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2.
Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop ; 156(4): 566-573, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31582128

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Accurate root position is imperative for successful orthodontic treatment that is stable and functional. Current methods to monitor root position are either inaccurate or use relatively high levels of radiation. A method to generate an expected root position (ERP) setup has been reported to have the potential to accurately evaluate root position with minimal radiation. The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy and reliability of the clinical decisions made on root position using the ERP setup. METHODS: This retrospective study included 10 subjects who had pretreatment and midtreatment cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans and study models. An ERP setup was generated for all patients at midtreatment. Four examiners assessed both the CBCT scan and ERP setup and made clinical decisions regarding the root position with each method. Cohen's kappa was determined to assess intraoperator and intermethod reliability. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were calculated to determine the accuracy of the ERP setup. RESULTS: The kappa values for intraoperator reliability for both the CBCT scan and ERP setup fell within the 0.61-0.80 range. The kappa values for intermethod reliability between the CBCT scan and ERP setup fell within the 0.61-0.80 range for all tooth groups. The sensitivity of the ERP setup ranged from 0.72 to 0.90, specificity ranged from 0.89 to 0.97, positive predictive value ranged from 0.57 to 0.85, and negative predictive value ranged from 0.93 to 0.99. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that the ERP setup, when compared with the gold standard CBCT scan, was accurate and reliable in making clinical decisions regarding root position at midtreatment.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico/métodos , Imagem Tridimensional/métodos , Técnicas de Movimentação Dentária , Raiz Dentária/anatomia & histologia , Raiz Dentária/diagnóstico por imagem , Modelos Dentários , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
4.
Am Surg ; 85(9): 1033-1039, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638520

RESUMO

Regionalization of complex surgical care has increased interhospital transfers to quaternary centers within large health-care systems. Risk-based patient selection is imperative to improve resource allocation without compromising care. This study aimed to develop predictive models for identifying low-risk patients for transfer to a fully integrated satellite hepatopancreatobiliary (HPB) service in the northeast region of the health-care system. HPB transfers to the quaternary center over 15 months from hospitals in proximity to the satellite HPB center. A predictive tool was developed based on simple pretransfer variables and outcomes for 30-day major complications (Clavien grade ≥ 3), readmission, and mortality. Thresholds for "low risk" were set at different SDs below mean for each model. Predictive models were developed from 51 eligible northeast region patient transfers for major complications (Brier score 0.1948, receiver operator characteristic (ROC) 0.7123, P = 0.0009), readmission (Brier score 0.0615, ROC 0.7368, P = 0.0020), and mortality (Brier score 0.0943, ROC 0.7989, P = 0.0023). Thresholds set from 2 SD below the mean for all models identified 2 as "low risk." Adjusting the threshold for the serious complication model to only 1 SD below the mean increased the "low-risk" cohort to five patients. These models demonstrate an easy-to-use tool to assist surgeons in identifying low-risk patients for diversion to a fully integrated satellite center. Improved interhospital transfers within a region could begin a transition from centers of excellence toward health-care systems of excellence.


Assuntos
Doenças Biliares/cirurgia , Hepatopatias/cirurgia , Modelos Logísticos , Pancreatopatias/cirurgia , Transferência de Pacientes , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Cuidados Críticos , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Planejamento Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , North Carolina , Readmissão do Paciente , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Medição de Risco/métodos
7.
Semin Vasc Surg ; 32(1-2): 41-47, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540656

RESUMO

Diagnostic testing performed in the noninvasive vascular laboratory is a cornerstone of care for patients with suspected or known vascular disease. The Society for Vascular Surgery has mandated that vascular surgery resident training include mentored experience in performing vascular laboratory testing and interpreting its results. The trainee should be experienced with vascular laboratory instrumentation and testing protocols, be knowledgeable in ultrasound imaging of vascular anatomy, and be competent to classify disease severity relevant to the study indication. The scope of test interpretation should include peripheral arterial, peripheral venous, cerebrovascular, and visceral abdominal testing using duplex ultrasound supplemented by indirect physiologic testing for peripheral arterial and venous disease. The emergence of endovascular therapy has expanded duplex ultrasound applications in the areas of screening, procedural imaging, and surveillance following intervention. Pre-procedure testing to assess disease location and severity, and vein mapping for dialysis access or extremity bypass grafting provide important patient-specific information that can reduce the need for more invasive vascular imaging. It is recommended that trainees acquire the hand-on skills to perform duplex testing in vascular clinic and inpatient sites, such as the emergency department and operating room. Training programs should have a structured vascular laboratory curriculum that documents annual educational milestones that encompass both test interpretation aptitude and hands-on duplex scanning skills. Before completion of training, the resident should acquire documented experience in test interpretation sufficient to take the Physician Vascular Interpretation examination, which is required for American Board of Surgery certification as a vascular surgeon.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/cirurgia , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Cardiovascular , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Internato e Residência , Cirurgiões/educação , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/educação , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Currículo , Humanos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
8.
Semin Vasc Surg ; 32(1-2): 73-80, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540660

RESUMO

The use of autologous femoral veins for in situ reconstruction of the aortoiliac segment is an effective technique to treat native aorta or prosthetic graft infections. The indications, technical details, and outcomes of this procedure are detailed. Graft infection involving the aortic segment, while rare, remains one of the most challenging vascular surgery conditions to treat. The original technique of "neo-aortoiliac surgery" with in situ autologous vein grafts has evolved over the past 25 years and remains a worthwhile alternative for the treatment of aortic graft infections, with lower mortality rates compared with other extra-anatomic or in situ surgical options. Acceptance of this surgical option is due to low graft re-infection rates, rare graft disruption, and low long-term aneurysmal degeneration. Excision of the femoral veins is associated with acceptable rates of lower limb edema. The use of an autologous femoral vein graft can be considered the standard of care in selected patients for the management of aortic graft infections. Optimal management of patients with aortic graft infections requires consideration of all potential therapeutic options because no single modality can be used, and individualizing treatment according to the clinical condition will yield the best patient outcomes.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Infectado/cirurgia , Aorta/cirurgia , Aneurisma Aórtico/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese Vascular/efeitos adversos , Prótese Vascular/efeitos adversos , Veia Femoral/transplante , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos , Aneurisma Infectado/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma Infectado/microbiologia , Aorta/diagnóstico por imagem , Aorta/microbiologia , Aneurisma Aórtico/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma Aórtico/microbiologia , Implante de Prótese Vascular/instrumentação , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Remoção de Dispositivo , Humanos , Seleção de Pacientes , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/microbiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/efeitos adversos , Reoperação , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Cancer Radiother ; 23(6-7): 720-731, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471255

RESUMO

Stereotactic radiotherapy (or Stereotactic body radiotherapy [SBRT]) is a technique currently well established in the therapeutic arsenal for the management of bronchial cancers. It represents the standard treatment for inoperable patients or who refuses surgery. It is well tolerated, especially in elderly and frail patients, and the current issue is to define its indications in operated patients, based on retrospective and randomized trials comparing stereotactic radiotherapy and surgery, with results equivalents. This work analyzes in detail the different aspects of pulmonary stereotactic radiotherapy and suggests arguments that help in the therapeutic choice between surgery and stereotaxic irradiation. In all cases, the therapeutic decision must be discussed in a multidisciplinary consultation meeting, while informing the patient of the possible therapeutic options.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/radioterapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/radioterapia , Radiocirurgia/métodos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/cirurgia , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/cirurgia , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Equipolência Terapêutica
10.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 17(1): 136, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382960

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fatigue has a major influence on the quality of life of people with multiple sclerosis. The Fatigue Severity Scale is a frequently used patient-reported measure of fatigue impact, but does not generate the health state utility values required to inform cost-effectiveness analysis, limiting its applicability within decision-making contexts. The objective of this study was to use statistical mapping methods to convert Fatigue Severity Scale scores to health state utility values from three preference-based measures: the EQ-5D-3L, SF-6D and Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale-8D. METHODS: The relationships between the measures were estimated through regression analysis using cohort data from 1056 people with multiple sclerosis in South West England. Estimation errors were assessed and predictive performance of the best models as tested in a separate sample (n = 352). RESULTS: For the EQ-5D and the Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale-8D, the best performing models used a censored least absolute deviation specification, with Fatigue Severity Scale total score, age and gender as predictors. For the SF-6D, the best performing model used an ordinary least squares specification, with Fatigue Severity Scale total score as the only predictor. CONCLUSIONS: Here we present algorithms to convert Fatigue Severity Scales scores to health state utility values based on three preference-based measures. These values may be used to estimate quality-adjusted life-years for use in cost-effectiveness analyses and to consider the health-related quality of life of people with multiple sclerosis, thereby informing health policy decisions.


Assuntos
Fadiga/psicologia , Esclerose Múltipla/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adulto , Tomada de Decisão Clínica/métodos , Estudos de Coortes , Análise Custo-Benefício , Inglaterra , Fadiga/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose Múltipla/complicações , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
11.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 263: 23-34, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411150

RESUMO

Information theory has gained application in a wide range of disciplines, including statistical inference, natural language processing, cryptography and molecular biology. However, its usage is less pronounced in medical science. In this chapter, we illustrate a number of approaches that have been taken to applying concepts from information theory to enhance medical decision making. We start with an introduction to information theory itself, and the foundational concepts of information content and entropy. We then illustrate how relative entropy can be used to identify the most informative test at a particular stage in a diagnosis. In the case of a binary outcome from a test, Shannon entropy can be used to identify the range of values of test results over which that test provides useful information about the patient's state. This, of course, is not the only method that is available, but it can provide an easily interpretable visualization. The chapter then moves on to introduce the more advanced concepts of conditional entropy and mutual information and shows how these can be used to prioritise and identify redundancies in clinical tests. Finally, we discuss the experience gained so far and conclude that there is value in providing an informed foundation for the broad application of information theory to medical decision making.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Teoria da Informação , Entropia , Humanos
12.
Khirurgiia (Mosk) ; (8): 41-45, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464273

RESUMO

AIM: To determine the optimal surgical approach to insulin-producing pancreatic tumors via an analysis of early postoperative results. MATERIAL AND METHODS: There were 134 patients with insulin-producing pancreatic tumors followed by organic hyperinsulinism who have undergone surgery in the faculty-based surgical clinic of the Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University for the period 1990-2017. Patients were divided into three groups depending on type of surgical intervention. Surgical procedure was determined after comprehensive preoperative and intraoperative examination including intraoperative ultrasound. RESULTS: Incidence of postoperative complications was 32.8%. Ten (7.5%) patients required redo surgical interventions. Overall postoperative mortality was 4.5%. The best immediate results were observed in patients undergoing distal pancreatectomy. There was a correlation between incidence of early postoperative complications and tumor location depth in the enucleation group. CONCLUSION: Enucleation is advisable for insulinoma of pancreatic head or uncinated process, as well as superficial tumors of the left half of the pancreas. Distal pancreatectomy is indicated for deep tumors of the left half of the pancreas. Indications for pancreatoduodenectomy are individual.


Assuntos
Hiperinsulinismo/cirurgia , Insulinoma/cirurgia , Pancreatectomia/métodos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirurgia , Comportamento de Escolha , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Humanos , Hiperinsulinismo/etiologia
13.
Cancer Radiother ; 23(6-7): 526-530, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400957

RESUMO

The decision to reirradiate a volume which had been previously irradiated remains in 2019 one of the most difficult challenge for a radiation oncologist. Such a decision has to be based on a number of clinical and technological criteria, and the radiation oncologist will have to answer three main questions: i) can the patient clinically tolerate a second irradiation in the same previously irradiated area? While waiting for fully reliable individual tests of radiosensitivity, one has to take into account the tolerance of the first irradiation, as well as the comorbidities and/or habits which could impact the patient intrinsic radiosensitivity; ii) do the technical data of the first radiotherapy allow a re-irradiation? Unfortunately, and essentially when the discussion of re-irradiating the patient occurs many years (or even decades) after the first treatment, those precise technical data can be missing; iii) which technique should be used for the re-irradiation? In such a specific situation, the patient should be offered the more precise modern technology: stereotactic radiotherapy, protons, brachytherapy (low-, high-, or pulsed-dose rate). The indisputable improvement of the ballistic precision linked to our new technologies should lead to refine and to develop the indications of re-irradiation in the next future.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Tolerância a Radiação , Reirradiação/métodos , Braquiterapia/métodos , Humanos , Terapia com Prótons , Radioterapia , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Vasc Endovascular Surg ; 53(7): 572-582, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382837

RESUMO

BACKGROUND-AIM: Limited data exist concerning the fluid dynamic changes induced by endovascular aortic repair with fenestrated and chimney graft modalities in pararenal aneurysms. We aimed to investigate and compare the wall shear stress (WSS) and flow dynamics for the branch vessels before and after endovascular aortic repair with fenestrated and chimney techniques. METHODS: Modeling was done for patient specific pararenal aortic aneurysms employing fenestrated and chimney grafts (Materialise Mimics 10.0) before and after the endovascular procedure, using computed tomography scans of patients. Surface and spatial grids were created using the ANSYS CFD meshing software 2019 R2. Assessment of blood flow, streamlines, and WSS before and after aneurysm repair was performed. RESULTS: The endovascular repair with chimney grafts leaded to a 43% to 53% reduction in perfusion in renal arteries. In fenestrated reconstruction, we observed a 15% reduced perfusion in both renal arteries. In both cases, we observed a decrease in the recirculation phenomena of the aorta after endovascular repair. Concerning the grafts of the renal arteries, we observed in both the transverse and longitudinal axes low WSS regions with simultaneous recirculation of the flow 1 cm distal to the ostium sites in both aortic graft models. High WSS regions appeared in the sites of ostium. CONCLUSIONS: We observed reduced renal perfusion in chimney grafts compared to fenestrated grafts, probably caused by the long and kinked characteristics of these devices.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese Vascular/instrumentação , Prótese Vascular , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Procedimentos Endovasculares/instrumentação , Modelos Cardiovasculares , Modelagem Computacional Específica para o Paciente , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/fisiopatologia , Aortografia/métodos , Implante de Prótese Vascular/efeitos adversos , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Hidrodinâmica , Seleção de Pacientes , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico por imagem , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/fisiopatologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Desenho de Prótese , Interpretação de Imagem Radiográfica Assistida por Computador , Circulação Renal , Estresse Mecânico , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Ther Adv Cardiovasc Dis ; 13: 1753944719863641, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31364490

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This analysis aimed to evaluate the impact of rivaroxaban exposure and patient characteristics on efficacy and safety outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and to determine whether therapeutic drug monitoring might provide additional information regarding rivaroxaban dose, beyond what patient characteristics provide. METHODS: A post hoc exposure-response analysis was conducted using data from the phase III ATLAS ACS 2 Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) 51 study, in which 15,526 randomized ACS patients received rivaroxaban (2.5 mg or 5 mg twice daily) or placebo for a mean of 13 months (maximum follow up: 31 months). A multivariate Cox model was used to correlate individual predicted rivaroxaban exposures and patient characteristics with time-to-event clinical outcomes. RESULTS: For the incidence of myocardial infarction (MI), ischemic stroke, or nonhemorrhagic cardiovascular death, hazard ratios (HRs) for steady-state maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) in the 5th and 95th percentiles versus the median were statistically significant but close to 1 for both rivaroxaban doses. For TIMI major bleeding events, a statistically significant association was observed with Cmax [HR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.06-1.11 (95th percentile versus median, 2.5 mg twice daily)], sex [HR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.38-0.84 (female versus male)], and previous revascularization [HR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.44-0.87 (no versus yes)]. CONCLUSIONS: The shallow slopes of the exposure-response relationships and the lack of a clear therapeutic window render it unlikely that therapeutic drug monitoring in patients with ACS would provide additional information regarding rivaroxaban dose beyond that provided by patient characteristics.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Modelos Biológicos , Rivaroxabana/administração & dosagem , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/sangue , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/mortalidade , Idoso , Isquemia Encefálica/mortalidade , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Cálculos da Dosagem de Medicamento , Monitoramento de Medicamentos , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Inibidores do Fator Xa/farmacocinética , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos , Rivaroxabana/farmacocinética , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Biochem Med (Zagreb) ; 29(3): 030703, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31379461

RESUMO

Introduction: Communication of laboratory critical risk results is essential for patient safety, as it allows early decision making. Our aims were: 1) to retrospectively evaluate the current protocol for telephone notification of critical risk results in terms of rates, efficiency and recipient satisfaction, 2) to assess their use in clinical decision making and 3) to suggest alternative tools for a better assessment of notification protocols. Materials and methods: The biochemical critical risk result notifications reported during 12 months by routine and STAT laboratories in a tertiary care hospital were reviewed. Total number of reports, time for the notification and main magnitudes with critical risk results were calculated. The use of notifications in clinical decision making was assessed by reviewing medical records. Satisfaction with the notification protocol was assessed through an online questionnaire to requesting physicians and nurses. Results: Critical result was yielded by 0.1% of total laboratory tests. Median time for notification was 3.2 min (STAT) and 16.9 min (routine). The magnitudes with a greater number of critical results were glucose and potassium for routine analyses, and troponin, sodium for STAT. Most notifications were not reflected in the medical records. Overall mean satisfaction with the protocol was 4.2/5. Conclusion: The results obtained indicate that the current protocol is appropriate. Nevertheless, there are some limitations that hamper the evaluation of the impact on clinical decision making. Alternatives were proposed for a proper and precise evaluation.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Análise Química do Sangue , Humanos , Laboratórios Hospitalares , Registros Médicos/normas , Potássio/sangue , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sódio/sangue , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Bone Joint J ; 101-B(8): 951-959, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362551

RESUMO

AIMS: This study aimed to develop a virtual clinic for the purpose of reducing face-to-face orthopaedic consultations. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Anonymized experts (hip and knee arthroplasty patients, surgeons, physiotherapists, radiologists, and arthroplasty practitioners) gave feedback via a Delphi Consensus Technique. This consisted of an iterative sequence of online surveys, during which virtual documents, made up of a patient-reported questionnaire, standardized radiology report, and decision-guiding algorithm, were modified until consensus was achieved. We tested the patient-reported questionnaire on seven patients in orthopaedic clinics using a 'think-aloud' process to capture difficulties with its completion. RESULTS: A patient-reported 13-item questionnaire was developed covering pain, mobility, and activity. The radiology report included up to ten items (e.g. progressive periprosthetic bone loss) depending on the type of arthroplasty. The algorithm concludes in one of three outcomes: review at surgeon's discretion (three to 12 months); see at next available clinic; or long-term follow-up/discharge. CONCLUSION: The virtual clinic approach with attendant documents achieved consensus by orthopaedic experts, radiologists, and patients. The robust development and testing of this standardized virtual clinic provided a sound platform for organizations in the United Kingdom to adopt a virtual clinic approach for follow-up of hip and knee arthroplasty patients. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2019;101-B:951-959.


Assuntos
Assistência ao Convalescente/normas , Artroplastia de Quadril , Artroplastia do Joelho , Tomada de Decisão Clínica/métodos , Procedimentos Clínicos/normas , Telemedicina/normas , Assistência ao Convalescente/métodos , Algoritmos , Técnica Delfos , Humanos , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Radiografia , Telemedicina/métodos , Reino Unido
19.
Georgian Med News ; (291): 20-25, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418724

RESUMO

Breast cancer (BC) is the most commonly occurring oncologic disease in women over the world. The introduction of modern methods of diagnostics and treatment of BC patients allowed achieving some success in the disease control. Chemotherapy (CT) is one of the most effective treatments for BC patients, but the individualization of the choice of effective treatment regimens remains an unresolved issue. Aim of the study: to develop approaches to enhance the effectiveness of treatment of BC patients following the levels of circulating serum miRNAs, which are associated with sensitivity to polychemotherapy. Basing on the analysis of literature data we selected the pattern with 10 miRNAs (200с, 205, 30а, 155, 25-3p, 27а, 663, 335, 139-5р, and 497), circulating in blood serum, as markers of sensitivity/resistance of breast tumors to chemotherapy. A mathematic model was developed to estimate the effectiveness of the standard CT regimens basing on the level of expression of chosen miRNAs. Experimental verification of mathematic model performance was provided with Fortran 2018 program complex. We developed a tool of decision-making support for oncologists that may significantly facilitate the development of the CT tactics in BC patients at the stage of selection of effective CT regimen. The developed mathematic model may serve as a basis for scheduling of effectiveness prognosis of certain polychemotherapy regimens in an individual patient.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Biomarcadores , Feminino , Humanos , Prognóstico , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Pflege ; 32(5): 249-258, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432750

RESUMO

When and how do intensive care nurses consider pain in the treatment process of ICU patients? A qualitative study Abstract. Background: Pain management is important in the therapeutic spectrum of the intensive care unit. However, guideline recommendations are not consistently implemented. Strategies in clinical reasoning and decision-making regarding pain are hardly described. AIM: Guided by the question "When and how do intensive care nurses consider pain in the treatment process of patients with impaired consciousness and cognition?", we wanted to explore their patterns of thought and decision-making in the context of pain management. METHODS: As part of a Mixed Methods research program on pain assessment in nonverbal intensive care patients we performed a secondary analysis of data from the qualitative substudy using qualitative content analysis according to Mayring. RESULTS: Pain plays an important but subordinate role in the treatment process. After vital functions have been initially stabilized, intensive care nurses assess patients' consciousness and cognition in order to receive further information directly from them. Intensive care nurses differentiate between pain, anxiety, stress and discomfort. Their decisions are based on experience and intuition. CONCLUSIONS: Education promotes intensive care nurses' knowledge and awareness in pain management. Observational pain assessment instruments provide valid information. They support an analytical approach and thus the development of competence in clinical reasoning and decision-making.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Enfermagem de Cuidados Críticos , Medição da Dor/enfermagem , Cuidados Críticos , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Pesquisa Qualitativa
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