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1.
Front Public Health ; 9: 716421, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34485238

RESUMO

Objective: Key to reducing the spread of COVID-19 in the UK is increased use of the NHS Test and Trace (NHSTT) system. This study explored one of the main issues that determine whether people engage with NHSTT, how people understand symptoms that may indicate the presence of COVID-19 and that should trigger a request for a test. Methods: In this qualitative study, a series of semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 40 people (21 members of the general population, 19 students). There was nearly an equal split between male and female participants in both samples. Data were collected between 30 November and 11 December 2020 and explored using thematic analysis. There was substantial similarity in responses for both populations so we combined our results and highlighted where differences were present. Results: Participants generally had good knowledge of the main symptoms of COVID-19 (high temperature, new, persistent cough, anosmia) but had low confidence in their ability to differentiate them from symptoms of other illnesses. Attribution of symptoms to COVID-19 was most likely where the symptoms were severe, many symptoms were present, symptoms had lasted for some time and when perceived risk of exposure to infection was high due to previous contact with others. Participants felt encouraged to engage in testing where symptoms were present and had persisted for several days, though, many had concerns about the safety of testing centres and the accuracy of test results. Students had mixed feelings about mass asymptomatic testing, seeing it as a way to access a more normal student experience, but also a potential waste of resources. Conclusions: This study offers novel insights into how people attribute symptoms to COVID-19 and barriers and facilitators to engaging with NHSTT. Participants had positive views of testing, but there is a need to improve not just recognition of each main symptom, but also understanding that even single, mild symptoms may necessitate a test rather than a "wait and see" approach, and to address concerns around test accuracy to increase testing uptake.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Atitude , Tosse/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2 , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
2.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(16)2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450996

RESUMO

Intelligent systems are transforming the world, as well as our healthcare system. We propose a deep learning-based cough sound classification model that can distinguish between children with healthy versus pathological coughs such as asthma, upper respiratory tract infection (URTI), and lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI). To train a deep neural network model, we collected a new dataset of cough sounds, labelled with a clinician's diagnosis. The chosen model is a bidirectional long-short-term memory network (BiLSTM) based on Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCCs) features. The resulting trained model when trained for classifying two classes of coughs-healthy or pathology (in general or belonging to a specific respiratory pathology)-reaches accuracy exceeding 84% when classifying the cough to the label provided by the physicians' diagnosis. To classify the subject's respiratory pathology condition, results of multiple cough epochs per subject were combined. The resulting prediction accuracy exceeds 91% for all three respiratory pathologies. However, when the model is trained to classify and discriminate among four classes of coughs, overall accuracy dropped: one class of pathological coughs is often misclassified as the other. However, if one considers the healthy cough classified as healthy and pathological cough classified to have some kind of pathology, then the overall accuracy of the four-class model is above 84%. A longitudinal study of MFCC feature space when comparing pathological and recovered coughs collected from the same subjects revealed the fact that pathological coughs, irrespective of the underlying conditions, occupy the same feature space making it harder to differentiate only using MFCC features.


Assuntos
Asma , Tosse , Asma/diagnóstico , Criança , Tosse/diagnóstico , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Redes Neurais de Computação , Sons Respiratórios/diagnóstico , Som
3.
BMJ ; 374: n1692, 2021 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34226182
5.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254999, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34310646

RESUMO

Over the past few months, the spread of the current COVID-19 epidemic has caused tremendous damage worldwide, and unstable many countries economically. Detailed scientific analysis of this event is currently underway to come. However, it is very important to have the right facts and figures to take all possible actions that are needed to avoid COVID-19. In the practice and application of big data sciences, it is always of interest to provide the best description of the data under consideration. The recent studies have shown the potential of statistical distributions in modeling data in applied sciences, especially in medical science. In this article, we continue to carry this area of research, and introduce a new statistical model called the arcsine modified Weibull distribution. The proposed model is introduced using the modified Weibull distribution with the arcsine-X approach which is based on the trigonometric strategy. The maximum likelihood estimators of the parameters of the new model are obtained and the performance these estimators are assessed by conducting a Monte Carlo simulation study. Finally, the effectiveness and utility of the arcsine modified Weibull distribution are demonstrated by modeling COVID-19 patients data. The data set represents the survival times of fifty-three patients taken from a hospital in China. The practical application shows that the proposed model out-classed the competitive models and can be chosen as a good candidate distribution for modeling COVID-19, and other related data sets.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , Modelos Estatísticos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , China/epidemiologia , Tosse/diagnóstico , Tosse/fisiopatologia , Fadiga/diagnóstico , Fadiga/fisiopatologia , Febre/diagnóstico , Febre/fisiopatologia , Hospitais , Humanos , Método de Monte Carlo , Análise de Sobrevida
6.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 6: CD013693, 2021 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34180536

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, children under 15 years represent approximately 12% of new tuberculosis cases, but 16% of the estimated 1.4 million deaths. This higher share of mortality highlights the urgent need to develop strategies to improve case detection in this age group and identify children without tuberculosis disease who should be considered for tuberculosis preventive treatment. One such strategy is systematic screening for tuberculosis in high-risk groups. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the sensitivity and specificity of the presence of one or more tuberculosis symptoms, or symptom combinations; chest radiography (CXR); Xpert MTB/RIF; Xpert Ultra; and combinations of these as screening tests for detecting active pulmonary childhood tuberculosis in the following groups. - Tuberculosis contacts, including household contacts, school contacts, and other close contacts of a person with infectious tuberculosis. - Children living with HIV. - Children with pneumonia. - Other risk groups (e.g. children with a history of previous tuberculosis, malnourished children). - Children in the general population in high tuberculosis burden settings. SEARCH METHODS: We searched six databases, including the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, and Embase, on 14 February 2020 without language restrictions and contacted researchers in the field. SELECTION CRITERIA: Cross-sectional and cohort studies where at least 75% of children were aged under 15 years. Studies were eligible if conducted for screening rather than diagnosing tuberculosis. Reference standards were microbiological (MRS) and composite reference standard (CRS), which may incorporate symptoms and CXR. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed study quality using QUADAS-2. We consolidated symptom screens across included studies into groups that used similar combinations of symptoms as follows: one or more of cough, fever, or poor weight gain and one or more of cough, fever, or decreased playfulness. For combination of symptoms, a positive screen was the presence of one or more than one symptom. We used a bivariate model to estimate pooled sensitivity and specificity with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and performed analyses separately by reference standard. We assessed certainty of evidence using GRADE. MAIN RESULTS: Nineteen studies assessed the following screens: one symptom (15 studies, 10,097 participants); combinations of symptoms (12 studies, 29,889 participants); CXR (10 studies, 7146 participants); and Xpert MTB/RIF (2 studies, 787 participants). Several studies assessed more than one screening test. No studies assessed Xpert Ultra. For 16 studies (84%), risk of bias for the reference standard domain was unclear owing to concern about incorporation bias. Across other quality domains, risk of bias was generally low. Symptom screen (verified by CRS) One or more of cough, fever, or poor weight gain in tuberculosis contacts (4 studies, tuberculosis prevalence 2% to 13%): pooled sensitivity was 89% (95% CI 52% to 98%; 113 participants; low-certainty evidence) and pooled specificity was 69% (95% CI 51% to 83%; 2582 participants; low-certainty evidence). Of 1000 children where 50 have pulmonary tuberculosis, 339 would be screen-positive, of whom 294 (87%) would not have pulmonary tuberculosis (false positives); 661 would be screen-negative, of whom five (1%) would have pulmonary tuberculosis (false negatives). One or more of cough, fever, or decreased playfulness in children aged under five years, inpatient or outpatient (3 studies, tuberculosis prevalence 3% to 13%): sensitivity ranged from 64% to 76% (106 participants; moderate-certainty evidence) and specificity from 37% to 77% (2339 participants; low-certainty evidence). Of 1000 children where 50 have pulmonary tuberculosis, 251 to 636 would be screen-positive, of whom 219 to 598 (87% to 94%) would not have pulmonary tuberculosis; 364 to 749 would be screen-negative, of whom 12 to 18 (2% to 3%) would have pulmonary tuberculosis. One or more of cough, fever, poor weight gain, or tuberculosis close contact (World Health Organization four-symptom screen) in children living with HIV, outpatient (2 studies, tuberculosis prevalence 3% and 8%): pooled sensitivity was 61% (95% CI 58% to 64%; 1219 screens; moderate-certainty evidence) and pooled specificity was 94% (95% CI 86% to 98%; 201,916 screens; low-certainty evidence). Of 1000 symptom screens where 50 of the screens are on children with pulmonary tuberculosis, 88 would be screen-positive, of which 57 (65%) would be on children who do not have pulmonary tuberculosis; 912 would be screen-negative, of which 19 (2%) would be on children who have pulmonary tuberculosis. CXR (verified by CRS) CXR with any abnormality in tuberculosis contacts (8 studies, tuberculosis prevalence 2% to 25%): pooled sensitivity was 87% (95% CI 75% to 93%; 232 participants; low-certainty evidence) and pooled specificity was 99% (95% CI 68% to 100%; 3281 participants; low-certainty evidence). Of 1000 children, where 50 have pulmonary tuberculosis, 63 would be screen-positive, of whom 19 (30%) would not have pulmonary tuberculosis; 937 would be screen-negative, of whom 6 (1%) would have pulmonary tuberculosis. Xpert MTB/RIF (verified by MRS) Xpert MTB/RIF, inpatient or outpatient (2 studies, tuberculosis prevalence 1% and 4%): sensitivity was 43% and 100% (16 participants; very low-certainty evidence) and specificity was 99% and 100% (771 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). Of 1000 children, where 50 have pulmonary tuberculosis, 31 to 69 would be Xpert MTB/RIF-positive, of whom 9 to 19 (28% to 29%) would not have pulmonary tuberculosis; 969 to 931 would be Xpert MTB/RIF-negative, of whom 0 to 28 (0% to 3%) would have tuberculosis. Studies often assessed more symptoms than those included in the index test and symptom definitions varied. These differences complicated data aggregation and may have influenced accuracy estimates. Both symptoms and CXR formed part of the CRS (incorporation bias), which may have led to overestimation of sensitivity and specificity. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We found that in children who are tuberculosis contacts or living with HIV, screening tests using symptoms or CXR may be useful, but our review is limited by design issues with the index test and incorporation bias in the reference standard. For Xpert MTB/RIF, we found insufficient evidence regarding screening accuracy. Prospective evaluations of screening tests for tuberculosis in children will help clarify their use. In the meantime, screening strategies need to be pragmatic to address the persistent gaps in prevention and case detection that exist in resource-limited settings.


Assuntos
Busca de Comunicante , Avaliação de Sintomas/métodos , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Viés , Criança , Comportamento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Intervalos de Confiança , Tosse/diagnóstico , Estudos Transversais , Reações Falso-Negativas , Reações Falso-Positivas , Febre/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Radiografia Torácica , Padrões de Referência , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Avaliação de Sintomas/estatística & dados numéricos , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/prevenção & controle , Ganho de Peso
7.
Comput Biol Med ; 135: 104572, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34182331

RESUMO

We present a machine learning based COVID-19 cough classifier which can discriminate COVID-19 positive coughs from both COVID-19 negative and healthy coughs recorded on a smartphone. This type of screening is non-contact, easy to apply, and can reduce the workload in testing centres as well as limit transmission by recommending early self-isolation to those who have a cough suggestive of COVID-19. The datasets used in this study include subjects from all six continents and contain both forced and natural coughs, indicating that the approach is widely applicable. The publicly available Coswara dataset contains 92 COVID-19 positive and 1079 healthy subjects, while the second smaller dataset was collected mostly in South Africa and contains 18 COVID-19 positive and 26 COVID-19 negative subjects who have undergone a SARS-CoV laboratory test. Both datasets indicate that COVID-19 positive coughs are 15%-20% shorter than non-COVID coughs. Dataset skew was addressed by applying the synthetic minority oversampling technique (SMOTE). A leave-p-out cross-validation scheme was used to train and evaluate seven machine learning classifiers: logistic regression (LR), k-nearest neighbour (KNN), support vector machine (SVM), multilayer perceptron (MLP), convolutional neural network (CNN), long short-term memory (LSTM) and a residual-based neural network architecture (Resnet50). Our results show that although all classifiers were able to identify COVID-19 coughs, the best performance was exhibited by the Resnet50 classifier, which was best able to discriminate between the COVID-19 positive and the healthy coughs with an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.98. An LSTM classifier was best able to discriminate between the COVID-19 positive and COVID-19 negative coughs, with an AUC of 0.94 after selecting the best 13 features from a sequential forward selection (SFS). Since this type of cough audio classification is cost-effective and easy to deploy, it is potentially a useful and viable means of non-contact COVID-19 screening.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Tosse , Aprendizado de Máquina , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Tosse/diagnóstico , Humanos , Smartphone , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte
8.
JCI Insight ; 6(14)2021 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34111030

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDIndividuals recovering from COVID-19 frequently experience persistent respiratory ailments, which are key elements of postacute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC); however, little is known about the underlying biological factors that may direct lung recovery and the extent to which these are affected by COVID-19 severity.METHODSWe performed a prospective cohort study of individuals with persistent symptoms after acute COVID-19, collecting clinical data, pulmonary function tests, and plasma samples used for multiplex profiling of inflammatory, metabolic, angiogenic, and fibrotic factors.RESULTSSixty-one participants were enrolled across 2 academic medical centers at a median of 9 weeks (interquartile range, 6-10 weeks) after COVID-19 illness: n = 13 participants (21%) had mild COVID-19 and were not hospitalized, n = 30 participants (49%) were hospitalized but were considered noncritical, and n = 18 participants (30%) were hospitalized and in the intensive care unit (ICU). Fifty-three participants (85%) had lingering symptoms, most commonly dyspnea (69%) and cough (58%). Forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), and diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) declined as COVID-19 severity increased (P < 0.05) but these values did not correlate with respiratory symptoms. Partial least-squares discriminant analysis of plasma biomarker profiles clustered participants by past COVID-19 severity. Lipocalin-2 (LCN2), MMP-7, and HGF identified by our analysis were significantly higher in the ICU group (P < 0.05), inversely correlated with FVC and DLCO (P < 0.05), and were confirmed in a separate validation cohort (n = 53).CONCLUSIONSubjective respiratory symptoms are common after acute COVID-19 illness but do not correlate with COVID-19 severity or pulmonary function. Host response profiles reflecting neutrophil activation (LCN2), fibrosis signaling (MMP-7), and alveolar repair (HGF) track with lung impairment and may be novel therapeutic or prognostic targets.FundingNational Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (K08HL130557 and R01HL142818), American Heart Association (Transformational Project Award), the DeLuca Foundation Award, a donation from Jack Levin to the Benign Hematology Program at Yale University, and Duke University.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Fator de Crescimento de Hepatócito/análise , Lipocalina-2/análise , Metaloproteinase 7 da Matriz/análise , Fibrose Pulmonar , Testes de Função Respiratória , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Tosse/diagnóstico , Tosse/etiologia , Dispneia/diagnóstico , Dispneia/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ativação de Neutrófilo/imunologia , Prognóstico , Fibrose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Fibrose Pulmonar/etiologia , Fibrose Pulmonar/metabolismo , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica/imunologia , Testes de Função Respiratória/métodos , Testes de Função Respiratória/estatística & dados numéricos , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(25): e26416, 2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34160429

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cough variant asthma (CVA) is classified as a distinct form of asthma. As the primary or only symptom, cough is the leading cause for the most prevalent chronic cough among kids. The American College of Clinical Pharmacy, British Thoracic Society, and Chinese guidelines established for diagnosing and treating chronic cough in kids recommend inhaled corticosteroids, combined with leukotriene receptor antagonists when necessary. METHODS: We will conduct a comprehensive search in major databases using keywords to find studies related to the analysis of montelukast sodium and budesonide for treating CVA in kids. Two reviewers will independently assess the quality of the selected research articles and perform data extraction. Next, we will use the RevMan software (version: 5.3) to conduct the statistical analysis of the present study. RESULTS: This study will assess the efficacy and safeness of using montelukast sodium and budesonide to treat kids with CVA by pooling the results of individual studies. CONCLUSION: Our findings will provide vigorous evidence to judge whether montelukast sodium and budesonide therapy is an efficient form of therapy for CVA patients. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval is not needed for the present meta-analysis. OSF REGISTRATION NUMBER: May 17, 2021.osf.io/cuvjz (https://osf.io/cuvjz/).


Assuntos
Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Tosse/tratamento farmacológico , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas de Leucotrienos/administração & dosagem , Acetatos/administração & dosagem , Acetatos/efeitos adversos , Administração por Inalação , Asma/diagnóstico , Asma/imunologia , Budesonida/administração & dosagem , Budesonida/efeitos adversos , Criança , Doença Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Tosse/diagnóstico , Tosse/imunologia , Ciclopropanos/administração & dosagem , Ciclopropanos/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Glucocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Antagonistas de Leucotrienos/efeitos adversos , Metanálise como Assunto , Quinolinas/administração & dosagem , Quinolinas/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Sulfetos/administração & dosagem , Sulfetos/efeitos adversos , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
BMC Pediatr ; 21(1): 260, 2021 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34088294

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For evidence-based decision making, primary care physicians need to have specific and reliable information on the pre-test probabilities of underlying diseases and a symptom's course. We performed a systematic review of symptom-evaluating studies in primary care, following three research questions: (1) What is the prevalence of the symptom cough in children consulting primary care physicians? (2) What are the underlying aetiologies of cough and the respective frequencies? (3) What is the prognosis of children with cough? METHODS: Following a pre-defined algorithm and independent double reviewer ratings we searched MEDLINE and EMBASE. All quantitative original research articles in English, French or German were included if they focused on unselected study populations of children consulting a primary care physician for cough. We used the random effects model for meta-analysis in subgroups, if justifiable in terms of heterogeneity. RESULTS: We identified 14 eligible studies on prevalence, five on aetiology and one on prognosis. Prevalence estimates varied between 4.7 and 23.3% of all reasons for an encounter, or up to estimates of 60% when related to patients or consultations. Cough in children is more frequent than in adults, with lowest prevalences in adolescents and in summer. Acute cough is mostly caused by upper respiratory tract infections (62.4%) and bronchitis (33.3%); subacute or chronic cough by recurrent respiratory tract infection (27.7%), asthma (up to 50.4% in cough persisting more than 3 weeks), and pertussis (37.2%). Potentially serious diseases like croup, pneumonia or tuberculosis are scarce. In children with subacute and chronic cough the total duration of cough ranged from 24 to 192 days. About 62.3% of children suffering from prolonged cough are still coughing two months after the beginning of symptoms. CONCLUSION: Cough is one of the most frequent reasons for an encounter in primary care. Our findings fit in with current guideline recommendations supporting a thoughtful wait-and-see approach in acute cough and a special awareness in chronic cough of the possibility of asthma and pertussis. Further evidence of aetiological pre-test probabilities is needed to assess the diagnostic gain based on patient history and clinical signs for differential diagnoses of cough in children.


Assuntos
Tosse , Medicina de Família e Comunidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Tosse/diagnóstico , Tosse/epidemiologia , Tosse/etiologia , Humanos , Prevalência , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Prognóstico
11.
J Trop Pediatr ; 67(2)2021 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34124753

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Manual assessment of respiratory rate (RR) in children is unreliable, but remains the main method to diagnose pneumonia in low-resource settings. While automated RR counters offer a potential solution, there is currently no gold standard to validate these diagnostic aids. A video-based reference tool is proposed that allows users to annotate breaths and distortions including movement periods, allowing the exclusion of distortions from the computation of RR measures similar to how new diagnostic aids account for distortions automatically. This study evaluated the interrater agreement and acceptability of the new reference tool. METHODS: Annotations were based on previously recorded reference videos of children under five years old with cough and/or difficulty breathing (n = 50). Five randomly selected medical experts from a panel of ten annotated each video. RR measures (breaths per minute, bpm) were computed as the number of annotated certain breaths divided by the length of calm periods after removing annotated distorted periods. RESULTS: Reviewers showed good interrater agreement on continuous RR {standard error of measurement (SEM) [4.8 (95%CI 4.4-5.3)]} and substantial agreement on classification of fast breathing (Fleiss kappa, κ 0.71). Agreement was lowest in the youngest age group [< 2 months: SEM 6.2 (5.4-7.4) bpm, κ 0.48; 2-11 months: 4.7 (4.0-5.8) bpm, κ 0.84; 12-59 months: 2.6 (2.2-3.1) bpm, κ 0.8]. Reviewers found the functionalities of the tool helpful in annotating breaths, but remained uncertain about the validity of their annotations. CONCLUSIONS: Before the new tool can be considered a reference standard for RR assessments, interrater agreement in children younger than 2 months must be improved.


Assuntos
Pneumonia , Taxa Respiratória , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Tosse/diagnóstico , Dispneia , Humanos , Lactente , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
13.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 16: 1243-1253, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33981141

RESUMO

Background: Chronic cough declines quality of life and increases risk of complications in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Reducing cough severity and associated negative effects is important therapeutic goal in COPD. Rengalin with anti- and protussive activity is based on technologically processed antibodies to bradykinin, histamine and morphine. Aim: To evaluate efficacy and safety of Rengalin in treatment of cough in patients with COPD. Methods: Patients (n=238, mean age 64.3±8.2 years) with stable COPD and persistent cough despite maintenance therapy (anticholinergics, beta-2-adrenergic agonists, inhaled corticosteroids) were included and randomized in the study. The severity of cough assessment (according to the "Cough Severity Score"), COPD impact on patient's life (COPD Assessment Test, CAT), and spirometry were performed at screening. Patients took Rengalin or Placebo 2 tablets 2 times daily for 4 weeks. The endpoints were proportion of patients who responded to treatment, dynamics of cough severity, and severity of COPD symptoms. Intention-to-treat (per protocol) analysis was performed. Results: Positive response to Rengalin was recorded in 83.6 [85.7]% (vs 72.6 [72.7]% in Placebo group, p=0.0422 [p=0.0163]). Double decrease of cough severity was reported in 42.2 [43.8]% in Rengalin group (versus 32.7 [32.7]% in Placebo; p=0.1373 [p=0.0907]). The total CAT score decreased by 3.3±4.2 [3.6±3.9] points (versus 2.5±4.1 [2.5±4.2] in Placebo group); the difference between groups was 0.79±4.16 [1.04±4.02] points (p=0.0870 [p=0.0416]). The number of patients with adverse events (AEs) in Rengalin (n=13) and Placebo (n=12) groups did not have significant differences (p=1.00). No AEs with certain relationship with study drug were registered. Conclusion: Rengalin is an effective and safe drug in patients with stable COPD and persistent cough, despite stable doses of maintenance therapy according to the GOLD guidelines. Four-week therapy decreases severity of cough by two times in more than 40% of patients. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov (id: NCT03159091).


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Corticosteroides , Idoso , Tosse/diagnóstico , Tosse/tratamento farmacológico , Tosse/etiologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/complicações , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Qualidade de Vida
14.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5452-5457, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33969515

RESUMO

Although severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA is generally detected in nasopharyngeal swabs, viral RNA can be found in other samples including blood. Recently, associations between SARS-CoV-2 RNAaemia and disease severity and mortality have been reported in adults, while no reports are available in pediatric patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The aim of this study was to evaluate the mortality, severity, clinical, and laboratory findings of SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection in blood in 96 pediatric patients with confirmed COVID-19. Among all patients, 6 (6%) had SARS-CoV-2 RNAaemia. Out of the six patients with SARS-CoV-2 RNAaemia, four (67%) had a severe form of the disease, and two out of the 6 patients with SARS-CoV-2 RNAaemia passed away (33%). Our results show that the symptoms more commonly found in the cases of COVID-19 in the study (fever, cough, tachypnea, and vomiting), were found at a higher percentage in the patients with SARS-CoV-2 RNAaemia. Creatine phosphokinase and magnesium tests showed significant differences between the positive and negative SARS-CoV-2 RNAaemia groups. Among all laboratory tests, magnesium and creatine phosphokinase could better predict SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia with area under the curve  levels of 0.808 and 0.748, respectively. In conclusion, 67% of individuals with SARS-CoV-2 RNAaemia showed a severe COVID-19 and one-third of the patients with SARS-CoV-2 RNAaemia passed away. Our findings suggest that magnesium and creatine phosphokinase might be considered as markers to estimate the SARS-CoV-2 RNAaemia.


Assuntos
COVID-19/patologia , Creatina Quinase/sangue , Magnésio/sangue , RNA Viral/sangue , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Viremia/patologia , Adolescente , Biomarcadores/sangue , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/virologia , Teste de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19 , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Tosse/diagnóstico , Tosse/mortalidade , Tosse/patologia , Tosse/virologia , Feminino , Febre/diagnóstico , Febre/mortalidade , Febre/patologia , Febre/virologia , Hospitais , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Irã (Geográfico) , Masculino , RNA Viral/genética , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Análise de Sobrevida , Taquipneia/diagnóstico , Taquipneia/mortalidade , Taquipneia/patologia , Taquipneia/virologia , Viremia/diagnóstico , Viremia/mortalidade , Viremia/virologia
15.
Am J Speech Lang Pathol ; 30(3): 1261-1291, 2021 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33989029

RESUMO

Purpose The primary aim of this review was to identify environmental irritants known to trigger chronic cough through the life span and develop a comprehensive clinically useful irritant checklist. Method A scoping review was conducted using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Extension for Scoping Reviews, checklist, and explanation. English-language, full-text resources were identified through Medline, PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global. Results A total of 1,072 sources were retrieved; of these, 109 were duplicates. Titles of abstracts of 963 articles were screened, with 295 selected for full-text review. Using the exclusion and inclusion criteria listed, 236 articles were considered eligible and 214 different triggers were identified. Triggers were identified from North America, Europe, Africa, Asia, and Australia. Occupational exposures were also delineated. Conclusions A clinically useful checklist of both frequently encountered triggers and idiosyncratic or rare triggers was developed. The clinical checklist provides a unique contribution to streamline and standardize clinical assessment of irritant-induced chronic cough. The international scope of this review extends the usefulness of the clinical checklist to clinicians on most continents.


Assuntos
Lista de Checagem , Irritantes , Ásia , Austrália , Tosse/induzido quimicamente , Tosse/diagnóstico , Humanos , Irritantes/efeitos adversos , América do Norte
16.
Rev Gaucha Enferm ; 42(spe): e20200205, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34037180

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify symptoms of COVID-19 in adults in the scientific literature. METHOD: Systematic review of studies published from December 1, 2019 to April 21, 2020 from the Scopus, Web of Science and PubMed databases, in order to answer the following research question: "What are the symptoms caused by COVID-19 in adults?" using the keywords "Symptoms", "Clinical Manifestations", "Coronavirus", "COVID-19". RESULTS: Of the total 105 references, 13 references that addressed the symptoms of COVID-19 were selected. Fever and normal or dry cough were symptoms present in all studies. CONCLUSION: The symptoms identified in adult patients were fever, normal or dry cough, headache, pharyngalgia, dyspnea, diarrhea, myalgia, vomiting, sputum or expectoration, anxiety or chest pain, fatigue, nausea, anorexia, abdominal pain, rhinorrhea, runny nose or nasal congestion, dizziness, chills, systemic pain, mental confusion, hemoptysis, asthma, taste disorder, smell disorder, belching and tachycardia.


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico , Avaliação de Sintomas , Adulto , COVID-19/complicações , Tosse/diagnóstico , Tosse/etiologia , Estudos Transversais , Diarreia/diagnóstico , Diarreia/etiologia , Dispneia/diagnóstico , Dispneia/etiologia , Fadiga/diagnóstico , Fadiga/etiologia , Febre/diagnóstico , Febre/etiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
17.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e932361, 2021 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33976103

RESUMO

BACKGROUND COVID-19 and influenza share many similarities, such as mode of transmission and clinical symptoms. Failure to distinguish the 2 diseases may increase the risk of transmission. A fast and convenient differential diagnosis between COVID-19 and influenza has significant clinical value, especially for low- and middle-income countries with a shortage of nucleic acid detection kits. We aimed to establish a diagnostic model to differentiate COVID-19 and influenza based on clinical data. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 493 patients were enrolled in the study, including 282 with COVID-19 and 211 with influenza. All data were collected and reviewed retrospectively. The clinical and laboratory characteristics of all patients were analyzed and compared. We then randomly divided all patients into development sets and validation sets to establish a diagnostic model using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Finally, we validated the diagnostic model using the validation set. RESULTS We preliminarily established a diagnostic model for differentiating COVID-19 from influenza that consisted of 5 variables: age, dry cough, fever, white cell count, and D-dimer. The model showed good performance for differential diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS This initial model including clinical features and laboratory indices effectively differentiated COVID-19 from influenza. Patients with a high score were at a high risk of having COVID-19, while patients with a low score were at a high risk of having influenza. This model could help clinicians quickly identify and isolate cases in the absence of nucleic acid tests, especially during the cocirculation of COVID-19 and influenza. Owing to the study's retrospective nature, further prospective study is needed to validate the accuracy of the model.


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Adulto , Tosse/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Febre/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade
20.
Ther Umsch ; 78(4): 187-194, 2021.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33899515

RESUMO

Cough - an Interdisciplinary Condition: The Pneumologist's Perspective Abstract. Cough is one of the most frequent reasons for a medical consultation. Patients mostly suffer from acute cough (< 2 weeks duration) and subacute cough (2 - 8 weeks) during consultation at primary care. Chronic cough (> 8 weeks) is mostly cared for by specialists. Acute and subacute cough is most frequently caused by infections with primarily viral pathogens. Chronic cough is commonly associated with obstructive airway disease (i. e. Asthma, COPD), gastroesophageal reflux and upper airway cough syndrome. Pulmonary causes are investigated by spirometry, bodyplethysmography, blood eosinophil count, exhaled nitric oxide, methacholine challenge test, chest x-rays and computed tomography. Treatment should target underlying diseases, causing cough. Trials of inhaled corticosteroids can be considered if an asthmatic cause is suspected. Secretolytics and cough-suppressing medications should be used only to reduce patient symptoms if there is no alternative causal treatment. Clinical trials show positive results for treatment of chronic refractory (no improvement of symptoms despite adequate treatment of the underlying condition) and chronic idiopathic cough with Gefapixant, a P2X3 purinergic receptor antagonist. If recent trial results are confirmed a first specific cough modulating substance might be available soon.


Assuntos
Asma , Refluxo Gastroesofágico , Doença Crônica , Tosse/diagnóstico , Tosse/etiologia , Tosse/terapia , Humanos , Espirometria
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