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1.
Behav Brain Sci ; 42: e299, 2020 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896373

RESUMO

The memory impairment of neurological and psychiatric patients is seen as occurring mainly in the autobiographical-episodic memory domain and this is considered to depend on limbic structures such as the amygdala or the septal nuclei. Especially the amygdala is a hub for giving an emotional flavor to personal memories. Bastin et al. fail to include the amygdala in their integrative memory model.


Assuntos
Memória Episódica , Tonsila do Cerebelo , Emoções , Humanos , Transtornos da Memória , Rememoração Mental
2.
Radiol Med ; 125(1): 80-86, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529401

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the structural changes of gray matter nuclei in patients with acute carbon monoxide intoxication by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), quantify the degree of deep gray matter damage in the brain by adopting imaging technology and research the characteristics of the damage and its pertinence with memory and cognitive impairment. METHODS: Twenty-five patients with acute carbon monoxide intoxication and 25 healthy volunteers matched in sex and age were examined by routine head MRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Bilateral hippocampus, dater nucleus, thalamus, amygdala, globus pallidus and putamen were taken as regions of interest. The mean diffusion coefficient (MD), anisotropic fraction (FA) and appearance of deep gray matter nucleus in patients with acute carbon monoxide intoxication were analyzed. It found that the change of diffusion coefficient (ADC) and its clinical correlation with cognitive impairment were generated by carbon monoxide intoxication. RESULTS: Compared with the healthy control group, the FA values of bilateral globus pallidus, hippocampus, dater nucleus and putamen decreased, while the FA values of amygdala and thalamus had no statistical significance; the MD values and ADC values of hippocampus, globus pallidus and putamen increased, while the MD and ADC values of dater nucleus, thalamus and amygdala had no statistical significance, either. CONCLUSION: DTI is capable of sensitively reflecting the damage of gray matter nuclei caused by acute carbon monoxide intoxication and quantifying the degree of hypoxic brain damage in a certain extent, and may be related to cognitive impairment.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Difusas/diagnóstico por imagem , Intoxicação por Monóxido de Carbono/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão/métodos , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença Aguda , Adulto , Idoso , Tonsila do Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Anisotropia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cognição , Feminino , Globo Pálido/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipocampo/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Giro Para-Hipocampal/diagnóstico por imagem , Putamen/diagnóstico por imagem , Tálamo/diagnóstico por imagem , Vigília , Adulto Jovem
3.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31825371

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Assessment of frequency and severity of visual field disorders after neurosurgical operations at patients with pharmacoresistant form of epilepsy in hippocampus sclerosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 48 patients having surgical operations for a pharmacoresistant form of temporal lobe epilepsy due to hippocampus sclerosis. Anterior lobectomy with amygdalohippocampectomy (LE + AHE) was performed in 25 patients; Selective amygdalohippocampectomy (SAHE) was performed in 23 patients. We evaluated both the frequency of cases of homonymous visual field disorders and their severity. RESULTS: After surgery the normal visual field was preserved at 7 (14.6%) patients. The appearance of visual field disorder by the type of homonymous hemianopsia was observed at 41 (85.4%) patients. When assessing the severity of visual field disorder, the smallest disorder was at patients who underwent sub-temporal access of SAHE: a statistically significant difference in the frequency of severe visual field disorder was revealed when comparing this group with patients having LE + AHE (p<0.02), as well as with patients having SAHE with access through sylvian gap (p<0.02). CONCLUSION: SAHE with sub-temporal access allows maintaining or minimally injuring the central optic neuron fibers, including the Meyer loop at patients operated for symptomatic temporal lobe epilepsy.


Assuntos
Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal , Esclerose , Tonsila do Cerebelo , Hipocampo , Humanos , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos , Resultado do Tratamento , Campos Visuais
4.
Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova ; 119(10): 111-120, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31793552

RESUMO

The high prevalence of anxiety disorders around the world leads to a high interest in the study of anxiety. At the moment, a lot of knowledge about the pathogenesis and therapy of anxiety disorders has been accumulated, which is well covered in modern domestic and world medical literature. It is known that many areas of the brain are involved in the modulation of anxiety, among which the amygdala is considered the key in the modulation of anxiety and fear. A large body of evidence supports the involvement of different neurotransmitter systems in the processes of anxiogenesis-anxiolysis (GABA, monoamines, glutamate, neuropeptides, neurosteroids). This article provides an analysis of methods of pharmacological impact on each of these systems, which serve to optimize the already known strategies of anxiolytic therapy.


Assuntos
Ansiolíticos , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Tonsila do Cerebelo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tonsila do Cerebelo/fisiopatologia , Ansiolíticos/uso terapêutico , Ansiedade , Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Medo , Humanos
5.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(12): 2050-2059, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31768054

RESUMO

Affective learning and memory are essential for daily behavior, with both adaptive and maladaptive learning depending on stimulus-evoked activity in the amygdala circuitry. Behavioral studies further suggest that post-association offline processing contributes to memory formation. Here we investigated spike sequences across simultaneously recorded neurons while monkeys learned to discriminate between aversive and pleasant tone-odor associations. We show that triplets of neurons exhibit consistent temporal sequences of spiking activity that differed from firing patterns of individual neurons and pairwise correlations. These sequences occurred throughout the long post-trial period, contained valence-related information, declined as learning progressed and were selectively present in activity evoked by the recent pairing of a conditioned stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus. Our findings reveal that temporal sequences across neurons in the primate amygdala serve as a coding mechanism and might aid memory formation through the rehearsal of the recently experienced association.


Assuntos
Tonsila do Cerebelo/fisiologia , Memória/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Potenciais de Ação/fisiologia , Animais , Condicionamento Clássico/fisiologia , Aprendizagem por Discriminação/fisiologia , Macaca fascicularis , Fatores de Tempo
6.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(11): 1834-1843, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31636447

RESUMO

Learning drives behavioral adaptations necessary for survival. While plasticity of excitatory projection neurons during associative learning has been extensively studied, little is known about the contributions of local interneurons. Using fear conditioning as a model for associative learning, we found that behaviorally relevant, salient stimuli cause learning by tapping into a local microcircuit consisting of precisely connected subtypes of inhibitory interneurons. By employing deep-brain calcium imaging and optogenetics, we demonstrate that vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)-expressing interneurons in the basolateral amygdala are activated by aversive events and provide a mandatory disinhibitory signal for associative learning. Notably, VIP interneuron responses during learning are strongly modulated by expectations. Our findings indicate that VIP interneurons are a central component of a dynamic circuit motif that mediates adaptive disinhibitory gating to specifically learn about unexpected, salient events, thereby ensuring appropriate behavioral adaptations.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem por Associação/fisiologia , Interneurônios/fisiologia , Inibição Neural/fisiologia , Filtro Sensorial/fisiologia , Peptídeo Intestinal Vasoativo/fisiologia , Tonsila do Cerebelo/fisiologia , Animais , Medo/psicologia , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Optogenética
7.
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 51(5): 824-828, 2019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31624384

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To summarize the clinical, video electroencephalogram (VEEG), radiological and pathological features of 3 patients of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with amygdala enlargement (AE). METHODS: Three TLE patients with AE who were hospitalized in Peking University International Hospital were collected. The above features were retrospectively analyzed, and the amygdala volume was measured as well. RESULTS: Of all the 3 patients, 2 were females and 1 male, whose seizure onset ages varied from 21 to 40 years. Two cases presented with secondarily generalized tonicclonic seizures after falling asleep during the night. One of the 2 cases had complex partial seizures (CPSs) with episodic memory and automatism after one year, and the third one had CPSs with lip smacking and tongue wagging during the night. All the patients suffered from obvious anxious disorder. Unilateral AE by MRI was demonstrated in the 3 cases, one on the right side, and the other two on the left side. The average amygdala volume of the enlarged side and the other side were (2 123.7±131.8) mm3 and (1 276.3±156.9) mm3, respectively. Unilateral interictal epileptic discharges were ipsilateral to the AE in 2 cases, while the other patient showed bilateral interictal epileptic discharges. The ictal VEEG showed that the seizure onset zone was ipsilateral to the AE and was confined to the anterior and middle temporal regions in the 3 patients. The interictal single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was negative in 2 cases. The interictal positron emission tomography (PET) showed hypometabolism in the AE in one case. The histological pathology revealed focal cortical dysplasia in the amygdala and temporal lobe in the 3 cases, and one of the 3 cases was combined with hippocampal sclerosis. All the patients became seizure free after surgery in the half year following-up. VEEG revealed slow wave activity and occasional spike wave in the operated side. CONCLUSION: AE may be one subtype of TLE. It is necessary to recognize AE in TLE with MRI-negative. For those poorly responsive to antiepileptic drugs, surgical treatment could provide a better solution. Focal cortical dysplasia may be one of the most common pathological features of TLE with AE.


Assuntos
Tonsila do Cerebelo , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Lobo Temporal , Adulto Jovem
8.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4450, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31575856

RESUMO

Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorder. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several loci associated with ADHD. However, understanding the biological relevance of these genetic loci has proven to be difficult. Here, we conduct an ADHD transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS) consisting of 19,099 cases and 34,194 controls and identify 9 transcriptome-wide significant hits, of which 6 genes were not implicated in the original GWAS. We demonstrate that two of the previous GWAS hits can be largely explained by expression regulation. Probabilistic causal fine-mapping of TWAS signals prioritizes KAT2B with a posterior probability of 0.467 in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and TMEM161B with a posterior probability of 0.838 in the amygdala. Furthermore, pathway enrichment identifies dopaminergic and norepinephrine pathways, which are highly relevant for ADHD. Overall, our findings highlight the power of TWAS to identify and prioritize putatively causal genes.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Fenótipo , Transcriptoma , Tonsila do Cerebelo , Dopaminérgicos/isolamento & purificação , Dopaminérgicos/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Loci Gênicos , Genômica , Genótipo , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Norepinefrina/genética , Norepinefrina/isolamento & purificação , Norepinefrina/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Probabilidade , Fatores de Transcrição de p300-CBP/genética
9.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(11): 1820-1833, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31611706

RESUMO

Basal amygdala (BA) neurons guide associative learning via acquisition of responses to stimuli that predict salient appetitive or aversive outcomes. We examined the learning- and state-dependent dynamics of BA neurons and ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine (DA) axons that innervate BA (VTADA→BA) using two-photon imaging and photometry in behaving mice. BA neurons did not respond to arbitrary visual stimuli, but acquired responses to stimuli that predicted either rewards or punishments. Most VTADA→BA axons were activated by both rewards and punishments, and they acquired responses to cues predicting these outcomes during learning. Responses to cues predicting food rewards in VTADA→BA axons and BA neurons in hungry mice were strongly attenuated following satiation, while responses to cues predicting unavoidable punishments persisted or increased. Therefore, VTADA→BA axons may provide a reinforcement signal of motivational salience that invigorates adaptive behaviors by promoting learned responses to appetitive or aversive cues in distinct, intermingled sets of BA excitatory neurons.


Assuntos
Tonsila do Cerebelo/fisiologia , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/fisiologia , Filtro Sensorial/fisiologia , Área Tegmentar Ventral/fisiologia , Animais , Proteína Quinase Tipo 2 Dependente de Cálcio-Calmodulina , Sinais (Psicologia) , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Dopamina/genética , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa , Punição , Recompensa , Percepção Visual/fisiologia
11.
World Neurosurg ; 132: 230-235, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505290

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Symptomatic cerebral vasospasm may occur in the setting of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, traumatic brain injury, or after anterior skull base surgery, but its occurrence is extremely rare in the background of glioma surgical resection. CASE DESCRIPTION: We present a rare case of symptomatic diffuse vasospasm, which is the fourth reported case of symptomatic vasospasm after temporal lobectomy and the third in the setting of a glial tumor. This patient, a 10-year-old boy, developed bilateral, progressive cerebral infarcts because of diffuse vasospasm after anteromesial temporal lobectomy for a left temporal ganglioglioma leading to significant morbidity. CONCLUSIONS: The risk factors, likely pathogenesis and the importance of early diagnosis and timely institution of treatment, in such cases are discussed in the background of relevant literature. The current case represents the first report of symptomatic diffuse vasospasm occuring after surgical resection of intracranial ganglioglioma in the Western literature.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/cirurgia , Ganglioglioma/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico por imagem , Vasoespasmo Intracraniano/diagnóstico por imagem , Tonsila do Cerebelo/cirurgia , Criança , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada , Hipocampo/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Giro Para-Hipocampal/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/fisiopatologia , Lobo Temporal/cirurgia , Vasoespasmo Intracraniano/fisiopatologia
12.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(10): 1659-1668, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501573

RESUMO

Neuropathic pain can be a debilitating condition with both sensory and affective components, the underlying brain circuitry of which remains poorly understood. In the present study, a basolateral amygdala (BLA)-prefrontal cortex (PFC)-periaqueductal gray (PAG)-spinal cord pathway was identified that is critical for the development of mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity after peripheral nerve injury. It was shown that nerve injury strengthens synaptic input from the BLA onto inhibitory interneurons located in the prelimbic medial PFC, by virtue of reduced endocannabinoid modulation. These augmented synaptic connections mediate a feedforward inhibition of projections from the PFC to the ventrolateral PAG region and its downstream targets. Optogenetic approaches combined with in vivo pharmacology reveal that these BLA-PFC-PAG connections alter pain behaviors by reducing descending noradrenergic and serotoninergic modulation of spinal pain signals. Thus, a long-range brain circuit was identified that is crucial for pain processing and that can potentially be exploited toward targeting neuropathic pain.


Assuntos
Vias Neurais/patologia , Neuralgia/patologia , Neurônios/patologia , Tonsila do Cerebelo/patologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Temperatura Alta , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Atividade Motora , Neuralgia/psicologia , Optogenética , Substância Cinzenta Periaquedutal/patologia , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/patologia , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/psicologia , Estimulação Física , Córtex Pré-Frontal/patologia , Medula Espinal/patologia , Sinapses/patologia
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(17)2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484392

RESUMO

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has previously been shown to play an important role in glutamatergic synaptic plasticity in the amygdala, correlating with cued fear learning. While glutamatergic neurotransmission is facilitated by BDNF signaling in the amygdala, its mechanism of action at inhibitory synapses in this nucleus is far less understood. We therefore analyzed the impact of chronic BDNF depletion on GABAA-mediated synaptic transmission in BDNF heterozygous knockout mice (BDNF+/-). Analysis of miniature and evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) in the lateral amygdala (LA) revealed neither pre- nor postsynaptic differences in BDNF+/- mice compared to wild-type littermates. In addition, long-term potentiation (LTP) of IPSCs was similar in both genotypes. In contrast, facilitation of spontaneous IPSCs (sIPSCs) by norepinephrine (NE) was significantly reduced in BDNF+/- mice. These results argue against a generally impaired efficacy and plasticity at GABAergic synapses due to a chronic BDNF deficit. Importantly, the increase in GABAergic tone mediated by NE is reduced in BDNF+/- mice. As release of NE is elevated during aversive behavioral states in the amygdala, effects of a chronic BDNF deficit on GABAergic inhibition may become evident in response to states of high arousal, leading to amygdala hyper-excitability and impaired amygdala function.


Assuntos
Tonsila do Cerebelo/metabolismo , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Potenciação de Longa Duração/fisiologia , Animais , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/genética , Feminino , Potenciação de Longa Duração/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Plasticidade Neuronal/genética , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp , Transmissão Sináptica/genética , Transmissão Sináptica/fisiologia , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/metabolismo
14.
Elife ; 82019 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411561

RESUMO

Recent studies showed activation of the GABAergic neurons in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) triggered cataplexy of sleep disorder narcolepsy. However, there is still no direct evidence on CeA GABAergic neurons' real-time dynamic during cataplexy. We used a deep brain calcium imaging tool to image the intrinsic calcium transient as a marker of neuronal activity changes in the narcoleptic VGAT-Cre mice by expressing the calcium sensor GCaMP6 into genetically defined CeA GABAergic neurons. Two distinct GABAergic neuronal groups involved in cataplexy were identified: spontaneous cataplexy-ON and predator odor-induced cataplexy-ON neurons. Majority in the latter group were inactive during regular sleep/wake cycles but were specifically activated by predator odor and continued their intense activities into succeeding cataplexy bouts. Furthermore, we found that CeA GABAergic neurons became highly synchronized during predator odor-induced cataplexy. We suggest that the abnormal activation and synchronization of CeA GABAergic neurons may trigger emotion-induced cataplexy.


Assuntos
Tonsila do Cerebelo/patologia , Cataplexia/fisiopatologia , Neurônios GABAérgicos/patologia , Narcolepsia/fisiopatologia , Animais , Sinalização do Cálcio , Camundongos , Imagem Óptica
15.
Neuron ; 103(3): 356-358, 2019 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394058

RESUMO

In this issue of Neuron, Sengupta and Holmes (2019) characterize a distinct serotonergic circuit from the dorsal raphe nucleus to the basal amygdala that facilitates fear conditioning and memory.


Assuntos
Núcleo Dorsal da Rafe , Tonsila do Cerebelo , Medo , Memória , Serotonina
16.
Neuron ; 103(3): 360-363, 2019 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394060

RESUMO

Deciding when to exploit what is already known and when to explore new possibilities is crucial for adapting to novel and dynamic environments. Using reinforcement-based decision making, Costa et al. (2019) in this issue of Neuron find that neurons in the amygdala and ventral-striatum differentially signal the benefit from exploring new options and exploiting familiar ones.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Estriado Ventral , Tonsila do Cerebelo , Animais , Primatas
18.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(10): 1649-1658, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31451801

RESUMO

Comorbid depressive symptoms (CDS) in chronic pain are a common health problem, but the neural circuit mechanisms underlying these symptoms remain unclear. Here we identify a novel pathway involving 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) projections from the dorsal raphe nucleus (5-HTDRN) to somatostatin (SOM)-expressing and non-SOM interneurons in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA). The SOMCeA neurons project directly to the lateral habenula, an area known involved in depression. Inhibition of the 5-HTDRN→SOMCeA pathway produced depression-like behavior in a male mouse model of chronic pain. Activation of this pathway using pharmacological or optogenetic approaches reduced depression-like behavior in these mice. Human functional magnetic resonance imaging data showed that compared to healthy controls, functional connectivity between the CeA-containing centromedial amygdala and the DRN was reduced in patients with CDS but not in patients in chronic pain without depression. These findings indicate that a novel 5-HTDRN→SOMCeA→lateral habenula pathway may mediate at least some aspects of CDS.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica/patologia , Depressão/patologia , Vias Neurais/patologia , Tonsila do Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Tonsila do Cerebelo/patologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Dor Crônica/complicações , Dor Crônica/diagnóstico por imagem , Depressão/complicações , Depressão/diagnóstico por imagem , Núcleo Dorsal da Rafe/diagnóstico por imagem , Núcleo Dorsal da Rafe/patologia , Feminino , Habenula/diagnóstico por imagem , Habenula/patologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Vias Neurais/diagnóstico por imagem , Neuralgia/diagnóstico por imagem , Neuralgia/patologia , Optogenética , Serotonina/metabolismo , Somatostatina/metabolismo
19.
Neuron ; 103(4): 556-558, 2019 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437451

RESUMO

Orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) predicts the consequences of our actions and updates our expectations based on experienced outcomes. In this issue of Neuron, Groman et al. (2019) precisely ablate pathways between the OFC, amygdala, and nucleus accumbens to reveal their separable contributions to reinforcement learning.


Assuntos
Córtex Pré-Frontal , Tonsila do Cerebelo , Aprendizagem , Núcleo Accumbens
20.
Neurochem Res ; 44(9): 2123-2138, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376053

RESUMO

Number of ligations made in the chronic constriction injury (CCI) neuropathic pain model has raised serious concerns. We compared behavioural responses, nerve morphology and expression of pain marker, c-fos among CCI models developed with one, two, three and four ligations. The numbers of ligation(s) on sciatic nerve shows no significant difference in displaying mechanical and cold allodynia, and mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia throughout 84 days. All groups underwent similar levels of nerve degeneration post-surgery. Similar c-fos level in brain cingulate cortex, parafascicular nuclei and amygdala were observed in all CCI models compared to sham-operated group. Therefore, number of ligations does not impact intensity of pain symptoms, pathogenesis and neuronal activation. A single ligation is sufficient to develop neuropathic pain, in contrast to the established model of four ligations. This study dissects and characterises the CCI model, ascertaining a more uniform animal model to surrogate actual neuropathic pain condition.


Assuntos
Modelos Animais de Doenças , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Neuralgia , Tonsila do Cerebelo/metabolismo , Tonsila do Cerebelo/patologia , Tonsila do Cerebelo/fisiopatologia , Animais , Constrição Patológica/complicações , Giro do Cíngulo/metabolismo , Giro do Cíngulo/patologia , Hiperalgesia/metabolismo , Hiperalgesia/fisiopatologia , Núcleos Intralaminares do Tálamo/metabolismo , Núcleos Intralaminares do Tálamo/patologia , Ligadura , Masculino , Neuralgia/etiologia , Neuralgia/metabolismo , Neuralgia/patologia , Neuralgia/fisiopatologia , Medição da Dor , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/metabolismo , Nervo Isquiático/lesões , Nervo Isquiático/patologia , Neuropatia Ciática/etiologia , Neuropatia Ciática/metabolismo , Neuropatia Ciática/patologia , Neuropatia Ciática/fisiopatologia
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