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1.
Food Chem ; 399: 134010, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36058099

RESUMO

A method using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) was developed for the determination of toxoflavin and fervenulin in 6 types of food.The limits of detection (LODs, S/N ≥ 3) of toxoflavin and fervenulin reached 12 µg/kg and 24 µg/kg, respectively.The recoveries ranged from 70.1 % to 108.7 %.Intra-day RSDs (n = 5) and inter-day RSDs (n = 3) ranged from 0.9 % to 9.5 %.The method was successfully applied to analyse 36 samples, and one Tremella fuciformis Berk. sample was found with 7.5 mg/kg toxoflavin and 3.2 mg/kg fervenulin. Toxoflavin and fervenulin were acidic compounds and easily degraded in 0.1 % ammonia solution (v/v),degradation products were identified by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF/MS).


Assuntos
Toxinas Bacterianas , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Pirimidinonas , Triazinas
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 858(Pt 1): 159433, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36244489

RESUMO

Fatal dog poisoning after uptake of neurotoxic cyanobacteria associated with aquatic macrophytes in Tegeler See (Berlin, Germany) raised concerns about critical exposure of humans, especially children, to cyanotoxins produced by macrophyte associated cyanobacteria during recreational activity. From 2017 to 2021 a total of 398 samples of macrophytes washed ashore at bathing sites located at 19 Berlin lakes were analysed for anatoxins, microcystins, and cylindrospermopsins, as were 463 water samples taken in direct proximity to macrophyte accumulations. Cyanotoxins were detected in 66 % of macrophyte samples and 50 % of water samples, with anatoxins being the most frequently detected toxin group in macrophyte samples (58 %) and cylindrospermopsins in water samples (41 %). Microcoleus sp. associated with the water moss Fontinalis antipyretica was identified as anatoxin producing cyanobacterium in isolated strains as well as in field samples from Tegeler See. Anatoxin contents in macrophyte samples rarely exceeded 1 µg/g macrophyte fresh weight and peaked at 9. 2 µg/g f.w. Based on established toxicological points of departure, a critical anatoxin content of macrophyte samples of 3 µg/g f.w. is proposed. Five samples, all taken in Tegeler See and all associated with the water moss Fontinalis antipyretica, exceeded this value. Contents and concentrations of microcystins and cylindrospermopsins did not reach critical levels. The potential exposure risks to anatoxins for children and dogs are assessed and recommendations are given.


Assuntos
Toxinas Bacterianas , Cianobactérias , Criança , Humanos , Cães , Animais , Microcistinas/análise , Toxinas de Cianobactérias , Berlim , Toxinas Bacterianas/análise , Medição de Risco , Água/análise
3.
Front Immunol ; 13: 978858, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36466927

RESUMO

Toxin A (TcdA) and toxin B (TcdB) are two key virulence factors secreted by Clostridioides difficile, which is listed as an urgent threat by the CDC. These two large homologous exotoxins are mainly responsible for diseases associated with C. difficile infection (CDI) with symptoms ranging from diarrhea to life threatening pseudomembranous colitis. Single-domain camelid antibodies (VHHs) AH3 and AA6 are two potent antitoxins against TcdA, which when combined with two TcdB-targeting VHHs showed effective protection against both primary and recurrent CDI in animal models. Here, we report the co-crystal structures of AH3 and AA6 when they form complexes with the glucosyltransferase domain (GTD) and a fragment of the delivery and receptor-binding domain (DRBD) of TcdA, respectively. Based on these structures, we find that AH3 binding enhances the overall stability of the GTD and interferes with its unfolding at acidic pH, and AA6 may inhibit the pH-dependent conformational changes in the DRBD that is necessary for pore formation of TcdA. These studies reveal two functionally critical epitopes on TcdA and shed new insights into neutralizing mechanisms and potential development of epitope-focused vaccines against TcdA.


Assuntos
Toxinas Bacterianas , Clostridioides difficile , Anticorpos de Domínio Único , Animais , Epitopos
4.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 170: 113507, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36334728

RESUMO

The presence of Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) and Microcystins (MCs) in vegetables is considered as a significant worldwide toxicological risk. Thus, this work aims to assess for the first time the impact of refrigeration (4 °C) and freezing (-20 °C) on the levels of CYN, MCs and their mixtures (CYN + MCs) in lettuce and spinach. Samples were spiked with 750 µg cyanotoxins/g dry weight (d.w.). Several storage conditions were studied: refrigeration after 24, 48 h and 7 days, and freezing for 7 days, 1 and 3 months. Cyanotoxin concentrations were determined by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). For CYN, refrigeration at 48 h and 7 days was effective to decrease its concentrations up to 26% and 32%, respectively, in spinach. For MCs, refrigeration was only effective in lettuce compared to spinach, showing an important decrease of 80.3% MC-LR and 85.1% MC-YR. In spinach, CYN was stable after 3 months freezing, whereas MC contents were still reduced up to 44%. Overall, cyanotoxins were less stable in the mixture compared to individual toxins for both processes, and the effect of these storage techniques were toxin and food-specific. Further studies of cyanotoxins in foods are required for evaluating the risk for humans.


Assuntos
Toxinas Bacterianas , Microcistinas , Humanos , Microcistinas/análise , Alface/química , Spinacia oleracea , Cromatografia Líquida , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Uracila , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Toxinas de Cianobactérias
5.
J Vis Exp ; (188)2022 10 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36373947

RESUMO

Understanding the function and mechanism of pore-forming toxins (PFTs) is challenging because cells resist the membrane damage caused by PFTs. While biophysical approaches help understand pore formation, they often rely on reductionist approaches lacking the full complement of membrane lipids and proteins. Cultured human cells provide an alternative system, but their complexity and redundancies in repair mechanisms make identifying specific mechanisms difficult. In contrast, the human protozoan pathogen responsible for cutaneous leishmaniasis, Leishmania major, offers an optimal balance between complexity and physiologic relevance. L. major is genetically tractable and can be cultured to high density in vitro, and any impact of perturbations on infection can be measured in established murine models. In addition, L. major synthesizes lipids distinct from their mammalian counterparts, which could alter membrane dynamics. These alterations in membrane dynamics can be probed with PFTs from the best-characterized toxin family, cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDCs). CDCs bind to ergosterol in the Leishmania membrane and can kill L. major promastigotes, indicating that L. major is a suitable model system for determining the cellular and molecular mechanisms of PFT function. This work describes methods for testing PFT function in L. major promastigotes, including parasite culture, genetic tools for assessing lipid susceptibility, membrane binding assays, and cell death assays. These assays will enable the rapid use of L. major as a powerful model system for understanding PFT function across a range of evolutionarily diverse organisms and commonalities in lipid organization.


Assuntos
Toxinas Bacterianas , Leishmania major , Humanos , Camundongos , Animais , Toxinas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Leishmania major/genética , Leishmania major/metabolismo , Lipídeos de Membrana , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Colesterol/metabolismo , Mamíferos/metabolismo
6.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 39(1): 3, 2022 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36344903

RESUMO

Due to increasing antibiotic resistance, targeting bacterial virulence factors is now gaining further interest as an alternative strategy to develop novel classes of anti-infective agents. The critical role of α-hemolysin (Hla), an indispensable virulence determinant, in the pathogenicity of Staphylococcus aureus renders this virulence factor an appealing target for effective therapeutic applications. Herein, we identified a natural compound schisandraone, as an effective Hla inhibitor, which could inhibit Hla production and thus hemolytic activity in a dose-dependent manner without affecting the growth of S. aureus. We also found that the addition of schisandrone could down-regulate the transcriptional levels of the hla, agrA and RNAIII and significantly alleviated Hla-mediated injury of A549 cells co-cultured with S. aureus. In vivo studies further suggested that schisandrone combined with antibiotic ceftiofur exhibited a significant therapeutic effect on S. aureus infection. These findings revealed the role of schisandrone in inhibiting the activity of Hla and we believe that it is a promising anti-virulence candidate to combat MRSA pneumonia.


Assuntos
Toxinas Bacterianas , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Pneumonia Estafilocócica , Infecções Estafilocócicas , Humanos , Proteínas Hemolisinas/metabolismo , Staphylococcus aureus , Toxinas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Fatores de Virulência/metabolismo
8.
PLoS Biol ; 20(11): e3001351, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36342970

RESUMO

Pyrin is a cytosolic immune sensor that nucleates an inflammasome in response to inhibition of RhoA by bacterial virulence factors, triggering the release of inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1ß. Gain-of-function mutations in the MEFV gene encoding Pyrin cause autoinflammatory disorders, such as familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) and Pyrin-associated autoinflammation with neutrophilic dermatosis (PAAND). To precisely define the role of Pyrin in pathogen detection in human immune cells, we compared initiation and regulation of the Pyrin inflammasome response in monocyte-derived macrophages (hMDM). Unlike human monocytes and murine macrophages, we determined that hMDM failed to activate Pyrin in response to known Pyrin activators Clostridioides difficile (C. difficile) toxins A or B (TcdA or TcdB), as well as the bile acid analogue BAA-473. The Pyrin inflammasome response was enabled in hMDM by prolonged priming with either LPS or type I or II interferons and required an increase in Pyrin expression. Notably, FMF mutations lifted the requirement for prolonged priming for Pyrin activation in hMDM, enabling Pyrin activation in the absence of additional inflammatory signals. Unexpectedly, in the absence of a Pyrin response, we found that TcdB activated the NLRP3 inflammasome in hMDM. These data demonstrate that regulation of Pyrin activation in hMDM diverges from monocytes and highlights its dysregulation in FMF.


Assuntos
Toxinas Bacterianas , Clostridioides difficile , Febre Familiar do Mediterrâneo , Humanos , Camundongos , Animais , Pirina/genética , Pirina/metabolismo , Febre Familiar do Mediterrâneo/genética , Febre Familiar do Mediterrâneo/metabolismo , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Mutação , Macrófagos/metabolismo
9.
Science ; 378(6620): eadd9959, 2022 11 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36356131

RESUMO

Hellweger et al. (Reports, 27 May 2022, pp. 1001) predict that phosphorus limitation will increase concentrations of cyanobacterial toxins in lakes. However, several molecular, physiological, and ecological mechanisms assumed in their models are poorly supported or contradicted by other studies. We conclude that their take-home message that phosphorus load reduction will make Lake Erie more toxic is seriously flawed.


Assuntos
Toxinas Bacterianas , Lagos , Microcystis , Fósforo , Monitoramento Ambiental , Lagos/química , Lagos/microbiologia , Fósforo/deficiência , Microcystis/metabolismo , Toxinas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Toxinas Bacterianas/toxicidade
10.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 991150, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36389156

RESUMO

Background: Clostridioides difficile is a Gram-positive anaerobic bacterium that can produce the toxins TcdA and/or TcdB and is considered an opportunistic pathogen. C. difficile is mainly transmitted as endospores, which germinate to produce the pathogenic vegetative cells under suitable conditions in the gut. To efficiently screen novel therapeutic- interventions against the proliferation of C. difficile within a complex microbial community, platforms are needed that facilitate parallel experimentation. In order to allow for screening of novel interventions a medium-to-high throughput in vitro system is desirable. To this end, we have developed the 96-well CDi-screen platform that employs an adapted simulated ileal effluent medium (CDi-SIEM) and allows for culturing of pathogenic C. difficile. Methods: C. difficile strain ATCC 43599 was inoculated in the form of vegetative cells and spores into the CDi-screen in the presence and absence of a cultured fecal microbiota and incubated for 48h. To demonstrate its utility, we investigated the effect of the human milk oligosaccharide 2'-Fucosyllactose (2'-FL) at 4 and 8 mg/mL on C. difficile outgrowth and toxin production in the CDi-screen. The test conditions were sampled after 24 and 48 hours. C. difficile -specific primers were used to monitor C. difficile growth via qPCR and barcoded 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing facilitated the in-depth analysis of gut microbial community dynamics. Results: C. difficile ATCC 43599 proliferated in CDi-SIEM, both when inoculated as spores and as vegetative cells. The strain reached cell numbers expressed as C. difficile genome equivalents of up to 10 8 cells per mL after 24h of incubation. 2'-FL significantly inhibited the outgrowth of the ATTC 43599 strain within a complex human gut microbial community in the CDi-screen. In addition, a dose-dependent modulation of the gut microbial community composition by 2'-FL supplementation was detected, with a significant increase in the relative abundance of the genus Blautia in the presence of 2'-FL. Conclusion: The CDi-screen is suitable for studying C. difficile proliferation in a complex gut ecosystem and for screening for anti-pathogenic interventions that target C. difficile directly and/or indirectly through interactions with the gut microbiota. Different doses of compounds such as in this study the dose of the human milk oligosaccharide 2'-FL can be screened for efficacy in the inhibition of C. difficile proliferation.


Assuntos
Toxinas Bacterianas , Clostridioides difficile , Infecções por Clostridium , Microbiota , Humanos , Clostridioides , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Composição de Bases , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Filogenia , Infecções por Clostridium/microbiologia , Proliferação de Células
11.
Microbiology (Reading) ; 168(11)2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36342835

RESUMO

Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are abundantly present in the genomes of various bacterial pathogens. TA systems have been implicated in either plasmid maintenance or protection against phage infection, stress adaptation or disease pathogenesis. The genome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis encodes for more than 90 TA systems and 4 of these belong to the type IV subfamily (MenAT family). The toxins and antitoxins belonging to type IV TA systems share sequence homology with the AbiEii family of nucleotidyl transferases and the AbiEi family of putative transcriptional regulators, respectively. Here, we have performed experiments to understand the role of MenT2, a toxin from the type IV TA system, in mycobacterial physiology and disease pathogenesis. The ectopic expression of MenT2 using inducible vectors does not inhibit bacterial growth in liquid cultures. Bioinformatic and molecular modelling analysis suggested that the M. tuberculosis genome has an alternative start site upstream of the annotated menT2 gene. The overexpression of the reannotated MenT2 resulted in moderate growth inhibition of Mycobacterium smegmatis. We show that both menT2 and menA2 transcript levels are increased when M. tuberculosis is exposed to nitrosative stress, in vitro. When compared to the survival of the wild-type and the complemented strain, the ΔmenT2 mutant strain of M. tuberculosis was more resistant to being killed by nitrosative stress. However, the survival of both the ΔmenT2 mutant and the wild-type strain was similar in macrophages and when exposed to other stress conditions. Here, we show that MenT2 is required for the establishment of disease in guinea pigs. Gross pathology and histopathology analysis of lung tissues from guinea pigs infected with the ∆menT2 strain revealed significantly reduced tissue damage and inflammation. In summary, these results provide new insights into the role of MenT2 in mycobacterial pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Toxinas Bacterianas , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Sistemas Toxina-Antitoxina , Tuberculose , Cobaias , Animais , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/metabolismo , Toxinas Bacterianas/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Sistemas Toxina-Antitoxina/genética
12.
Viruses ; 14(11)2022 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36366569

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus asymptomatically colonizes the nasal cavity of mammals, but it is also a leading cause of life-threatening infections. Most human nasal isolates carry Sa3 phages, which integrate into the bacterial hlb gene encoding a sphingomyelinase. The virulence factor-encoding genes carried by the Sa3-phages are highly human-specific, and most animal strains are Sa3 negative. Thus, both insertion and excision of the prophage could potentially confer a fitness advantage to S. aureus. Here, we analyzed the phage life cycle of two Sa3 phages, Φ13 and ΦN315, in different phage-cured S. aureus strains. Based on phage transfer experiments, strains could be classified into low (8325-4, SH1000, and USA300c) and high (MW2c and Newman-c) transfer strains. High-transfer strains promoted the replication of phages, whereas phage adsorption, integration, excision, or recA transcription was not significantly different between strains. RNASeq analyses of replication-deficient lysogens revealed no strain-specific differences in the CI/Mor regulatory switch. However, lytic genes were significantly upregulated in the high transfer strain MW2c Φ13 compared to strain 8325-4 Φ13. By transcriptional start site prediction, new promoter regions within the lytic modules were identified, which are likely targeted by specific host factors. Such host-phage interaction probably accounts for the strain-specific differences in phage replication and transfer frequency. Thus, the genetic makeup of the host strains may determine the rate of phage mobilization, a feature that might impact the speed at which certain strains can achieve host adaptation.


Assuntos
Toxinas Bacterianas , Infecções Estafilocócicas , Animais , Humanos , Staphylococcus aureus , Fagos de Staphylococcus/genética , Fagos de Staphylococcus/metabolismo , Toxinas Bacterianas/genética , Toxinas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Mamíferos
13.
Toxins (Basel) ; 14(11)2022 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36422970

RESUMO

A direct sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (sELISA) was developed for the detection of the atypical ß2-toxin (CPB2) of Clostridium perfringens. Polyclonal (PAbs) and monoclonal (MAbs) antibodies were previously obtained employing recombinant CPB2 produced in the baculovirus system as antigen. In the current study, PAbs were used as capture molecules, while purified MAbs conjugated to horseradish peroxidase (MAbs-HRP) were used for the detection of atypical CPB2 toxin. MAbs 5C11E6 and 2G3G6 showed high reactivity, sensitivity and specificity when tested on 232 C. perfringens cell culture isolates. In addition, a reactivity variation among different strains producing atypical CPB2 toxin was observed using the conformation-dependent MAb 23E6E6, suggesting the hypothesis of high instability and/or the existence of different three-dimensional structures of this toxin. Results obtained by sELISA and Western blotting performed on experimentally CPB2-contaminated feces revealed a time-dependent proteolytic degradation as previously observed with the consensus allelic form of CPB2. Finally, the sELISA and an end-point PCR, specific for the atypical cpb2 gene, were used to test field samples (feces, rectal swabs and intestinal contents) from different dead animal species with suspected or confirmed clostridiosis. The comparison of sELISA data with those obtained with end-point PCR suggests this method as a promising tool for the detection of atypical CPB2 toxin.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos , Toxinas Bacterianas , Infecções por Clostridium , Animais , Clostridium perfringens/genética , Anticorpos Monoclonais , Toxinas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Infecções por Clostridium/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Cultura de Células
14.
Toxins (Basel) ; 14(11)2022 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36422978

RESUMO

Cyanobacterial blooms are often associated with the presence of harmful natural compounds which can cause adverse health effects in both humans and animals. One family of these compounds, known as anatoxins, have been linked to the rapid deaths of cattle and dogs through neurotoxicological action. Here, we report the findings resulting from the death of a dog at a freshwater reservoir in SW England. Poisoning was rapid following exposure to material at the side of the lake. Clinical signs included neurological distress, diaphragmatic paralysis and asphyxia prior to death after 45 min of exposure. Analysis by HILIC-MS/MS of urine and stomach content samples from the dog revealed the detection of anatoxin-a and dihydroanatoxin-a in both samples with higher concentrations of the latter quantified in both matrices. Detection and quantitative accuracy was further confirmed with use of accurate mass LC-HRMS. Additional anatoxin analogues were also detected by LC-HRMS, including 4-keto anatoxin-a, 4-keto-homo anatoxin-a, expoxy anatoxin-a and epoxy homo anatoxin-a. The conclusion of neurotoxicosis was confirmed with the use of two independent analytical methods showing positive detection and significantly high quantified concentrations of these neurotoxins in clinical samples. Together with the clinical signs observed, we have confirmed that anatoxins were responsible for the rapid death of the dog in this case.


Assuntos
Toxinas Bacterianas , Síndromes Neurotóxicas , Humanos , Cães , Animais , Bovinos , Toxinas Marinhas/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Toxinas Bacterianas/química , Toxinas de Cianobactérias , Lagos/análise
15.
Cells ; 11(22)2022 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36429089

RESUMO

Clostridioides bacteria are responsible for life threatening infections. Here, we show that in addition to actin, the binary toxins CDT, C2I, and Iota from Clostridioides difficile, botulinum, and perfrigens, respectively, ADP-ribosylate the actin-related protein Arp2 of Arp2/3 complex and its additional components ArpC1, ArpC2, and ArpC4/5. The Arp2/3 complex is composed of seven subunits and stimulates the formation of branched actin filament networks. This activity is inhibited after ADP-ribosylation of Arp2. Translocation of the ADP-ribosyltransferase component of CDT toxin into human colon carcinoma Caco2 cells led to ADP-ribosylation of cellular Arp2 and actin followed by a collapse of the lamellipodial extensions and F-actin network. Exposure of isolated mouse colon pieces to CDT toxin induced the dissolution of the enterocytes leading to luminal aggregation of cellular debris and the collapse of the mucosal organization. Thus, we identify the Arp2/3 complex as hitherto unknown target of clostridial ADP-ribosyltransferases.


Assuntos
Complexo 2-3 de Proteínas Relacionadas à Actina , Toxinas Bacterianas , Animais , Camundongos , Humanos , Complexo 2-3 de Proteínas Relacionadas à Actina/metabolismo , Clostridioides , Actinas/metabolismo , Toxinas Bacterianas/farmacologia , Toxinas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Células CACO-2 , ADP Ribose Transferases/farmacologia , ADP Ribose Transferases/metabolismo , ADP-Ribosilação , Difosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(22)2022 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36430554

RESUMO

The huge advances in genomics and molecular biology in the past two decades have made now an exciting time to study bacterial toxins, in particular, the most potent bacterial toxin known to humankind, botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) [...].


Assuntos
Toxinas Bacterianas , Toxinas Botulínicas , Neurotoxinas/toxicidade , Clostridium/genética , Toxinas Botulínicas/toxicidade , Toxinas Bacterianas/genética , Genômica
17.
Science ; 378(6620): eade2277, 2022 11 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36356147

RESUMO

Huisman et al. claim that our model is poorly supported or contradicted by other studies and the predictions are "seriously flawed." We show their criticism is based on an incomplete selection of evidence, misinterpretation of data, or does not actually refute the model. Like all ecosystem models, our model has simplifications and uncertainties, but it is better than existing approaches hat ignore biology and do not predict toxin concentration.


Assuntos
Toxinas Bacterianas , Lagos , Microcystis , Fósforo , Ecossistema , Lagos/química , Lagos/microbiologia , Fósforo/deficiência , Toxinas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Toxinas Bacterianas/toxicidade , Microcystis/metabolismo
18.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 636(Pt 1): 57-63, 2022 Dec 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36332483

RESUMO

The cytolethal distending toxins (CDTs) produced by many Gram-negative pathogens are tripartite genotoxins with a single catalytic subunit (CdtB) and two cell-binding subunits (CdtA + CdtC). CDT moves by vesicle carriers from the cell surface to the endosomes and through the Golgi apparatus en route to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). CdtA dissociates from the rest of the toxin before reaching the Golgi apparatus, and CdtB separates from CdtC in the ER. The free CdtB subunit, which is only active after holotoxin disassembly, then crosses the ER membrane and enters the nucleus where it generates DNA breaks. We hypothesized that the acidified lumen of the endosomes is responsible for separating CdtA from the CdtB/CdtC heterodimer. To test this prediction, possible acid-induced disruptions to the CDT holotoxin were monitored by size exclusion chromatography and surface plasmon resonance. We found that CDT could not efficiently assemble from its individual subunits at the early endosome pH of 6.3. Partial disassembly of the CDT holotoxin also occurred at pH 6.3, with complete separation of CdtA from an intact CdtB/CdtC heterodimer occurring at both pH 6.0 and the late endosome pH of 5.6. Acidification caused the precipitation of CdtA at pH 6.5 and below, but neither CdtB nor CdtC were affected by a pH as low as 5.2. Circular dichroism further showed that the individual CdtB subunit adopts a different secondary structure as compared to its structure in the holotoxin. We conclude the first stage of CDT disassembly occurs in the early endosomes, where an acid-induced alteration to CdtA releases it from the CdtB/CdtC heterodimer.


Assuntos
Toxinas Bacterianas , Haemophilus ducreyi , Haemophilus ducreyi/metabolismo , Toxinas Bacterianas/química
19.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 6786, 2022 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36351897

RESUMO

Toxin B (TcdB) is a major exotoxin responsible for diseases associated with Clostridioides difficile infection. Its sequence variations among clinical isolates may contribute to the difficulty in developing effective therapeutics. Here, we investigate receptor-binding specificity of major TcdB subtypes (TcdB1 to TcdB12). We find that representative members of subtypes 2, 4, 7, 10, 11, and 12 do not recognize the established host receptor, frizzled proteins (FZDs). Using a genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9-mediated screen, we identify tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) as a host receptor for TcdB4. TFPI is recognized by a region in TcdB4 that is homologous to the FZD-binding site in TcdB1. Analysis of 206 TcdB variant sequences reveals a set of six residues within this receptor-binding site that defines a TFPI binding-associated haplotype (designated B4/B7) that is present in all TcdB4 members, a subset of TcdB7, and one member of TcdB2. Intragenic micro-recombination (IR) events have occurred around this receptor-binding region in TcdB7 and TcdB2 members, resulting in either TFPI- or FZD-binding capabilities. Introduction of B4/B7-haplotype residues into TcdB1 enables dual recognition of TFPI and FZDs. Finally, TcdB10 also recognizes TFPI, although it does not belong to the B4/B7 haplotype, and shows species selectivity: it recognizes TFPI of chicken and to a lesser degree mouse, but not human, dog, or cattle versions. These findings identify TFPI as a TcdB receptor and reveal IR-driven changes on receptor-specificity among TcdB variants.


Assuntos
Toxinas Bacterianas , Clostridioides difficile , Animais , Bovinos , Cães , Camundongos , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Toxinas Bacterianas/química , Clostridioides difficile/genética , Recombinação Genética , Humanos
20.
Avian Dis ; 66(3): 337-344, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36254367

RESUMO

In this retrospective study we describe unusual cases of clostridial hepatitis associated with high mortality in young broiler chicks. Eleven cases of necrotizing hepatitis in broiler chicks from four companies were submitted to the Poultry Diagnostic and Research Center or the Georgia Poultry Laboratory Network between 2017 and 2020. In most flocks, increased 3-day mortality was followed by an elevated 7-day mortality. Gross lesions included green to dark brown discoloration of the liver, congested lungs, serosanguineous fluid in the caudoventral aspect of the abdomen, and emphysema in the yolk sacs. In birds older than a week of age, disease with neurologic signs became evident and consisted of tremors, stargazing, and incoordination. Histopathologic evaluation revealed multifocal to coalescing fibrinoheterophilic and necrotizing hepatitis associated with gram-positive, long, rod-shaped bacteria. Formalin-fixed liver samples from six cases out of eight cases tested were positive for Clostridium perfringens by immunohistochemistry. Liver samples from two cases were culture positive for Clostridium spp., and C. perfringens was isolated from one sample. Toxinotyping by PCR performed in seven samples revealed the presence of the genes that code for alpha toxin phospholipase C (cpa or plc) and necrotic enteritis toxin B-like (netB) in six samples and as well as C. perfringens large cytotoxin (tpeL) in one sample. Broiler breeders are the suspected source of the infection, and testing revealed C. perfringens in hatchery samples and among broiler breeder flocks. Antimicrobial therapy was coupled with enhanced sanitation at the farm and hatchery in that company, markedly decreasing the mortality and clinical signs. This is the first comprehensive evaluation of clostridial necrotizing hepatitis in newly hatched chicks, and the second ever reported in the literature.


Hepatitis necrotizante asociada con Clostridium perfringens en pollos de engorde En este estudio retrospectivo se describen casos inusuales de hepatitis clostridial asociados con una alta mortalidad en pollos de engorde jóvenes. Once casos de hepatitis necrotizante en pollos de engorde de cuatro empresas se enviaron al Centro de Investigación y Diagnóstico Avícola o a la Red de Laboratorios Avícolas del Estado Georgia entre los años 2017 y 2020. En la mayoría de las parvadas, el aumento de la mortalidad a los tres días fue seguido por una mortalidad elevada a los siete días. Las lesiones macroscópicas incluyeron coloración del hígado de verde a marrón oscuro, pulmones congestionados, líquido serosanguinolento en la cara caudoventral del abdomen y enfisema en los sacos vitelinos. En aves mayores de una semana de edad, la enfermedad con signos neurológicos se hizo evidente y consistía en temblores, torticolis (aves como observando a las estrellas) y falta de coordinación. La evaluación histopatológica reveló hepatitis multifocal a fibrinoheterófila coalescente y necrotizante asociada con bacterias grampositivas largas en forma de bastón. Las muestras de hígado fijadas en formalina de seis casos de los ocho casos analizados dieron positivo para Clostridium perfringens por inmunohistoquímica. Las muestras de hígado de dos casos dieron positivo en cultivo para Clostridium spp., y se aisló C. perfringens de una muestra. La tipificación por el tipo de toxina mediante PCR realizado en siete muestras reveló la presencia de los genes que codifican la toxina alfa fosfolipasa C (cpa, plc) y la toxina de enteritis necrótica similar a la toxina B (netB) en seis muestras, así como la citotoxina grande de C. perfringens (tpeL) en una muestra. Se sospecha que las reproductoras de pollos de engorde son la fuente de la infección, y las pruebas revelaron C. perfringens en las muestras de las incubadoras y entre las parvadas de reproductoras de pollos de engorde. La terapia antimicrobiana se combinó con un saneamiento mejorado en la granja y en la incubadora de esa empresa, lo que redujo notablemente la mortalidad y los signos clínicos. Esta es la primera evaluación exhaustiva de la hepatitis necrosante por clostridios en pollitos recién nacidos y la segunda que se ha informado en la literatura.


Assuntos
Toxinas Bacterianas , Infecções por Clostridium , Enterite , Hepatite , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Toxinas Bacterianas/genética , Galinhas/microbiologia , Infecções por Clostridium/diagnóstico , Infecções por Clostridium/microbiologia , Infecções por Clostridium/veterinária , Clostridium perfringens , Citotoxinas , Enterite/veterinária , Formaldeído , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fosfolipases Tipo C
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