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1.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 77: 100125, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36327639

RESUMO

CONTEXT: In the elderly, weak lower limb muscles impair functional tasks' performance. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the healthy elderly's ankle dorsiflexion and plantarflexion maximum torque and its variability in two sets of 5 RM isokinetics evaluation. METHOD: 50 women (68.0 ± 4.6 years old) and 50 men (72.7 ± 8.5 years old) did two sets of ankle plantar flexor and dorsiflexor isokinetic tests at 30°/s. Peak torque, total work, and coefficient of variation were analyzed. RESULTS: Men did the strongest plantarflexion torque (p < 0.05) and dorsiflexion torque (p < 0.05); their highest peak torque occurred at set 2 (p < 0.05), while the largest plantarflexion torque variability (p < 0.05), dorsiflexion torque variability (p < 0.05), and the largest plantarflexion torque variability occurred at set 1 (p < 0.05). Men did the highest plantarflexion and dorsiflexion total work (p < 0.05) at set 2 (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Older men are stronger than older women. The torque variability, in men, was higher during the first set, suggesting an adaptation to the isokinetics evaluation. Clinicians and researchers should consider that different muscles might need different numbers of sets and trials to measure their maximal muscle strength.


Assuntos
Articulação do Tornozelo , Tornozelo , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Idoso , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Articulação do Tornozelo/fisiologia , Torque , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia
2.
Phys Rev Lett ; 129(17): 174501, 2022 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36332239

RESUMO

Acoustic meta-atoms serve as the building blocks of metamaterials, with linear properties designed to achieve functions such as beam steering, cloaking, and focusing. They have also been used to shape the characteristics of incident acoustic fields, which led to the manipulation of acoustic radiation force and torque for development of acoustic tweezers with improved spatial resolution. However, acoustic radiation force and torque also depend on the shape of the object, which strongly affects its scattering properties. We show that by designing linear properties of an object using metamaterial concepts, the nonlinear acoustic effects of radiation force and torque can be controlled. Trapped objects are typically small compared with the wavelength, and are described as particles, inducing monopole and dipole scattering. We extend such models to a polarizability tensor including Willis coupling terms, as a measure of asymmetry, capturing the significance of geometrical features. We apply our model to a three-dimensional, subwavelength meta-atom with maximal Willis coupling, demonstrating that the force and the torque can be reversed relative to an equivalent symmetrical particle. By considering shape asymmetry in the acoustic radiation force and torque, Gorkov's fundamental theory of acoustophoresis is thereby extended. Asymmetrical shapes influence the acoustic fields by shifting the stable trapping location, highlighting a potential for tunable, shape-dependent particle sorting.


Assuntos
Acústica , Torque
3.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(21)2022 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36366159

RESUMO

Exploration of the seabed may be complex, and different parameters must be considered for a robotic system to achieve tasks in this environment, such as soil characteristics, seabed gait, and hydrodynamic force in this extreme environment. This paper presents a gait simulation of a quadrupedal robot used on a typical terrigenous sediment seabed, considering the mechanical properties of the type of soil, stiffness, and damping and friction coefficients, referenced with the specialized literature and applied in a computational multibody model with many experimental data in a specific underwater environment to avoi hydrodynamic effects. The requirements of the positions and torque in the robot's active joints are presented in accordance with a 5R mechanism for the leg and the natural pattern shown in the gait of a dog on the ground. These simulation results are helpful for the design of a testbed, with a leg prototype and its respective hardware and software architecture and a subsequent comparison with the real results.


Assuntos
Robótica , Cães , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Marcha , Torque , Solo
4.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 55: e12383, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36383804

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to describe the muscle function, architecture, and composition of long-distance master runners, and verify the association between age and these variables. Additionally, different clusters of runners were compared based on age and training variables. Forty male runners (≥50 years) reported their training routine and had their muscle function evaluated through maximum knee extensor isometric peak torque (PT) assessed with an isokinetic dynamometer. The cross-sectional area (CSA), pennation angle (PA), fascicle length (FL), muscle thickness (MT), and echo intensity (EI) were evaluated through ultrasound (muscle architecture and composition). The participants were 58.7±6.2 years old and had been training for 18.4±10.3 years, 4 sessions/week with 298.8±164.7 min/week of training. The absolute torque was 226.92±63.44 N·m, and the specific torque (PT/CSA) was 7.29±3.78 N·m/cm2. Regarding muscle architecture, the phase angle was 17.34±4°, the fascicle angle 6.78±1.04 cm, muscle thickness 2.93±0.56 cm, and the cross-sectional area 21.24±5.88 cm2. Concerning muscle composition, the master runners showed echo intensity values of 62.05±11.68 AU. The analysis demonstrated a weak and negative association between age and some muscle architecture variables (CSA and MT) and muscle function (PT). No association was verified between age and muscle composition (EI). Age partially explained CSA, MT, and muscle function changes (13, 11, and 14%, respectively). Participants' high level of physical training might have contributed to the low association between these variables and the lack of association with muscle composition.


Assuntos
Joelho , Músculo Esquelético , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Transversais , Músculo Esquelético/diagnóstico por imagem , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Joelho/fisiologia , Torque , Articulação do Joelho , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Quadríceps
5.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277947, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36409688

RESUMO

In human applied physiology studies, the amplitude of recorded muscle electromyographic activity (EMG) is often normalized to maximal EMG recorded during a maximal voluntary contraction. When maximal contractions cannot be reliably obtained (e.g. in people with muscle paralysis, anterior cruciate ligament injury, or arthritis), EMG is sometimes normalized to the maximal compound muscle action potiential evoked by stimulation, the Mmax. However, it is not known how these two methods of normalization affect the conclusions and comparability of studies. To address this limitation, we investigated the relationship between voluntary muscle activation and EMG normalized either to maximal EMG or to Mmax. Twenty-five able-bodied adults performed voluntary isometric ankle plantarflexion contractions to a range of percentages of maximal voluntary torque. Ankle torque, plantarflexor muscle EMG, and voluntary muscle activation measured by twitch interpolation were recorded. EMG recorded at each contraction intensity was normalized to maximal EMG or to Mmax for each plantarflexor muscle, and the relationship between the two normalization approaches quantified. A slope >1 indicated EMG amplitude normalized to maximal EMG (vertical axis) was greater than EMG normalized to Mmax (horizontal axis). Mean estimates of the slopes were large and had moderate precision: soleus 8.7 (95% CI 6.9 to 11.0), medial gastrocnemius 13.4 (10.5 to 17.0), lateral gastrocnemius 11.4 (9.4 to 14.0). This indicates EMG normalized to Mmax is approximately eleven times smaller than EMG normalized to maximal EMG. Normalization to maximal EMG gave closer approximations to the level of voluntary muscle activation assessed by twitch interpolation.


Assuntos
Contração Isométrica , Contração Muscular , Adulto , Humanos , Eletromiografia/métodos , Contração Muscular/fisiologia , Contração Isométrica/fisiologia , Torque , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia
6.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 20089, 2022 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36418455

RESUMO

Deterioration of the structure and function of the musculoskeletal system represents a significant problem during aging and intervention with a suitable load of physical activity may improve the quality of life. Nordic walking (NW) has become a popular and easily accessible form of activity, especially for older adults people around the world. Thus, the purpose of the study was to evaluate the influence of an Nordic walking training program with classic poles (NW) and with integrated resistance shock absorber (RSA) on bone mineral density and the peak torques of upper limb muscles and to compare the effects of both intervention programs. 25 women were randomly assigned to two training groups: 10 subjects using RSA (68 ± 4.19 years) and 15 subjects using NW poles (65 ± 3.40 years), which completed 8 weeks of training program. The hip, spine and forearm areal bone mineral density, torques of the flexors and extensors at the elbow and shoulder joints were measured before starting the training programs and after their completion. The most significant effect was found in differences between the two groups of women with respect to the femur strength index (p = 0.047) and the ratio of the flexors to extensors in the elbow (p = 0.049) and shoulder (p = 0.001) joints and peak torque of flexors in the shoulder joint (p = 0.001) for the left arm. A significant difference was also found in the index of torque asymmetry of flexors in the shoulder joint (p = 0.002). The study shows that Nordic walking with RSA poles for postmenopausal women led to beneficial changes in the femur strength index. However, we found no significant influence on bone mineral density values measured on the whole body, the femoral neck, forearm or lumbar spine regions. The occurrence of asymmetry in biomechanical muscle parameters, which was observed using RSA poles, may suggest the necessity of systematic controlling the gait technique to avoid the adverse consequences of asymmetrical rotation of the lumbar spine.


Assuntos
Caminhada Nórdica , Pós-Menopausa , Humanos , Feminino , Idoso , Torque , Qualidade de Vida , Fêmur/fisiologia , Músculos/fisiologia
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 20238, 2022 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36424457

RESUMO

While resultant maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) is commonly used to assess muscular performance, the simultaneous activation of antagonist muscles may dramatically underestimate the strength of the agonist muscles. Although quantification of antagonist torque has been performed in isometric conditions, it has yet to be determined in anisometric conditions. The aim of the study was to compare the mechanical impact of antagonist torque between eccentric, isometric and concentric contractions in PF and DF MVCs. The MVCs in dorsiflexion (DF) and plantar-flexion (PF) were measured in isometric, concentric and eccentric conditions (10° s-1) in nine healthy men (26.1 ± 2.7 years; 1.78 ± 0.05 m; 73.4 ± 6.5 kg) through two sessions. Electromyographic (EMG) activities from the soleus, gastrocnemius medialis and lateralis, and tibialis anterior muscles were simultaneously recorded. The EMG biofeedback method was used to quantify antagonist torque. Resultant torque significantly underestimated agonist torque in DF MVC (30-65%) and to a lesser extent in PF MVC (3%). Triceps surae antagonist torque was significantly modified with muscle contraction type, showing higher antagonist torque in isometric (29 Nm) than in eccentric (23 Nm, p < 0.001) and concentric (14 Nm, p < 0.001) conditions and resulting in modification of the DF MVC torque-velocity shape. Estimation of the antagonist torque in isometric or anisometric conditions provides new relevant insights to improve neuromuscular performance assessment and to better design strength training and rehabilitation programs related to the torque applied by agonist and antagonist muscles.


Assuntos
Tornozelo , Doenças da Bexiga Urinária , Masculino , Humanos , Torque , Articulação do Tornozelo/fisiologia , Contração Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia
8.
BMC Oral Health ; 22(1): 528, 2022 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36424555

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recently, various kinds of heat-treated nickel-titanium (NiTi) glide path instruments have been manufactured. This study aimed to investigate design, phase transformation behavior, mechanical properties of TruNatomy Glider (#17/02), V Taper 2H (#14/03), and HyFlex EDM (#15/03) and compare torque/force generated during simulated glide path preparation with them. METHODS: The designs and phase-transformation behaviors of the instruments were examined via scanning electron microscopy (n = 3) and differential scanning calorimetry (n = 2). Their bending (n = 15), torsional (n = 15), and cyclic fatigue resistances (n = 15) were tested. The ultimate strength and distortion angle were obtained from torsional resistance test. The number of cycles to failure (NCF) was calculated from cyclic fatigue resistance test. The preparation of the glide path was simulated using a double-curved artificial canal (n = 15), and the maximum torque and screw-in forces were measured. Data except NCF was compared between brands with one-way ANOVA with Tukey's honestly significant difference test. NCF was analyzed via Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. RESULTS: TruNatomy Glider had the greatest number of threads. TruNatomy Glider showed progressive taper, while V Taper 2H and HyFlex EDM had constant taper. The austenitic transformation-finish temperatures of all the instruments were above body temperature. V Taper 2H demonstrated significantly lower ultimate strength, higher distortion angle, and a higher number of cycles to failure compared with HyFlex EDM and TruNatomy Glider (p < 0.05). The maximum torque generated during preparing glide path was lowest for V Taper 2H, and the maximum screw-in force was lowest for HyFlex EDM (p < 0.05). TruNatomy Glider generated the highest torque and screw-in force during the apical preparation. CONCLUSIONS: V Taper 2H #14/03 showed superior cyclic fatigue resistance and lower ultimate strength. TruNatomy Glider generated greater clockwise torque and screw-in force during apical preparation. The mechanical properties, torque, and screw-force was affected by design of heat-treated glide path instruments. Cervical pre-flaring prior to glide path instrument is recommended.


Assuntos
Níquel , Titânio , Humanos , Níquel/química , Titânio/química , Torque , Temperatura Alta
9.
BMC Oral Health ; 22(1): 499, 2022 11 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36384512

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the popularity of clear aligner treatment, the effect of the thickness of these aligners has not been fully investigated. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of incisor torque compensation with different thicknesses of clear aligner on the three-dimensional displacement tendency of teeth in cases of extraction. METHODS: Three-dimensional finite element models of the maxillary dentition with extracted first premolars, maxilla, periodontal ligaments, attachments, and aligners were constructed and subject to Finite Element Analysis (FEA). Two groups of models were created: (1) with 0.75 mm-thick aligners and (2) with 0.5 mm-thick aligners. A loading method was developed to simulate the action of clear aligners for the en masse retraction of the incisors. Power ridges of different heights were applied to both groups to mimic torque control, and the power ridges favoring the translation of the central incisors were selected. Then, we used ANSYS software to analyze the initial displacement of teeth and the principle stress on the PDL. RESULTS: Distal tipping, lingual tipping and extrusion of the incisors, distal tipping and extrusion of the canines, and mesial tipping and intrusion of the posterior teeth were all generated by clear aligner therapy. With the 0.5 mm-thick aligner, a power ridge of 0.7 mm could cause bodily retraction of the central incisors. With the 0.75 mm-thick aligner, a power ridge of 0.25 mm could cause translation of the central incisors. Aligner torque compensation created by the power ridges generated palatal root torque and intrusion of the incisors, intrusion of the canines, mesial tipping and the intrusion of the second premolar; these effects were more significant with a 0.75 mm-thick aligner. After torque compensation, the stress placed on the periodontal ligament of the incisors was distributed more evenly with the 0.75 mm-thick aligner. CONCLUSIONS: The torque compensation caused by power ridges can achieve incisor intrusion and palatal root torque. Appropriate torque compensation with thicker aligners should be designed to ensure bodily retraction of anterior teeth and minimize root resorption, although more attention should be paid to the anchorage control of posterior teeth in cases of extraction.


Assuntos
Incisivo , Aparelhos Ortodônticos Removíveis , Análise de Elementos Finitos , Torque , Técnicas de Movimentação Dentária/métodos
10.
Sci Adv ; 8(47): eabq2492, 2022 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36417540

RESUMO

Determining which cellular processes facilitate adaptation requires a tractable experimental model where an environmental cue can generate variants that rescue function. The bacterial flagellar motor (BFM) is an excellent candidate-an ancient and highly conserved molecular complex for bacterial propulsion toward favorable environments. Motor rotation is often powered by H+ or Na+ ion transit through the torque-generating stator subunit of the motor complex, and ion selectivity has adapted over evolutionary time scales. Here, we used CRISPR engineering to replace the native Escherichia coli H+-powered stator with Na+-powered stator genes and report the spontaneous reversion of our edit in a low-sodium environment. We followed the evolution of the stators during their reversion to H+-powered motility and used both whole-genome and RNA sequencing to identify genes involved in the cell's adaptation. Our transplant of an unfit protein and the cells' rapid response to this edit demonstrate the adaptability of the stator subunit and highlight the hierarchical modularity of the flagellar motor.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli , Flagelos , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Flagelos/metabolismo , Proteínas Motores Moleculares/metabolismo , Sódio/metabolismo , Torque , Íons/metabolismo
11.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(19)2022 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36236380

RESUMO

During the assembly process of the rear axle, the assembly quality and assembly efficiency decrease due to the accumulation errors of rear axle assembly torque. To deal with the problem, we proposed a rear axle assembly torque online control method based on digital twin. First, the gray wolf-based optimization variational modal decomposition and long short-term memory network (GWO-VMD-LSTM) algorithm was raised to predict the assembly torque of the rear axle, which solves the shortcomings of unpredictable non-stationarity and nonlinear assembly torque, and the prediction accuracy reaches 99.49% according to the experimental results. Next, the evaluation indexes of support vector machine (SVM), recurrent neural network (RNN), LSTM, and SVM, RNN, and LSTM based on gray wolf optimized variational modal decomposition (GWO-VMD) were compared, and the performance of the GWO-VMD-LSTM is the best. For the purpose of solving the insufficient information interaction capability problem of the assembly line, we developed a digital twin system for the rear axle assembly line to realize the visualization and monitoring of the assembly process. Finally, the assembly torque prediction model is coupled with the digital twin system to realize real-time prediction and online control of assembly torque, and the experimental testing manifests that the response time of the system is about 1 s. Consequently, the digital twin-based rear axle assembly torque prediction and online control method can significantly improve the assembly quality and assembly efficiency, which is of great significance to promote the construction of intelligent production line.


Assuntos
Lobos , Algoritmos , Animais , Redes Neurais de Computação , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte , Torque
12.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(19)2022 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36236608

RESUMO

The load cell is an indispensable component of many engineering machinery and industrial automation for measuring and sensing force and torque. This paper describes the design and analysis of the strain gauge load cell, from the conceptional design stage to shape optimization (based on the finite element method (FEM) technique) and calibration, providing ample load capacity with low-cost material (aluminum 6061) and highly accurate force measurement. The amplifier circuit of the half Wheatstone bridge configuration with two strain gauges was implemented experimentally with an actual load cell prototype. The calibration test was conducted to evaluate the load cell characteristics and derive the governing equation for sensing the unknown load depending on the measured output voltage. The measured sensitivity of the load cell is approximately 15 mV/N and 446.8 µV/V at a maximum applied load of 30 kg. The findings are supported by FEM results and experiments with an acceptable percentage of errors, which revealed an overall error of 6% in the worst situation. Therefore, the proposed load cell meets the design considerations for axial force measurement for the laboratory test bench, which has a light weight of 20 g and a maximum axial force capacity of 300 N with good sensor characteristics.


Assuntos
Alumínio , Calibragem , Torque
13.
Zhongguo Yi Liao Qi Xie Za Zhi ; 46(5): 503-508, 2022 Sep 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36254476

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Develop an intelligent equipment that can perform multiple modes of functional exercise on the knee joint, and can accurately measure and control strength, angle, angular velocity, time, frequency and so on. METHODS: Using geared motors, magnetic powder brakes and synchronous belt wheel sets and other mechanical structure and transmission technology combined with sophisticated mechanical design methods, the knee joint multiple functional exercise methods are cleverly integrated; a highly reliable PLC is used as the control core; the resistance torque out-put by the equipment is accurately controlled by adjusting the size of the exciting current; the angle sensor is used to accurately measure the rotation angle around the axis; and the error of each parameter index and the actual measured value is controlled within 5%. RESULTS: The developed prototype has a compact structure and a simple and convenient method of use. Based on the control of joint parameters such as resistance, the expected goal is achieved. CONCLUSIONS: The equipment can carry out diversified, accurate and automatic rehabilitation treatment for knee joint diseases, and has certain social and economic benefits.


Assuntos
Articulação do Joelho , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Pós , Rotação , Torque
14.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 17103, 2022 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36224228

RESUMO

This study evaluated the bacterial infiltration and the detorque of indexed and non-indexed abutments of Morse taper implants (MTI) after mechanical cycling (MC). 40 MTI were distributed into four groups: IIA (indexed implant abutments); NIIA (non-indexed implant abutments); IIAMC (indexed implant abutments submitted to MC); NIIAMC (non-indexed implant abutments submitted to MC), which were carried out under one million 5 Hz frequency and 3 Bar pressure. After mechanical cycling, all groups were immersed in a bacterial solution in Brain Heart Infusion Agar. After detorque, the bacteria infiltration was evaluated by counting the colony-forming units. For the bacterial infiltration, analysis was applied to the Kruskal-Wallis test (p = 0.0176) followed by Dunn's test. For the detorque analysis, the two-way repeated-measures ANOVA was applied, followed by the Tukey's test (p < 0.0001). Bacteria infiltration was highly observed in NIIA (p = 0.0027) and were absent in IIAMC and NIIAMC. The detorque values for IIA (19.96Ncm ± 0.19Ncm), NIIA (19.90Ncm ± 0.83Ncm), and NIIAMC (19.51Ncm ± 0,69Ncm) were similar and remained close to the initial value, while IIAMC (55.2Ncm ± 2.36Ncm) showed an extremely significant torque value increase (p < 0.0001). The mechanical cycling resulted in mechanical sealing of the implant-abutment interface, preventing bacterial infiltration in the indexed and non-indexed specimens, and increasing the detorque strength in the group of indexed abutments.


Assuntos
Implantes Dentários , Próteses e Implantes , Ágar , Bactérias , Teste de Materiais , Torque
15.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 16912, 2022 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36207391

RESUMO

This paper presents the design optimization of a linkage-based wheel mechanism with two degrees of freedom, for stable step climbing. The mechanism has seven rotational joints and one prismatic joint. Kinematic and dynamic analyses of the mechanism were performed. The design was optimized in terms of linkage length and architecture to better manipulate the mechanism in its workspace, which was defined here by the targeted step size, as well as to ensure stability while climbing stairs. Optimization by genetic algorithm was performed using MATLAB. The optimized mechanism exhibited enhanced torque transmission from the input torque to the exerted for at the lobe of the wheel. Compliance control of the transformation will be addressed in the future.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Torque
16.
J Chem Phys ; 157(13): 134902, 2022 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36209024

RESUMO

While the behavior of active colloidal molecules is well studied now for constant activity, the effect of activity gradients is much less understood. Here, we explore one of the simplest molecules in activity gradients, namely active chiral dimers composed of two particles with opposite active torques of the same magnitude. We show analytically that with increasing torque, the dimer switches its behavior from antichemotactic to chemotactic. The origin of the emergent chemotaxis is the cooperative exploration of an activity gradient by the two particles. While one of the particles moves into higher activity regions, the other moves towards lower activity regions, resulting in a net bias in the direction of higher activity. We do a comparative study of chiral active particles with charged Brownian particles under a magnetic field and show that despite the fundamental similarity in terms of their odd-diffusive behavior, their dynamics and chemotactic behavior are generally not equivalent. We demonstrate this explicitly in a dimer composed of oppositely charged active particles, which remains antichemotactic to any magnetic field.


Assuntos
Quimiotaxia , Difusão , Torque
17.
Eur Endod J ; 7(3): 198-202, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36217637

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the resistance to cyclic fatigue and the torsional strength of Prima One Gold® and WaveOne Gold® reciprocating systems. METHODS: Cyclic fatigue was tested in an artificial canal with 60º curvature, a 5 mm radius of curvature at 22°C (n=10) and 36.5°C (n=10). The torsional strength test followed ISO 3630-1, measuring torque and deflection angle until fracture (n=10). The t-test was used to compare the two groups, and the significance level was set at 5%. RESULTS: The Prima One Gold group presented greater resistance to cyclic fatigue at room temperature (P=0.001) and body temperature (P<0.001). For the torsional resistance test, the Prima One Gold group had a lower maximum torque value (P=0.029), despite having a greater deflection angle (P<0.001). CONCLUSION: The Prima One Gold group showed greater resistance to cyclic fatigue regardless of temperature and a greater deflection angle. The WaveOne Gold group showed a greater maximum torque value than the Prima One Gold group.


Assuntos
Análise do Estresse Dentário , Teste de Materiais , Torque , Desenho de Equipamento , Teste de Materiais/instrumentação , Temperatura
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36223362

RESUMO

Gait asymmetry is an important clinical characteristic of the hemiplegic gait most stroke survivors suffered, leading to restricted functional mobility and long-term negative impact on their quality of life. In recent years, robot assistance has been proven able to improve stroke patients' functional walking, but few studies have been conducted to specifically correct gait asymmetry of stroke patients during the whole gait cycle. In this work, an adaptive oscillator-based assistive torque control was developed and implemented on a unilateral hip exoskeleton driven by a novel nonlinear series elastic actuator (nSEA), aiming at correcting gait asymmetry at hip joints during the whole gait cycle. The adaptive oscillator-based gait asymmetry detection method extracted continuous gait phase and gait asymmetry seamlessly, and then the proposed assistive control attempted to correct gait asymmetry by delivering precise assistive torques synchronized with the continuous gait phase of the patients' gait. An initial experimental study was conducted to evaluate the proposed assistive control on seven healthy subjects with artificial impairment. The participants walked on a treadmill with assistance from the hip exoskeleton, while artificial impairment was added to mimic the hemiplegic gait with both spacial and temporal asymmetry (such as reduced hip flexion in the impaired side and reduced hip extension in the healthy side). Experimental results suggested the effectiveness of the proposed assistive control in restoring gait symmetry to levels comparable to a normal gait of the participants ( ).


Assuntos
Exoesqueleto Energizado , Transtornos Neurológicos da Marcha , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Humanos , Torque , Qualidade de Vida , Marcha , Caminhada , Fenômenos Biomecânicos
19.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0267523, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36301920

RESUMO

Individuals with high fatigue resistance against a high-intensity conditioning activity (CA) may be able to avoid experiencing significant fatigue and enhance their voluntary performance. We examined whether the optimal contraction duration of dynamic knee extension exercises to maximize subsequent voluntary performance varies depending on the strength level of an individual. The study participants were 22 male American college football players. Initially, all participants performed a 10-s maximal isometric knee extension exercise and were classified as stronger individuals (n = 8) and weaker individuals (n = 8) based on their relative muscle strength. Each group then performed three types of dynamic CA with different contraction durations (6 s [6-CA], 12 s [12-CA], and 18 s [18-CA]) in random order. To observe the time-course changes in post-activation potentiation and performance enhancement, the twitch torques induced by electrical stimulation and isokinetic knee extension torques at 180°/s were recorded before and after each CA. The twitch torque increased at 10 s (29.5% ± 9.3%) and 1 min (18.5% ± 6.8%) after 6-CA for the stronger individuals (p < 0.05). However, no post-activation potentiation was induced in the weaker individuals in either protocol. Voluntary performance increased at 4 (7.0% ± 4.5%) and 7 (8.2% ± 4.3%) min after 18-CA for stronger individuals (p < 0.05). However, there was no post-activation performance enhancement in either protocol for weaker individuals. Thus, CA with a relatively long contraction duration was optimal to maximize the subsequent voluntary performance for stronger individuals. It remains unknown whether CAs performed with relatively short or long contraction durations were optimal for weaker individuals.


Assuntos
Contração Isométrica , Joelho , Humanos , Masculino , Torque , Contração Isométrica/fisiologia , Joelho/fisiologia , Articulação do Joelho/fisiologia , Estimulação Elétrica , Atletas , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Contração Muscular/fisiologia
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36293853

RESUMO

This pilot study aimed to explore a method for characterization of the electromyogram frequency spectrum during a sustained exertion task, performed by the upper limb. Methods: Nine participants underwent an isometric localized muscle fatigue protocol on an isokinetic dynamometer until exhaustion, while monitored with surface electromyography (sEMG) of the shoulder's external rotators. Firstly, three methods of signal energy analysis based on primer frequency contributors were compared to the energy of the entire spectrum. Secondly, the chosen method of analysis was used to characterize the signal energy at beginning (T1), in the middle (T2) and at the end (T3) of the fatigue protocol and compared to the torque output and the shift in the median frequencies during the trial. Results: There were statistically significant differences between T1 and T3 for signal energy (p < 0.007) and for central frequency of the interval (p = 0.003). Moreover, the isometric peak torque was also different between T1 and T3 (p < 0.001). Overall, there were no differences between the signal energy enclosed in the 40 primer frequency contributors and the analysis of the full spectrum energy; consequently, it was the method of choice. The reported fatigue and the decrease in the produced muscle torque was consistent with fatigue-induced alterations in the electromyogram frequency spectrum. In conclusion, the developed protocol has potential to be considered as an easy-to-use method for EMG-based analysis of isometric muscle exertion until fatigue. Thus, the novelty of the proposed method is to explore, in muscle fatigue, the use of only the main contributors in the frequency domain of the EMG spectrum, avoiding surplus information, that may not represent muscle functioning. However, further studies are needed to investigate the stability of the present findings in a more comprehensive sample.


Assuntos
Fadiga Muscular , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Humanos , Fadiga Muscular/fisiologia , Projetos Piloto , Eletromiografia/métodos , Torque , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia
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