precoz testicular y cauda antes y después del tratamiento con bloqueadores de receptores de angiotensina. Se indujo daño testicular de bajo grado usando tioacetamida (TAA, 50 mg / kg / día) por vía intraperitoneal durante dos semanas en ratas. Las ratas se dividieron aleatoriamente en cuatro grupos (n = 8) tratados diariamente por vía oral durante tres semanas de la siguiente manera: control normal (agua destilada), TAA (control positivo), TAA + candesartan (0,2 mg / kg) y TAA + losartán (7,5 mg / kg). Se midieron la testosterona sérica, el malondialdehído testicular y el glutatión. Los cambios en la histoarquitectura de los testículos y la epidermis de la cauda se evaluaron mediante Hematoxilina y Eosina para determinar la estructura general, con tricrómicro de Masson para el colágeno, ácido periódico de Schiff para la membrana basal y la caspasa-3 y el antígeno nuclear de células proliferantes (PCNA) para análisis inmunohistoquímico. Las ratas TAA mostraron disminución de la testosterona sérica y glutatión testicular, aumentos en el malondialdehído testicular, cambios degenerativos y apoptosis en células germinales, engrosamiento de la lámina basal tubular y aumentos en la expresión de la caspasa 3, y disminución en la expresión de PCNA. Los ARB (candesartán y losartán) revirtieron significativamente estos cambios con diferencias no significativas en el medio. El tratamiento con BRA (candesartán y losartán) revirtió significativamente la toxicidad testicular y cauda inducida por TAA en ratas. Esto podría ser potencialmente útil para el tratamiento temprano de pacientes con disfunción reproductiva inducida por tóxicos ocupacionales, especialmente si están usando BRA para otras comorbilidades.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tioacetamida/toxicidade , Benzimidazóis/farmacologia , Losartan/farmacologia , Bloqueadores do Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Testículo/patologia , Testosterona/análise , Tetrazóis/farmacologia , Imuno-Histoquímica , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Antígeno Nuclear de Célula em Proliferação/metabolismo , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Glutationa/análise , Malondialdeído/análise
9.
Toxicology ; 423: 32-41, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31102694

RESUMO

The liver performs a variety of essential functions; hence drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a serious concern that can ultimately lead to the withdrawal of a drug from the market or discontinuation of drug development. However, the mechanisms of drug-induced liver injury are not always clear. We hypothesized that drugs may inhibit the liver recovery process, especially bile canalicular (BC) network reformation, leading to persistent liver injury and deterioration, and tested this hypothesis in the present work. The BC structure disappeared in mice following treatment with 3,5-diethoxycarbonyl-1,4-dihydrocollidine (DDC) or thioacetamide (TAA) for 4 weeks, then reappeared after 4 weeks of receiving a normal diet. By contrast, reconstruction of the BC structure was suppressed in mice fed a diet containing 0.3% benzbromarone (BBR; which can induce fatal liver injury in clinical settings) after liver injury. Plasma ALT levels were increased significantly in mice treated with BBR after DDC or TAA treatment, compared with BBR alone. To confirm whether BBR has a direct inhibitory effect on hepatocytes, we also examined BC reformation in primary cultured mouse hepatocytes with a sandwich configuration. Under these culture conditions, the BC network rapidly reformed from days 2 and 3 after seeding. During the reformation period, BBR inhibited BC reformation significantly. These results suggest that BBR inhibits BC reconstruction and delays recovery from pre-existing liver injury.


Assuntos
Benzobromarona/toxicidade , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Piridinas/toxicidade , Tioacetamida/toxicidade , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/sangue , Hepatócitos , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
10.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0216301, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31067255

RESUMO

In liver fibrosis, conversion of fibroblasts to profibrogenic myofibroblasts significantly drives the development of the disease. A crucial role of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) in regulation of fibroblast function has been reported. Increase in cAMP levels has been found to decrease fibroblast proliferation, inhibit their conversion to myofibroblast, and stimulate their death. cAMP is generated by adenyl cyclase (AC), and degraded by cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE). In this study, the antifibrotic effect of a PDE inhibitor, cilostazol (Cilo), on a rat model of liver fibrosis induced by thioacetamide (TAA) was investigated. Four groups of rats were used; the first group received the vehicles and served as the normal control group, while liver fibrosis was induced in the other groups using (TAA, 200 mg/kg/biweekly for 8 successive weeks, ip). The last two groups were treated with Cilo (50 and 100 mg/kg/day, po, respectively). Induction of liver fibrosis in TAA-treated rats was observed as evidenced by the biochemical and histopathological findings. On the other hand, a potent antifibrotic effect was observed in the groups treated with Cilo, with preference to the higher dose. In these groups, a significant increase in the liver content of cAMP was demonstrated that was accompanied by reduction in the hepatic expression of key fibrogenic cytokines, growth factors, and inflammatory biomarkers, including interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, nuclear factor kappa B, and transforming growth factor-beta as compared to TAA group. Moreover, amelioration of TAA-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in the liver has been observed. These findings reveal the antifibrotic effect of Cilo against TAA-induced liver fibrosis in rats, and suggest regulation of cAMP pathway, together with the modulation of oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis as mechanistic cassette underlines this effect.


Assuntos
Cilostazol/uso terapêutico , Cirrose Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomarcadores/análise , AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Fígado/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática/induzido quimicamente , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Tioacetamida/toxicidade , Regulação para Cima
11.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 32(3): 153-161, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30987689

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to evaluate hematological disorders and the orchestrating roles of hepcidin and IL-6 in rat models of thioacetamide (TAA) and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) hepatotoxicity. METHODS: Rats were intraperitoneally injected with TAA (10 mg/100 g rat weight dissolved in isosaline) or CCl4 (100 µL/100 g rat weight diluted as 1:4 in corn oil) twice weekly for eight consecutive weeks to induce subchronic liver fibrosis. Blood and tissue samples were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: CCl4 but not TAA significantly decreased the RBCs, Hb, PCV, and MCV values with minimal alterations in other erythrocytic indices. Both hepatotoxins showed leukocytosis, granulocytosis, and thrombocytopenia. By the end of the experiment, the erythropoietin level increased in the CCl4 model. The serum iron, UIBC, TIBC, transferrin saturation%, and serum transferrin concentration values significantly decreased, whereas that of ferritin increased in the CCl4 model. TAA increased the iron parameters toward iron overload. RT-PCR analysis revealed increased expression of hepatic hepcidin and IL-6 mRNAs in the CCl4 model and suppressed hepcidin expression without significant effect on IL-6 in the TAA model. CONCLUSION: These data suggest differences driven by hepcidin and IL-6 expression between CCl4 and TAA liver fibrosis models and are of clinical importance for diagnosis and therapeutics of liver diseases.


Assuntos
Hepcidinas/farmacologia , Interleucina-6/farmacologia , Ferro/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática/terapia , Transferrina/metabolismo , Animais , Análise Química do Sangue , Tetracloreto de Carbono/toxicidade , Injeções Intraperitoneais , Ferro/sangue , Leucocitose/induzido quimicamente , Leucocitose/terapia , Cirrose Hepática/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Ratos , Tioacetamida/toxicidade , Trombocitopenia/induzido quimicamente , Trombocitopenia/terapia
12.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 115: 108788, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31035010

RESUMO

This study investigated the antifibrotic effect of Prosopis juliflora leaves crude methanolic extract (PJEL) against thioacetamide (TAA)-induced liver fibrosis. The phytochemical analysis of PJEL was performed via HPLC/MS in association with evaluating its free radical scavenging and cytotoxic activities. The antifibrotic activity of PJEL was assessed by dividing Wistar rats into 8 groups: normal control, PJEL1-administered rats (2 mg/ Kg b.w.), PJEL2-administered rats (4 mg/ Kg b.w.), PJEL3-administered rats (8 mg/Kg b.w.), TAA-induced hepatic fibrosis, TTA + PJEL1, TAA + PJEL2, and TAA + PJEL3. Results indicated that PJEL crude methanolic extract is rich in polyphenolic compounds and alkaloids. PJEL exerted free radical scavenging activity with IC50 of 123.5 µg/mL and cytotoxic activity against a well-differentiated hepatocellular cell line (IC50 = 11.1 µg/mL). PJEL at a dose of 4 mg/Kg b.w. ameliorated serum ALT activity and improved serum albumin level and hepatic hydroxyproline content in association with a reduction in the fibrosis stage. PJEL elevated hepatic tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 contents with less necrosis grade. PJEL post-therapy ameliorated the relative expression of Bcl-2, Col1A1, Mmp-9, and Mmp-2 genes in liver. CONCLUSION: PJEL possesses a good therapeutic activity against TAA-induced liver fibrosis via enhancing extracellular matrix removal and stimulating hepatic regeneration to decrease hepatic necrosis.


Assuntos
Cirrose Hepática/induzido quimicamente , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Prosopis/química , Tioacetamida/toxicidade , Alcaloides/química , Animais , Flavonas/química , Cirrose Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Camundongos , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Polifenóis/química , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
13.
J Surg Res ; 241: 254-263, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31035140

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinically, liver fibrosis and cholestasis are two major disease entities, ultimately leading to hepatic failure. Although autophagy plays a substantial role in the pathogenesis of these diseases, its precise mechanism has not been determined yet. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mouse models of liver fibrosis or cholestasis were obtained after the serial administration of thioacetamide (TAA) or surgical bile duct ligation (BDL), respectively. Then, after obtaining liver specimens at specific time points, we compared the expression of makers related to apoptosis (cleaved caspases), inflammation (CD68), necrosis (high-mobility group box 1), phospho-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK), and autophagy (microtubule-associated protein light chain 3B and p62) in the fibrotic or cholestatic mouse livers, by polymerase chain reaction, Western blot analysis, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence. RESULTS: Although cholestatic livers exhibited the tendency of progressively increasing the expression of most apoptosis-related markers (cleaved caspases), it was not prominent when it was compared with the tendency found in the livers of TAA-treated mice. Contrastingly, the necrosis-related factor (high-mobility group box 1) was significantly increased in the livers of BDL mice over time, reaching their peak values on day 7 after BDL. In addition, the inflammation-related factor (CD68) was highly expressed in BDL mice compared with TAA-treated mice over time. Autophagy marker studies indicated that autophagy was upregulated in fibrotic livers, whereas it was downregulated in cholestatic livers. We also observed mild to moderate activation of p-JNK in the livers of TAA-treated mice, whereas significantly higher p-JNK activation was detected in the livers of BDL mice. CONCLUSIONS: Unlike TAA-treated mice, BDL mice exhibited higher expression of the markers related with inflammation and necrosis, especially including p-JNK, while maintaining low levels of autophagic process. Therefore, obstructive cholestasis is characterized by higher p-JNK activation, which could be related with marked necrotic cell death resulting from extensive inflammation and little chance of compensatory autophagy.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Colestase/imunologia , Proteínas Quinases JNK Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática Experimental/imunologia , Fígado/patologia , Animais , Ductos Biliares/cirurgia , Colestase/etiologia , Colestase/patologia , Hepatócitos/imunologia , Hepatócitos/patologia , Humanos , Proteínas Quinases JNK Ativadas por Mitógeno/imunologia , Ligadura , Fígado/citologia , Fígado/imunologia , Cirrose Hepática Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Cirrose Hepática Experimental/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Necrose/imunologia , Necrose/patologia , Fosforilação/imunologia , Tioacetamida/toxicidade
14.
Life Sci ; 224: 187-196, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30890404

RESUMO

AIMS: Stevioside is a diterpenoid obtained from the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) that exhibits antioxidant, antifibrotic, antiglycemic and anticancer properties. Therefore, we aimed to study whether stevioside has beneficial effects in liver injury induced by long-term thioacetamide (TAA) administration and investigated the possible underlying molecular mechanism using in vivo, in vitro and in silico approaches. MAIN METHODS: Liver injury was induced in male Wistar rats by TAA administration (200 mg/kg), intraperitoneally, three times per week. Rats received saline or stevioside (20 mg/kg) twice daily intraperitoneally. In addition, cocultures were incubated with either lipopolysaccharide or ethanol. Liver injury, antioxidant and immunological responses were evaluated. KEY FINDINGS: Chronic TAA administration induced significant liver damage. In addition, TAA upregulated the protein expression of nuclear factor (NF)-κB, thus increasing the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and decreasing the antioxidant capacity of the liver through downregulation of nuclear erythroid factor 2 (Nrf2). Notably, stevioside administration prevented all of these changes. In vitro, stevioside prevented the upregulation of several genes implicated in liver inflammation when cocultured cells were incubated with lipopolysaccharide or ethanol. In silico assays using tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR)-1 and Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4-MD2 demonstrated that stevioside docks with TNFR1 and TLR4-MD2, thus promoting an antagonistic action against this proinflammatory mediator. SIGNIFICANCE: Collectively, these data suggest that stevioside prevented liver damage through antioxidant activity by upregulating Nrf2 and immunomodulatory activity by blocking NF-κB signaling.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Diterpenos de Caurano/farmacologia , Glucosídeos/farmacologia , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Edulcorantes/farmacologia , Animais , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Simulação por Computador , Técnicas In Vitro , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Tioacetamida/toxicidade
15.
Int J Biol Sci ; 15(4): 800-811, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30906211

RESUMO

Hepatic fibrosis, characterized by persistent deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, occurs in most types of chronic liver disease. The prevention of liver damage using extract of Dendropanax morbifera has been widely studied, but its molecular mechanism on the therapeutic efficacy of hepatic fibrosis is unclear. The aim of this study was to assess whether aquatic extract (DM) of D. morbifera ameliorates thioacetamide (TAA)-induced hepatic fibrosis. Hepatic fibrosis was induced by an intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection (150 mg/kg, twice per week) of TAA for 6 weeks. DM (50 mg/kg/day) or silymarin (50 mg/kg/day) was administered daily for 6 weeks. DM markedly reduced serum AST, ALT, ALP, and r-GTP in TAA-treated rats. DM significantly ameliorated the total glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activity in TAA-treated rats. In particular, DM significantly reduced expression of α-SMA, type I collagen, vimentin, TGF-ß1 and p-Smad2/3 in hepatic fibrosis rats. The protective effects of DM on progression of hepatic fibrosis were clearly shown by detecting 4-hydroxyproline concentration and histopathological examination in the liver. Therefore, our data suggest that DM dramatically prevented hepatic fibrosis by inhibiting oxidative stress and the TGF-ß1/Smads signaling pathways.


Assuntos
Araliaceae/química , Cirrose Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Cirrose Hepática/metabolismo , Proteína Smad2/metabolismo , Tioacetamida/toxicidade , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Animais , Western Blotting , Células Estreladas do Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Estreladas do Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Cirrose Hepática/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
16.
Neurosci Lett ; 701: 14-19, 2019 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30738081

RESUMO

The tryptophan metabolite, kynurenic acid (KYNA), is a preferential antagonist of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and N-methyl-d-aspartic acid receptor at endogenous brain concentrations. Recent studies have suggested that increased brain KYNA levels are involved in psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and depression. Most of the brain kynurenine (KYN), the KYNA precursor, comes from the periphery, and the liver has a central role in the peripheral tryptophan metabolism. In this study, the effect of acute liver failure (ALF) on brain KYNA production and on the peripheral tryptophan metabolism was investigated in rats. ALF was induced by administration of the hepatotoxin, thioacetamide (TAA). Brain KYNA levels were increased by TAA-induced ALF, and these increases were consistent with KYN levels in the brain, serum and liver. These results suggest that the ALF-induced increase in serum KYN contributes to the increase in brain KYNA via elevated KYN uptake within the brain. This increase in serum KYN level can be caused by the changes in tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase activity in the liver and the immune-related activation of indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase in extrahepatic tissues. These findings suggest that hepatic dysfunction may contribute to neurological and psychiatric diseases associated with increased KYNA levels.


Assuntos
Ácido Cinurênico/análise , Cinurenina/análise , Cinurenina/sangue , Falência Hepática Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Animais , Cinurenina/metabolismo , Falência Hepática Aguda/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Tioacetamida/toxicidade
17.
Histol Histopathol ; 34(4): 419-430, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30306536

RESUMO

Liver fibrosis is an excessive accumulation of scar tissue resulting from inflammation and cell death. Thioacetamide (TAA) is a well-known hepatotoxin that induces liver fibrosis. A marker of injured hepatocytes is transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-ß1), while alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) are markers of activated hepatic stellate cells. Alpha-mangostin, a major xanthone derivative from the mangosteen pericarp, has been shown to have anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The objective of this study was to determine whether alpha-mangostin has a protective effect on TAA-induced liver fibrosis in rats. The rats were treated by intraperitoneal injection of compounds for eight weeks. For the control group a mixture of dimethyl sulfoxide and phosphate buffered saline was administered. Two hundred mg/kg BW of TAA was administered three times weekly. Alpha-mangostin was administered at 5 mg/kg BW and silymarin at 100 mg/kg BW, both twice weekly. TAA induced histologically recognizable liver damage and fibrosis, as anticipated. Furthermore, it increased immunohistochemically detectable TGF-ß1, α-SMA and TIMP-1. Co-administration of alpha-mangostin or silymarin with TAA prevented or ameliorated the effects of TAA administration alone. The anti-fibrotic effect of alpha-mangostin was stronger than that of silymarin.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cirrose Hepática Experimental/patologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Xantonas/farmacologia , Animais , Fígado/patologia , Cirrose Hepática Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Tioacetamida/toxicidade
18.
Chem Biol Interact ; 299: 111-119, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30500344

RESUMO

Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a serious neuropsychiatric syndrome due to either acute or chronic hepatic failure. This study aimed to investigate the possible neuroprotective effect of chrysin, a natural flavenoid on thioacetamide (TAA)-induced hepatic encephalopathy in rats. Also the effect of chrysin on motor impairment, cognitive deficits, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, apoptosis and histopathological damage was assessed. HE was induced in Wistar rats by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of TAA (200 mg/kg) for three alternative days. Normal and control groups received the vehicle for 21 days. Chrysin was administered orally for 21 days (25, 50, 100 mg/kg) and starting from day 17, rats received i.p. dose of TAA (200 mg/kg) at three alternative days. Then behavioral, biochemical, histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses were conducted. Chrysin improved TAA-induced motor incoordination as it reduced final falling latency time in rotarod test, ameliorated cognitive deficits in object recognition test (ORT) and attenuated serum ammonia, hepatic liver enzymes namely, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), reduced malondialdehyde (MDA), elevated reduced glutathione (GSH), reduced nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) brain contents. Chrysin administration also reduced Toll-4 receptor (TLR-4) gene expression, caspase-3 protein expression, hepatic necrosis and astrocyte swelling. This study depicts that chrysin exerted neuroprotective effect in TAA-induced HE rats, evidenced by improvement of cognitive deficits, motor incoordination and histopathological changes such as astrocyte swelling and vacuolization; hallmarks in HE, via reducing hyperammonia, ameliorating hepatic function, in addition to its anti-oxidant, inactivation of TLR-4/NF-κB inflammatory pathway, and anti-apoptotic effects.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/uso terapêutico , Encefalopatia Hepática/prevenção & controle , Substâncias Protetoras/uso terapêutico , Tioacetamida/toxicidade , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutationa/metabolismo , Encefalopatia Hepática/induzido quimicamente , Encefalopatia Hepática/patologia , Encefalopatia Hepática/veterinária , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
19.
Surgery ; 165(2): 345-352, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30249433

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The associating liver partition and portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy (ALPPS) procedure promotes the proliferation of the future liver remnant, but evidence to support the feasibility of ALPPS in livers with fibrosis is needed. Therefore the aim of this study was to establish a fibrotic ALPPS model in the rat to compare the capacity of regeneration in the remnant liver with or without fibrosis. METHODS: In our study we first established a thioacetamide-induced fibrotic ALPPS model in rats. Then the ALPPS-induced regenerative capacities of normal and fibrotic liver were compared in this animal model. In addition, markers of regeneration, including the proliferative index and cyclin D1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen levels, as well as various indicators of liver function were determined to evaluate the quality of the hepatic regeneration. RESULTS: Compared with that of the sham group (opening of the peritoneal cavity with no further operative manipulation), the proliferation of the future liver remnant in fibrotic rat liver after the ALPPS procedure was increased on postoperative days 1, 2, and 5 (P < .039 each). In addition, the proliferative response was greater in the ALPPS group than in the ligation group subjected only to portal vein ligation of the left lateral, left middle, right, and caudate lobes (P = .099, P = .006, and P = .020 on postoperative days 1, 2, and 5, respectively). In contrast, the ALPPS-induced regenerative capacity in the fibrotic rat livers was attenuated compared with that in the normal liver on postoperative days 1, 2, and 5 (P < .031 for each) after stage I and on postoperative day 5 after stage II of the ALPPS procedure (P < .005). This attenuated the recovery of liver function, and the greater mortality rate indicated that functional proliferation was either delayed or not as extensive in the fibrotic rat livers. CONCLUSION: Through establishing a rat model of thioacetamide-induced liver fibrosis, we found that ALPPS-derived liver regeneration was present and feasible in fibrotic livers, but this effect was attenuated compared with that in normal liver.


Assuntos
Hepatectomia/métodos , Cirrose Hepática/cirurgia , Regeneração Hepática , Veia Porta/cirurgia , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Ciclina D1/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Estudos de Viabilidade , Antígeno Ki-67/metabolismo , Ligadura , Fígado/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática/induzido quimicamente , Antígeno Nuclear de Célula em Proliferação/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Tioacetamida/toxicidade
20.
Curr Clin Pharmacol ; 14(1): 61-67, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30179140

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cilostazol, a phosphodiesterase 3 inhibitor (PDE3I), is a platelet aggregation inhibitor and vasodilator that is useful for treating intermittent claudication. Experimental studies have shown that cilostazol has potent anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant effects effects. OBJECTIVES: Although the hepatoprotective effect cilostazol has been studied, the molecular mechanisms of such protection, including: the nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) / hemoxygenase (HO-1) and the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) /serine/threonine kinase (Akt) pathways are not fully explored, which is the aim of this study. METHODS: To achieve the aim of this study, 35 rats were grouped into: control groups, liver injury group (model- non treated: injected with thioacetamide (TAA), 150 mg/kg, i.p.), and two cilostazoltreated groups (treated with cilostazol 10 and 50 mg/kg, p.o.). The rats were treated for 8 days and injected with TAA on the 7th day of the experiment and sacrificed 48 hours after TAA injection. RESULTS: The model group showed evidence of liver injury as indicated by the elevation of liver enzymes and confirmed by histopathological findings. TAA-induced liver injury was accompanied by down-regulation of the cytoprotective pathways: PI3K/Akt and Nrf2/HO-1 mRNAs. Cilostazol administration ameliorated TAA-induced liver injury, where it caused a significant improvement in the activity of liver enzymes as well as in the histopathological changes. Such an effect was associated with a significant increase in the expression of PI3K/Akt and Nrf2/HO-1 mRNAs as detected by Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). CONCLUSION: Cilostazol protected rats against TAA hepatotoxicity through up-regulation of PI3K/Akt and Nrf2/HO-1 gene expression.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Cilostazol/uso terapêutico , Heme Oxigenase (Desciclizante)/biossíntese , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/biossíntese , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/biossíntese , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/biossíntese , Animais , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Masculino , Inibidores da Fosfodiesterase 3/uso terapêutico , Ratos , Tioacetamida/toxicidade , Resultado do Tratamento
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