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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(23): e26273, 2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34115025

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The association of nephropathy with autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) has been reported previously. However, there is limited information on the relationship between thyroid autoantibodies and nephropathy. A retrospective study was conducted using the medical records of 246 patients with nephropathy, 82 of whom had concurrent AITD. General characteristics, thyroid function, autoantibodies, and the pathological types of nephropathy were analyzed. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the thyroglobulin antibody (TG-Ab) and thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPO-Ab) in the kidneys. We found nephropathy patients with AITD exhibited higher serum levels of TPO-Ab, TG-Ab, thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibody (TR-Ab), and immunoglobulin G (IgG) (P < .05). Compared with the nephropathy without AITD group, the nephropathy with AITD group exhibited higher proportions of membranous nephropathy (MN) and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), and relatively lower proportions of mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis (MsPGN) and minimal change nephropathy (MCN) (P = .005). TPO-Ab and TG-Ab levels in the kidney were more prevalent in nephropathy patients with AITD than those without AITD (P = .015 and P = .026, respectively). Subgroup analysis demonstrated that serum levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), TG-Ab, TPO-Ab, immunoglobulin M (IgM), and IgG in the MN group were significantly higher, whereas the levels of free thyroxine (FT4) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were lower, as compared with MN with Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) group (P < .05). TPO-Ab and TG-Ab expression levels in the kidneys were more prevalent in the MN group than in the MN with HT group (P = .034). The expression levels of FT4, TG-Ab, TPO-Ab, and thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibody (TSHR-Ab) in the serum were significantly higher in the MN group than in the MN with Graves disease (GD) group (P < .05). The expression of TPO-Ab in the kidneys was more prevalent in the MN group than in the MN with GD group (P = .011). In sum, the expressions of TPO-Ab and TG-Ab were more prevalent in the kidneys of patients with nephropathy and AITD. Our findings indicate that TPO-Ab and TG-Ab may play a role in the development of AITD-related nephropathy.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/análise , Glomerulonefrite Membranosa , Glomerulosclerose Segmentar e Focal , Doença de Hashimoto , Iodeto Peroxidase/imunologia , Receptores da Tireotropina/imunologia , Tireoglobulina/imunologia , Tireoidite Autoimune , Correlação de Dados , Feminino , Glomerulonefrite Membranosa/imunologia , Glomerulonefrite Membranosa/patologia , Glomerulosclerose Segmentar e Focal/imunologia , Glomerulosclerose Segmentar e Focal/patologia , Doença de Hashimoto/sangue , Doença de Hashimoto/diagnóstico , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Rim/imunologia , Rim/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes de Função Tireóidea , Tireoidite Autoimune/sangue , Tireoidite Autoimune/diagnóstico , Tireoidite Autoimune/imunologia
2.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34064075

RESUMO

Celiac disease (CD) and autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) like Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) and Graves' disease (GD) frequently coexist, entailing numerous potential impacts on diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. Possible correlations might exist through gut microbiota, regulating the immune system and inflammatory responses, promoting autoimmune diseases, as well as shared cytokines in pathogenesis pathways, cross-reacting antibodies or malabsorption of micronutrients that are essential for the thyroid like iron or vitamin D. Vitamin D deficiency is a common finding in patients with AITD, but might protect from autoimmunity by wielding immunoregulatory and tolerogenic impacts. Additionally, vitamin D is assumed to be involved in the onset and progression of CD, presumably plays a substantial protective role for intestinal mucosa and affects the thyroid via its immunomodulatory effects. Iron is an essential micronutrient for the thyroid gland needed for effective iodine utilization by the iron-dependent enzyme thyroid iodine peroxidase (TPO). Despite being crucial for thyroid hormone synthesis, iron deficiency (ID) is a common finding in patients with hypothyroidism like HT and is frequently found in patients with CD. A literature research was conducted to examine the interplay between CD, AITD, vitamin D and iron deficiency. This narrative review highlights the relevant correlation of the two disease entities CD and AITD, their reciprocal impact and possible therapeutic options that should be further explored by future studies.


Assuntos
Doença Celíaca/imunologia , Ferro/imunologia , Glândula Tireoide/imunologia , Tireoidite Autoimune/imunologia , Vitamina D/imunologia , Autoimunidade/imunologia , Doença Celíaca/sangue , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Humanos , Ferro/sangue , Ferro/deficiência , Tireoidite Autoimune/sangue , Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/imunologia
3.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 140: 111733, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34029950

RESUMO

AIMS: This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effect of Cordyceps sinensis-derived fungus Isaria felina on experimental autoimmune thyroiditis (EAT). METHODS: A NaI-induced EAT mouse model was established. The mice received oral administration of vehicle, low-dose Isaria felina (300 mg/kg), or high-dose Isaria felina (600 mg/kg) once a day for four weeks before euthanasia. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) was performed to measure serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels, thyroid antibodies, and cytokines. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining was conducted to assess histopathological changes in the thyroid tissue samples of mice. TUNEL and Bcl-2 immunohistochemistry (IHC) were performed to evaluate cell apoptosis, and cleaved caspase-3 IHC was performed to detect the relative expression in the thyroid tissue samples. RESULTS: Compared with KIO3 and KI water, NaI water consumption successfully induced EAT in mice, as evidenced by significantly increased circulating TSH and thyroid antibody levels, along with typical histopathological abnormalities of autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT) in the thyroid tissue samples. Compared with vehicle or low-dose Isaria felina, high-dose Isaria felina treatment resulted in significant reductions in white cell counts and circulating TSH, thyroid antibody, and cytokine levels of EAT mice. High-dose Isaria felina also alleviated histopathological abnormalities and attenuated TUNEL staining, Bcl-2 protein expression, and cleaved caspase-3 expression in the thyroid tissue samples. CONCLUSION: High-dose Isaria felina treatment alleviates thyroid inflammation and cell apoptosis in EAT, serving as a novel, promising therapeutic agent for AIT.


Assuntos
Beauveria , Tireoidite Autoimune/terapia , Animais , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Cordyceps , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Iodeto Peroxidase/imunologia , Camundongos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/imunologia , Glândula Tireoide/imunologia , Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Tireoidite Autoimune/sangue , Tireoidite Autoimune/imunologia , Tireotropina/sangue
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(16): e25554, 2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33879707

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thyroid autoimmune disease (TAI) has been verified to be related to multiple adverse pregnancy outcomes. A growing number of evidences highlight the protective roles of glucocorticoid on the treatments of TAI. This meta-analysis aimed to study whether it is beneficial to add glucocorticoid treatment in infertile women with TAI when they are undergoing assisted reproductive technology (ART). METHODS: We conducted a systematic search in PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), WanFang database, Weipu China Science and Technology Journal Databases (VIP database) up to September 10, 2020. The Revman 5.3 software was utilized for data statistics. We used a random-effects model to analyze data and the odds ratio (OR) combining with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were employed to reveal the results. RESULTS: Three publications with 237 antithyroid antibody (ATA)-positive and 384 ATA-negative women were included in the final analysis. Overall, glucocorticoid therapy showed satisfying effects on improving clinical pregnancy rate (OR = 4.63, 95% CI [2.23, 9.58], I2 = 0.0%, P < .0001) and live birth rate (OR = 3.19, 95% CI [1.13, 9.04], I2 = 0.0%, P = .03) of ATA-positive women compared with control group. However, it seems that glucocorticoid showed no significant difference in the abortion rate (OR = 0.62, 95% CI [0.09, 4.32], I2 = 35%, P = .64) and oocyte recovery (OR = 2.26, 95% CI [-1.46, 5.99], I2 = 79%, P < .0001) between the 2 groups. CONCLUSIONS: Glucocorticoid may improve the pregnancy outcomes of ART women with ATA positive, but there is no significant reduction in the risk of miscarriage. Due to the limited enrolled references, glucocorticoid adjuvant therapy should be applied after more randomized controlled trials.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Infertilidade Feminina/terapia , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida , Tireoidite Autoimune/terapia , Adulto , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas Glândula Tireoide-Estimulantes/imunologia , Infertilidade Feminina/sangue , Infertilidade Feminina/imunologia , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tireoidite Autoimune/sangue , Tireoidite Autoimune/imunologia , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Ann Afr Med ; 20(1): 19-23, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33727507

RESUMO

Background: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disorder caused by pancreatic ß-cells destruction. Anti-pancreatic antibodies are the witness of ß-cell destruction and their dosage is mainly used for etiological diagnosis. Patients with T1DM are at increased risk of developing other autoimmune reactions, which may involve other organs, resulting in organ specific autoimmune disease. The most frequently encountered are autoimmune thyroid disease, followed by celiac and gastric disease and other rare autoimmune diseases. Objectives: The purpose of this study is to investigate the prevalence of autoimmune markers in patients with T1DM. Methods: The study was conducted at the Department of Endocrinology of the Military Hospital Moulay Ismail in Meknes Morocco, from January 2016 to December 2018. All Type 1 diabetes patients consulting during the study period were included in the study. Their clinical and biochemical data were collected at their first presentation, made up of anti-pancreatic antibodies (glutamic acid decarboxylase [GAD] antibody, tyrosine phosphatase antibody, and islet cell antibody) and other organ-specific antibodies: the thyroid (antithyroid peroxidase antibody, antithyroglobulin antibody, and antithyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibody), the intestine (IgA antitissue transglutaminase antibody), the adrenal gland (anti-21 hydroxylase antibody), and the stomach (antigastric parietal cell antibody and anti-intrinsic factor antibody). Results: Fifty-four patients were included, with an average age of 26 years. GAD, tyrosine phosphatase, and islet cell antibodies were detected in 74%, 22%, and 3.7%, respectively, of the 54 patients examined. The prevalence of extrapancreatic autoimmunity was 45% with a large preponderance among different immunities of those from thyroid and celiac diseases (CDs). Conclusion: Our results confirm that patients with Type 1 diabetes should be investigated for the presence of autoimmune diseases mainly from thyroid and CDs.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/sangue , Doença Celíaca/imunologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/imunologia , Tireoidite Autoimune/imunologia , Adulto , Autoimunidade , Doença Celíaca/complicações , Doença Celíaca/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiologia , Feminino , Glutamato Descarboxilase/sangue , Glutamato Descarboxilase/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas Glândula Tireoide-Estimulantes/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Marrocos/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Tireoidite Autoimune/complicações , Tireoidite Autoimune/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Med Case Rep ; 15(1): 108, 2021 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33653380

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypothyroidism is diagnosed on the basis of laboratory tests because of the lack of specificity of the typical clinical manifestations. There is conflicting evidence on screening for hypothyroidism. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of an apparently healthy 19-year-old Kuwaiti woman referred to our clinic with an incidental finding of extremely high thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), tested at the patient's insistence as she had a strong family history of hypothyroidism. Despite no stated complaints, the patient presented typical symptoms and signs of hypothyroidism on evaluation. Thyroid function testing was repeated by using different assays, with similar results; ultrasound imaging of the thyroid showed a typical picture of thyroiditis. Treatment with levothyroxine alleviated symptoms and the patient later became biochemically euthyroid on treatment. CONCLUSION: There is controversy regarding screening asymptomatic individuals for hypothyroidism; therefore, it is important to maintain a high index of suspicion when presented with mild signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism especially with certain ethnic groups, as they may be free of the classical symptoms of disease.


Assuntos
Hipotireoidismo/diagnóstico , Tireoidite Autoimune/diagnóstico , Alopecia/fisiopatologia , Apetite , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Constipação Intestinal/fisiopatologia , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Fadiga/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipotireoidismo/sangue , Hipotireoidismo/tratamento farmacológico , Hipotireoidismo/fisiopatologia , Achados Incidentais , Iodeto Peroxidase/imunologia , Menorragia/fisiopatologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Tireoidite Autoimune/sangue , Tireoidite Autoimune/imunologia , Tireoidite Autoimune/fisiopatologia , Tireotropina/sangue , Tiroxina/sangue , Tiroxina/uso terapêutico , Ultrassonografia , Ganho de Peso , Adulto Jovem
7.
Clin Immunol ; 224: 108663, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33401032

RESUMO

Autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT) is a common organ-specific autoimmune disease with a high incidence among women of childbearing age. Recent studies have reported that women with AIT are more susceptible to infertility, miscarriage and preterm birth. It has been investigated that abnormal changes in maternal immune system and maternal-fetal interface can dampen the immune tolerance between mother and fetus, which underlie the pathogenesis of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Hence, we summarize the immunological changes related to adverse reproductive outcomes in AIT and highlight the respective contributions of both humoral and cellular immune dysfunctions to pregnancy failures. Moreover, the direct impacts of AIT on maternal-fetal immune activation and biological influences to trophoblasts are discussed as well. All these associations require confirmation in larger studies, and the pathogenic mechanisms need to be better understood, which might provide useful information for clinical diagnosis and therapy of AIT.


Assuntos
Aborto Espontâneo/imunologia , Infertilidade Feminina/imunologia , Troca Materno-Fetal/imunologia , Nascimento Prematuro/imunologia , Tireoidite Autoimune/imunologia , Anticorpos , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Glândula Tireoide/imunologia
8.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(11)2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33148577

RESUMO

We report a case of a 21-year-old young woman who was initially diagnosed with hyperthyroidism secondary to Graves' disease and spontaneously switched to hypothyroidism in a year. While most autoimmune hypothyroidism is due to Hashimoto's disease, in her case, we suspect that her hypothyroidism is due to a switch of antibody dominance from thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor-stimulating antibody (TS Ab) to TSH receptor-blocking antibody (TB Ab). Switching from dominant TS Ab activity to dominant TB Ab activity is a rare phenomenon. Optimal management of this condition is not known. Loss of follow-up and medication non-adherence has made medical management in this young woman of reproductive age further challenging.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Doença de Graves/complicações , Doença de Hashimoto/etiologia , Tireoidite Autoimune/etiologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Doença de Graves/imunologia , Doença de Hashimoto/imunologia , Humanos , Hipertireoidismo/complicações , Hipertireoidismo/imunologia , Tireoidite Autoimune/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Endocr Regul ; 54(2): 109-118, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32597152

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Thyroid hormones have important actions in the adult brain. They regulate genes expression in myelination, differentiation of neuronal and glial cells, and neuronal viability and function. METHODS: We used the pathway-specific real-time PCR array (Neurotrophins and Receptors RT2 Profiler PCR Array, QIAGEN, Germany) to identify and verify nerve impulse transmission pathway-focused genes expression in peripheral white blood cells of patients with postoperative hypothyroidism, hypothyroidism as a result of autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT) and AIT with elevated serum an anti-thyroglobulin (anti-Tg) and anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO) antibodies. RESULTS: It was shown that patients with postoperative hypothyroidism and hypothyroidism resulting from AIT had significantly lower expression of BDNF and CBLN1. In patients with AIT with elevated serum anti-Tg and anti-TPO antibodies, the expression of GDNF was significantly down-regulated and the expression of PNOC was up-regulated. The expression levels of MEF2C and NTSR1 were decreased in the group of patients with postoperative hypothyroidism and AIT, correspondingly. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study demonstrate that AIT and hypothyroidism can affect the expression of mRNA nerve impulse transmission genes in gene specific manner and that these changes in gene expressions can be playing a role in the development of neurological complications associated with thyroid pathology. Detection of the transcriptional activity of nerve impulse transmission genes in peripheral white blood cells can be used as an important minimally invasive prognostic marker of the risk for developing neurological complications comorbid with thyroid pathology.


Assuntos
Expressão Gênica/genética , Hipotireoidismo/genética , Fatores de Crescimento Neural/genética , Transmissão Sináptica/genética , Tireoidite Autoimune/genética , Adulto , Humanos , Hipotireoidismo/sangue , Hipotireoidismo/imunologia , Vias Neurais , Tireoidite Autoimune/sangue , Tireoidite Autoimune/imunologia
10.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 128: 110288, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32480225

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prunella vulgaris L. (P. vulgaris) has traditionally been used to treat swelling and inflammation of the thyroid gland. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of P. vulgaris on experimental autoimmune thyroiditis (EAT) and explore the roles of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) and regulatory T cells (Tregs) in these P. vulgaris-mediated effects. METHODS: The main bioactive compounds in P. vulgaris were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography. An EAT model was established by immunization of Lewis rats with thyroglobulin via subcutaneous injection. Thyroid volume was assessed by ultrasound, and lymphatic infiltration in the thyroid was evaluated by haematoxylin and eosin staining. The serum levels of thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb) and cytokines were measured by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The percentage of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Tregs was detected by flow cytometry. The mRNA and protein levels of IDO1 were measured by qRT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. The levels of tryptophan (Trp) and kynurenine (Kyn) in serum and faecal samples were assessed with a fluorometric kit and spectrophotometry. RESULTS: The main bioactive compound in P. vulgaris was rosmarinic acid. The TgAb level and thyroid volume in EAT rats were significantly decreased after administration of P. vulgaris (P < 0.01). The inflammation score in EAT rats that were administered P. vulgaris was significantly lower than that in the EAT controls (P < 0.01). In addition, P. vulgaris promoted the expansion of splenic Tregs and increased the production of IL-10 and TGF-ß (P < 0.01) in EAT rats. Moreover, P. vulgaris induced IDO1 mRNA and protein expression in the spleen and intestine in P. vulgaris-treated EAT rats (P < 0.01). Finally, Trp levels were reduced and Kyn levels and the Kyn/Trp ratio were increased in the serum of P. vulgaris-treated EAT rats. CONCLUSION: We were the first to demonstrate the role of IDO1-induced Treg expansion in P. vulgaris-mediated attenuation of EAT. Our study provides insight into the immunopathogenesis of autoimmune thyroiditis and shows the potential therapeutic value of P. vulgaris.


Assuntos
Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Indolamina-Pirrol 2,3,-Dioxigenase/metabolismo , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Prunella , Linfócitos T Reguladores/efeitos dos fármacos , Glândula Tireoide/efeitos dos fármacos , Tireoidite Autoimune/prevenção & controle , Animais , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Citocinas/sangue , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Imunossupressores/isolamento & purificação , Indolamina-Pirrol 2,3,-Dioxigenase/genética , Cinurenina/sangue , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Prunella/química , Ratos Endogâmicos Lew , Transdução de Sinais , Linfócitos T Reguladores/enzimologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Glândula Tireoide/enzimologia , Glândula Tireoide/imunologia , Tireoidite Autoimune/enzimologia , Tireoidite Autoimune/imunologia , Triptofano/sangue
11.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 85: 106563, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442899

RESUMO

Alpha-enolase (ENO1) is a ubiquitous protein. Patients with autoimmune thyroiditis-associated encephalopathy have high serum ENO1Ab titers. We aimed to explore whether ENO1Ab was the pathogenic antibody in the thyroid and brain. The serum ENO1Ab titers were significantly increased in the mice immunized with Thyroglobulin (Tg). And in the mice immunized with ENO1, serum levels of both TgAb and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) were significantly increased. Obvious CD16+ cell infiltration, IgG deposit and cleaved caspase-3 were observed in the thyroid of ENO1-immunized mice. Spatial learning and memory abilities and synaptic functions were impaired in ENO1-immunized mice. Furthermore, the expression levels of Iba-1, GFAP, interlukin-6, CDK5, and phosphorylated tau were increased, and endothelial tight junction proteins were decreased in the brain of ENO1-immunized mice. These results suggest that ENO1Ab can cause thyrocyte damage via ADCC effect and impair cerebral function by disrupting the blood-brain barrier.


Assuntos
Anticorpos/imunologia , Autoantígenos/imunologia , Encefalopatias/imunologia , Encéfalo/imunologia , Fosfopiruvato Hidratase/imunologia , Glândula Tireoide/imunologia , Tireoidite Autoimune/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos/sangue , Encéfalo/irrigação sanguínea , Encefalopatias/sangue , Citocinas/genética , Feminino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto , Camundongos Endogâmicos CBA , Microvasos , Fosfopiruvato Hidratase/sangue , Baço/imunologia , Tireoglobulina/imunologia , Tireoidite Autoimune/sangue , Tireotropina/sangue , Tiroxina/sangue
12.
Nutrients ; 12(5)2020 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32429416

RESUMO

Vitamin D is a secosteroid with a pleiotropic role in multiple physiological processes. Besides the well-known activity on bone homeostasis, recent studies suggested a peculiar role of vitamin D in different non-skeletal pathways, including a key role in the modulation of immune responses. Recent evidences demonstrated that vitamin D acts on innate and adaptative immunity and seems to exert an immunomodulating action on autoimmune diseases and cancers. Several studies demonstrated a relationship between vitamin D deficiency, autoimmune thyroid disorders, and thyroid cancer. This review aims to summarize the evidences on the immunomodulatory effect of vitamin D on thyroid diseases.


Assuntos
Fatores Imunológicos/imunologia , Imunomodulação/imunologia , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/imunologia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/imunologia , Vitamina D/imunologia , Humanos , Tireoidite Autoimune/imunologia
13.
Autoimmun Rev ; 19(6): 102529, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32234405

RESUMO

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) can occur in the same patient in the autoimmune polyglandular syndrome 2. The association of the two conditions has been recognized long-time ago and the prevalence of AITD in patients with RA and vice versa is well assessed. Geographical variation of AITD and related autoantibodies in RA patients is partly due to ethnic and environmental differences of the studied populations. The impacts of thyroid disorders on RA outcome and vice versa are still controversy. In both AITD and RA genetic susceptibility and environmental factors play a synergic role in the development of the diseases. In this review we aimed at investigating the association of AITD and thyroid autoantibodies with RA, the common pathogenic pathways, the correlation with RA disease activity, and influence of the treatment.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide , Artrite Reumatoide/imunologia , Artrite Reumatoide/patologia , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Doença de Hashimoto/imunologia , Doença de Hashimoto/patologia , Humanos , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/imunologia , Doenças da Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Tireoidite Autoimune/imunologia , Tireoidite Autoimune/patologia
14.
Endocrinology ; 161(8)2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32270194

RESUMO

Autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) is one of the most frequent autoimmune disorders. However, the pathogenesis of AITD has not been fully elucidated. Recently, accumulating evidence has demonstrated that abnormal expression of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) is closely related to the etiopathogenesis of AITD. microRNAs (miRNAs), long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), and circular RNAs (circRNAs) are 3 major groups of ncRNAs that are attracting increasing attention. Herein, we summarized our present knowledge on the role of miRNAs, lncRNAs, and circRNAs in AITD. This review focused on the importance of ncRNAs in development of the most prevalent AITD, such as Hashimoto disease and Graves' diseases. Altogether, the main purpose of this review is to provide new insights in the pathogenesis of AITD and the possibility of developing novel potential therapeutic targets.


Assuntos
RNA não Traduzido/fisiologia , Tireoidite Autoimune/genética , Animais , Doenças Autoimunes/genética , Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Doenças Autoimunes/patologia , Doenças Autoimunes/terapia , Doença de Hashimoto/genética , Doença de Hashimoto/imunologia , Doença de Hashimoto/patologia , Doença de Hashimoto/terapia , Humanos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/métodos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/tendências , RNA Longo não Codificante/fisiologia , Tireoidite Autoimune/imunologia , Tireoidite Autoimune/patologia , Tireoidite Autoimune/terapia
15.
Breast Cancer ; 27(5): 828-836, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32279180

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Thyroid autoimmunity might be in relation to other autoimmune endocrine disease or non-endocrine disorders and there are innate and adaptive immune cells in breast cancer. Because autoimmune factors are common characteristics of both thyroid autoimmunity and breast cancer, these two types of diseases may occur concurrently in certain patients. The chief goal of this meta-analysis is to perform a combined analysis of the raw data from all included studies, and thereby obtain a reliable conclusion concerning whether TgAb or TPOAb positivity and breast cancer are indeed correlated. METHODS: To determine whether a correlation exists between TgAb or TPOAb positivity and breast cancer, this study performed a review of the literature that began by searching for articles in Chinese or English from the Medline, Embase, Web of Science core, Wanfang, Weipu and SinoMed databases, published during the time span extending from January 1980 to December 2017. On the basis of these raw data, we calculated odds ratio (OR) values, 95% confidence interval (CI) values, and P values. RESULTS: A total of 11 studies were included in this study. By combining the raw data from the retrieved studies, we were able to perform a meta-analysis. The results of this meta-analysis support the hypothesis that patients with breast cancer have a higher TgAb or TPOAb positive rate than the non-breast disease control group (TgAb: OR = 2.71, 95% CI = 1.81-4.05, P < 0.001; TPOAb: OR = 2.86, 95% CI = 2.17-3.77, P < 0.001, respectively). Testing for publication bias indicated that no significant publication bias was present in this meta-analysis, and sensitivity analysis indicated that the results of analysis were stable and reliable. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this meta-analysis suggest strongly that, the TgAb or TPOAb positive rate among patients with breast cancer should be higher than among the non-breast disease control group.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/sangue , Autoantígenos/imunologia , Neoplasias da Mama/complicações , Iodeto Peroxidase/imunologia , Proteínas de Ligação ao Ferro/imunologia , Tireoidite Autoimune/epidemiologia , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Prevalência , Tireoidite Autoimune/sangue , Tireoidite Autoimune/diagnóstico , Tireoidite Autoimune/imunologia
16.
United European Gastroenterol J ; 8(2): 148-156, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32213077

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coeliac disease (CD) is associated with an increased risk of other immune-mediated conditions. Aim: To investigate the prevalence of coexistent immune-mediated diseases in CD patients, and changes in the prevalence of autoimmune thyroidal diseases over the last 50 years. METHODS: Medical record data were collected retrospectively from 749 CD patients in Ireland. Prevalence of autoimmune diseases was compared with previously published results from general populations. Patients were divided into four groups based on the year of diagnosis to analyse changes in the prevalence of autoimmune thyroidal disease over time. RESULTS: Median age at the time of CD diagnosis was 56 years (range 18-91 years). A total of 233 (31.1%) patients had a coexistent immune-mediated condition (IMC). Autoimmune thyroidal diseases were seen in 149 (19.9%) patients, hypothyroidism in 110 (14.7%), type 1 diabetes in 27 (3.6%), psoriasis in 20 (2.7%), inflammatory bowel disease in 14 (1.9%) and rheumatoid arthritis in 12 (1.6%). All conditions were more common in CD patients than in the general population. Type 1 diabetes was diagnosed mainly before CD, whereas there was no such trend in other conditions. Autoimmune thyroidal diseases became less common in female CD patients over time. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of autoimmune diseases is increased in adult CD patients compared with the general population. However, concomitant autoimmune thyroidal diseases became less common over time in women.


Assuntos
Doença Celíaca/epidemiologia , Hipotireoidismo/epidemiologia , Tireoidite Autoimune/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Artrite Reumatoide/epidemiologia , Artrite Reumatoide/imunologia , Doença Celíaca/imunologia , Comorbidade/tendências , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipotireoidismo/imunologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/epidemiologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/imunologia , Irlanda/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Psoríase/epidemiologia , Psoríase/imunologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tireoidite Autoimune/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Clin Immunol ; 212: 108350, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31982645

RESUMO

Autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT)-related brain damage is one of most severe extrathyroidal manifestations of AIT, but the mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we confirmed that protein disulfide-isomerase A3 (PDIA3) is expressed in both thyroid and brain tissues of mouse, and found the significantly increased serum levels of anti-PDIA3 antibody (PDIA3Ab) in classical mouse models of thyroiditis. In addition, we investigated the PDIA3-specific autoimmune reaction in thyroid and brain tissues in a mouse model with high-serum PDIA3Ab induced by immunization with recombinant PDIA3 protein. PDIA3-immunized mice had elevated serum thyrotropin and impaired learning and memory. PDIA3-expressing cells had IgG deposition, and IgG colocalized with C3 in the thyroid and brain tissues of PDIA3-immunized mice, resulting in membrane attack complex formation. Our results suggest that PDIA3 protein may be a common autoantigen shared by the thyroid and brain tissues and involve in the thyroidal and intracerebral damage through activating complement system.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Encéfalo/imunologia , Encefalite/imunologia , Doença de Hashimoto/imunologia , Isomerases de Dissulfetos de Proteínas/imunologia , Glândula Tireoide/imunologia , Tireoidite Autoimune/imunologia , Animais , Apoptose/imunologia , Autoantígenos/imunologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/ultraestrutura , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Encefalite/patologia , Encefalite/fisiopatologia , Potenciais Pós-Sinápticos Excitadores/fisiologia , Doença de Hashimoto/patologia , Doença de Hashimoto/fisiopatologia , Potenciação de Longa Duração/fisiologia , Aprendizagem em Labirinto , Camundongos , Glândula Tireoide/patologia , Tireoidite Autoimune/patologia , Tireoidite Autoimune/fisiopatologia
18.
Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 34(1): 101373, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864909

RESUMO

The association between autoimmune atrophic gastritis and thyroid disorders has been observed since the early 1960s and the expression "thyrogastric syndrome" was coined to indicate the presence of thyroid autoantibodies or autoimmune thyroid disease in patients with pernicious anemia, a late clinical stage of autoimmune atrophic gastritis. More recently, it was confirmed that autoimmune thyroid disorders, in particular Hashimoto's thyroiditis, may be frequently associated with other organ-specific, immune-mediated disorders, such as autoimmune atrophic gastritis or celiac disease. The association of Hashimoto's thyroiditis with autoimmune atrophic gastritis or celiac disease in adult patients is currently considered part of the polyglandular autoimmune syndromes which include several autoimmune disorders associated with an autoaggressive impairment of endocrine glands. From a clinical point of view, the thyro-entero-gastric autoimmunity may lead to potentially serious consequences like anemia, micronutrients deficiencies, and drugs malabsorption, as well as to an increased risk for malignancies. These alterations may frequently present in an underhand manner, with consequent diagnostic and treatment delays. Many aspects of the association between thyroid, gastric and intestinal autoimmune diseases still await clarification. The present review focuses on the embryological, genetic and pathophysiological aspects of thyro-entero-gastric autoimmunity. In particular, the current diagnostic criteria of autoimmune thyroid disease, autoimmune atrophic gastritis, and celiac disease are reviewed, along with the evidences for their association in poly-autoimmunity syndromes. The benefits of proactive screening of autoimmune thyroid disorders in patients with autoimmune gastritis or enteropathy and viceversa are also discussed.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/etiologia , Doenças Autoimunes/terapia , Gastrite/terapia , Enteropatias/terapia , Tireoidite Autoimune/terapia , Adulto , Autoimunidade/fisiologia , Gastrite/complicações , Gastrite/etiologia , Gastrite/imunologia , Humanos , Enteropatias/etiologia , Enteropatias/imunologia , Enteropatias/patologia , Poliendocrinopatias Autoimunes/etiologia , Poliendocrinopatias Autoimunes/imunologia , Poliendocrinopatias Autoimunes/terapia , Tireoidite Autoimune/etiologia , Tireoidite Autoimune/imunologia , Tireoidite Autoimune/patologia
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31486759

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an acquired immune mediated disorder characterized by isolated thrombocytopenia. Pediatric ITP patients can develop autoantibodies such as anti-thyroglobulin (TG) and anti-thyroperoxidase (TPO), even in the absence of clinical signs of autoimmune disease. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to provide a review about: 1) the prevalence of positivity of anti-thyroid antibodies (TPO and TG) in pediatric patients with chronic ITP; 2) the role of autoimmune thyroiditis on the outcome of chronic ITP. METHODS: The authors individually completed a review of the literature for this article. Retrospective and prospective clinical studies with pediatric cohorts were considered. RESULTS: From the analysis of data, we found 4 papers which included studies only on pediatric population, and which corresponded to selected criteria. Pediatric ITP patients have been shown to have a statistically significant prevalence of anti-thyroid antibodies over healthy controls (11.6-36% versus 1.2-1.3%). No correlation has been found between the platelet count and the prevalence of positive anti-thyroid antibodies at any time of the follow up. CONCLUSION: The results of our bibliographic research demonstrated that: a) pediatric patients with chronic ITP tend to have a statistically significant prevalence of anti-thyroid antibodies positivity respect to general pediatric population; b) there are no clear data about the role of autoimmune thyroiditis as prognostic factor for chronic course of ITP in pediatric age.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/sangue , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/sangue , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/diagnóstico , Glândula Tireoide/metabolismo , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Púrpura Trombocitopênica Idiopática/imunologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Glândula Tireoide/imunologia , Tireoidite Autoimune/sangue , Tireoidite Autoimune/diagnóstico , Tireoidite Autoimune/imunologia
20.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 50(2): e13192, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31815292

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Defined by thyroid-pituitary feedback control, clinical diagnosis of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism has become synonymous with TSH measurement. We combined in silico analysis and in vivo data to explore the central influences on thyroidal T3 production. MATERIALS & METHODS: A system of five coupled first-order nonlinear parameterised ordinary differential equations (ODEs) is used to model the feedback control of TSH and TRH by thyroid hormones together with the feedforward control of thyroidal T3 secretion and enzymatic T4-T3 conversion. Dependencies of the stable equilibrium solutions of this ODE system, that is the homeostasis of the underlying physiological process, on the system parameters were investigated whether they accounted for clinical observations. RESULTS: During the modelled transition to hypothyroidism, central control imposed an increasing influence in maintaining serum FT3 levels, compared to peripheral conversion efficiency. Numerical continuation analysis revealed dependencies of T3 production on different elements of TSH feedforward control. While T4-T3 conversion provided the main T3 source in euthyroidism, this was overtaken by increasing glandular T3 secretion when thyroid reserve declined. The computational results were in good agreement with data from untreated patients with autoimmune thyroiditis. CONCLUSIONS: Dependencies revealed in the expression of control differ in thyroid health and disease, using a physiologically based mathematical model of combined feedback-feedforward control of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid regulation. Strong T3-protective mechanisms of the control system emerge with declining thyroid function, when glandular T3 secretion becomes increasingly influential over conversion efficiency. This has wide-ranging implications for the utility of TSH in clinical decision-making.


Assuntos
Retroalimentação Fisiológica , Hipotireoidismo/metabolismo , Glândula Tireoide/metabolismo , Tireoidite Autoimune/metabolismo , Tireotropina/metabolismo , Tiroxina/metabolismo , Tri-Iodotironina/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Simulação por Computador , Feminino , Humanos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/metabolismo , Hipotireoidismo/imunologia , Iodeto Peroxidase/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , Hipófise/metabolismo , Tireoidite Autoimune/imunologia , Hormônio Liberador de Tireotropina/metabolismo
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