Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 3.582
Filtrar
1.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 145(2): 459-467, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31985641

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Injuries to the upper extremity lymphatic system from cancer may require measures to prevent secondary lymphedema. Guidelines were established relating to the use of tourniquet and elective hand and upper extremity surgery. However, reports in the setting of hand surgery have indicated that prior guidelines may not be protective to the patient. METHODS: The study systematically reviewed the current literature evaluating elective hand surgery in breast cancer patients. The authors evaluated the risk of complications, including new or worsening lymphedema and infection. RESULTS: One hundred ninety-eight abstracts were identified, and a bibliographic review was performed. Nine studies pertained to our subject, and four were included for final review. All studies included patients with prior breast cancer treatment involving breast surgery and axillary lymph node dissection. Pneumatic tourniquets were used during nearly all operations. Patients without presurgery ipsilateral lymphedema had a 2.7 percent incidence of developing new lymphedema and a 0.7 percent rate of postoperative infection. Patients with presurgery lymphedema had a 11.1 percent incidence of worsening lymphedema and a 16.7 percent rate of infection. However, all cases of new or exacerbated lymphedema resolved within 3 months. Tourniquet use was not found to increase rates of lymphedema. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the available evidence, there is no increased risk of complications for elective hand surgery in patients with prior breast cancer treatment. Breast cancer patients with preexisting ipsilateral lymphedema carry slightly increased risk of postoperative infection and worsening lymphedema. It is the authors' opinion and recommendation that elective hand surgery with a tourniquet is not a contradiction in patients who have received previous breast cancer treatments.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Mãos/cirurgia , Linfedema/cirurgia , Neoplasias da Mama/complicações , Neoplasias da Mama/radioterapia , Síndrome do Túnel Carpal/etiologia , Síndrome do Túnel Carpal/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Excisão de Linfonodo/efeitos adversos , Excisão de Linfonodo/métodos , Linfedema/complicações , Mastectomia/efeitos adversos , Mastectomia/métodos , Segurança do Paciente , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Cirurgia de Second-Look/estatística & dados numéricos , Biópsia de Linfonodo Sentinela/efeitos adversos , Biópsia de Linfonodo Sentinela/métodos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/etiologia , Torniquetes , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
J Surg Res ; 246: 591-598, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648813

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Currently, several initiatives have emerged to empower the public to act as immediate responders in front of hemorrhaging victims. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of implementing the Stop the Bleed campaign and the association between the instructors' background and the theoretical and practical competences achieved by the participants in Latin America. METHODS: Medical students and general surgeons taught both allied health students and nonallied health students at a local university; the training had a master class followed by a practical component and a written test, as well as tourniquet placement was tested. RESULTS: 265 individuals received the training, and data were available for 243. Of these, 126 (52.07%) were women and the median age was 21 (IQR: 20-22) years. 121 (49.79%) were trained by general surgeons (group A) and 122 (50.21%) by medical students (group B). After the training, more than 98% of all participants perceived that they would most likely be capable of aiding correctly a bleeding victim by applying direct pressure and more than 90% of them felt confident in being able to apply a tourniquet. There were no statistically significant differences among both groups when comparing their post-training competence evaluations [Theoretical test score: group A = 5 (IQR: 4-5); group B = 5 (IQR: 4-5); P = 0.41] and [Practical competency of tourniquet deployment: group A = 119 (66.39%) versus group B = 120 (65.83%); P = 0.93]. CONCLUSIONS: The Stop the Bleed campaign can be effectively implemented in Latin America, and it can be taught by prequalified medical students without altering the learning objectives of the course.


Assuntos
Educação não Profissionalizante/organização & administração , Primeiros Socorros/métodos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Hemorragia/terapia , Técnicas Hemostáticas/instrumentação , Participação da Comunidade , Feminino , Primeiros Socorros/instrumentação , Implementação de Plano de Saúde , Humanos , América Latina , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo , Torniquetes , Adulto Jovem
3.
Orthop Clin North Am ; 51(1): 7-11, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31739881

RESUMO

Surgical techniques used to decrease the amount of blood lost during the procedure range from tourniquets to electrocautery and, more recently, the use of antifibrinolytics. Currently, tranexamic acid is the most commonly used antifibrinolytic in arthroplasty procedures. It was previously thought that intravenous tranexamic acid was more effective than topical tranexamic acid, but had an increased risk of thrombosis and cardiac events; however, this study showed that topical tranexamic acid is as effective in decreasing blood loss and the need for a blood transfusion after hybrid fixation total knee arthroplasty as with cemented total knee arthroplasty.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho/métodos , Perda Sanguínea Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Torniquetes/efeitos adversos , Ácido Tranexâmico/administração & dosagem , Administração Tópica , Antifibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Antifibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Transfusão de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Cimentação/tendências , Humanos , Período Pós-Operatório , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ácido Tranexâmico/uso terapêutico
4.
J Hand Surg Asian Pac Vol ; 24(4): 469-476, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31690188

RESUMO

Background: To compare outcomes of atraumatic hand surgeries using the WALANT technique versus intravenous regional anesthesia or local anesthesia with tourniquet. Methods: We conducted a comprehensive literature search using PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Library from inception to October 2018. All randomized or quasi-randomized trials and cohort studies comparing WALANT procedure versus local anesthesia or intravenous regional anesthesia with tourniquet among atraumatic hand surgeries were included. Methodological quality and risk of bias of eligible studies were assessed by three independent reviewers. The random effects model was used due to both statistical and clinical heterogeneity among studies. Results: The search yielded 496 records, of which 9 studies were included in the systematic review. We were able to pool findings for operative time, post-operative pain scores, patient satisfaction, and complication rates. On the average, the WALANT group had longer operative times by 2.06 minutes (pooled mean difference, random effects, 95% confidence interval 0.46 to 3.67 minutes, p = 0.01, I2 0%, p = 0.66). The post-operative pain scores were lower in the WALANT group by an average of two VAS points (random effects, pooled mean difference -2.40, 95% confidence interval -3.41 to -1.38, p < 0.00001; I2 0% p = 0.99). We had insufficient evidence to demonstrate a difference in terms of patient satisfaction (random effects, pooled risk ratio 0.98, 95% confidence interval 0.93 to 1.03, p = 0.36, I2 0%, p = 0.64) and complication rates (random effects, pooled risk ratio 0.40, 95% confidence interval 0.07 to 2.18, p = 0.29, I2 60% p = 0.08) between WALANT versus conventional methods. Conclusions: The WALANT group reported lower post-operative pain scores, but had slightly longer operative times. There are no significant differences between WALANT and conventional methods in terms of patient satisfaction and complication rates.


Assuntos
Anestesia por Condução/métodos , Anestesia Local/métodos , Anestésicos Intravenosos/administração & dosagem , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Mãos/cirurgia , Procedimentos Ortopédicos , Satisfação do Paciente , Humanos , Torniquetes
5.
J Hand Surg Asian Pac Vol ; 24(4): 389-391, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31690194

RESUMO

Background: Wide Awake Local Anesthesia No Tourniquet (WALANT) uses a mixture of lidocaine and epinephrine for anesthesia and has found great success in hand surgery. At the Philippine Orthopedic Center (POC), we still use local anesthesia along with a tourniquet which gives the patient pain and discomfort at the tourniquet site. This study aims to determine perioperative and post-operative pain, intraoperative bleeding and immediate clinical outcomes of patients using WALANT for surgical anesthesia for carpal tunnel release. Methods: A case series of all patients who underwent carpal tunnel release under WALANT from April 2016 to September 2016 is presented. Those with concomitant trigger finger and de quervain disease which required release on the affected hand were also included. A tourniquet was on standby in case of uncontrollable bleeding. Intraoperative bleeding, pain NRS scores, and return to daily activity were noted. Results: Thirteen patients were included in the study; 3 were male, 10 were female. Mean age was 58 years, Mean surgical time was 15 minutes. Twelve were reported to have "some bleeding" and one was reported to have "bleeding but was still manageable". None of the surgeries were totally bloodless or had too much bleeding that necessitated a tourniquet. Pain NRS scores during injection of local anesthesia had a mean of 2. None of the patients felt pain during and immediately after the surgery. Average time return to daily activity was 6 days. No complications were noted. Conclusions: Patients included in the study who underwent carpal tunnel release under WALANT did not experience pain associated with a tourniquet. Visualization of the field was adequate enough for the surgeons to do the surgery without the need for a tourniquet and with no associated complications.


Assuntos
Anestesia Local/métodos , Síndrome do Túnel Carpal/cirurgia , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filipinas , Projetos Piloto , Torniquetes
6.
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med ; 27(1): 104, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752982

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tourniquet is the most widely used and effective first-aid equipment for controlling hemorrhage of injured limb in battlefield. However, time-out application of tourniquets leads to ischemic-necrosis of skeletal muscles and ischemia-reperfusion injury. Regional hypothermia (RH) on wounded limb can relieve the injury on local tissue and distant organs. We aimed to investigate the protective effects of RH on rabbits' limbs injured by a steel-ball combined with hemorrhagic-shock, and then employed tourniquet over-time, tried to identify the optimal treatment RH. METHODS: Thirty rabbits were randomly divided into 5 groups. All rabbits were anesthetized, intubated femoral artery and vein in right-hind limbs. Sham operation group (Sham): only femoral arteriovenous cannula in right-hind limb. None RH group (NRH): rabbits were intubated as Sham group, then the soft tissues of rabbits' left-hinds were injured by a steel-ball shooting, and were exsanguinated until shock, then bundled with rubber tourniquets for 4 h. Three RH subgroups: rabbits were injured as mentioned above, the injured limbs were bundled with rubber tourniquets and treated with different temperature (5 ± 1 °C, 10 ± 1 °C, and 20 ± 1 °C, respectively) for 4 h. The injury severity of lung and regional muscle was assessed by histologic examination. Activity of adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) and content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in muscle, inflammatory cytokines, myoglobin, creatine kinase-MM (CK-MM), Heme, Heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), lactic acid (Lac), and lectrolyte ion in serum were detected. RESULTS: Following with RH treatment, the injury of lung and local muscle tissue was alleviated evidencing by mitigation of histopathological changes, significant decrease of water-content and MDA content, and increase of ATPase activity. Lower level of Lac, Potassium (K+), inflammatory cytokines, Heme, CK-MM, myoglobin content, and higher level of Calcium (Ca2+), HO-1 content were shown in RH treatment. 10 °C was the most effective RH to increase ATPase activity, and decrease MDA, myoglobin, CK-MM content. CONCLUSION: Transient RH (4 h) had a "long-term mitigation effects" (continued for 6 h) on time-out application of tourniquet with the fluid resuscitation and core temperature maintenance, and the most effective temperature for reducing the side effects on tourniquet time-out application was 10 °C.


Assuntos
Hipotermia Induzida , Extremidade Inferior/irrigação sanguínea , Músculo Esquelético/irrigação sanguínea , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/prevenção & controle , Adenosina Trifosfatases/metabolismo , Animais , Gasometria , Citocinas/sangue , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Pulmão/patologia , Lesão Pulmonar/prevenção & controle , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Coelhos , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/etiologia , Choque Hemorrágico/complicações , Torniquetes
8.
West J Emerg Med ; 20(5): 719-725, 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539328

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Peripheral, ultrasound-guided intravenous (IV) access occurs frequently in the emergency department, but certain populations present unique challenges for successfully completing this procedure. Prior research has demonstrated decreased compressibility under double tourniquet technique (DT) compared with single tourniquet (ST). We hypothesized that catheters inserted under DT method would have a higher first-stick success rate compared with those inserted under ST method. METHODS: We randomized 100 patients with a history of difficult IV access, as defined by past ultrasound IV, prior emergency visit with two or more attempts required for vascular access, history of IV drug abuse, history of end stage renal disease on hemodialysis or obesity, to ultrasound-guided IV placement under either DT or ST method. We measured the vein characteristics measured under ultrasound, and recorded the number of attempts and location of attempts at vascular access. RESULTS: Of an initial 100 patients enrolled, we analyzed a total of 99 with 48 placed under ST and 51 placed under DT. Attending physicians inserted 41.7% of ST and 41.2% of DT, with non-attending inserters (including residents, nurses, and technicians) inserted the remainder. First-stick success rate was observed at 64.3% in ST and 66.7% in DT (p=0.93). Attendings had an overall higher first-stick success rate (95.1%) compared to non-attending inserters (65.5%) (p=<0.001). The average vein depth measured in ST was 0.73 centimeters (cm) compared with 0.87 cm in DT (p=0.02). CONCLUSION: DT technique did not produce a measureable increase in first-stick success rate compared to ST, including after adjusting for level of training of inserter. However, a significant difference in average vein depth between the study arms may have limited the reliability of our overall results. Future studies controlling for this variable may be required to more accurately compare these two techniques.


Assuntos
Cateterismo Periférico/métodos , Estado Terminal/terapia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Torniquetes , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Veias/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
9.
J Spec Oper Med ; 19(3): 45-50, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539433

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We sought opportunities to develop learning practices of individual first aid providers. In this study, we simulated deliberate practice in placing limb tourniquets. METHODS: This study comprised tourniquet uses by two experienced persons. Their practice sessions focused on developing a motor skill with periodic coaching. The Combat Application Tourniquet is 1.5-inches wide and was used in a technique of loop passage around the end of the limb to place it 2-3 inches above the wound. The simulated limb was a Z-Medica Hemorrhage Control Trainer. Both users applied the tourniquet six times over 5 days to accrue 30 uses individually (N = 60 tourniquet applications for the study). RESULTS: When represented as summary parameters, differences were small. For example, average ease of use was the same for both users, but such parameters only took a snapshot of performance, yielding a general assessment. However, for a learning curve by use number, a surrogate of experience accrual, application time revealed spiral learning. The amount that users compressed a limb averaged -15% compared with its unsqueezed state. Placement accuracy was classified relative to gap widths between the tourniquet and the wound, and of 60 performances, 55 were satisfactory and five were unsatisfactory (i.e., placement was <2 inches from the wound). When a tourniquet only overlaid the 2-inch edge of the placement zone (i.e., tourniquet was 2-3.5 inches away from the wound), no error was made, but errors were made in crossing that 2-inch edge. These gauging errors led us to create a template for learners to see and to demonstrate what the meaning of 2-3 inches is. CONCLUSION: Each metric had value in assessing first aid, but turning attention to gauging wound-tourniquet gaps revealed placement errors. Analysis of such errors uncovered what 2-3 inches meant in operation. Spiral learning may inform the development of best readiness practices such as coaching deliberate-practice sessions.


Assuntos
Primeiros Socorros , Hemorragia/prevenção & controle , Medicina Militar/educação , Torniquetes , Extremidades , Humanos
10.
J Spec Oper Med ; 19(3): 52-63, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539434

RESUMO

Tourniquet application to stop limb bleeding is conceptually simple, but optimal application technique matters, generally requires training, and is more likely with objective measures of correct application technique. Evidence of problems with application techniques, knowledge, and training can be ascertained from January 2007 to August 2018 PubMed peer-reviewed papers and in Stop The Bleed-related videos. Available data indicates optimal technique when not under fire involves application directly on skin. For nonelastic tourniquets, optimal application technique includes pulling the strap tangential to the limb at the redirect buckle (parallel to the limb-encircling strap entering the redirect buckle). Before engaging the mechanical advantage tightening system, the secured strap should exert at least 150mmHg inward, and skin indentation should be visible. For Combat Application Tourniquets, optimal technique includes the slot in the windlass rod parallel to the stabilization plate during the single 180° turn that should be sufficient for achieving arterial occlusion, which involves visible skin indentation and pressures of 250mmHg to 428mmHg on normotensive adult thighs. Appropriate pressures on manikins and isolated-limb simulations depend on how the under-tourniquet pressure response of each compares to the under-tourniquet pressure response of human limbs for matching tourniquet-force applications. Lack of such data is one of several concerns with manikin and isolated-limb simulation use. Regardless of model or human limb use, pictures and videos purporting to show proper tourniquet application techniques should show optimal tourniquet application techniques and properly applied, arterially occlusive limb tourniquets. Ideally, objective measures of correct tourniquet application technique would be included.


Assuntos
Hemorragia/prevenção & controle , Torniquetes , Humanos , Pressão , Coxa da Perna
11.
J Spec Oper Med ; 19(3): 123-127, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539448

RESUMO

Tourniquets have become ubiquitous tools for controlling hemorrhage in the modern prehospital environment, and while commercial products are preferable, improvised tourniquets play an important role when commercial options are not available. A properly constructed improvised tourniquet can be highly effective provided the user adheres to certain principles. This review article identifies key skills in the construction and application of improvised tourniquets on an extremity. An improvised tourniquet design for an extremity should include three components: a strap, a rod, and a securing mechanism. The strap can be made from a variety of materials, but cravat- like fabric has been shown to work well. Optimal strap dimensions should be at least 2cm in width and a continuous segment long enough to extend around the extremity while still offering ends to accommodate and secure the rod. The rod should be constructed from a material that is hard, strong, and capable of withstanding the torque placed on it without bending or breaking. After torque is applied, the rod must be secured into position to maintain the constricting force and survive patient transport. Finally, the need for an improvised tourniquet is a contingency that all first responders should anticipate. Hands-on training should be conducted routinely in conjunction with other first responder tasks.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , Socorristas , Hemorragia/prevenção & controle , Torniquetes , Extremidades , Humanos
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500390

RESUMO

Reusable tourniquets and conventional securement dressings are considered risk factors for the occurrence of reported complications and catheter-related bloodstream infections. This study's purpose is to assess the impact of single-use disposable tourniquets and advanced occlusive polyurethane dressings with reinforced cloth borders on peripheral intravenous catheter (PIVC)-related complications and contamination. A pre- and post-interventional prospective observational study was conducted in a cardiology ward of a tertiary hospital between April 2018 and February 2019. Overall, demographic and clinical data from 156 patients and PIVC-related outcomes were collected (n = 296) as well as PIVC tips for microbiological analysis (n = 90). In the pre-intervention phase (n = 118), complication rates of 62.1% were reported, while 44.1% of the PIVCs were contaminated (n = 34). In the post-intervention phase (n = 178), complication rates decreased to 57.3%, while contamination rates significantly decreased to 17.9% (p = 0.014; n = 56). Through a logistic regression, it was found that the use of innovative technologies reduces the chance of PIVC contamination by 79% (odds ratio (OR): 0.21; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.05-0.98; p = 0.046). Meanwhile, PIVC-related complications and fluid therapy emerged as predictors for PIVC contamination. Findings suggest that the adoption of these innovative devices in nurses' practice contributes to the significant reduction of PIVC contamination.


Assuntos
Bandagens , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/prevenção & controle , Cateterismo Periférico/efeitos adversos , Cateterismo Periférico/métodos , Torniquetes , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Poliuretanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Centros de Atenção Terciária
13.
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu ; 44(8): 594-8, 2019 Aug 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31475494

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation (TEAS) on pulmonary function, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in patients using tourniquet after lower extremity surgery. METHODS: A total of 40 patients who underwent lower extremity surgery were equally randomized into control group and TEAS group by using a random number table. All patients underwent lumbar epidural anesthesia combined with block anesthesia. The patients in the TEAS group were given TEAS at Zusanli (ST36) and Sanyinjiao (SP6) beginning from 30 min before surgery to the end of surgery, and those in the control group received TEAS at the same acupoints with minimum current intensity. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were recorded at each time point (T0: pre-surgery /TEAS, T1: 5 min after anesthesia, T2: 1 min before tourniquet-loosening, T3: 1 min after tourniquet-loosening, T4: 5 min after tourniquet-loosening, and T5: 6 h after tourniquet-loosening). Blood samples (4 mL) was collected from the radial artery before TEAS and 6 h after loosening tourniquet for analyzing blood gas parameters as partial pressure of caron dioxide(PCO2), arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2), alveolar partial pressure of oxygen (PAO2), alveolar-arterial oxygen pressure difference (PA-aDO2) and respiratory index (RI) by using a blood gas analyzer, and plasma SOD activity and MDA content were assayed by using xanthine oxidase method and thiobarbituric acid colorimetry method, respectively. RESULTS: Intra-group comparison showed that compared with T0, a significant increase was found in PA-aDO2 and RI at T5 and a significant reduction in PaO2 and PaO2/ PAO2 (a/A) ratio in the control group (P<0.05), and the same changes in the TEAS group (P<0.05) except a/A ratio. Comparison between two groups showed that at T5, both PaO2 and a/A levels were significantly higher in the TEAS group than in the control group (P<0.05), and both PA-aDO2 and RI levels were obviously lower in the TEAS group than in the control group (P<0.05), suggesting an improvement of the pulmonary function after TEAS. At T5, plasma SOD activity was significantly decreased and plasma MDA content was remarkably increased in the control group relevant to T0 (P<0.05), SOD activity was significantly higher in the TEAS group than in the control group (P<0.05), and MDA content was evidently lower in the TEAS group than in the control group (P<0.05), suggesting a reduction of oxidative stress response after TEAS. CONCLUSION: TEAS at ST36 and SP6 can improve pulmonary function and attenuate oxidative stress response in patients using tourniquet after lower extremity surgery.


Assuntos
Pontos de Acupuntura , Estimulação Elétrica Nervosa Transcutânea , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior , Estresse Oxidativo , Torniquetes
14.
Prehosp Disaster Med ; 34(4): 401-406, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389327

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to determine if school personnel can understand and apply the Sort, Assess, Life-saving interventions, Treat/Transport (SALT) triage methods after a brief training. The investigators predicted that subjects can learn to triage with accuracy similar to that of medically trained personnel, and that subjects can pass an objective-structured clinical exam (OSCE) evaluating hemorrhage control. METHODS: School personnel were eligible to participate in this prospective observational study. Investigators recorded subject demographic information and prior medical experience. Participants received a 30-minute lecture on SALT triage and a brief lecture and demonstration of hemorrhage control and tourniquet application. A test with brief descriptions of mass-casualty victims was administered immediately after training. Participants independently categorized the victims as dead, expectant, immediate, delayed, or minimal. They also completed an OSCE to evaluate hemorrhage control and tourniquet application using a mannequin arm. RESULTS: Subjects from two schools completed the study. Fifty-nine were from a private school that enrolls early childhood through grade eight, and 45 from a public school that enrolls grades seven and eight (n = 104). The average subject age was 45 years and 68% were female. Approximately 81% were teachers and 87% had prior cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training. Overall triage accuracy was 79.2% (SD = 10.7%). Ninety-six (92.3%) of the subjects passed the hemorrhage control OSCE. CONCLUSIONS: After two brief lectures and a short demonstration, school personnel were able to triage descriptions of mass-casualty victims with an overall accuracy similar to medically trained personnel, and most were able to apply a tourniquet correctly. Opportunities for future study include integrating high-fidelity simulation and mock disasters, evaluating for knowledge retention, and exploring the study population's baseline knowledge of medical care, among others.


Assuntos
Simulação por Computador , Emergências , Socorristas , Hemorragia/prevenção & controle , Instituições Acadêmicas/organização & administração , Triagem/métodos , Adulto , Algoritmos , Criança , Feminino , Hemorragia/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Incidentes com Feridos em Massa , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Competência Profissional , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Torniquetes
17.
Surg Technol Int ; 35: 336-340, 2019 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282982

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since arthritis of the knee is one of the most common pathologies in industrialized nations, there has been a growing interest in fast-track total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, while one of the main concerns is the role of a tourniquet, the available data are inconclusive. AIM: This study sought to assess the link between postoperative outcomes and use of a tourniquet in TKA. Our goal was to determine whether it is justified to forego tourniquet use as indicated by the fast-track concept. METHODS: The participants (n = 108) in this retrospective, non-randomized study were assigned into two groups after they satisfied the inclusion criteria: primary gonarthrosis or secondary gonarthrosis without previous arthrotomy. TKA was performed without (Group I, n = 55) or with (Group II, n = 53) a tourniquet. The postoperative outcome was evaluated in terms of postoperative pain, based on a numeric rating scale (NRS) and the need for pain medication, and postoperative function, based on range of motion (ROM) and walking tests. RESULTS: Overall, no significant correlations were observed between tourniquet use and postoperative pain according to the NRS. Group I required less oxycodone, but more non-opioids. There was no significant difference in the improvement in pre- to postoperative ROM with regard to tourniquet use. The final walking distance was significantly longer in Group I. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that there is no strongly significant link between the postoperative outcome and the use of a tourniquet. However, further studies will be needed to determine whether a tourniquet may have some other impact on TKA.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho/métodos , Osteoartrite do Joelho/cirurgia , Torniquetes , Artroplastia do Joelho/efeitos adversos , Artroplastia do Joelho/instrumentação , Protocolos Clínicos , Teste de Esforço , Humanos , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Dor Pós-Operatória/etiologia , Assistência Perioperatória/normas , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Caminhada
18.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 144(2): 408-414, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348351

RESUMO

Wide-awake local anesthesia no tourniquet surgery has been shown to decrease cost and hospital length of stay. The authors studied the use of virtual reality during wide-awake local anesthesia no tourniquet outpatient upper extremity surgery to assess its effect on patient pain, anxiety and fun. Patients undergoing wide-awake local anesthesia no tourniquet surgery were randomized to use (virtual reality) or not use (non-virtual reality) virtual reality during their procedures. Pain, fun, and anxiety were measured with a Likert scale at several time points, as were blood pressure and heart rate. A postoperative questionnaire was used to assess overall satisfaction. Virtual reality patients exhibited lower anxiety scores during injection, during the procedure, and at the end of the procedure. There were no differences in blood pressure, heart rate, or pain scores. Compared with non-virtual reality patients, virtual reality patients' fun scores were higher. Virtual reality patients felt the experience helped them to relax, and they would recommend virtual reality-assisted wide-awake local anesthesia no tourniquet surgery. Among patients with self-reported preexisting anxiety, virtual reality patients had lower pain and anxiety scores during injection of local anesthesia compared with non-virtual reality patients. This study demonstrates that readily available virtual reality hardware and software can provide a virtual reality experience that reduces patient anxiety both during the injection of local anesthesia and during the surgical procedure. (Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 144: 408, 2019.) CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:: Therapeutic, II.


Assuntos
Anestesia Local/métodos , Mãos/cirurgia , Realidade Virtual , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ansiedade/etiologia , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Feminino , Felicidade , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Procedimentos Ortopédicos , Dor/prevenção & controle , Medição da Dor , Satisfação do Paciente , Estudos Prospectivos , Método Simples-Cego , Torniquetes , Vigília , Adulto Jovem
19.
Jpn J Nurs Sci ; 16(4): 491-499, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222981

RESUMO

AIM: To compare the effectiveness of tapping and massaging venodilation techniques by evaluating venous cross-sectional area, venous depth, venous palpation score, and questionnaire responses of study participants. METHODS: This study had a quasi-experimental design. Between August 2016 and October 2016, healthy adult volunteers (n = 30, mean ± standard deviation of age: 22.3 ± 2.2 years) were enrolled in this study. Three venodilation techniques were evaluated: the application of a tourniquet (Control Group), the application of a tourniquet and tapping of the participant's forearm (Tapping Group), and the application of a tourniquet and massaging of the participant's forearm (Massage Group). RESULTS: In all three groups, venous cross-sectional areas increased significantly after the application of the venodilation technique. The change ratio of venous cross-sectional area was significantly larger in the Massage Group than in the Control Group. Additionally, 83.3% of the participants selected massaging as their preferred venodilation technique, stating the technique was comfortable and provided a feeling of relief. CONCLUSIONS: No significant differences were observed between the degrees of venodilation that were achieved using the three investigated venodilation techniques. Nonetheless, massaging was deemed the most effective technique after considering the participants' subjective comments.


Assuntos
Massagem , Flebotomia/métodos , Veias/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Antebraço , Humanos , Masculino , Torniquetes , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Spec Oper Med ; 19(2): 41-47, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31201750

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate questions about application of emergency tourniquets in very young children, we investigated practices of Combat Application Tourniquet (C-A-T) use on a simulated infant-sized limb to develop ways to improve readiness for caregiving. METHODS: This study was conducted as investigations of C-A-Ts used by two individuals in deliberate practice. The practice setup simulating a limb of infants aged 3-5 months included a handrail (circumference, 5.25 in.). This setup needed a specific modification to the instructions for use to adhere the band between the clips. Each user performed 100 practices. RESULTS: With accrual of experience, application time was shorter for each user, on average in a power law of practice, and more ease was associated when less time was taken to apply the tourniquet. The ease of use was associated with accrued experience through deliberate practice of a tourniquet user while under coached learning. A check of tourniquet fit on a 4.25-in. limb also entailed the modification used in the 5.25-in. limb. However, an additional modification of wrapping the band in a figure-8 pattern around the rod was needed because the rod and clip could not meet. The fit on a 3.25-in. limb was impracticable for a workaround. Tourniquet use was harder for smaller limbs (i.e., 4.25 in. and 3.25 in.). A map of tourniquet fit was sketched of which sized limbs were too big, too small, within the fit zone, or at its borders. CONCLUSION: C-A-Ts mechanically fit the simulated limbs of infants aged 3-5 months, and C-A-T use was practicably easy enough to allow experienced users to fit tourniquets to limbs well using a specific modification of the routine technique. The findings and knowledge generated in this study are available to inform researches and developments in best preparation practices for instructing first aid.


Assuntos
Primeiros Socorros , Hemorragia/prevenção & controle , Torniquetes , Simulação por Computador , Desenho de Equipamento , Extremidades , Humanos , Lactente
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA