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2.
Arh Hig Rada Toksikol ; 70(1): 1-2, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30956214

RESUMO

This year we turn 70! Lucky for journals, they don't get old with volumes. In our case, quite the opposite. The idea of this editorial, however, is not to look so far back but to share with you - our readers and authors - where we see Archives in the years to come.


Assuntos
Saúde do Trabalhador/história , Objetivos Organizacionais , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/história , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/tendências , Toxicologia/história , Previsões , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos
5.
Arch Environ Occup Health ; 74(1-2): 30-41, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30507356

RESUMO

In 1910, the founder of the Clinica del Lavoro of Milan, Luigi Devoto established a chemistry laboratory in the new institute, sustaining its importance in the study of occupational diseases. In 1948, the new director of the Clinica, Enrico C. Vigliani established the first laboratory of industrial hygiene in Italy, in the years of the economic boom. In 1960s, this laboratory, directed by Nicola Zurlo, significantly contributed to the research in the field. In 1980s and 1990s, the laboratory of the Clinica started to explore the field of environmental toxicology, studying the effects of benzene and other traffic pollutants on the general population. The analysis of history of the Clinica del Lavoro of Milan may represent a valuable tool for studying the origin and the development of industrial hygiene, occupational and environmental toxicology in the twentieth century.


Assuntos
Saúde Ambiental/história , Laboratórios/história , Doenças Profissionais/história , Saúde do Trabalhador/história , Toxicologia/história , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Itália
8.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1803: 3-13, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29882129

RESUMO

Immunotoxicological research and testing have evolved from early studies of anaphylaxis to the robust and diverse field of immunotoxicology as we know it today. Early studies connecting immune dysfunction with exposure to exogenous agents focused on adverse reactions to immunogenic agents present in vaccines. Over time, work done by immunologists and pathologists leads to descriptions of characteristics of immunogenic agents as well as mechanisms by which anaphylaxis occurs and an understanding of the concept of immunosuppression. These myriad achievements greatly improved public health and led the field of immunotoxicology, which addresses all aspects of adverse immunological responses following exposure to exogenous agents as well as the development of testing paradigms to understand immunological responses of designed agents such as drugs and biologics.


Assuntos
Alergia e Imunologia/história , Toxicologia/história , Animais , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , História do Século XX , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/metabolismo
13.
Orv Hetil ; 159(3): 83-90, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29332417

RESUMO

Toxicology is a science of poisonings by xenobiotics and endogenous physiological changes. Its empiric roots may be traced back to the emerging of the human race because the most important pledge of our predecessors' survival was the differentiation between eatable and poisonous plants and animals. In the course of social evolution, there were three main fields of using poisons: 1) hunting and warfare, 2) to settle social tensions by avoiding military conflicts through hiding strategy of eliminating enemies by toxic substances, 3) medicines applied first as anti-poisons and later by introducing strong substances to defeat diseases, but paradoxically active euthanasia is also a part of the whole story. The industrial revolution of the 19th century changed the sporadic occupational diseases to mass conditions. Later the chemical industry and subsequently the mass production of synthetic materials turned out as a global environmental catastrophe. This latest change initiated the emerging of ecological toxicology which is a future history of the concerning ancient science. Orv Hetil. 2018; 159(3): 83-90.


Assuntos
Medicina Legal/história , Toxicologia/história , Xenobióticos/história , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Doenças Profissionais/história
14.
Toxicol Sci ; 162(1): 15-23, 2018 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29340618

RESUMO

Recent decades have seen a rapid increase in reported toxic effects of drugs and pollutants on mitochondria. Researchers have also documented many genetic differences leading to mitochondrial diseases, currently reported to affect ∼1 person in 4,300, creating a large number of potential gene-environment interactions in mitochondrial toxicity. We briefly review this history, and then highlight cutting-edge areas of mitochondrial research including the role of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species in signaling; increased understanding of fundamental biological processes involved in mitochondrial homeostasis (DNA maintenance and mutagenesis, mitochondrial stress response pathways, fusion and fission, autophagy and biogenesis, and exocytosis); systemic effects resulting from mitochondrial stresses in specific cell types; mitochondrial involvement in immune function; the growing evidence of long-term effects of mitochondrial toxicity; mitochondrial-epigenetic cross-talk; and newer approaches to test chemicals for mitochondrial toxicity. We also discuss the potential importance of hormetic effects of mitochondrial stressors. Finally, we comment on future areas of research we consider critical for mitochondrial toxicology, including increased integration of clinical, experimental laboratory, and epidemiological (human and wildlife) studies; improved understanding of biomarkers in the human population; and incorporation of other factors that affect mitochondria, such as diet, exercise, age, and nonchemical stressors.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/história , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Mitocondriais/história , Toxicologia/história , Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Poluentes Ambientais/história , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Homeostase , Hormese , Humanos , Mitocôndrias/imunologia , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Doenças Mitocondriais/imunologia , Doenças Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/história , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Toxicologia/tendências
16.
Toxicol Sci ; 162(1): 24-35, 2018 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29228398

RESUMO

One of the major classes of pesticides is that of the organophosphates (OPs). Initial developments date back almost 2 centuries but it was only in the mid-1940s that OPs reached a prominent status as insecticides, a status that, albeit declining, is still ongoing. OPs are highly toxic to nontarget species including humans, the primary effects being an acute cholinergic toxicity (responsible for thousands of poisoning each year) and a delayed polyneuropathy. Several issues of current debate and investigation on the toxicology of OPs are discussed in this brief review. These include (1) possible additional targets of OPs, (2) OPs as developmental neurotoxicants, (3) OPs and neurodegenerative diseases, (4) OPs and the "aerotoxic syndrome," (5) OPs and the microbiome, and (6) OPs and cancer. Some of these issues have been debated and studied for some time, while others are newer, suggesting that the study of the toxicology of OPs will remain an important scientific and public health issue for years to come.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/história , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Compostos Organofosforados/toxicidade , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Toxicologia/história , Animais , Pesquisa Biomédica/educação , Poluentes Ambientais/história , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Compostos Organofosforados/história , Praguicidas/história , Toxicologia/educação , Estados Unidos
17.
Med. hist ; 38(2): 4-21, 2018. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-176821

RESUMO

El siglo XIX fue un periodo en el que se produjo un creciente interés por los venenos y los crímenes por envenenamiento a pesar de no ser formas habituales de homicidio. La nueva toxicología pretendía ofrecer herramientas para combatir este tipo de crímenes. Sin embargo, fueron precisamente los debates surgidos durante los procesos judiciales, los que ayudaron a configurar la toxicología del siglo XIX. Alejados de las pautas ofrecidas en los manuales y ante la necesidad de mostrar a un juez carente de formación en estas materias, la presencia o ausencia del veneno, los toxicólogos del siglo XIX pusieron en juego todas sus estrategias para vencer a otros expertos y convencer a los profanos. A mediados de 1844 se produjo en Madrid un caso de envenenamiento que llamó la atención tanto de la prensa médica como de la prensa periódica española. Dos factores contribuyeron a su popularidad: las fechas en las que se produjo (tan solo un año después de la creación de la cátedra de Medicina Legal en las Facultades de Madrid y Barcelona); y la participación como peritos de algunos de los personajes españoles más influyentes en la medicina legal y toxicología española como es el caso de Pere Mata i Fontanet (1811-1877). Pere Mata desempeñó una labor importante en los tres terrenos que contribuyeron decisivamente a la homogeneidad de la comunidad de toxicólogos: la formación universitaria, la literatura académica y la organización profesional. El análisis de un caso de envenenamiento como el que se desarrolla en este trabajo, permite considerar muchas de las cuestiones relacionadas con la toxicología en el siglo XIX: la constitución de una nueva disciplina académica, la creación de una comunidad de expertos, las controversias públicas y la gestión de las pruebas periciales en los tribunales


The XIXth century saw a growing interest in poisons and crimes by poison although these are not usual ways of murder. New technology aspired to offer tools to combat this type of crimes. However, it was precisely the debates that arose during trials that helped to configure XIXth century toxicology. Far from the guidelines offered in manuals and facing the need to demonstrate to a judge, lacking In training in these subjects the presence or absence of the poison, XIXth century toxicologists used all of their strategies to beat other experts and convince the layperson. In the middle of 1844 there was a case of poisoning in Madrid that caught the attention of both the medical press and the Spanish newspapers. Two factors contributed to its popularity: the date that it happened 8only a year after the creation of the chair of Forensic Medicine at the faculties in Madrid and Barcelona); and the participation as experts of some of the most influential Spaniards in forensic medicine and Spanish toxicology such as Pere Mata I Fontanet (1811-1877). Pere Mata carried out important work in the three fields which decisively contributed to the homogeneity of the community of toxicologists: university training, academic literature and the professional organization. The analysis of a case of poisoning as the one developed in this work permits the consideration of many issues related totoxicology in the XIXth century: the constitution of a new academic subject, the creation of a community of experts, public controversies and the management of expert evidence at trials


Assuntos
História do Século XIX , Crime/história , Envenenamento/história , Envenenamento/mortalidade , Alcaloides Opiáceos/história , Alcaloides Opiáceos/toxicidade , Toxicologia Forense/história , Ópio/toxicidade , Alcaloides/história , Alcaloides/toxicidade , Toxicologia/história , Toxicologia/legislação & jurisprudência
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