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1.
J Insect Sci ; 18(5)2018 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30260452

RESUMO

The presence and distribution of Scirtothrips dorsalis was reported in Colombia in the Andean, Caribbean, and Orinoquia regions, from 0 to 1,200 meters of altitude (MASL) in the warm climate zone, with less than 2,000 mm rainfall per year and a temperature above 24°C, which corresponds to the tropical dry forest life zone (TDF). Larvae and adults of S. dorsalis were found on 13 plant species belonging to 12 genera in 12 families, of 181 plant species sampled from 129 genera in 47 families sampled. The botanical species with S. dorsalis presence included cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) L., mango (Mangifera indica) L., chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens) L., bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) L., orange (Citrus sinensis) L., jasmine orange (Murraya paniculata) L., rose (Rosa sp.), and the weeds Sesbania exaltata (Mill.), Phyllanthus niruri L., Ludwigia hyssopifolia Vahl, Euphorbia hypericifolia L., Echinochloa colona L., and Amaranthus spinosus (L.). S. dorsalis prefers young leaves and floral structures, but in cotton it was also associated with squares. The low number of host plants is evident, far from the extensive lists obtained by other authors in other latitudes. S. dorsalis invaded Colombia only in recent years, and this is the first study of the presence and distribution of this thrips in the area.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Cadeia Alimentar , Tisanópteros/fisiologia , Animais , Colômbia , Dieta , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/fisiologia , Plantas , Dinâmica Populacional , Tisanópteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento
2.
J Econ Entomol ; 111(3): 1185-1189, 2018 05 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29659890

RESUMO

The western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is an important pest of fresh horticultural produce and as such is considered a biosecurity risk in many countries from which it is absent. Information is needed on the radiation tolerance of important surface pests of quarantine importance such as F. occidentalis so that phytosanitary irradiation treatments for exported fresh commodities can be lowered to below the 400 Gy generic treatment currently approved for most insects in the United States and Australia. Lowering the dose will help minimize any product quality problems, reduce costs, and shorten treatment time. In large-scale confirmatory trials conducted in two independent laboratories in Hawaii and Australia, a dose of 250 Gy (measured doses 222-279 Gy) applied to adult F. occidentalis on green beans resulted in no reproduction in 5,050 treated individuals. At 250 Gy, the effective dose is significantly below the 400 Gy generic dose, demonstrating that irradiation at this lowered level is an effective method for the disinfestation of F. occidentalis from fresh horticultural produce.


Assuntos
Controle de Insetos/métodos , Tisanópteros/efeitos da radiação , Raios X , Animais , Hawaii , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/efeitos da radiação , New South Wales , Quarentena/métodos , Tisanópteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento
3.
J Econ Entomol ; 111(3): 1171-1176, 2018 05 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29506210

RESUMO

A research-scale phosphine generator, QuickPHlo-R, from United Phosphorus Ltd. (Mumbai, India) was tested to determine whether it was suitable for low-temperature fumigation and oxygenated phosphine fumigation of harvested lettuce. Vacuum cooled Iceberg and Romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa) were fumigated in 442-liter chambers at 2°C for 24 and 72 h for control of western flower thrips [Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)] and lettuce aphid [Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosely) (Homoptera: Aphididae)]. Oxygenated phosphine fumigation for 48 h under 60% O2 was also conducted at 2°C with Iceberg and Romaine lettuce for control of lettuce aphid. The generator completed phosphine generation in 60-90 min. Complete control of western flower thrips was achieved in 24-h treatment, and the 48-h oxygenated fumigation, and 72-h regular fumigation treatments completely controlled lettuce aphid. Lettuce quality was evaluated 14 d after fumigation. There was increased incidence of brown stains on fumigated Iceberg lettuce, and the increases were more obvious in longer (≥48 h) treatments. Both Iceberg and Romaine lettuce from all treatments and controls had good visual quality even though there was significantly higher brown stain incidence on fumigated Iceberg lettuce in ≥48-h treatment and significant differences in quality score for both Iceberg and Romaine lettuce in the 72-h treatment. The brown stains were likely due to the high sensitivity of lettuce to carbon dioxide. The study indicated that QuiPHlo-R phosphine generator has potential in low-temperature phosphine fumigation due to the quick establishment of desired phosphine levels, efficacy in pest control, and reasonable safety to product quality.


Assuntos
Afídeos , Temperatura Baixa , Fumigação , Controle de Insetos , Alface , Fosfinas , Tisanópteros , Animais , Afídeos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Inseticidas , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ninfa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tisanópteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento
4.
J Econ Entomol ; 111(2): 892-898, 2018 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29506223

RESUMO

Traditional identification of thrips species based on morphology is difficult, laborious, and especially challenging for immature thrips. To support monitoring and management efforts of thrips as consistent and widespread pests of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), a probe-based quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay with crude DNA extraction was developed to allow efficient and specific identification of the primary species of thrips infesting cotton. The assay was applied to identify over 5,000 specimens of thrips (including 3,366 immatures) collected on cotton seedlings from Alabama, Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia in 2016. One half of all adult samples were examined by morphological identification, which provided a statistically equivalent species composition as the qPCR method. Frankliniella fusca (Hinds) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) was the dominant species across all the locations (76.8-94.3% of adults and 81.6-98.0% of immatures), followed by Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in Georgia, North Carolina, and Virginia (4.6-19% of adults and 1.7-17.3% of immatures) or Frankliniella tritici (Fitch) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in South Carolina (10.8% of adults and 7.8% of immatures). Thrips tabaci (Lindeman) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and Neohydatothrips variabilis (Beach) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) were occasionally found among adults but were rarely present among immature thrips. These five species of thrips represented 98.2-100% of samples collected across the Southeast. The qPCR assay was demonstrated to be a valuable tool for large-scale monitoring of species composition of thrips at different life stages in cotton. The tool will contribute to a better understanding of thrips population structure in cotton and could assist with development and application of improved management strategies.


Assuntos
Cadeia Alimentar , Gossypium , Herbivoria , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Tisanópteros/classificação , Animais , DNA Intergênico/análise , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/análise , Gossypium/fisiologia , Proteínas de Insetos/análise , Larva/classificação , Larva/genética , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos , Tisanópteros/anatomia & histologia , Tisanópteros/genética , Tisanópteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento
5.
Environ Entomol ; 47(3): 623-628, 2018 06 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29596611

RESUMO

Tomato spotted wilt orthotospovirus (TSWV) is a major disease in peanut, Arachis hypogaea L., across peanut producing regions of the United States and elsewhere. Two thrips, Frankliniella fusca Hinds and Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), are considered important vectors of TSWV in peanut in the Southeast. We compared the efficiency of acquisition (by larvae) and transmission (adults) of both thrips species for TSWV (Texas peanut-strain) to leaf disks of peanut (Florunner), as well as to Impatiens walleriana Hook. f. (Dwarf White Baby) and Petunia hybrida Juss. 'Fire Chief' using double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA). Both species were competent TSWV vectors in peanut and Impatiens, although F. fusca was the more efficient vector overall, i.e., virus acquisition and transmission rates for F. fusca averaged over several bioassays were 51.7 and 26.6%, respectively, compared with 20.0 and 15.3% for F. occidentalis. Neither species effectively transmitted this TSWV strain to Petunia (i.e., ≤3.6% transmission). We found statistically similar virus acquisition and transmission rates between both sexes for each species. We also detected no differences in TSWV-acquisition and transmission frequency between macropterous and brachypterous (short-wing) forms of F. fusca collected from a field population in south Texas. DAS-ELISA failed to detect low levels of TSWV in a few thrips that subsequently proved to be competent vectors.


Assuntos
Arachis/virologia , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Tisanópteros/fisiologia , Tospovirus/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/fisiologia , Larva/virologia , Masculino , Especificidade da Espécie , Tisanópteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tisanópteros/virologia
6.
Pest Manag Sci ; 74(7): 1564-1574, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29427375

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spinetoram, a new type of spinosyn with novel modes of action, has been used in effective thrips control programs, but resistance remains a threat. In the present study, a laboratory Thrips hawaiiensis population was subjected to spinetoram for resistance selection to investigate resistance development, stability, cross-resistance potential, biological fitness and underlying biochemical mechanisms. RESULTS: Resistance to spinetoram in T. hawaiiensis rapidly increased 103.56-fold (for 20 generations of selection with spinetoram) compared with a laboratory susceptible population, and the average realized heritability (h2 ) of resistance was calculated as 0.1317. Maintaining the resistant population for five generations without any further selection pressure resulted in a decline in the resistance ratio from 19.42- to 9.50-fold, suggesting that spinetoram resistance in T. hawaiiensis is unstable. Moreover, the spinetoram-resistant population exhibited a lack of cross-resistance to other classes of insecticides, and showed biological fitness costs. The results of synergism experiments using enzyme inhibitors and biochemical analyses revealed that metabolic mechanisms might not be responsible for the development of spinetoram resistance in T. hawaiiensis. CONCLUSION: The current study expands understanding of spinosyn resistance in thrips species, providing a basis for proposing better integrated pest management strageties for thrips control programs and defining the most appropriate tools for such resistance management. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Resistência a Inseticidas , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Macrolídeos/farmacologia , Tisanópteros/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Feminino , Aptidão Genética , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Masculino , Ninfa/efeitos dos fármacos , Ninfa/genética , Ninfa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tisanópteros/genética , Tisanópteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento
7.
J Econ Entomol ; 111(2): 755-760, 2018 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29408978

RESUMO

Environmental temperature has a significant impact on insect behavior. The present study aimed to determine the effects of temperature on the development, survival, and reproduction of Thrips hawaiiensis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), an important flower-inhabiting thrips. These effects were evaluated at five constant temperatures (18, 21, 24, 27, and 30°C) on thrips reared in the laboratory on excised Gardenia jasminoides flowers. The developmental durations of egg, first instar, second instar, prepupa, pupa, and the entire immature stages were shortened in response to a temperature increase from 18 to 30°C. The highest generational survival rate was at 27°C (75.00%), whereas the lowest was at 18°C (46.00%). The minimum threshold and effective accumulated temperatures for completing a generation of T. hawaiiensis were 7.62°C and 171.26 degree-days, respectively. The highest fecundity (95.80) was at 27°C, but it was not significantly different than at 24°C (84.72) or 30°C (84.32). The highest oviposition rate of 5.57 eggs per female per day occurred at 27°C, which was significantly higher than at any other temperature. Both the highest intrinsic rate of increase, at 0.200, and net reproduction rate, at 44.97, for T. hawaiiensis were observed at 27°C, whereas the lowest values of 0.114 and 25.56, respectively, were observed at 18°C. These results suggest that T. hawaiiensis is well adapted to temperate conditions, with an optimal temperature range for development of 24 to 30°C, with the most suitable temperature for both development and reproduction being 27°C.


Assuntos
Temperatura Ambiente , Tisanópteros/fisiologia , Animais , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/fisiologia , Longevidade , Óvulo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Óvulo/fisiologia , Pupa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pupa/fisiologia , Reprodução , Tisanópteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento
8.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 73(2): 209-221, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29128983

RESUMO

The poinsettia thrips, Echinothrips americanus Morgan, is an upcoming pest in greenhouse crops, causing serious damage in various vegetable and ornamental crops through extensive foliage feeding. We assessed which stages of E. americanus are attacked and killed by the phytoseiid predatory mites Amblyseius swirskii (Athias-Henriot), Amblydromalus limonicus (Garman and McGregor), Euseius gallicus Kreiter and Tixier and Euseius ovalis (Evans). Both the predation and oviposition rates were assessed in the laboratory to evaluate which mite species is potentially the most effective predator of E. americanus. In two greenhouse trials with non-flowering sweet pepper plants, we compared the efficacy of the predators E. gallicus and E. ovalis with A. swirskii and we assessed how this was affected by the application of cattail pollen. All stages of E. americanus, except adults, were consumed by all species of predatory mites. The highest predation and oviposition rates were recorded for A. limonicus followed by A. swirskii and E. ovalis when first and second larval stages were provided as prey, but E. ovalis appeared to be the best predator of thrips pupae. Euseius gallicus displayed very low predation and oviposition rates compared to the other species of predatory mites. Cattail pollen did not support the population growth of poinsettia thrips, but it strongly increased the predatory mite population densities, particularly those of E. ovalis. Both A. swirskii and E. ovalis significantly reduced thrips densities on plants. The application of pollen significantly enhanced the control of E. americanus by A. swirskii; this was not the case for E. ovalis. Euseius gallicus did not reduce densities of E. americanus on sweet pepper plants, not even at high densities in the presence of pollen.


Assuntos
Ácaros/fisiologia , Oviposição , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Comportamento Predatório , Tisanópteros , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/fisiologia , Ácaros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pólen , Pupa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Especificidade da Espécie , Tisanópteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento
9.
J Gen Virol ; 98(8): 2156-2170, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28741996

RESUMO

Persistent propagative viruses maintain intricate interactions with their arthropod vectors. In this study, we investigated the transcriptome-level responses associated with a persistent propagative phytovirus infection in various life stages of its vector using an Illumina HiSeq sequencing platform. The pathosystem components included a Tospovirus, Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), its insect vector, Frankliniella fusca (Hinds), and a plant host, Arachis hypogaea (L.). We assembled (de novo) reads from three developmental stage groups of virus-exposed and non-virus-exposed F. fusca into one transcriptome consisting of 72 366 contigs and identified 1161 differentially expressed (DE) contigs. The number of DE contigs was greatest in adults (female) (562) when compared with larvae (first and second instars) (395) and pupae (pre- and pupae) (204). Upregulated contigs in virus-exposed thrips had blastx annotations associated with intracellular transport and virus replication. Upregulated contigs were also assigned blastx annotations associated with immune responses, including apoptosis and phagocytosis. In virus-exposed larvae, Blast2GO analysis identified functional groups, such as multicellular development with downregulated contigs, while reproduction, embryo development and growth were identified with upregulated contigs in virus-exposed adults. This study provides insights into differences in transcriptome-level responses modulated by TSWV in various life stages of an important vector, F. fusca.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Insetos Vetores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Insetos Vetores/genética , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Tisanópteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tisanópteros/genética , Tospovirus/fisiologia , Animais , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Insetos Vetores/virologia , Larva/genética , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/virologia , Tisanópteros/virologia , Tospovirus/genética , Transcriptoma
10.
Environ Entomol ; 46(3): 722-728, 2017 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28472267

RESUMO

Development and fecundity were investigated in an invasive alien thrips species, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), and a related native species, Frankliniella intonsa (Trybom), under high CO2 concentration. Results show that the two thrips species reacted differently toward elevated CO2 concentration. Developmental duration decreased significantly (11.93%) in F. occidentalis at the CO2 concentration of 800 µl/liter; survival rate of all stages also significantly increased (e.g., survival rate of first instar increased 17.80%), adult longevity of both female and male extended (e.g., female increased 2.02 d on average), and both fecundity and daily eggs laid per female were higher at a CO2 concentration of 800 µl/liter than at 400 µl/liter. Developmental duration of F. intonsa decreased, insignificantly, at a CO2 concentration of 800 µl/liter. Unlike F. occidentalis, survival rate of F. intonsa declined considerably at higher CO2 concentration level (e.g., survival rate of first instar decreased 19.70%), adult longevity of both female and male curtailed (e.g., female reduced 3.82 d on average), and both fecundity and daily eggs laid per female were reduced to 24.86 and 0.83, respectively, indicating that there exist significant differences between the two CO2 levels. Results suggest that the population fitness of invasive thrips species might be enhanced with increase in CO2 concentration, and accordingly change the local thrips population composition with their invasion.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Aptidão Genética , Tisanópteros/fisiologia , Animais , China , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Fertilidade , Espécies Introduzidas , Larva/genética , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/fisiologia , Masculino , Especificidade da Espécie , Tisanópteros/genética , Tisanópteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento
11.
J Econ Entomol ; 110(4): 1755-1763, 2017 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28444324

RESUMO

Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) is an economically important pest of agricultural crops. High resistance has been detected in field populations of F. occidentalis against the insecticide spinosad. In this study, we compared life history traits, body sizes, and feeding behaviors (recorded via an electrical penetration graph) of spinosad-susceptible (Ivf03) and spinosad-resistant (NIL-R) near-isogenic lines of F. occidentalis. Life table analysis showed that NIL-R had reduced female longevity and reduced fecundity. The relative fitness of NIL-R (0.43) was less than half that of Ivf03. NIL-R individuals were smaller than Ivf03 individuals, both in body length and body width at every stage. The number and duration of feeding activities were significantly reduced in NIL-R, with the exception of total duration of long-ingestion probes. These results suggest that there is a fitness trade-off associated with spinosad resistance in F. occidentalis, and that the development of resistance in this pest species may be reduced by rotating spinosad with other pesticides lacking cross-resistance.


Assuntos
Aptidão Genética , Resistência a Inseticidas , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Macrolídeos/farmacologia , Tisanópteros/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Combinação de Medicamentos , Comportamento Alimentar/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Masculino , Ninfa/efeitos dos fármacos , Ninfa/genética , Ninfa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ninfa/fisiologia , Pupa/efeitos dos fármacos , Pupa/genética , Pupa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pupa/fisiologia , Tisanópteros/genética , Tisanópteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tisanópteros/fisiologia
12.
Environ Entomol ; 46(3): 538-543, 2017 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28398551

RESUMO

Knowledge about the prey preference of polyphagous predators is important for determining their ability to suppress pest insects. Tetranychus truncatus (Tetranychidae), Tetranychus turkestani (Tetranychidae), and Thrips tabaci (Thripidae) often coexist in crops. Neoseiulus bicaudus (Wainstein) is a native predatory mite that was recently observed in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of northwest China. The objective of this study was to assess the potential of N. bicaudus as a bio-control agent against the three pest species mentioned above. The results showed that N. bicaudus protonymphs, deutonymphs, and adults can be effective biological control agents for the three pest species. Neoseiulus bicaudus at all three developmental stages exhibited a Holling's Type II (convex) functional response to the prey. Neoseiulus bicaudus exhibited no preference between T. truncatus adults and T. turkestani adults, irrespective of the prey ratio. In comparison, N. bicaudus clearly preferred first-instar T. tabaci larvae to T. turkestani adults. The results of this study suggest that N. bicaudus could help control T. truncatus, T. turkestani, and T. tabaci. Among these pests, N. bicaudus may be most effective for first-instar T. tabaci.


Assuntos
Ácaros/fisiologia , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Comportamento Predatório , Animais , China , Feminino , Cadeia Alimentar , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/fisiologia , Ácaros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ninfa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ninfa/fisiologia , Tetranychidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tetranychidae/fisiologia , Tisanópteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tisanópteros/fisiologia
13.
J Econ Entomol ; 110(2): 416-420, 2017 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28334123

RESUMO

Lily (Lilium longiflorum Thunb.) is the most representative bulb flower, and it is the third most important flower in the flower industry of South Korea after rose and chrysanthemum. To determine the efficacy of X-ray irradiation for use in quarantine processing, two species of flower thrips (Frankliniella intonsa (Trybom) and Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande)) were placed in the top, middle, and bottom locations of lily boxes and irradiated with different X-ray doses. After irradiation with an X-ray dose of 150 Gy, the egg hatching of the two flower thrips was completely inhibited at every location in the lily boxes, and the irradiated F. intonsa and F. occidentalis nymphs failed to emerge as adult in every location of the lily boxes. When the adults were irradiated at 150 Gy, the fecundity of the two flower thrips was markedly lower than that of the untreated control groups. The F1 generation failed to hatch at the top and middle locations, whereas the F1 generation of both F. intonsa and F. occidentalis was not suppressed at the bottom locations, even at 200 Gy. However, hatching was perfectly inhibited at 300 Gy of X-ray irradiation. Also, X-rays did not affect the postharvest physiology of cut lilies. Therefore, a minimum dose of 300 Gy is recommended for the control of F. intonsa and F. occidentalis for the exportation of lily.


Assuntos
Controle Biológico de Vetores , Tisanópteros/efeitos da radiação , Raios X , Animais , Feminino , Fertilidade/efeitos da radiação , Flores , Lilium/fisiologia , Lilium/efeitos da radiação , Ninfa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ninfa/efeitos da radiação , República da Coreia , Tisanópteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tisanópteros/fisiologia
14.
Virology ; 500: 226-237, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27835811

RESUMO

Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is transmitted by Frankliniella occidentalis in a circulative-propagative manner. Little is known about thrips vector response to TSWV during the infection process from larval acquisition to adult inoculation of plants. Whole-body transcriptome response to virus infection was determined for first-instar larval, pre-pupal and adult thrips using RNA-Seq. TSWV responsive genes were identified using preliminary sequence of a draft genome of F. occidentalis as a reference and three developmental-stage transcriptomes were assembled. Processes and functions associated with host defense, insect cuticle structure and development, metabolism and transport were perturbed by TSWV infection as inferred by ontologies of responsive genes. The repertoire of genes responsive to TSWV varied between developmental stages, possibly reflecting the link between thrips development and the virus dissemination route in the vector. This study provides the foundation for exploration of tissue-specific expression in response to TSWV and functional analysis of thrips gene function.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Insetos Vetores/genética , Insetos Vetores/virologia , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Tisanópteros/genética , Tisanópteros/virologia , Tospovirus/fisiologia , Animais , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Insetos Vetores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Insetos Vetores/metabolismo , Tisanópteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tisanópteros/metabolismo , Tospovirus/genética , Transcriptoma
15.
Zootaxa ; 4189(2): zootaxa.4189.2.10, 2016 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27988739

RESUMO

Neohydatothrips amygdali sp. n. is described from southern Iran together with the first record of a micropterous form of Neohydatothrips abnormis (Karny). The new species is unusual among Sericothripinae in having only one pair of mid-dorsal setae on tergite IX. An illustrated identification key is provided to 5 species of Neohydatothrips namely, N. abnormis, N. amygdali, N. gracilicornis (Williams), N. gracilipes (Hood) and N. tadzhicus (Pelikan) from Iran.


Assuntos
Tisanópteros/classificação , Estruturas Animais/anatomia & histologia , Estruturas Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Feminino , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Tisanópteros/anatomia & histologia , Tisanópteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento
16.
Zootaxa ; 4171(1): 196-200, 2016 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27701259

RESUMO

Until now, 16 species of Panchaetothripinae in 11genera have been recorded from Japan (Kudo 1992a,b). Recently, however, three further species were found, in the genera Phibalothrips and Caliothrips, and one purpose of this report is to record these two genera from Japan for the first time. The four known species of Phibalothrips occur mainly in the Old World tropics, and are associated with grasses (Mound 2011), whereas the 22 known species of Caliothrips are found in the tropics and subtropics worldwide and feed on a range of different plants including grasses. In this article, P. rugosus, C. punctipennis and C. tongi are newly recorded from Japan, and the male of P. rugosus and second instar larva of C. tongi are described for the first time. Moreover, an identification key to the known species of Phibalothrips is provided. Larval chaetotaxy is based on Heming (1991) and Vierbergen et al. (2010). The specimens studied are deposited in Yokohama Plant Protection Station, Naha Plant Protection Station and the authors' collection.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Tisanópteros/anatomia & histologia , Tisanópteros/fisiologia , Animais , Japão , Larva/anatomia & histologia , Larva/classificação , Larva/fisiologia , Tisanópteros/classificação , Tisanópteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento
17.
J Econ Entomol ; 109(6): 2543-2550, 2016 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27744286

RESUMO

The development of simple and reliable pest sampling programs is needed for growers to adopt economic or aesthetic injury levels. We developed a sampling plan for monitoring chilli thrips Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood populations on KnockOut shrub roses under simulated nursery conditions. The distribution of S. dorsalis among different plant structures revealed that most adults and larvae are found on foliar terminals, when compared with buds and flowers. Based on thrips distribution, the third leaf of actively growing terminals was used to determine a sequential sampling model. Thrips had an aggregated distribution, based on Taylor's power law and Iwao's mean crowding index, with both models showing a good fit (i.e., R2 of ∼0.8 and ∼0.9, respectively). Based on these model parameters, the number of samples required to estimate populations with a 10% precision was ∼30 leaves according to Green's and Kuno's enumerative sequential sampling plans. A binomial model also estimated the proportion of infested leaf terminals as a function of insect density with an R2 value of 0.85. An additional study demonstrated that correlation between visual damage to the third leaf terminal and initial thrips populations was modeled by simple power functions. This finding suggests that a more rapid visual sampling of plant damage can be used to indirectly estimate S. dorsalis populations. Our sampling plan provides a tool to monitor S. dorsalis populations that could be used to help make management decisions for this pest in commercial nurseries.


Assuntos
Controle de Insetos/métodos , Rosa , Tisanópteros , Animais , Larva , Modelos Teóricos , Rosa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tisanópteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento
18.
Zootaxa ; 4161(1): 116-8, 2016 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27615912

RESUMO

Danothrips salicis sp. n. is described from young leaves of Salix sp. in Southwestern China. This species is similar to D. moundi, D. theifolii and D. trifasciatus, but can be distinguished by the colour of the fore wing, the median longitudinal split on tergite X of females, and in males by the situation of the median short thorn-like setae on tergite IX.


Assuntos
Tisanópteros/classificação , Estruturas Animais/anatomia & histologia , Estruturas Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , China , Feminino , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Folhas de Planta/parasitologia , Salix/parasitologia , Tisanópteros/anatomia & histologia , Tisanópteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento
19.
Arthropod Struct Dev ; 45(5): 496-507, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27623430

RESUMO

A new set of data on the internal and external structure of the adult and larva of the thrips Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis (Bouché, 1833) is presented. The structure of the internal systems of this thrips was revealed using modern methods of 3D computer modelling. The changes in shape and relative size are discussed as an outcome of miniaturization in comparison to the supposed ancestor of this species. The layout of the internal systems of thrips is compared to those of other insects similar in size: beetles of the families Ptiliidae and Corylophidae and wasps of the families Mymaridae and Trichogrammatidae.


Assuntos
Tisanópteros/anatomia & histologia , Anatomia Comparada , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Besouros/anatomia & histologia , Besouros/ultraestrutura , Imagem Tridimensional , Larva/anatomia & histologia , Larva/ultraestrutura , Tisanópteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tisanópteros/ultraestrutura , Vespas/anatomia & histologia , Vespas/ultraestrutura
20.
Environ Entomol ; 45(5): 1235-1242, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27566527

RESUMO

Earlier studies have shown that Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) influences the biology, performance, and behavioral patterns of its vector Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande. In this study, using Capsicum annuum L. as the host plant, we aimed to determine the manipulation of F. occidentalis by TSWV through switching of the diet (+ or -TSWV) during vector's development. Behavioral patterns, fitness, as well as vector performance were evaluated. The specific parameters investigated included longevity/survival, fecundity, development time, feeding, and preferential behavior. F. occidentalis were reared on either TSWV-infected (exposed) or healthy leaves (non-exposed) throughout their larval stages. The emerging adults were then individually transferred to either healthy or TSWV-infected leaf disks. This resulted into four treatments, consisting of exposed or non-exposed thrips reared on either infected or healthy leaf disks as adults. All F. occidentalis exposed to TSWV in their larval stages had shorter development time regardless of the adults' diet. Whereas, the ones that were later reared on healthy leaf disks as adults recorded the highest longevity and reproduction rate. Furthermore, adults of F. occidentalis that were exposed to TSWV in their larval stages showed preference toward healthy leaf disks (-TSWV), whereas the non-exposed significantly preferred the infected leaf disks (+TSWV). These are further indications that TSWV modifies the nutritional content of its host plants, which influences vector's biology and preferential behavior, in favor of its multiplication and dispersal. The findings offer additional explanation to the often aggressive spread of the virus in crop stands.


Assuntos
Capsicum/fisiologia , Insetos Vetores/fisiologia , Tisanópteros/fisiologia , Tospovirus/fisiologia , Animais , Capsicum/virologia , Dieta , Feminino , Insetos Vetores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Insetos Vetores/virologia , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/fisiologia , Larva/virologia , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/virologia , Tisanópteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tisanópteros/virologia
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