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1.
Proc Biol Sci ; 290(1990): 20221786, 2023 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36629097

RESUMO

Sand mining, which has tripled in the last two decades, is an emerging concern for global biodiversity. However, the paucity of sand mining data worldwide prevents understanding the extent of sand mining impacts and how it affects wildlife populations and ecosystems, which is critical for timely mitigation and conservation actions. Integrating remote sensing and field surveys over 14 years, we investigated mining impacts on the critically endangered Yangtze finless porpoise (Neophocaena asiaeorientalis asiaeorientalis) in Dongting Lake, China. We found that sand mining presented a consistent, widespread disturbance in Dongting Lake. Porpoises strongly avoided mining sites, especially those of higher mining intensity. The extensive sand mining significantly contracted the porpoise's range and restricted their habitat use in the lake. Water traffic for sand transportation further blocked the species's river-lake movements, affecting the population connectivity. In addition, mining-induced loss of near-shore habitats, a critical foraging and nursery ground for the porpoise, occurred in nearly 70% of the water channels of our study region. Our findings provide the first empirical evidence of the impacts of unregulated sand extractions on species distribution. Our spatio-temporally explicit approach and findings support regulation and conservation, yielding broader implications for sustainable sand mining worldwide.


Assuntos
Toninhas , Areia , Animais , Ecossistema , Cetáceos , Toninhas/fisiologia , Lagos , China , Mineração
2.
Environ Int ; 171: 107679, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36493609

RESUMO

The bans on bisphenol A (BPA) have facilitated the widespread use of BPA alternatives and shifted environmental contamination profiles of bisphenols (BPs). However, the continued reports of toxicities of emerging BPA alternatives have raised questions about whether the shifting profiles are contributed to mitigate BPs-mediated endocrine-disruption effects (EDEs). Cetaceans are commonly used as the ideal sentinel species for monitoring marine pollutants of concern and determining potential health effects, but far less is known about BP loads and BPs-mediated EDEs in cetaceans. Here we measured the hepatic concentrations of six BPs in eight stranded cetacean species (n = 41) in the South China Sea, between 2007 and 2020. The large-bodied whales generally showed higher ∑BPs concentrations than the small-bodied dolphins. In Indo-Pacific finless porpoises (Neophocaena phocaenoides) (n = 33), BPA concentrations first increased (2007-2014) and then decreased (2014-2020), while ∑BPAlternatives concentrations increased from 2007 to 2020. It appears that the alternatives gradually replaced BPA, probably due to the BPA-related bans in China. In order to examine the hormone disruption of BPA and its alternatives in finless porpoises, five blubber hormones (cortisol, progesterone, testosterone, triiodothyronine and tetraiodothyronine), which are proven to be validated endocrine biomarkers, were measured in 21 samples. Tetraiodothyronine, testosterone, and cortisol were significantly and positively correlated with BPA and its alternatives, suggesting that the interference of endocrine hormone homeostasis may continue to occur despite the changes of BP profiles in finless porpoises. This is the first investigation of the relationship between hormone and BP concentrations in cetaceans and represents a substantial advance in understanding BPs-mediated endocrine effects on cetaceans.


Assuntos
Golfinhos , Toninhas , Animais , Hidrocortisona , Compostos Benzidrílicos/toxicidade , Testosterona
3.
Sci Data ; 9(1): 765, 2022 12 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36513679

RESUMO

In recent years, conservation efforts have increased for rare and endangered aquatic wildlife, especially cetaceans. However, the East Asian finless porpoise (Neophocaena asiaeorientalis sunameri), which has a wide distribution in China, has received far less attention and protection. As an endangered small cetacean, the lack of a chromosomal-level reference for the East Asian finless porpoise limits our understanding of its population genetics and conservation biology. To address this issue, we combined PacBio HiFi long reads and Hi-C sequencing data to generate a gapless genome of the East Asian finless porpoise that is approximately 2.5 Gb in size over its 21 autosomes and two sex chromosomes (X and Y). A total of 22,814 protein-coding genes were predicted where ~97.31% were functionally annotated. This high-quality genome assembly of East Asian finless porpoise will not only provide new resources for the comparative genomics of cetaceans and conservation biology of threatened species, but also lay a foundation for more speciation, ecology, and evolutionary studies. Measurement(s) Neophocaena asiaeorientalis sunameri • Gapless genome assembly • sequence annotation Technology Type(s) MGISEQ. 2000 • PacBio HiFi Sequencing • Hi-C Sample Characteristic - Organism Neophocaena asiaeorientalis sunameri Sample Characteristic - Environment seawater Sample Characteristic - Location Yellow Sea near Lianyungang City, Jiangsu Province, China.


Assuntos
Genoma , Toninhas , Animais , China , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Toninhas/genética
4.
Environ Pollut ; 315: 120358, 2022 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36228850

RESUMO

The susceptibility to trace metals and legacy POPs is different between terrestrial and marine mammals. In this study, we established the first cell line from Indo-Pacific finless porpoises and compared the cellular responses of skin fibroblast cells from Pygmy killer whales, Pantropic spotted dolphins, Indo-Pacific finless porpoises, mice, and humans following exposure to copper, methylmercury, cadmium, PCB126, PCB153, and BDE47 to better understand the interspecies sensitivities of mammals to chemical pollutants. We conducted a risk assessment by comparing no-observed effect concentrations (NOEC), lowest-observed effect concentrations (LOEC), and half maximal effective concentrations (EC50) from cell viability assays and previously reported pollutant body burdens in mammals. Based on the in vitro data, Indo-Pacific finless porpoises were more sensitive to copper and methylmercury than other mammals. PCB153 exposure reduced cell viability in all mammals except humans, while PCB126 was more potent, with 13.33 µg/mL exposure reducing cell viability in all mammals. In contrast, BDE47 exposure reduced cell viability only in terrestrial mammals in addition to pantropic spotted dolphin. Based on the in vitro data and the natural context of metal concentrations, both methylmercury and cadmium posed a higher risk to cetaceans than human, while copper posed a lower risk to cetaceans. All three legacy POPs (PCB126, PCB153, and BDE47) posed minor risk to cetaceans for short-term exposure. This study demonstrated that a species-specific in vitro model may provide more accurate information on the potential risk of pollutants to mammals. However, due to the bioamplification of POPs and their potential impact on the endocrine system and immune system of cetaceans, risk assessment with long-term exposure with more in vitro models should be further studied.


Assuntos
Golfinhos , Poluentes Ambientais , Compostos de Metilmercúrio , Toninhas , Oligoelementos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Humanos , Animais , Camundongos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/metabolismo , Cobre/toxicidade , Cobre/metabolismo , Cádmio/metabolismo , Toninhas/metabolismo , Golfinhos/metabolismo , Oligoelementos/toxicidade , Oligoelementos/metabolismo , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Fibroblastos
5.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(10)2022 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36292586

RESUMO

The finless porpoise (Neophocaena phocaenoides Cuvier, 1829) is distributed in the coastal waters of Asia, throughout Indonesia to the east, and as far north as the Taiwan Strait. The finless porpoise has been declared critically endangered by the WWF (World Wide Fund for Nature), and in 2017 was rated vulnerable on the IUCN Red Threatened Species List. Since this species is distributed near the coast and has many interactions with humans, effective conservation of the species requires further studies into their genetic diversity and population. In this study, 45 samples were obtained from bycatch or stranded individuals in the East, South, and West Seas, where Korean porpoises were mainly distributed from 2017-2021. We compared 473 bp mtDNA sequences from the control region. Pairwise fixation indices (FST) revealed that the two populations differed significantly (FST = 0.4557, p = 0.000). In contrast to high levels of genetic differentiation, gene flow was identified as medium levels (Nm of 0.04-0.71). Our data suggest that finless porpoises may have undergone a historic differentiation event, and that finless porpoises in the three regions could be divided into two populations: West and East/South.


Assuntos
Toninhas , Humanos , Animais , Toninhas/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Fluxo Gênico , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , República da Coreia
6.
Viruses ; 14(9)2022 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36146656

RESUMO

Cetacean poxviruses (CePVs) cause 'tattoo' skin lesions in small and large cetaceans worldwide. Although the disease has been known for decades, genomic data for these poxviruses are very limited, with the exception of CePV-Tursiops aduncus, which was completely sequenced in 2020. Using a newly developed pan-pox real-time PCR system targeting a conserved nucleotide sequence located within the Monkeypox virus D6R gene, we rapidly detected the CePV genome in typical skin lesions collected from two Peruvian common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) by-caught off Peru in 1993. Phylogenetic analyses based on the sequencing of the DNA polymerase and DNA topoisomerase genes showed that the two viruses are very closely related to each other, although the dolphins they infected pertained to different ecotypes. The poxviruses described in this study belong to CePV-1, a heterogeneous clade that infects many species of dolphins (Delphinidae) and porpoises (Phocoenidae). Among this clade, the T. truncatus CePVs from Peru were more related to the viruses infecting Delphinidae than to those detected in Phocoenidae. This is the first time that CePVs were identified in free-ranging odontocetes from the Eastern Pacific, surprisingly in 30-year-old samples. These data further suggest a close and long-standing pathogen-host co-evolution, resulting in different lineages of CePVs.


Assuntos
Golfinho Nariz-de-Garrafa , Chordopoxvirinae , Toninhas , Poxviridae , Animais , Golfinho Nariz-de-Garrafa/genética , Cetáceos , Chordopoxvirinae/genética , DNA Topoisomerases/genética , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA/genética , Peru/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Toninhas/genética , Poxviridae/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
7.
Proc Biol Sci ; 289(1980): 20221090, 2022 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35919995

RESUMO

Extreme asymmetry of the skull is one of the most distinctive traits that characterizes toothed whales (Odontoceti, Cetacea). The origin and function of cranial asymmetry are connected to the evolution of echolocation, the ability to use high-frequency sounds to navigate the surrounding environment. Although this novel phenotype must arise through changes in cranial development, the ontogeny of cetacean asymmetry has never been investigated. Here we use three-dimensional geometric morphometrics to quantify the changes in degree of asymmetry and skull shape during prenatal and postnatal ontogeny for five genera spanning odontocete diversity (oceanic dolphins, porpoises and beluga). Asymmetry in early ontogeny starts low and tracks phylogenetic relatedness of taxa. Distantly related taxa that share aspects of their ecology overwrite these initial differences via heterochronic shifts, ultimately converging on comparable high levels of skull asymmetry. Porpoises maintain low levels of asymmetry into maturity and present a decelerated rate of growth, probably retained from the ancestral condition. Ancestral state reconstruction of allometric trajectories demonstrates that both paedomorphism and peramorphism contribute to cranial shape diversity across odontocetes. This study provides a striking example of how divergent developmental pathways can produce convergent ecological adaptations, even for some of the most unusual phenotypes exhibited among vertebrates.


Assuntos
Ecolocação , Toninhas , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Filogenia , Crânio , Baleias
8.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 149: 145-154, 2022 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35735234

RESUMO

Harbour porpoises are widely distributed in the North Atlantic and represent the most abundant cetacean species in the North and Baltic Seas. Spontaneous neoplasms are relatively rarely reported in cetaceans, and only little is known about neoplasia in harbour porpoises. Thus, archival material was reviewed for spontaneous neoplasms in harbour porpoises recorded during post-mortem examinations between 1999 and 2018. Neoplasms were identified in 7 adult porpoises: 6 animals originating from the North and Baltic Seas and investigated as part of German and Dutch systematic health monitoring programs, and 1 porpoise from Greenlandic waters. The tumours were of different histogenetic origins and further characterised by histology and immunohistochemistry. One individual had a neoplasia in the digestive tract (adenocarcinoma, n = 1); 4 animals, in the genital tract (Sertoli cell tumour, n = 1; genital leiomyoma/fibroleiomyoma, n = 3); and 2 porpoises, in endocrine organs (adrenal adenoma, n = 2). This is the first report of an adenocarcinoma in the liver, a testicular Sertoli cell tumour and adrenocortical adenomas in harbour porpoises. The cause of the tumorigenesis in examined cases remains undetermined. The involvement of endogenous factors, including mutation of cell cycle regulating genes, such as the tumour-suppressor gene p53, cannot be ruled out. The aetiopathogenetic significance of exogenous factors, such as infectious agents like liver flukes or anthropogenic factors, including persistent organic pollutants, should be the subject of future investigations.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma , Phocoena , Toninhas , Tumor de Células de Sertoli , Neoplasias Testiculares , Adenocarcinoma/veterinária , Animais , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Tumor de Células de Sertoli/veterinária , Neoplasias Testiculares/veterinária
9.
Arch Microbiol ; 204(7): 361, 2022 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35662380

RESUMO

This is a culture-dependent study with the objective of pure culturing and characterizing pathogenic bacteria from the blowhole, lung, stomach and fecal samples of a neonatal crucially endangered Yangtze finless porpoise (Neophocaena asiaeorientalis asiaeorientalis) that died 27 days after birth. Bacteria were inoculated using a swab onto blood and MacConkey agar plates and representative isolates were identified through 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. A total of three Clostridium perfringens type C strains from the fecal samples were isolated. Toxin genes, including cpa, cpb and cpb2, were detected by PCR amplification, whereas the etx, iap and cpe genes were not detected. Biofilm formation of the three strains was then examined. Only one strain was capable of biofilm formation. In addition, isolates showed strong resistance against the antibiotics amikacin (3/3), erythromycin (1/3), gentamicin (3/3), streptomycin (3/3), and trimethoprim (3/3), while sensitivity to ampicillin (3/3), bacitracin (3/3), erythromycin (2/3), penicillin G (3/3), and tetracycline (3/3). The results suggested C. perfringens type C could have contributed to the death of this neonatal porpoise.


Assuntos
Toninhas , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/genética , Biofilmes , Clostridium perfringens/genética , Eritromicina , Genótipo , Toninhas/genética , Toninhas/microbiologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 838(Pt 1): 155954, 2022 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35580683

RESUMO

Habitats of freshwater cetaceans are under increasing threats of deterioration globally. A complete understanding of long-term variations of habitat configurations is therefore critical. Poyang Lake in China contains a large and stable population of the Yangtze finless porpoise, a critically endangered freshwater cetacean species. However, constant water decline and intensified human activities in the lake since 2000 have led to uncertainty for porpoise conservation. We address this issue via remote sensing and hydrodynamic modeling of nine environmental variables during different seasons over the past two decades. The MaxEnt model was used to extrapolate changes in likely habitat configurations of the porpoise, and MARXAN algorithms delineated habitat protection priorities in different seasons. Results illustrate that flow velocity, water depth, Chl-a concentration, distance to grassland and boats greatly affect the porpoise distribution. Shifts in these environmental variables can lead to significant habitat decreases in all seasons. In particular, unstable hydrological regimes may force the porpoises to live in habitats with lower water depths for suitable flow velocity conditions in the dry season, and habitats are increasingly infringed by grassland and mudflats. High protection priority areas such as the northern channel and the estuaries of the tributaries urgently need long-term systematic and targeted surveys of ecosystem functionality and flexible management of anthropogenic activities. Combining remote sensing with hydrodynamic and species distribution models can also assist in understanding the situation of other aquatic species.


Assuntos
Toninhas , Animais , China , Ecossistema , Hidrologia , Lagos , Água
11.
Sci Prog ; 105(2): 368504221103776, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35635263

RESUMO

Cetaceans inhabit oceans throughout the world. Four specific odontocetes, namely Cuvier's beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris), Indo Pacific finless porpoise (Neophocaena phocaenoides), pygmy sperm whale (Kogia breviceps), and dwarf sperm whale (Kogia sima), have occasionally been found stranded along Thailand's coastal waters (the Andaman Sea and the Gulf of Thailand). Although shared haplotypes of each species for many locations have been found, and some species have revealed genetic structure through haplotype networks, cetaceans in Thai waters have never been investigated in terms of comparing haplotypes to those that have existed before. Herein, we have illustrated the matrilineally phylogeographic relationships among worldwide populations through Bayesian Phylogenetic tree computations using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) and Median-Joining Networks (MJNs). Unique haplotypes of the control region mitochondrial DNA of Thai odontocetes were found for all species. Moreover, a high degree of worldwide haplotype diversity (hd) above 0.8 among the four species was detected, while the lowest degree of nucleotide diversity (π) was observed in the Indo Pacific finless porpoise (1.12% ± 0.184%). An expansion of the effective female population size worldwide of three odontocete species was detected using Bayesian Skyline Reconstruction, but this did not include the Indo Pacific finless porpoise. Because Thai seas are located within the Indo Polynesian province, where this biodiversity hotspot exists, we speculate that these odontocetes may also inhabit specific habitats within the Malay Peninsula and Thailand's territorial waters. Therefore, closer attention and monitoring of these cetacean populations will be necessary for future conservation efforts.


Assuntos
Toninhas , Baleias , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Feminino , Filogenia , Toninhas/genética , Tailândia
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 822: 153651, 2022 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35124055

RESUMO

Stranding data can provide conservation-valuable information on cetaceans over long time and large space, representing a low-cost but useful approach to monitor these indicator species and their inhabiting environments. Here, we established a national dataset by collating all available records of cetacean strandings (CSs) along >30,000-km coastline of China over seven decades. Between 1950 and 2018, a total of 1763 CSs were recorded across 36 cetacean species from eight families. Importantly, 30.5% of the recorded species are currently recognized as threatened levels on the IUCN Red List. In quantity, Odontocete species accounted for 89.9% of total CSs. In 1763 CSs, 91.8% were events of single individual. Furthermore, 31.9% and 42.4% were events of alive and dead animals, respectively. The number of CSs increased gradually from 1950 to 2018, and more rapidly between 1990 and 2018. CSs occurred in all months, while a seasonal pattern could be observed with 38.5% reports between March and June. The most commonly recorded species were finless porpoises (Neophocaena spp., n = 492) and Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis, n = 291). The highest number of CSs (n = 478) was documented in Hong Kong, while the greatest species richness (n = 28) and the highest stranding density (24.6 CSs per 100-km coastline) were observed in Taiwan. Several CS hotspots were identified in the southern and eastern China, while hotspots differed among taxonomic categories. To conclude, these findings provided a comprehensive understanding of cetacean communities in the coastal waters of China, which are beneficial for improving further research, conservation, and management on cetaceans.


Assuntos
Golfinhos , Toninhas , Animais , Cetáceos , China , Hong Kong , Humanos
13.
J Paediatr Child Health ; 58(6): 978-984, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35060658

RESUMO

AIM: To develop a model for a paediatric sepsis registry for use in emergency care settings. A regional study, in the UK, was undertaken to identify the most basic registry components which are desirable and feasible using the concept of a minimum viable product. METHODS: Two-round survey of clinicians using a modified Delphi methodology in conjunction with a regional data collection project in three paediatric emergency departments across London. RESULTS: The survey identified 34 desirable information items to be included in a registry. Fifteen of 34 items are currently feasible from our experience of data collection. CONCLUSION: The development of a multi-centre paediatric sepsis registry sepsis may have several benefits but is currently extremely limited primarily because of technological fragmentation within our Health Service. Our findings have important implications for researchers wishing to plan sepsis surveillance programmes, locally and internationally.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Toninhas , Sepse , Animais , Criança , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos , Sistema de Registros , Sepse/diagnóstico
14.
Environ Sci Technol ; 56(10): 6113-6122, 2022 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33851820

RESUMO

Perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs), perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs), and emerging alternatives and precursors of these compounds were determined in tissues of finless porpoise (Neophocaena asiaeorientalis sunameri) collected from East China Sea in 2009-2010 and 2018-2019. The median hepatic concentrations of emerging poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), including 6:2 chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonate (6:2 Cl-PFESA), 8:2 chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonate (8:2 Cl-PFESA), 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoro-2-propanoate (HFPO-DA), and 4,8-dioxa-3H-perfluorononanoate (ADONA) were 16.2, 2.16, < LOQ (limit of quantification) and < LOQ ng/g ww (wet weight), respectively. The concentrations of legacy substances, perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), were 86.9 and 1.95 ng/g ww, respectively. The liver concentrations of 6:2 Cl-PFESA, HFPO-DA, and perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) increased with time between 2009-2010 and 2018-2019. Further, concentrations of PFOA showed a declining trend in finless porpoise, whereas PFOS and its precursor (i.e., perfluorooctane sulfonamide [FOSA]) showed an increasing trend with time between 2009-2010 and 2018-2019. Analysis of PFASs in nine different tissues/organs of finless porpoise (i.e., liver, heart, intestine, spleen, kidney, stomach, lung, muscle, and skin) revealed a similar distribution pattern between 6:2 Cl-PFESA and PFOS; however, the tissue distribution patterns differed between HFPO-DA and PFOA. The concentrations of PFAS alternatives in kidney were similar or lower than the prototype compounds PFOS and PFOA (i.e., 8:2 Cl-PFESA < 6:2 Cl-PFESA ≈ PFOS; HFPO-DA < PFOA), implying slow renal excretion of PFAS alternatives as that of legacy PFASs. The estimates of body burdens of PFASs in porpoises suggested comparable accumulation of PFAS alternatives and legacy PFSAs and PFCAs. This study provides novel information on temporal trends and tissue distribution of emerging PFASs in marine mammals in China.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Fluorcarbonetos , Toninhas , Alcanossulfonatos/análise , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/análise , Animais , China , Éter , Éteres , Fluorcarbonetos/análise
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 807(Pt 1): 150782, 2022 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619183

RESUMO

Identifying seasonal high-use habitats and migration corridors is the basis for migratory species conservation. Previous studies have focused on Marine Protected Areas, while freshwater ecosystems, often accompanied by severe hydrological fluctuations, suggest new perspectives for flexible management. Poyang Lake is an essential habitat for the critically endangered Yangtze finless porpoise (Neophocaena asiaeorientalis asiaeorientalis, YFP), supporting almost half of their natural population. However, studies on the movement patterns and habitat preferences of YFPs still lack there, preventing potential protected areas' effectiveness. In this study, we conducted 10 surveys for the YFP population in the main body and tributaries of Poyang Lake from October 2018 to August 2020. We used habitat modeling to analyze their seasonal habitat use and the environmental predictors. YFPs showed a seasonal movement pattern consistent with water level fluctuations. They entered the tributaries from the main lake body in low and medium water levels and returned to the main lake during high water level periods. The water depth was the most important environmental variable in each hydrological season that affects YFPs' habitat selection. The suitable water depth was about 4-8 m during the low water level, 6-12 m during the medium water level, and 7-20 m during the high water level. YFPs' 50% core habitats distribution showed noticeable seasonal changes. The proportion of their suitable habitats in the whole lake was relatively low, which was highest during high water level (16.89%), and the weakest during low water level (12.11%). Considering the seasonal movements of the YFPs in the lake, we recommend flexible management measures for their core habitats to alleviate human interference and restore their movement rhythm between the river and the lake, which shed light on protected area management for aquatic animals in such seasonal fluctuating habitats.


Assuntos
Toninhas , Animais , China , Ecossistema , Lagos , Rios , Estações do Ano
16.
Integr Zool ; 17(4): 638-655, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34751496

RESUMO

The stratification of blubber fatty acids (FAs) is a widely used strategy in marine mammals and can be influenced by many factors, including their diet, environmental temperature, and physiological status. There are 3 distinct finless porpoise species/subspecies in Chinese coastal and inland waters in a wide range from 20°N to 40°N. The biochemical stratification of the blubbers of finless porpoises in different regions may provide valuable information for understanding their environmental adaptations. The FA compositions of 4 geographic populations of finless porpoise (FP) collected from the Bohai Gulf, East China Sea, South China Sea, and Yangtze River were therefore analyzed and compared. The blubber FA compositions of finless porpoises were dominated by ΣMUFAs, followed by ΣSFAs and ΣPUFAs, and were generally consistent with those of other cetaceans. The blubber of finless porpoises was significantly stratified with increasing levels of ΣMUFAs and decreasing levels of ΣSFAs and ΣPUFAs from the inner to the outer layers. The 3 marine populations shared more similarities in their FA compositions and stratifications compared to the freshwater porpoises, particularly regarding the PUFAs in the inner layers, which might have been mainly influenced by the diet compositions of marine and freshwater porpoises. Contrary to what was expected, in the 3 marine populations, the SFA and MUFA levels showed opposite correlations (negative and positive, respectively) with habitat temperatures, possibly indicating an adaptation mechanism in finless porpoises characterized by a trade-off between the insulation and fluidity properties of the blubber through the adjustment of the compositions and gradients of MUFAs and SFAs across the blubber depth in response to environmental temperature/latitude changes.


Assuntos
Toninhas , Animais , China , Ácidos Graxos , Água Doce , Toninhas/fisiologia , Rios
17.
Environ Int ; 159: 107014, 2022 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34883460

RESUMO

Harbour porpoises are under pressure from increasing human activities. This includes the detonation of ammunition that was dumped in large amounts into the sea during and after World War II. In this context, forty-two British ground mines from World War II were cleared by means of blasting in the period from 28 to 31 August 2019 by a NATO unit in the German Exclusive Economic Zone within the marine protected area of Fehmarn Belt in the Baltic Sea, Germany. Between September and November 2019, 24 harbour porpoises were found dead in the period after those clearing events along the coastline of the federal state of Schleswig-Holstein and were investigated for direct and indirect effects of blast injury. Health evaluations were conducted including examinations of the brain, the air-filled (lungs and gastrointestinal tract) and acoustic organs (melon, acoustic fat in the lower jaw, ears and their surrounding tissues). The bone structure of the tympano-periotic complexes was examined using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT). In 8/24 harbour porpoises, microfractures of the malleus, dislocation of middle ear bones, bleeding, and haemorrhages in the melon, lower jaw and peribullar acoustic fat were detected, suggesting blast injury. In addition, one bycaught animal and another porpoise with signs of blunt force trauma also showed evidence of blast injury. The cause of death of the other 14 animals varied and remained unclear in two individuals. Due to the vulnerability and the conservation status of harbour porpoise populations in the Baltic Sea, noise mitigation measures must be improved to prevent any risk of injury. The data presented here highlight the importance of systematic investigations into the acute and chronic effects of blast and acoustic trauma in harbour porpoises, improving the understanding of underwater noise effects and herewith develop effective measures to protect the population level.


Assuntos
Traumatismos por Explosões , Phocoena , Toninhas , Animais , Traumatismos por Explosões/etiologia , Traumatismos por Explosões/veterinária , Explosões , Pulmão , II Guerra Mundial
18.
J Morphol ; 283(3): 273-286, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34962309

RESUMO

Vertebral morphology has profound biomechanical implications and plays an important role in adaptation to different habitats and foraging strategies for cetaceans. Extant porpoise species (Phocoenidae) display analogous evolutionary patterns in both hemispheres associated with convergent evolution to coastal versus oceanic environments. We employed 3D geometric morphometrics to study vertebral morphology in five porpoise species with contrasting habitats: the coastal Indo-Pacific finless porpoise (Neophocaena phocaenoides); the mostly coastal harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) and Burmeister's porpoise (Phocoena spinipinnis); and the oceanic spectacled porpoise (Phocoena dioptrica) and Dall's porpoise (Phocoenoides dalli). We evaluated the radiation of vertebral morphology, both in size and shape, using multivariate statistics. We supplemented data with samples of an early-radiating delphinoid species, the narwhal (Monodon monoceros); and an early-radiating delphinid species, the white-beaked dolphin (Lagenorhynchus albirostris). Principal component analyses were used to map shape variation onto phylogenies, and phylogenetic constraints were investigated through permutation tests. We established links between vertebral morphology and movement patterns through biomechanical inferences from morphological presentations. We evidenced divergence in size between species with contrasting habitats, with coastal species tending to decrease in size from their estimated ancestral state, and oceanic species tending to increase in size. Regarding vertebral shape, coastal species had longer centra and shorter neural processes, but longer transverse processes, while oceanic species tended to have disk-shaped vertebrae with longer neural processes. Within Phocoenidae, the absence of phylogenetic constraints in vertebral morphology suggests a high level of evolutionary lability. Overall, our results are in accordance with the hypothesis of speciation within the family from a coastal ancestor, through adaptation to particular habitats. Variation in vertebral morphology in this group of small odontocetes highlights the importance of environmental complexity and particular selective pressures for the speciation process through the development of adaptations that minimize energetic costs during locomotion and prey capture.


Assuntos
Golfinhos , Phocoena , Toninhas , Animais , Ecossistema , Filogenia , Toninhas/anatomia & histologia , Coluna Vertebral
19.
Science ; 374(6573): 1332-1333, 2021 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34882455
20.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21164, 2021 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34707173

RESUMO

Laterality has been reported in many vertebrates, and asymmetrical cerebral hemisphere function has been hypothesized to cause a left-bias in social behavior and a right-bias in feeding behavior. In this paper, we provide the first report of behavioral laterality in free-ranging finless porpoises, which seems to support the aforementioned hypothesis. We observed the turning behavior of finless porpoises in Omura Bay, Japan, using land-based and unmanned aerial system observations. We found a strong tendency in finless porpoises to turn counterclockwise with their right side down when pursuing and catching fish at the surface of the water. Our results suggest that this population of finless porpoises shows consistent right-biased laterality. Right-biased laterality has been observed in various foraging cetaceans and is usually explained by the dominance of the right eye-left cerebral hemisphere in prey recognition; however, right-biased laterality in foraging cetaceans may have multiple causes.


Assuntos
Lateralidade Funcional , Movimento , Toninhas/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Encéfalo/fisiologia
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