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1.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(9): e1008852, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960931

RESUMO

Enzymatic inactivation of Rho-family GTPases by the glucosyltransferase domain of Clostridioides difficile Toxin B (TcdB) gives rise to various pathogenic effects in cells that are classically thought to be responsible for the disease symptoms associated with C. difficile infection (CDI). Recent in vitro studies have shown that TcdB can, under certain circumstances, induce cellular toxicities that are independent of glucosyltransferase (GT) activity, calling into question the precise role of GT activity. Here, to establish the importance of GT activity in CDI disease pathogenesis, we generated the first described mutant strain of C. difficile producing glucosyltransferase-defective (GT-defective) toxin. Using allelic exchange (AE) technology, we first deleted tcdA in C. difficile 630Δerm and subsequently introduced a deactivating D270N substitution in the GT domain of TcdB. To examine the role of GT activity in vivo, we tested each strain in two different animal models of CDI pathogenesis. In the non-lethal murine model of infection, the GT-defective mutant induced minimal pathology in host tissues as compared to the profound caecal inflammation seen in the wild-type and 630ΔermΔtcdA (ΔtcdA) strains. In the more sensitive hamster model of CDI, whereas hamsters in the wild-type or ΔtcdA groups succumbed to fulminant infection within 4 days, all hamsters infected with the GT-defective mutant survived the 10-day infection period without primary symptoms of CDI or evidence of caecal inflammation. These data demonstrate that GT activity is indispensable for disease pathogenesis and reaffirm its central role in disease and its importance as a therapeutic target for small-molecule inhibition.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias , Toxinas Bacterianas , Clostridium difficile , Enterocolite Pseudomembranosa , Glucosiltransferases , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Toxinas Bacterianas/genética , Toxinas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Clostridium difficile/enzimologia , Clostridium difficile/genética , Clostridium difficile/patogenicidade , Cricetinae , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Enterocolite Pseudomembranosa/enzimologia , Enterocolite Pseudomembranosa/genética , Enterocolite Pseudomembranosa/patologia , Feminino , Deleção de Genes , Glucosiltransferases/genética , Glucosiltransferases/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos
2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 621, 2020 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32831057

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to describe an outbreak of cutaneous abscesses caused by Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-producing methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) among gold mine workers. METHODS: In February 2018, we retrospectively reviewed a random sample of 50 medical records from 243 cases and conducted face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire. Pus aspirates were sent to the National Institute for Communicable Diseases from prospectively-identified cases (November 2017-March 2018). Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected during a colonisation survey in February 2018. Staphylococcus aureus isolates were screened with a conventional PCR for lukS/F-PV. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed to determine the genetic relatedness among the isolates. A sample of isolates were selected for whole genome sequencing (WGS). We conducted an assessment on biological risks associated with mining activities. RESULTS: From January 2017 to February 2018, 10% (350/3582) of mine workers sought care for cutaneous abscesses. Forty-seven medical files were available for review, 96% were male (n = 45) with a mean age of 43 years (SD = 7). About 52% (24/46) were involved in stoping and 28% (13/47) worked on a particular level. We cultured S. aureus from 79% (30/38) of cases with a submitted specimen and 14% (12/83) from colonisation swabs. All isolates were susceptible to cloxacillin. Seventy-one percent of S. aureus isolates (30/42) were PVL-PCR-positive. Six PFGE clusters were identified, 57% (21/37) were closely related. WGS analysis found nine different sequence types. PFGE and WGS analysis showed more than one cluster of S. aureus infections involving closely related isolates. Test reports for feed and product water of the mine showed that total plate counts were above the limits of 1000 cfu/ml, coliform counts > 10 cfu/100 ml and presence of faecal coliforms. Best practices were poorly implemented as some mine workers washed protective clothing with untreated water and hung them for drying at the underground surface. CONCLUSIONS: PVL-producing MSSA caused an outbreak of cutaneous abscesses among underground workers at a gold mining company. To our knowledge, no other outbreaks of PVL-producing S. aureus involving skin and soft tissue infections have been reported in mining facilities in South Africa. We recommend that worker awareness of infection prevention and control practices be strengthened.


Assuntos
Abscesso/microbiologia , Dermatopatias/epidemiologia , Infecções dos Tecidos Moles/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/patogenicidade , Adulto , Toxinas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Surtos de Doenças , Eletroforese em Gel de Campo Pulsado , Exotoxinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Ouro , Humanos , Leucocidinas/metabolismo , Masculino , Meticilina/farmacologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mineradores , Estudos Retrospectivos , Dermatopatias/microbiologia , Infecções dos Tecidos Moles/microbiologia , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/metabolismo
3.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(8): e1008708, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785266

RESUMO

The intestinal pathogen Clostridioides difficile exhibits heterogeneity in motility and toxin production. This phenotypic heterogeneity is achieved through phase variation by site-specific recombination via the DNA recombinase RecV, which reversibly inverts the "flagellar switch" upstream of the flgB operon. A recV mutation prevents flagellar switch inversion and results in phenotypically locked strains. The orientation of the flagellar switch influences expression of the flgB operon post-transcription initiation, but the specific molecular mechanism is unknown. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of spontaneous suppressor mutants in the non-motile, non-toxigenic recV flg OFF background that regained motility and toxin production. The restored phenotypes corresponded with increased expression of flagellum and toxin genes. The motile suppressor mutants contained single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in rho, which encodes the bacterial transcription terminator Rho factor. Analyses using transcriptional reporters indicate that Rho contributes to heterogeneity in flagellar gene expression by preferentially terminating transcription of flg OFF mRNA within the 5' leader sequence. Additionally, Rho is important for initial colonization of the intestine in a mouse model of infection, which may in part be due to the sporulation and growth defects observed in the rho mutants. Together these data implicate Rho factor as a regulator of gene expression affecting phase variation of important virulence factors of C. difficile.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Toxinas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Infecções por Clostridium/microbiologia , Clostridium difficile/metabolismo , Flagelos/metabolismo , Fator Rho/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Toxinas Bacterianas/genética , Clostridium difficile/genética , Clostridium difficile/patogenicidade , Feminino , Flagelos/genética , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Óperon , Fator Rho/genética , Virulência
4.
Nature ; 583(7817): 631-637, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641830

RESUMO

Bacterial toxins represent a vast reservoir of biochemical diversity that can be repurposed for biomedical applications. Such proteins include a group of predicted interbacterial toxins of the deaminase superfamily, members of which have found application in gene-editing techniques1,2. Because previously described cytidine deaminases operate on single-stranded nucleic acids3, their use in base editing requires the unwinding of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA)-for example by a CRISPR-Cas9 system. Base editing within mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), however, has thus far been hindered by challenges associated with the delivery of guide RNA into the mitochondria4. As a consequence, manipulation of mtDNA to date has been limited to the targeted destruction of the mitochondrial genome by designer nucleases9,10.Here we describe an interbacterial toxin, which we name DddA, that catalyses the deamination of cytidines within dsDNA. We engineered split-DddA halves that are non-toxic and inactive until brought together on target DNA by adjacently bound programmable DNA-binding proteins. Fusions of the split-DddA halves, transcription activator-like effector array proteins, and a uracil glycosylase inhibitor resulted in RNA-free DddA-derived cytosine base editors (DdCBEs) that catalyse C•G-to-T•A conversions in human mtDNA with high target specificity and product purity. We used DdCBEs to model a disease-associated mtDNA mutation in human cells, resulting in changes in respiration rates and oxidative phosphorylation. CRISPR-free DdCBEs enable the precise manipulation of mtDNA, rather than the elimination of mtDNA copies that results from its cleavage by targeted nucleases, with broad implications for the study and potential treatment of mitochondrial disorders.


Assuntos
Toxinas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Citidina Desaminase/metabolismo , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Edição de Genes/métodos , Genes Mitocondriais/genética , Mitocôndrias/genética , Toxinas Bacterianas/química , Toxinas Bacterianas/genética , Sequência de Bases , Burkholderia cenocepacia/enzimologia , Burkholderia cenocepacia/genética , Respiração Celular/genética , Citidina/metabolismo , Citidina Desaminase/química , Citidina Desaminase/genética , Genoma Mitocondrial/genética , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Doenças Mitocondriais/genética , Doenças Mitocondriais/terapia , Mutação , Fosforilação Oxidativa , Engenharia de Proteínas , RNA Guia/genética , Especificidade por Substrato , Sistemas de Secreção Tipo VI/metabolismo
5.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236551, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726339

RESUMO

PhoH2 proteins are highly conserved across bacteria and archaea yet their biological function is poorly characterised. We examined the growth profiles of Mycobacterium smegmatis strains mc2155 and mc2155 ΔphoH2 and observed the same growth profile and growth rate in a variety of conditions. In light of the comparable growth, we used RNAseq to provide a snapshot of the differences between the transcriptomes of M. smegmatis mc2155 and M. smegmatis mc2155 ΔphoH2 during normal growth. At 48 hours, elevated expression of the sigF regulon was observed in ΔphoH2 relative to wild type. In biochemical assays, PhoH2 showed activity toward sigF mRNA insinuating a role of PhoH2 in modulating the pool of sigF mRNA in the cell during normal growth, adding further complexity to the repertoire of reported mechanisms of post-translational regulation. Multiple copies of the preferred target site of PhoH2 were identified in loops of the sigF mRNA structure, leading us to propose a mechanism for the activity of PhoH2 that is initiated after assembly on specific single-stranded loops of RNA. We hypothesise that PhoH2 is a toxin-antitoxin that contributes to the regulation of SigF at a post-transcriptional level through targeted activity on sigF mRNA. This work presents the first evidence for post-transcriptional regulation of SigF along with the biological function of PhoH2 from M. smegmatis. This has implications for the highly conserved PhoH2 toxin-antitoxin module across the mycobacteria including the important human pathogen M. tuberculosis.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Toxinas Bacterianas/genética , Mycobacterium smegmatis/metabolismo , Fator sigma/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Toxinas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Mycobacterium smegmatis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Fator sigma/genética
6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3003, 2020 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32532972

RESUMO

The arms race between entomopathogenic bacteria and their insect hosts is an excellent model for decoding the intricate coevolutionary processes of host-pathogen interaction. Here, we demonstrate that the MAPK signaling pathway is a general switch to trans-regulate differential expression of aminopeptidase N and other midgut genes in an insect host, diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella), thereby countering the virulence effect of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins. Moreover, the MAPK cascade is activated and fine-tuned by the crosstalk between two major insect hormones, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and juvenile hormone (JH) to elicit an important physiological response (i.e. Bt resistance) without incurring the significant fitness costs often associated with pathogen resistance. Hormones are well known to orchestrate physiological trade-offs in a wide variety of organisms, and our work decodes a hitherto undescribed function of these classic hormones and suggests that hormonal signaling plasticity is a general cross-kingdom strategy to fend off pathogens.


Assuntos
Bacillus thuringiensis/metabolismo , Toxinas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Hormônios de Inseto/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Mariposas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Animais , Bacillus thuringiensis/fisiologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Antígenos CD13/classificação , Antígenos CD13/genética , Antígenos CD13/metabolismo , Endotoxinas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas Hemolisinas/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Proteínas de Insetos/classificação , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Mariposas/genética , Mariposas/microbiologia , Filogenia , Células Sf9 , Spodoptera
7.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(13): 7532-7544, 2020 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32501503

RESUMO

Escherichia coli ItaT toxin reportedly acetylates the α-amino group of the aminoacyl-moiety of Ile-tRNAIle specifically, using acetyl-CoA as an acetyl donor, thereby inhibiting protein synthesis. The mechanism of the substrate specificity of ItaT had remained elusive. Here, we present functional and structural analyses of E. coli ItaT, which revealed the mechanism of ItaT recognition of specific aminoacyl-tRNAs for acetylation. In addition to Ile-tRNAIle, aminoacyl-tRNAs charged with hydrophobic residues, such as Val-tRNAVal and Met-tRNAMet, were acetylated by ItaT in vivo. Ile-tRNAIle, Val-tRNAVal and Met-tRNAMet were acetylated by ItaT in vitro, while aminoacyl-tRNAs charged with other hydrophobic residues, such as Ala-tRNAAla, Leu-tRNALeu and Phe-tRNAPhe, were less efficiently acetylated. A comparison of the structures of E. coli ItaT and the protein N-terminal acetyltransferase identified the hydrophobic residues in ItaT that possibly interact with the aminoacyl moiety of aminoacyl-tRNAs. Mutations of the hydrophobic residues of ItaT reduced the acetylation activity of ItaT toward Ile-tRNAIlein vitro, as well as the ItaT toxicity in vivo. Altogether, the size and shape of the hydrophobic pocket of ItaT are suitable for the accommodation of the specific aminoacyl-moieties of aminoacyl-tRNAs, and ItaT has broader specificity toward aminoacyl-tRNAs charged with certain hydrophobic amino acids.


Assuntos
Acetiltransferases/química , Toxinas Bacterianas/química , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/química , Aminoacilação de RNA de Transferência , Acetiltransferases/genética , Acetiltransferases/metabolismo , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Toxinas Bacterianas/genética , Toxinas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Escherichia coli , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Mutação , Aminoacil-RNA de Transferência/química , Aminoacil-RNA de Transferência/metabolismo , Especificidade por Substrato
8.
Nat Immunol ; 21(7): 746-755, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32514064

RESUMO

Plasma membranes of animal cells are enriched for cholesterol. Cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDCs) are pore-forming toxins secreted by bacteria that target membrane cholesterol for their effector function. Phagocytes are essential for clearance of CDC-producing bacteria; however, the mechanisms by which these cells evade the deleterious effects of CDCs are largely unknown. Here, we report that interferon (IFN) signals convey resistance to CDC-induced pores on macrophages and neutrophils. We traced IFN-mediated resistance to CDCs to the rapid modulation of a specific pool of cholesterol in the plasma membrane of macrophages without changes to total cholesterol levels. Resistance to CDC-induced pore formation requires the production of the oxysterol 25-hydroxycholesterol (25HC), inhibition of cholesterol synthesis and redistribution of cholesterol to an esterified cholesterol pool. Accordingly, blocking the ability of IFN to reprogram cholesterol metabolism abrogates cellular protection and renders mice more susceptible to CDC-induced tissue damage. These studies illuminate targeted regulation of membrane cholesterol content as a host defense strategy.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/imunologia , Toxinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Hidroxicolesteróis/metabolismo , Interferons/isolamento & purificação , Fagócitos/imunologia , Estreptolisinas/imunologia , Animais , Bactérias/imunologia , Bactérias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/administração & dosagem , Proteínas de Bactérias/imunologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Toxinas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular/imunologia , Células Cultivadas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/imunologia , Feminino , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/imunologia , Humanos , Microscopia Intravital , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Fagócitos/citologia , Fagócitos/metabolismo , Cultura Primária de Células , Esteroide Hidroxilases/genética , Esteroide Hidroxilases/metabolismo , Estreptolisinas/administração & dosagem , Estreptolisinas/metabolismo
9.
Mol Cell ; 79(2): 280-292.e8, 2020 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32533919

RESUMO

Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are ubiquitous genetic elements in bacterial genomes, but their functions are controversial. Although they are frequently postulated to regulate cell growth following stress, few null phenotypes for TA systems have been reported. Here, we show that TA transcript levels can increase substantially in response to stress, but toxin is not liberated. We find that the growth of an Escherichia coli strain lacking ten TA systems encoding endoribonuclease toxins is not affected following exposure to six stresses that each trigger TA transcription. Additionally, using RNA sequencing, we find no evidence of mRNA cleavage following stress. Stress-induced transcription arises from antitoxin degradation and relief of transcriptional autoregulation. Importantly, although free antitoxin is readily degraded in vivo, antitoxin bound to toxin is protected from proteolysis, preventing release of active toxin. Thus, transcription is not a reliable marker of TA activity, and TA systems do not strongly promote survival following individual stresses.


Assuntos
Toxinas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/genética , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Estresse Fisiológico , Sistemas Toxina-Antitoxina , Transcrição Genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plasmídeos/genética , Proteólise , RNA Bacteriano/metabolismo , RNA-Seq , Sistemas Toxina-Antitoxina/genética
10.
J Infect Chemother ; 26(8): 862-864, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32482515

RESUMO

Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-positive USA300 clone is a highly pathogenic and global epidemic community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) clone. Athletes are particularly vulnerable to CA-MRSA infection because of the frequency of skin trauma, close-contact situations, and sharing of equipment that is customary in the athletic setting. We experienced a case of Japanese collegiate football player with septic pulmonary emboli secondary to infectious iliofemoral deep venous thrombosis caused by the USA300 clone. Here, we screened the nasal carriage of USA300 clone colonization among asymptomatic teammate of the patient to elucidate the infection route. Among 69 nasal samples, CA-MRSA strains were found in 5.8% (four samples). Molecular epidemiological analyses showed that three of the CA-MRSA strains were USA300 clone. Furthermore, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed that all nasal USA300 clones showed 100% identity with the USA300 clone isolated from their teammate with critical infection. Our findings indicate that nasal colonization of the PVL-positive CA-MRSA, especially USA300 clone, pose a threat among contact sport athletes in Japan likewise other countries. An immediate infection control strategy for contact sport athletes is necessary to prevent outbreaks of PVL-positive CA-MRSA infections.


Assuntos
Atletas/estatística & dados numéricos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Nariz/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Toxinas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/epidemiologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/microbiologia , Eletroforese em Gel de Campo Pulsado , Exotoxinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Leucocidinas/metabolismo , Masculino , Epidemiologia Molecular , Futebol , Esportes , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
11.
Mol Immunol ; 123: 88-96, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32447084

RESUMO

The anaerobic pathogen Clostridium perfringens is the most potent cause of intestinal diseases, such as enterotoxemia, hemorrhagic enteritis, and lamb dysentery, in sheep. Three toxinotypes (B, C, and D) are usually the cause of these diseases and are mainly mediated via three important exotoxins: alpha toxin (CPA), beta toxin (CPB), and epsilon toxin (ETX). We have designed a chimeric protein, rCpa-b-x, that contains the C-terminal binding region of CPA, partial sequence of CPB, and ETX (Cpa247-370, Cpb108-305, and EtxH118P, respectively) according to the principle of structural vaccinology. The rCpa-b-x protein was then expressed by pHT43 plasmid in vivo using Bacillus subtilis as a delivery vector (Bs-pHT43-Cpa-b-x). The immunological activity of the rCpa-b-x protein was verified by western blot and its immunological efficacy was evaluated in a murine model. Oral administration with a recombinant agent caused local mucosal and systemic immune responses, and serum lgG and intestinal mucosal secretory IgA (sIgA) antibody titers were significantly increased. Levels of IL-2, IL-4, and IFN-γ were significantly higher in lymphocytes isolated from the Bs-pHT43-Cpa-b-x group compared with levels from the control groups. The percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes in the Bs-pHT43-Cpa-b-x and inactivated vaccine (IV) groups were in the normal range. Mice of vaccine groups and control groups were challenged with 1x LD100 unit filtrate containing alpha, beta, and epsilon toxins. Mice in the Bs-pHT43-Cpa-b-x group were found to have lower rates of morbidity. The active immunization of mice with Bs-pHT43-Cpa-b-x still maintained 85% to 90% survival at the end of the 10-day observation period, whereas mice of control groups died within two to five days. The results of this study demonstrate the effectiveness of Bs-pHT43-Cpa-b-x in preventing C. perfringens infection in mice, and that Bs-pHT43-Cpa-b-x could be considered a potential vaccine against C. perfringens.


Assuntos
Bacillus subtilis/metabolismo , Toxinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Vacinas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Vacinas Bacterianas/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Clostridium/prevenção & controle , Clostridium perfringens/imunologia , Animais , Bacillus subtilis/genética , Toxinas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Vacinas Bacterianas/química , Vacinas Bacterianas/genética , Infecções por Clostridium/imunologia , Feminino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Modelos Moleculares , Ligação Proteica , Estrutura Quaternária de Proteína , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/química , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/uso terapêutico , Vacinação/métodos , Vacinas Sintéticas/química , Vacinas Sintéticas/genética , Vacinas Sintéticas/metabolismo , Vacinas Sintéticas/uso terapêutico
12.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233854, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32470006

RESUMO

Alpha-toxin (Hla) is a major virulence factor of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and plays an important role in S. aureus-induced pneumonia. It binds as a monomer to the cell surface of eukaryotic host cells and forms heptameric transmembrane pores. Sensitivities toward the toxin of various types of potential host cells have been shown to vary substantially, and the reasons for these differences are unclear. We used three human model airway epithelial cell lines (16HBE14o-, S9, A549) to correlate cell sensitivity (measured as rate of paracellular gap formation in the cell layers) with Hla monomer binding, presence of the potential Hla receptors ADAM10 or α5ß1 integrin, presence of the toxin-stabilizing factor caveolin-1 as well as plasma membrane lipid composition (phosphatidylserine/choline, sphingomyelin). The abundance of ADAM10 correlated best with gap formation or cell sensitivities, respectively, when the three cell types were compared. Caveolin-1 or α5ß1 integrin did not correlate with toxin sensitivity. The relative abundance of sphingomyelin in plasma membranes may also be used as a proxi for cellular sensitivity against alpha-toxin as sphingomyelin abundances correlated well with the intensities of alpha-toxin mediated gap formation in the cell layers.


Assuntos
Toxinas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Toxinas Bacterianas/toxicidade , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Proteínas Hemolisinas/metabolismo , Proteínas Hemolisinas/toxicidade , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Sistema Respiratório/patologia , Células A549 , Caveolina 1/metabolismo , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Tamanho Celular , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Modelos Biológicos , Fosfolipídeos/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo
13.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231772, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32315364

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recurrent skin abscesses are often associated with Panton-Valentine leukocidin-producing strains of S. aureus (PVL-SA). Decolonization measures are required along with treatment of active infections to prevent re-infection and spreading. Even though most PVL-SA patients are treated as outpatients, there are few studies that assess the effectiveness of outpatient topical decolonization in PVL-SA patients. METHODS: We assessed the results of topical decolonization of PVL-SA in a retrospective review of patient files and personal interviews. Successful decolonization was defined as the absence of any skin abscesses for at least 6 months after completion of the final decolonization treatment. Clinical and demographic data was assessed. An intention-to-treat protocol was used. RESULTS: Our cohort consisted of 115 symptomatic patients, 66% from PVL-positive MSSA and 19% from PVL-positive MRSA. The remaining 16% consisted of symptomatic patients with close contact to PVL-SA positive index patients but without detection of PVL-SA. The majority of patients were female (66%). The median age was 29.87% of the patients lived in multiple person households. Our results showed a 48% reduction in symptomatic PVL-SA cases after the first decolonization treatment. The results also showed that the decrease continued with each repeated decolonization treatment and reached 89% following the 5th treatment. A built multivariable Cox proportional-hazards model showed that the absence of PVL-SA detection (OR 2.0) and living in single person households (OR 2.4) were associated with an independently increased chance of successful decolonization. CONCLUSION: In our cohort, topical decolonization was a successful preventive measure for reducing the risk of PVL-SA skin abscesses in the outpatient setting. Special attention should be given to patients living in multiple person households because these settings could confer a risk that decolonization will not be successful.


Assuntos
Abscesso/terapia , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/uso terapêutico , Toxinas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Exotoxinas/metabolismo , Leucocidinas/metabolismo , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções Cutâneas Estafilocócicas/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/farmacologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol ; 318(5): G870-G888, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32223302

RESUMO

Clostridioides difficile is an important nosocomial pathogen that produces toxins to cause life-threatening diarrhea and colitis. Toxins bind to epithelial receptors and promote the collapse of the actin cytoskeleton. C. difficile toxin activity is commonly studied in cancer-derived and immortalized cell lines. However, the biological relevance of these models is limited. Moreover, no model is available for examining C. difficile-induced enteritis, an understudied health problem. We hypothesized that human intestinal enteroids (HIEs) express toxin receptors and provide a new model to dissect C. difficile cytotoxicity in the small intestine. We generated biopsy-derived jejunal HIE and Vero cells, which stably express LifeAct-Ruby, a fluorescent label of F-actin, to monitor actin cytoskeleton rearrangement by live-cell microscopy. Imaging analysis revealed that toxins from pathogenic C. difficile strains elicited cell rounding in a strain-dependent manner, and HIEs were tenfold more sensitive to toxin A (TcdA) than toxin B (TcdB). By quantitative PCR, we paradoxically found that HIEs expressed greater quantities of toxin receptor mRNA and yet exhibited decreased sensitivity to toxins when compared with traditionally used cell lines. We reasoned that these differences may be explained by components, such as mucins, that are present in HIEs cultures, that are absent in immortalized cell lines. Addition of human-derived mucin 2 (MUC2) to Vero cells delayed cell rounding, indicating that mucus serves as a barrier to toxin-receptor binding. This work highlights that investigation of C. difficile infection in that HIEs can provide important insights into the intricate interactions between toxins and the human intestinal epithelium.NEW & NOTEWORTHY In this article, we developed a novel model of Clostridioides difficile-induced enteritis using jejunal-derived human intestinal enteroids (HIEs) transduced with fluorescently tagged F-actin. Using live-imaging, we identified that jejunal HIEs express high levels of TcdA and CDT receptors, are more sensitive to TcdA than TcdB, and secrete mucus, which delays toxin-epithelial interactions. This work also optimizes optically clear C. difficile-conditioned media suitable for live-cell imaging.


Assuntos
Infecções por Clostridium/microbiologia , Clostridium difficile/patogenicidade , Enterite/microbiologia , Jejuno/microbiologia , ADP Ribose Transferases/metabolismo , Citoesqueleto de Actina/metabolismo , Citoesqueleto de Actina/microbiologia , Citoesqueleto de Actina/ultraestrutura , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Toxinas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Forma Celular , Chlorocebus aethiops , Infecções por Clostridium/metabolismo , Infecções por Clostridium/patologia , Clostridium difficile/metabolismo , Enterite/metabolismo , Enterite/patologia , Enterotoxinas/metabolismo , Células HeLa , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Jejuno/metabolismo , Jejuno/ultraestrutura , Mucina-2/metabolismo , Organoides , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo , Células Vero , Virulência
15.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1865, 2020 04 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32313027

RESUMO

Bacterial Rhs proteins containing toxic domains are often secreted by type VI secretion systems (T6SSs) through unclear mechanisms. Here, we show that the T6SS Rhs-family effector TseI of Aeromonas dhakensis is subject to self-cleavage at both the N- and the C-terminus, releasing the middle Rhs core and two VgrG-interacting domains (which we name VIRN and VIRC). VIRC is an endonuclease, and the immunity protein TsiI protects against VIRC toxicity through direct interaction. Proteolytic release of VIRC and VIRN is mediated, respectively, by an internal aspartic protease activity and by two conserved glutamic residues in the Rhs core. Mutations abolishing self-cleavage do not block secretion, but reduce TseI toxicity. Deletion of VIRN or the Rhs core abolishes secretion. TseI homologs from Pseudomonas syringae, P. aeruginosa, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus are also self-cleaved. VIRN and VIRC interact with protein VgrG1, while the Rhs core interacts with protein TecI. We propose that VIRN and the Rhs core act as T6SS intramolecular chaperones to facilitate toxin secretion and function.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Sistemas de Secreção Bacterianos/metabolismo , Toxinas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Chaperonas Moleculares/metabolismo , Sistemas de Secreção Tipo VI/metabolismo , Aeromonas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Genes Bacterianos , Mutação , Óperon , Peptídeo Hidrolases , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genética , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/metabolismo
16.
Mol Biotechnol ; 62(6-7): 335-343, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236842

RESUMO

Emergence of multidrug resistant strains and extremely drug resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is due to its ability to form persister cells. The formation of persister cells is assumed to be triggered due to the presence of large number of toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems in its genome. Mtb genome encodes 47 VapBC TA systems. In this work, we aim to biochemically characterize VapC46 toxin of the VapBC46 TA operon from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Heterologous expression of VapC46 in E. coli is shown to exhibit bacteriostasis and toxicity alters the surface morphology of the E. coli cells. VapC46 is shown to possess ribonuclease activity in a magnesium-dependent manner. Using FRET and pull down assay, VapC46 is shown to interact with VapB46 antitoxin. A model of VapC46 is shown to resemble PIN domain family of proteins and reveals the putative active site required for its ribonuclease activity.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Toxinas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Toxinas Bacterianas/genética , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Ribonucleases/genética , Ribonucleases/metabolismo , Sistemas Toxina-Antitoxina/genética , Sistemas Toxina-Antitoxina/fisiologia
17.
Nat Struct Mol Biol ; 27(3): 288-296, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32123390

RESUMO

The iota toxin produced by Clostridium perfringens type E is a binary toxin comprising two independent polypeptides: Ia, an ADP-ribosyltransferase, and Ib, which is involved in cell binding and translocation of Ia across the cell membrane. Here we report cryo-EM structures of the translocation channel Ib-pore and its complex with Ia. The high-resolution Ib-pore structure demonstrates a similar structural framework to that of the catalytic ϕ-clamp of the anthrax protective antigen pore. However, the Ia-bound Ib-pore structure shows a unique binding mode of Ia: one Ia binds to the Ib-pore, and the Ia amino-terminal domain forms multiple weak interactions with two additional Ib-pore constriction sites. Furthermore, Ib-binding induces tilting and partial unfolding of the Ia N-terminal α-helix, permitting its extension to the ϕ-clamp gate. This new mechanism of N-terminal unfolding is crucial for protein translocation.


Assuntos
ADP Ribose Transferases/química , Antígenos de Bactérias/química , Toxinas Bacterianas/química , Clostridium perfringens/química , Subunidades Proteicas/química , ADP Ribose Transferases/genética , ADP Ribose Transferases/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Antígenos de Bactérias/genética , Antígenos de Bactérias/metabolismo , Toxinas Bacterianas/genética , Toxinas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , Clonagem Molecular , Clostridium perfringens/genética , Clostridium perfringens/metabolismo , Clostridium perfringens/patogenicidade , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Cristalografia por Raios X , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Vetores Genéticos/química , Vetores Genéticos/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica em alfa-Hélice , Conformação Proteica em Folha beta , Domínios e Motivos de Interação entre Proteínas , Multimerização Proteica , Subunidades Proteicas/genética , Subunidades Proteicas/metabolismo , Transporte Proteico , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Especificidade por Substrato
18.
Nature ; 579(7798): 260-264, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32132711

RESUMO

The production of pore-forming toxins that disrupt the plasma membrane of host cells is a common virulence strategy for bacterial pathogens such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)1-3. It is unclear, however, whether host species possess innate immune mechanisms that can neutralize pore-forming toxins during infection. We previously showed that the autophagy protein ATG16L1 is necessary for protection against MRSA strains encoding α-toxin4-a pore-forming toxin that binds the metalloprotease ADAM10 on the surface of a broad range of target cells and tissues2,5,6. Autophagy typically involves the targeting of cytosolic material to the lysosome for degradation. Here we demonstrate that ATG16L1 and other ATG proteins mediate protection against α-toxin through the release of ADAM10 on exosomes-extracellular vesicles of endosomal origin. Bacterial DNA and CpG DNA induce the secretion of ADAM10-bearing exosomes from human cells as well as in mice. Transferred exosomes protect host cells in vitro by serving as scavengers that can bind multiple toxins, and improve the survival of mice infected with MRSA in vivo. These findings indicate that ATG proteins mediate a previously unknown form of defence in response to infection, facilitating the release of exosomes that serve as decoys for bacterially produced toxins.


Assuntos
Proteínas Relacionadas à Autofagia/metabolismo , Toxinas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Exossomos/metabolismo , Células A549 , Proteína ADAM10/metabolismo , Animais , Toxinas Bacterianas/farmacologia , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , DNA Bacteriano/farmacologia , Exossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Exossomos/ultraestrutura , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/patogenicidade , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/fisiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Infecções Estafilocócicas/mortalidade
19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(11): 6139-6144, 2020 03 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32123082

RESUMO

Clostridioides difficile is a Gram-positive, pathogenic bacterium and a prominent cause of hospital-acquired diarrhea in the United States. The symptoms of C. difficile infection are caused by the activity of three large toxins known as toxin A (TcdA), toxin B (TcdB), and the C. difficile transferase toxin (CDT). Reported here is a 3.8-Å cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of CDT, a bipartite toxin comprised of the proteins CDTa and CDTb. We observe a single molecule of CDTa bound to a CDTb heptamer. The formation of the CDT complex relies on the interaction of an N-terminal adaptor and pseudoenzyme domain of CDTa with six subunits of the CDTb heptamer. CDTb is observed in a preinsertion state, a conformation observed in the transition of prepore to ß-barrel pore, although we also observe a single bound CDTa in the prepore and ß-barrel conformations of CDTb. The binding interaction appears to prime CDTa for translocation as the adaptor subdomain enters the lumen of the preinsertion state channel. These structural observations advance the understanding of how a single protein, CDTb, can mediate the delivery of a large enzyme, CDTa, into the cytosol of mammalian cells.


Assuntos
Toxinas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Clostridium difficile/metabolismo , Enterotoxinas/metabolismo , Transferases/ultraestrutura , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Conformação Proteica em Folha beta , Multimerização Proteica , Transferases/metabolismo
20.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(5): 4100-4108, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32197850

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus is one of the main causative agents of food poisoning. This bacterium is an important component of cheese microbiota and plays an important role in foodborne diseases. Another important component of the microbiota is the lactic acid bacterium, which actively participates in processes that define the physicochemical, sensorial, and microbiological features of cheese. Of the various microbiological interactions in cheese, the interaction between lactic acid bacteria and Staph. aureus is most relevant. To this end, we evaluated the viability of Staph. aureus strains and the expression of their enterotoxins in cheeses produced experimentally, using Weissella paramesenteroides GIR16L4 or Lactobacillus rhamnosus D1 or both as starter cultures. Over 7 d, we observed that the presence of lactic acid bacteria did not impair Staph. aureus growth. However, via qPCR we observed a change in the gene expression of staphylococcal enterotoxins, suggesting that molecular communication exists between Staph. aureus strains and lactic acid bacteria in cheese.


Assuntos
Toxinas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Queijo/microbiologia , Enterotoxinas/metabolismo , Lactobacillus rhamnosus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Staphylococcus aureus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Superantígenos/metabolismo , Weissella/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Toxinas Bacterianas/genética , Queijo/análise , Enterotoxinas/genética , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Lactobacillales/metabolismo , Lactobacillus rhamnosus/metabolismo , Leite , Staphylococcus aureus/genética , Staphylococcus aureus/metabolismo , Superantígenos/genética , Transcriptoma , Weissella/metabolismo
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