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2.
Ann Biol Clin (Paris) ; 77(2): 219-224, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30998200

RESUMO

Toxicological screening is a specific approach to analytical toxicology that uses analytical tools such as GC-MS, LC-UV (diode array) or LC-MS. Toxicological screening allows the detection and simultaneous identification of a large number of compounds. The results may be based on the use of one or more techniques. As part of the accreditation process for medical biology examinations according to standard NF EN ISO 15189, the group from SFTA and SFBC recommends an approach to accredit toxicological screening. Indeed, the complexity of the accreditation of this analysis comes in particular from the high number of compounds that can be detected. Validation parameters are discussed in the specific context of toxicological screening by considering two distinct approaches: the simple identification of compounds, or the identification and estimation of a range of concentration related to clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Acreditação , Química Clínica/normas , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/normas , Toxicologia/normas , Química Clínica/métodos , Química Clínica/organização & administração , Cromatografia Líquida , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Contaminação de Equipamentos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/normas , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Programas de Rastreamento/normas , Controle de Qualidade , Sociedades Médicas/organização & administração , Sociedades Médicas/normas , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Toxicologia/métodos , Toxicologia/organização & administração , Estudos de Validação como Assunto
5.
Toxicol Pathol ; 45(8): 1035-1038, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29145783

RESUMO

National Toxicology Program (NTP) pathologists are engaged in important initiatives that have significant global impact. These initiatives build on its leadership in pathology peer review and publications in the areas of toxicologic pathology, clinical pathology, and laboratory animal medicine. Over the past decade, NTP/National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences research initiatives have focused on cancer and noncancer hazard identification, with the goal of understanding cellular and molecular mechanisms of disease. New initiatives of significant global impact include the web-based nonneoplastic lesion atlas and an NTP partnership with international scientists to investigate molecular mechanisms at the whole genome level, which will be used to inform potential mechanisms of environmental exposures in human cancers. Also, we are dedicated to contributing to pathology and toxicology organizations through service on executive committees and editorial boards, participating in international projects and symposiums, and providing training for future leaders in toxicologic pathology. Herein, we provide highlights of our global contributions.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica , Patologia/organização & administração , Toxicologia/organização & administração , Animais , Atlas como Assunto , Educação Médica , Humanos , National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (U.S.) , Patologia/educação , Patologia/métodos , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto , Toxicologia/educação , Toxicologia/métodos , Pesquisa Médica Translacional , Estados Unidos
6.
ALTEX ; 34(1): 3-21, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28105478

RESUMO

The practice of risk assessment and regulation of substances has largely developed as a patchwork of circumstantial additions to a nowadays more or less shared international toolbox. The dominant drivers from the US and Europe have pursued remarkably different approaches in the use of these tools for regulation, i.e., a more risk-based approach in the US and a more precautionary approach in Europe. We argue that there is need for scientific developments not only for the tools but also for their application, i.e., a need for Regulatory Science or, perhaps better, Safety Science. While some of this is emerging on the US side as strategic reports, e.g., from the National Academies, the NIH and the regulatory agencies, especially the EPA and the FDA, such strategic developments beyond technological developments are largely lacking in Europe or have started only recently at EFSA, ECHA or within the flagship project EU-ToxRisk. This article provides a rationale for the creation of a European Safety Sciences Institute (ESSI) based on regulatory and scientific needs, political context and current EU missions. Moreover, the possible modus operandi of ESSI will be described along with possible working formats as well as anticipated main tasks and duties. This mirrors the triple alliance on the American side (US EPA, NIH and FDA) in revamping regulatory sciences. Moreover, this could fit the political agenda of the European Commission for better implementation of existing EU legislation rather than creating new laws.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/legislação & jurisprudência , Regulamentação Governamental , Formulação de Políticas , Desenvolvimento de Programas/normas , Segurança/legislação & jurisprudência , Toxicologia/legislação & jurisprudência , Pesquisa Biomédica/organização & administração , Europa (Continente) , Política de Saúde , Cooperação Internacional , Medição de Risco , Toxicologia/organização & administração
7.
J Toxicol Sci ; 41(Special): SP1-SP9, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27980298

RESUMO

Founded in 1981, the Japanese Society of Toxicology (JSOT) has grown into an organization of nearly 3,000 members working together to advance the nation's scientific knowledge and understanding of toxicology through the implementation of planning that ensures a systematic and efficient expenditure of energies and resources, and is closely aligned with a strategy for accomplishing the Society's long-range plans. To promote public education in toxicology, the Society organizes public lectures during each year's annual meeting. Other activities include hosting scientific conferences, promoting continuing education, and facilitating international collaboration. Internally, the JSOT operates five standing committees: General Affairs, Educational, Editorial, Finance, and Science and Publicity to handle its necessary relationships. To bestow official recognition, the Society established its Toxicologist Certification Program in 1997, and has certified 536 members as Diplomat Toxicologists (DJSOT) as of May 1, 2016. Furthermore, on the same date, 43 JSOT members were certified as Emeritus Diplomats of the JSOT (EDJSOT). The Society has launched two official journals, the "Journal of Toxicological Sciences (JTS)" in 1981 and "Fundamental Toxicological Sciences (Fundam. Toxicol. Sci.)" in 2014. As for participation in the international organizations, the JSOT (then known as the Toxicological Research Group) joined the International Union of Toxicology as a charter member in 1980, and became a founding member of the Asian Society of Toxicology at its inauguration in 1994. Into the future, the JSOT will continue working diligently to advance knowledge and understanding of toxicology and secure its place among the interdisciplinary fields of science, humane studies, and ethics.


Assuntos
Sociedades Científicas/história , Sociedades Científicas/organização & administração , Toxicologia/história , Toxicologia/organização & administração , Educação em Saúde , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Japão , Toxicologia/educação
8.
J Toxicol Sci ; 41(Special): SP11-SP13, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28025446

RESUMO

The Journal of Toxicological Sciences, published by The Japanese Society of Toxicology (JSOT), is an international scientific journal covering the entire field of toxicology. This article reviews the history of The Journal of Toxicological Sciences as well as actions taken by the Editorial Committee to improve the journal and the results of these initiatives.


Assuntos
Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/história , Sociedades Científicas/organização & administração , Toxicologia/história , Toxicologia/organização & administração , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI
9.
Acta toxicol. argent ; 24(2): 134-160, set. 2016. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-837861

RESUMO

La vigilancia de las intoxicaciones, o toxicovigilancia, es una herramienta fundamental de la evaluación de riesgos para la salud y de la valoración de los efectos de las medidas regulatorias que hacen a la seguridad de los productos químicos. Existen numerosas experiencias latinoamericanas desde los Sistemas Nacionales de Vigilancia Epidemiológica donde muchas intoxicaciones han sido incluidas en los listados de enfermedades de notificación obligatoria, tales como las intoxicaciones por plaguicidas, por metales y por hidrocarburos, el botulismo, los envenenamientos por animales ponzoñosos, las intoxicaciones medicamentosas o por drogas de abuso. En este campo se observan también diferencias en los listados nacionales y regionales, destacándose, por ejemplo, la notificación de las intoxicaciones por alcohol adulterado con metanol o por glifosato en Colombia, la intoxicación paralizante por mariscos en países del Cono Sur, las intoxicaciones por plaguicidas en Centroamérica y su relación con la enfermedad renal crónica. También hay peculiaridades en las definiciones de brote y las alertas epidemiológicas, así como en la urgencia o periodicidad requerida para la notificación. Los Centros de Información y Asesoramiento Toxicológicos y los Laboratorios de Análisis Clínicos Toxicológicos también cumplen una importante función al respecto, siendo los efectores más especializados en el diagnóstico y donde se puede obtener información de mayor calidad. Importante ha sido la implementación de la toxicovigilancia en convenios internacionales de Seguridad Química, tales como el de Rotterdam y el de Estocolmo, y los esfuerzos realizados por las Naciones Unidas para armonizar los registros y los informes nacionales.


Surveillance of poisoning, or toxicovigilance, is a fundamental tool for the assessment of health risks and the assessment of the effects of regulatory measures that make the safety of chemicals. There are many Latin American experiences from the National Epidemiological Surveillance where many poisonings have been included in the lists of notifiable diseases such as pesticide poisoning, metals and oil, botulism poisonings venomous animals, poisoning drug or drugs of abuse. In this field also differences are observed in national and regional listings, highlighting, for example, notification of poisoning by adulterated alcohol with methanol or glyphosate in Colombia, paralytic shellfish poisoning in Southern Cone countries, pesticide poisoning in Central America and its relationship to chronic kidney disease. There are also peculiarities in the definitions of outbreak and epidemiological alerts, as well as the urgency or frequency required for notification. Information Centers and Toxicological Consulting and Clinical Toxicology Laboratories Analysis also play an important role in this regard, the most specialized effectors in the diagnosis and where you can get better information. Important has been the implementation of international conventions toxicovigilance Chemical Safety such as Rotterdam and Stockholm, and efforts by the United Nations to harmonize national records and reports.


Assuntos
Centros de Controle de Intoxicações , Toxicologia/organização & administração , Argentina , Brasil , América Central , Colômbia , Costa Rica , República Dominicana , Vigilância Sanitária , Centros de Vigilância Sanitária Estaduais
12.
Arch Toxicol ; 90(5): 1021-4, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27017488

RESUMO

The integrated European project, EU-ToxRisk, proudly sees itself as "flagship" exploring new alternative-to-animal approaches to chemical safety evaluation. It promotes mechanism-based toxicity testing and risk assessment according to the principles laid down for toxicology for the twenty-first century. The project was officially launched in January 2016 with a kickoff meeting in Egmond aan Zee, the Netherlands. Over 100 scientists representing academia and industry as well as regulatory authorities attended the inaugural meeting. The project will integrate advances in in vitro and in silico toxicology, read-across methods, and adverse outcome pathways. EU-ToxRisk will continue to make use of the case study strategy deployed in SEURAT-1, a FP7 initiative ended in December 2015. Even though the development of new non-animal methods is one target of EU-ToxRisk, the project puts special emphasis on their acceptance and implementation in regulatory contexts. This €30 million Horizon 2020 project involves 38 European partners and one from the USA. EU-ToxRisk aims at the "development of a new way of risk assessment."


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Técnicas In Vitro , Cooperação Internacional , Toxicologia/métodos , Alternativas aos Testes com Animais , Animais , Pesquisa Biomédica/organização & administração , Comportamento Cooperativo , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Medição de Risco , Toxicologia/organização & administração , Fluxo de Trabalho
13.
Toxicol Pathol ; 44(3): 480-1, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26534938

RESUMO

The International Harmonization of Nomenclature and Diagnostic Criteria (INHAND) is a global project establishing diagnostic criteria and nomenclature for both proliferative and nonproliferative changes in laboratory animals. Nonrodent working groups (NRWGs) have been established for the dog, nonhuman primate, minipig, and the rabbit. The Global Editorial and Steering Committee (GESC) oversees the activities of the INHAND projects and is composed of toxicologic pathologists from all of the participating societies. In 2012, INHAND GESC began a collaboration with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) in adapting INHAND terminology for standardized nonclinical data submission to the FDA. The Standard for Exchange of Nonclinical Data is an implementation of the Clinical Data Interchange Standards Consortium Study Data Tabulation Model for nonclinical studies. The NRWG for the minipig consists of toxicologic and diagnostic pathologists from Japan, North America, and Europe, and the group has 15 members including a GESC representative. The NRWGs are reviewing the applicability of the rodent nomenclature for the species and providing terminology unique for the species as well as determining rodent terminology not appropriate for the species. This information will be published with representative illustrations and references.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/normas , Patologia/normas , Porco Miniatura , Terminologia como Assunto , Toxicologia/normas , Animais , Animais de Laboratório , Pesquisa Biomédica/organização & administração , Feminino , Internacionalidade , Masculino , Patologia/organização & administração , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos , Toxicologia/organização & administração
14.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther ; 356(1): 170-81, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26537250

RESUMO

The number of chemicals for which environmental regulatory decisions are required far exceeds the current capacity for toxicity testing. High-throughput screening commonly used for drug discovery has the potential to increase this capacity. The adverse outcome pathway (AOP) concept has emerged as a framework for connecting high-throughput toxicity testing (HTT) and other results to potential impacts on human and wildlife populations. As a result of international efforts, the AOP development process is now well-defined and efforts are underway to broaden the participation through outreach and training. One key principle is that AOPs represent the chemical-agnostic portions of pathways to increase the generalizability of their application from early key events to overt toxicity. The closely related mode of action framework extends the AOP as needed when evaluating the potential risk of a specific chemical. This in turn enables integrated approaches to testing and assessment (IATA), which incorporate results of assays at various levels of biologic organization such as in silico; HTT; chemical-specific aspects including absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME); and an AOP describing the biologic basis of toxicity. Thus, it is envisaged that provision of limited information regarding both the AOP for critical effects and the ADME for any chemical associated with any adverse outcome would allow for the development of IATA and permit more detailed AOP and ADME research, where higher precision is needed based on the decision context.


Assuntos
Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Gestão da Informação/métodos , Toxicologia/organização & administração , Animais , Simulação por Computador , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Humanos , Preparações Farmacêuticas/metabolismo , Farmacocinética , Distribuição Tecidual
15.
J Med Toxicol ; 12(1): 79-81, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26576956

RESUMO

Medical toxicologists are frequently called upon to treat patients who are addicted to alcohol, tobacco, or other substances across many care settings. Medical toxicologists provide service to their patients through the identification, treatment, and prevention of addiction and its co-morbidities, and practice opportunities are quite varied. Training in addiction medicine can be obtained during or after medical toxicology fellowship through resources offered by the American Society of Addiction Medicine. Additionally, the American Board of Addiction Medicine offers certification in the specialty of addiction medicine to candidates across a wide range of medical specialties.


Assuntos
Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/organização & administração , Assistência Centrada no Paciente/organização & administração , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia , Toxicologia/organização & administração , Certificação , Competência Clínica , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/normas , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina , Bolsas de Estudo , Humanos , Assistência Centrada no Paciente/normas , Especialização , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/diagnóstico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Toxicologia/educação , Toxicologia/normas
16.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 23(3): 2220-9, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26077316

RESUMO

The IARC Monographs are a series of scientific reviews that identify environmental factors that can increase the risk of cancer in humans. In its first part, the principles and procedures of the IARC Monographs evaluations are summarized. In a second part, we present the most recent IARC evaluation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), performed in February 2013: PCBs and dioxin-like PCBs were both classified into group 1 "carcinogens," while PBBs were evaluated as "probably carcinogenic to humans" (group 2A). Noteworthy is that the relative contributions of different PCB congeners to the carcinogenicity of PCB mixtures are not known. The use of mechanistic data for the classification into a higher category is discussed in the context of the history of the consecutive evaluations of several related polychlorinated compounds.


Assuntos
Carcinógenos/toxicidade , Neoplasias/etiologia , Bifenilos Policlorados/toxicidade , Toxicologia/organização & administração , Animais , Carcinógenos/química , Humanos , Bifenilos Policlorados/química , Toxicologia/normas
17.
Reprod Toxicol ; 58: 33-44, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26232693

RESUMO

Bisphenol A (BPA) is a chemical used in the production of numerous consumer products resulting in potential daily human exposure to this chemical. The FDA previously evaluated the body of BPA toxicology data and determined that BPA is safe at current exposure levels. Although consistent with the assessment of some other regulatory agencies around the world, this determination of BPA safety continues to be debated in scientific and popular publications, resulting in conflicting messages to the public. Thus, the National Toxicology Program (NTP), National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), and U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) developed a consortium-based research program to link more effectively a variety of hypothesis-based research investigations and guideline-compliant safety testing with BPA. This collaboration is known as the Consortium Linking Academic and Regulatory Insights on BPA Toxicity (CLARITY-BPA). This paper provides a detailed description of the conduct of the study and a midterm update on progress of the CLARITY-BPA research program.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/efeitos adversos , Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Fenóis/efeitos adversos , Toxicologia/métodos , Animais , Pesquisa Biomédica/organização & administração , Comportamento Cooperativo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interinstitucionais , Masculino , Modelos Animais , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Medição de Risco , Toxicologia/organização & administração
18.
Arch Toxicol ; 89(10): 1881-93, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26314262

RESUMO

The paper describes the importance of toxicology as a discipline, its past achievements, current scientific challenges, and future development. Toxicological expertise is instrumental in the reduction of human health risks arising from chemicals and drugs. Toxicological assessment is needed to evaluate evidence and arguments, whether or not there is a scientific base for concern. The immense success already achieved by toxicological work is exemplified by reduced pollution of air, soil, water, and safer working places. Predominantly predictive toxicological testing is derived from the findings to assess risks to humans and the environment. Assessment of the adversity of molecular effects (including epigenetic effects), the effects of mixtures, and integration of exposure and biokinetics into in vitro testing are emerging challenges for toxicology. Toxicology is a translational science with its base in fundamental science. Academic institutions play an essential part by providing scientific innovation and education of young scientists.


Assuntos
Medição de Risco/métodos , Testes de Toxicidade/métodos , Toxicologia/organização & administração , Animais , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Alemanha , Humanos , Sociedades Científicas , Toxicologia/métodos
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26055120

RESUMO

The relative importance of the discipline of safety pharmacology (which integrates physiology, pharmacologyand toxicology) has evolved since the incorporation of the Safety Pharmacology Society (SPS) as an entity on August 10, 2000. Safety pharmacology (SP), as a synthesis of these other fields of knowledge, is concerned with characterizing the safety profile (or potential undesirable pharmacodynamic effects) of new chemical entities (NCEs) and biologicals. Initially focused on the issue of drug-induced QT prolongation it has developed into an important discipline over the past 15years with expertise beyond its initial focus on torsades de pointes (TdP). It has become a repository for interrogation of models for drug safety studies and innovative non-clinical model development, validation and implementation. Thus, while safety pharmacology consists of the triumvirate obligatory cardiovascular, central nervous system (CNS) and respiratory system core battery studies it also involves assessing drug effects on numerous other physiological systems (e.g., ocular, auditory, renal, gastrointestinal, blood, immune) leveraging emerging new technologies in a wide range of non-clinical drug safety testing models. As with previous editorials that preface the themed issue on safety pharmacology methods published in the Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods (JPTM), we highlight here the content derived from the most recent (2014) SPS meeting held in Washington, DC. The dynamics of the discipline remain fervent and method development, extension and refinement are reflected in the content. This issue of the JPTM continues the tradition of providing a publication summary of articles (reviews, commentaries and methods) with impact on the discipline of safety pharmacology.


Assuntos
Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Farmacologia/organização & administração , Animais , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Toxicologia/organização & administração
20.
Clin Toxicol (Phila) ; 53(4): 192-4, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25686099

RESUMO

Currently, only 10% of board-certified medical toxicologists are pediatricians. Yet over half of poison center calls involve children < 6 years, poisoning continues to be a common pediatric diagnosis and bedside toxicology consultation is not common at children's hospitals. In collaboration with executive staff from Department of Pediatrics and Emergency Medicine, regional poison center, and our toxicology fellowship, we established a toxicology consulting service at our tertiary-care children's hospital. There were 139 consultations, and the service generated 13 consultations in the first month; median of 11 consultations per month thereafter (range 8-16). The service increased pediatric cases seen by the fellowship program from 30 to 94. The transition to a consult service required a culture change. Historically, call center advice was the mainstay of consulting practice and the medical staff was not accustomed to the availability of bedside medical toxicology consultations. However, after promotion of the service and full attending and fellowship coverage, consultations increased. In collaboration with toxicologists from different departments, a consultation service can be rapidly established. The service filled a clinical need that was disproportionately utilized for high acuity patients, immediately utilized by the medical staff and provided a robust pediatric population for the toxicology fellowship.


Assuntos
Hospitais Pediátricos/organização & administração , Pediatria/organização & administração , Encaminhamento e Consulta/organização & administração , Centros de Atenção Terciária/organização & administração , Toxicologia/organização & administração , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Admissão e Escalonamento de Pessoal , Centros de Controle de Intoxicações , Envenenamento/terapia , Recursos Humanos
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