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1.
Korean J Parasitol ; 57(3): 243-248, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284346

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was 2-fold: 1) to investigate the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasite infection in cats reared in Daegu, Republic of Korea and 2) to assess the efficacy and safety of a topical emodepside/praziquantel formulation for cats with parasitic infections. The gastrointestinal parasite infections were examined microscopically using the flotation method. Of 407 cats, 162 (39.8%) were infected by at least one gastrointestinal parasite, including Toxocara cati (63.0%), Toxascaris leonina (31.5%), Taenia taeniaeformis (3.7%), and Cystoisospora felis (1.9%). None of the infected animals had multiple infections. When the data were analyzed according to sex, age, and type of cat, stray cats showed statistically higher prevalence than companion cats (P<0.05). On the 5th day after treatment, no parasitic eggs were detected using microscopic examination. In addition, no adverse effects, such as abnormal behaviors and clinical symptoms, were observed in the cats treated with the drug. These results quantify the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in cats in Daegu, Republic of Korea, and show that topical emodepside/praziquantel is a safe and effective choice for treating the parasitic infections in cats.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Depsipeptídeos/administração & dosagem , Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Praziquantel/administração & dosagem , Animais , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos , Composição de Medicamentos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Enteropatias Parasitárias/tratamento farmacológico , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Masculino , República da Coreia , Taenia/efeitos dos fármacos , Taenia/isolamento & purificação , Taenia/fisiologia , Toxascaris/efeitos dos fármacos , Toxascaris/isolamento & purificação , Toxascaris/fisiologia , Toxocara/efeitos dos fármacos , Toxocara/isolamento & purificação , Toxocara/fisiologia
2.
Vet Parasitol ; 270 Suppl 1: S38-S44, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31104940

RESUMO

The efficacy and safety of a new topical formulation containing selamectin plus sarolaner (Revolution® Plus / Stronghold® Plus, Zoetis) was evaluated for the prevention of heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) disease and the treatment of roundworm infection in cats enrolled as veterinary patients in two field studies conducted in Japan. In the heartworm field study, 91 cats negative for D. immitis antigen and anti-D. immitis antibody were enrolled and received 9 monthly topical treatments with selamectin plus sarolaner during the period of April to December 2015. Efficacy was assessed by testing post-treatment blood samples collected 8, 12, and 15 months after initiation of treatment for the presence of D. immitis antigen and anti-D. immitis antibody. Eighty-seven cats completed the entire study and were included in the determination of efficacy. No D. immitis antigen or anti-D. immitis antibody were detected in any of the post-treatment samples. In the roundworm field study, completed in the period from April to November 2015, 64 cats with ≥100 roundworm eggs per gram (EPG) of feces were enrolled and allocated randomly in a 1:1 ratio, to receive either selamectin plus sarolaner or emodepside plus praziquantel (Profender®, Bayer). Treatments were administered topically on Days 0 and 30, and efficacy was assessed by fecal EPG counts conducted on Days 14, 30, and 60. All cats completed the entire study. At enrollment, all cats were infected with Toxocara cati. Compared to pre-treatment, geometric mean T. cati EPG counts on Days 14, 30, and 60 were reduced by >99.9% in both treatment groups. There were no treatment-related adverse events in either study. Monthly topical administration of Revolution® Plus / Stronghold® Plus providing a minimum of 6 mg/kg selamectin and 1 mg/kg sarolaner was safe and effective in the prevention of heartworm disease and the treatment of roundworm infection in cats enrolled as veterinary patients in Japan.


Assuntos
Antiparasitários/administração & dosagem , Azetidinas/administração & dosagem , Doenças do Gato/prevenção & controle , Dirofilariose/prevenção & controle , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Ivermectina/análogos & derivados , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Compostos de Espiro/administração & dosagem , Administração Tópica , Animais , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos , Dirofilaria immitis/efeitos dos fármacos , Dirofilaria immitis/imunologia , Dirofilariose/tratamento farmacológico , Dirofilariose/parasitologia , Composição de Medicamentos/veterinária , Feminino , Helmintíase/tratamento farmacológico , Helmintíase/parasitologia , Helmintíase/prevenção & controle , Enteropatias Parasitárias/tratamento farmacológico , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/prevenção & controle , Ivermectina/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Infecções por Nematoides/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia , Infecções por Nematoides/prevenção & controle , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Distribuição Aleatória , Toxocara/efeitos dos fármacos , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Exp Parasitol ; 200: 37-41, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30928354

RESUMO

Toxocara spp. are responsible for causing toxocariasis, a zoonotic disease of global importance, which is difficult to treat as the available drugs have moderate efficacy in the clinical resolution of the disease. A promising alternative to the existing drugs is Propolis, which is known for having biological and pharmacological properties such as antiparasitic, antioxidant, and antitumor activities. In this study, we report the in vitro anthelmintic activity of essential oil from Brazilian Red Propolis (EOP) against larvae of Toxocara cati. Approximately 100 larvae per well were cultivated in microplates containing RPMI-1640 medium and incubated in the presence of EOP (18.75, 37.5, 75, 150, 300 and 600 µg/mL) to determine the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and IC50 (concentration required to inhibit 50% of the population) values. Then, T. cati larvae treated with the MIC of EOP were inoculated in mice to evaluate their progression in vivo. A concentration of 600 µg/mL of EOP showed 100% larvicidal activity after exposure for 48 h, while 300 µg/mL represented the IC50 and CC50. The anthelmintic activity of EOP was confirmed by the inability of the treated T. cati larvae to infect the mice. Our findings demonstrate the potential of EOP as an anthelmintic.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Própole/química , Toxocara/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/isolamento & purificação , Anti-Helmínticos/toxicidade , Células CHO , Corantes , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Feminino , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Cinética , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Movimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Óleos Voláteis/toxicidade , Toxocara/fisiologia , Azul Tripano
4.
Vet Parasitol ; 270 Suppl 1: S45-S51, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30470638

RESUMO

A new topical formulation of selamectin plus sarolaner (Revolution® Plus/Stronghold® Plus, Zoetis) was evaluated in the treatment and control of naturally occurring infections of Ancylostoma tubaeforme and Toxocara cati in cats presented as veterinary patients in the United States. Three thousand three hundred three (3303) cats were screened in 25 veterinary practices in 15 states and 153 hookworm-positive cats (A. tubaeforme and/or A. braziliense), mainly from Alabama, Mississippi, Texas, and Hawaii, were identified; 135 cats met all the criteria for enrollment and were included on study. The cats were randomly assigned to treatment with Revolution® (at the label dosage, to provide a minimum dosage of 6 mg/kg selamectin) or selamectin plus sarolaner (at a dosage of 6-12 mg/kg plus 1-2 mg/kg, respectively). Treatments were administered at the time of enrollment and repeated 30 days later. Fecal samples were collected for differential fecal egg count prior to the first treatment (Day 0), prior to the second treatment (Day 30), and approximately 30 days later (Day 60). Efficacy was based on the percentage reductions in geometric mean fecal egg count for A. tubaeforme on Day 30 and Day 60 compared with Day 0. Where cats were co-infected with T. cati, efficacy against this species was also evaluated. Efficacy data were evaluated for A. tubaeforme for 40 cats on both Day 30 and Day 60 for the group treated with the selamectin/sarolaner combination and reductions in geometric mean fecal egg counts of 99.4% and 99.7% were demonstrated for Day 30 and Day 60, respectively. For the group treated with selamectin alone, 44 and 40 cats were evaluated and percent reductions for Day 30 and Day 60 were 99.5% and 99.9%, respectively. For T. cati, 14 cats were evaluated in the selamectin/sarolaner-treated group for Day 30 and for Day 60, and the reduction in geometric mean fecal egg count was 100% for both days. There were 11 and 9 cats evaluated for Day 30 and Day 60, respectively, for the selamectin-treated group and the reduction was again 100% for both days. The geometric mean fecal egg counts post-treatment were significantly lower than pre-treatment for both A. tubaeforme and T. cati, for both treatments, and for both periods of interest (P < 0.0001). No serious adverse events related to treatment with either product occurred during the study. Thus, both selamectin alone and the combination product of selamectin/sarolaner were safe and effective when administered on a monthly basis for the treatment and control of natural infections of A. tubaeforme and T. cati. The addition of sarolaner to the formulation did not interfere with the efficacy of selamectin against these nematodes.


Assuntos
Ancilostomíase/veterinária , Antiparasitários/administração & dosagem , Azetidinas/administração & dosagem , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Ivermectina/análogos & derivados , Compostos de Espiro/administração & dosagem , Toxocaríase/tratamento farmacológico , Ancylostoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Ancilostomíase/tratamento farmacológico , Ancilostomíase/parasitologia , Ancilostomíase/prevenção & controle , Animais , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Doenças do Gato/prevenção & controle , Gatos , Feminino , Ivermectina/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Toxocara/efeitos dos fármacos , Toxocaríase/parasitologia , Toxocaríase/prevenção & controle , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
5.
Vet Parasitol ; 247: 77-79, 2017 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29080769

RESUMO

Toxocara canis is one of the most important zoonotic parasites of dogs. The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of spinosad/milbemycin oxime and ivermectin/praziquantel in dogs naturally infected with Toxocara spp. We studied 200 dogs with a positive diagnosis of Toxocara spp. Through coproparasitoscopic analysis, two study groups of 100 dogs each were assigned: spinosad/milbemycin oxime at a dose of 30-60mg/kg and 0.75-1.0mg/kg, respectively, or ivermectin/praziquantel administered at a dose of 0.2mg/kg and 5mg/kg, respectively. Both groups received a single dose. Three stool samples, one at day 0 before treatment, and at 14 and 28days post-treatment were examined using concentration-flotation techniques. In both treatments, the number of Toxocara spp. eggs decreased; with spinosad/milbemycin oxime treatment, eggs decreased by 87% at 14days (P=0.008) and 94% at 28days after treatment, compared with 71% at day 14 and 88% at day 28 in dogs medicated with ivermectin/praziquantel. The spinosad/milbemycin oxime treated group showed a greater decrease in the number of Toxocara spp. positive dogs compared to the group receiving ivermectin/praziquantel.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Toxocara/efeitos dos fármacos , Toxocaríase/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Combinação de Medicamentos , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , Macrolídeos/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Praziquantel/uso terapêutico , Toxocaríase/parasitologia , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Parasitol Res ; 114 Suppl 1: S175-84, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26152418

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of an emodepside 2.1 % (w/v)/praziquantel 8.6 % (w/v) topical solution (Profender® spot-on for cats) in the prevention of lactogenic Toxocara cati infections. A controlled test was performed with two groups of 8 cats with confirmed pregnancy. All cats were infected with daily doses of 2000 T. cati eggs for 10 consecutive days starting 50 days post conception to produce an acute infection. Treatment was performed 60 days post conception. Queens in the treatment group received the emodepside/praziquantel solution at the minimum therapeutic dose (3 mg/kg emodepside and 12 mg/kg praziquantel), while the control group was treated with a placebo spot-on. Efficacy was evaluated 56 days post partum by necropsy of one randomly selected kitten of each litter and comparison of the worm burdens between the study groups. Additionally the necropsy results were supported by quantification of worms expelled with the faeces after deworming of the remaining kittens and all queens. The treatment in late pregnancy resulted in an efficacy of 98.7 % (p < 0.0001). All necropsied control kittens were infected (geometric mean 30.6). Seven of 8 kittens from treated mothers were free of T. cati (geometric mean 0.4). Worm counts after deworming reflected the results obtained at necropsy. No side effects of the treatment were observed. It is concluded that treatment with an emodepside/praziquantel spot-on solution during late pregnancy effectively prevents lactogenic transmission of T. cati to the offspring. The study design facilitated the generation of reliable data, while at the same time a minimum number of animals was sacrificed.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Depsipeptídeos/uso terapêutico , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/veterinária , Praziquantel/uso terapêutico , Administração Tópica , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos , Depsipeptídeos/administração & dosagem , Combinação de Medicamentos , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Praziquantel/administração & dosagem , Gravidez , Toxocara/efeitos dos fármacos , Toxocaríase/tratamento farmacológico
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25858303

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To provide an updated insight of concepts regarding the overview, epidemiology, risk factors, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of ocular toxocariasis. DESIGN: Perspective of literature review. METHODS: Review and synthesis of literature about toxocariasis, with interpretation and perspective. A literature search for "ocular toxocariasis" was performed using PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, SciELO and LILACS databases. RESULTS: Mild to moderate infections are frequently reported in ocular toxocariasis which usually occurs in children and typically presents as unilateral vision impairment, blindness is common and could present invasion of the retina. There are three groups of presentation of toxocariasis (according to the physical examination): chronic endophthalmitis, posterior granuloma and peripheral granuloma. Standard diagnosis of ocular toxocariasis is based on the identification of clinical signs, supported by additional diagnostic methods. Regarding treatment, there is no commonly accepted regimen but most of the authors prefer to use steroids and anthelminthic agents, but nowadays there are no standardized parameters in terms of dosage, duration and route of administration. Surgery has been recommended in some cases. CONCLUSION: Toxocariasis is still a problem of public health, particularly in developing countries with an increasing epidemiological burden in terms of morbidity and mortality and most of the authors agree on the utmost relevance of its prevention. Clinical experience and suspicion of ophthalmologists make an important role in its diagnosis, but always with supportive diagnostic methods. Additional studies should explore new therapeutic options for toxocariasis.


Assuntos
Endoftalmite/parasitologia , Infecções Oculares Parasitárias/parasitologia , Granuloma/parasitologia , Toxocara/patogenicidade , Toxocaríase/parasitologia , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Endoftalmite/diagnóstico , Endoftalmite/tratamento farmacológico , Endoftalmite/epidemiologia , Infecções Oculares Parasitárias/diagnóstico , Infecções Oculares Parasitárias/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Oculares Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Granuloma/diagnóstico , Granuloma/tratamento farmacológico , Granuloma/epidemiologia , Humanos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Toxocara/efeitos dos fármacos , Toxocaríase/diagnóstico , Toxocaríase/tratamento farmacológico , Toxocaríase/epidemiologia
8.
Vet Parasitol ; 193(4): 413-26, 2013 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23411376

RESUMO

This study presents clinical findings after oral ingestion of Toxocara cati eggs which resulted in rapid pulmonary lung migration and parenchymal disease, noted on clinically relevant diagnostic methods. Further, the study investigated the efficacy of pre-infection applications of preventative medication on larval migration through the lungs. A third aim of the study was to determine if adult cats infected with T. cati developed lung disease. Cats in infected groups were administered five oral doses of L3 T. cati larvae. Four-month-old specific pathogen free (SPF) kittens were divided into three groups (six per group): an infected untreated group, an uninfected untreated control group, and an infected treated group (topical moxidectin and imidacloprid, Advantage Multi for Cats, Bayer Healthcare LLC). Six 2- to 3-year-old adult multiparous female SPF cats were an infected untreated adult group. The cats were evaluated by serial CBCs, bronchial-alveolar lavage (BAL), fecal examinations, thoracic radiographs, and thoracic computed tomography (CT) scans and were euthanized 65 days after the initial infection. Adult T. cati were recovered in infected untreated kittens (5/6) and infected untreated adults (5/6) in numbers consistent with natural infections. Eggs were identified in the feces of most but not all cats with adult worm infections. No adult worms were identified in the uninfected controls or the infected treated group. All cats in the infected groups, including treated cats and untreated cats without adult worms, had lung pathology based on evaluation of radiography, CT scans, and histopathology. The infected cats demonstrated a transient peripheral eosinophilia and marked eosinophilic BAL cytology, but normal bronchial reactivity based on in vivo CT and in vitro ring studies. Lung lesions initially identified by CT on day 11 were progressive. Thoracic radiographs in infected cats had a diffuse bronchial-interstitial pattern and enlarged pulmonary arteries. Pulmonary arterial, bronchial, and interstitial disease were prominent histological findings. Infected treated cats had a subtle attenuation but not prevention of lung disease compared to infected cats. Significant lung disease in kittens and adult cats is associated with the early arrival of T. cati larvae in the lungs and is independent of the development of adult worms in the intestine. These data suggest that while the medical prevention of the development of adult parasites after oral exposure to T. cati is obviously beneficial, this practice even with good client compliance will not prevent the development of lung disease which can alter clinical diagnostic methods.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/patologia , Fibrose Pulmonar/patologia , Toxocara/fisiologia , Toxocaríase/patologia , Animais , Lavagem Broncoalveolar/veterinária , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Imidazóis/uso terapêutico , Inseticidas/uso terapêutico , Larva , Pulmão/patologia , Macrolídeos/administração & dosagem , Macrolídeos/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Neonicotinoides , Nitrocompostos/uso terapêutico , Óvulo , Fibrose Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Fibrose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrose Pulmonar/parasitologia , Radiografia Torácica , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Toxocara/efeitos dos fármacos , Toxocara/isolamento & purificação , Toxocaríase/diagnóstico por imagem , Toxocaríase/tratamento farmacológico , Toxocaríase/parasitologia
9.
Pak J Biol Sci ; 16(22): 1557-62, 2013 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24511700

RESUMO

Since the integrity of Toxocara vitulorum cuticle is essential for the nutritive and protective functions, light and scanning electron microscopic studies were undertaken to assess, for the first time, whether the Nigella sativa oil (NSO) had any effect on the cuticle of adult T. vitulorum following incubation in vitro. Differences in response to NSO action were observed, depending on the used concentration. After 24 h incubation with 0.5 mg mL(-1) NSO, the cuticle of the anterior end of worms appeared to be slightly more swollen than normal. This swelling became pronounced and so severe, with lips showed wrinkled cuticular surface and deformed sensory papillae on increasing the concentration to 1.0 mg mL(-1). With the higher concentration of 1.5 mg mL(-1), extensive and severe disorganization of the cuticle and body musculature was observed. Structural alterations in the cuticle as observed in the present investigation were thus, clear indication of nematocidal activity of NSO that could offer a suitable and cheaper alternative for the more expensive anthelmintics.


Assuntos
Antinematódeos/farmacologia , Nigella sativa , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Toxocara/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Fitoterapia , Plantas Medicinais , Fatores de Tempo , Toxocara/classificação , Toxocara/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Toxocara/ultraestrutura
10.
Parasitol Res ; 111(5): 2123-7, 2012 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22864864

RESUMO

Toxocara cati is the most prevalent gastrointestinal helminth in cats worldwide, with cats of all ages at risk of infection. An anthelminthic treatment that not only affects the gut-dwelling stages of this parasite but is also effective against developmental stages in the tissue has the advantage that the pathology caused by migrating larvae is minimized and the need for repeated treatments is reduced. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of milbemycin oxime/praziquantel tablets (Milbemax®, Novartis) against third-stage larvae of T. cati in comparison to a spot-on formulation of emodepside and praziquantel (Profender®, Bayer). Twenty-four kittens were experimentally infected with T. cati and randomly allocated to three study groups. Treatments were performed at the minimum therapeutic dosage 5 days after the experimental infection. The development of patent infections was monitored and all cats were dewormed 50 days post-infection. Efficacies were calculated based on counts of excreted worms in the treated groups compared to a negative control group. Seven of the eight cats in the negative control group developed a patent T. cati infection and all cats were excreting worms at the end of the study (geometric mean worm count 18.1). No efficacy could be observed for the milbemycin oxime-treated animals. All cats developed a patent infection and excreted worms (geometric mean worm count 27.7). The treatment with Profender® was 98.5 % effective against L3 of T. cati. One cat developed a patent infection and was excreting worms at the end of the study (geometric mean worm count 0.3). No adverse reactions were noted in either treatment group.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Depsipeptídeos/administração & dosagem , Macrolídeos/administração & dosagem , Praziquantel/administração & dosagem , Toxocara/efeitos dos fármacos , Toxocaríase/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/efeitos adversos , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos , Depsipeptídeos/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Feminino , Macrolídeos/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Praziquantel/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Vet Parasitol ; 183(3-4): 386-92, 2012 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21846581

RESUMO

In this study, the effect of the methanolic extract of Balanites aegyptiaca fruits (BAE) on adult Toxocara vitulorum was evaluated after incubating the parasites in Ringer solution containing 10, 30, 60, 120 and 240 µg/ml of the methanolic extract, for 24h using light and scanning electron microscopic observations. Differences in response to BAE action were concentration dependent. These changes occurred in definite sequences in response to BAE concentration and were consisted of slightly swelling which became pronounced and so severe, with lips showed wrinkled cuticular surface and deformed sensory papillae on increasing the BAE concentration. The strongest effects were reached with the highest BAE concentration, where disorganization of the cuticle and body musculature was observed. Additionally, the ovicidal effect of BAE, at the previous concentrations, on the development of T. vitulorum eggs was examined after 12h exposure. The inhibitory activity of BAE on egg development was concentration dependent and the highest value reached to 100% with the concentration of 240 µg/ml. These results were compared with those observed in the worm cuticle and eggs following incubation in albendazole, as it was a broad-spectrum nematodicidal compound with well-known ovicidal activity.


Assuntos
Antinematódeos/farmacologia , Balanites/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Toxocara/efeitos dos fármacos , Albendazol/administração & dosagem , Albendazol/farmacologia , Animais , Antinematódeos/administração & dosagem , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Frutas/química , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Óvulo/citologia , Óvulo/efeitos dos fármacos , Óvulo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Toxocara/citologia , Toxocara/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Toxocaríase/tratamento farmacológico
12.
Parasitol Res ; 109 Suppl 1: S37-43, 2011 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21739374

RESUMO

Two exploratory studies were performed to determine the optimum therapeutic dose of Procox(®) for the removal of experimental infection with mature adult Toxocara (T.) cati and Ancylostoma (A.) tubaeforme in kittens. Procox(®) is a new oral suspension containing a combination of the nematocidal and coccidiocidal active principles emodepside (0.1 %) and toltrazuril (2 %).In the first study, 18 eight-weeks-old kittens were inoculated with 450 L3 larvae of T. cati. 56 days after infection, the kittens were allocated to three treatment groups and were treated with 0.5 mg emodepside/kg body weight (group 1), 0.25 mg emodepside/kg body weight (group 2) and 0.1 mg emodepside/kg body weight (group 3), respectively. In the second study, 10 eight-weeks-old kittens were inoculated with 350 L3 larvae of A. tubaeforme. Four weeks after infection, the kittens were allocated to two treatment groups and were treated with 0.1 mg emodepside/kg body weight (group 1) or 0.25 mg emodepside/kg body weight (group 2). In both studies, all kittens received a reference treatment with Drontal(®) (230 mg pyrantel embonate and 20 mg praziquantel per tablet) at the recommended dose of one tablet/4 kg body weight 5 days after treatment with Procox(®). Anthelmintic efficacy was calculated by reduction in worm numbers expelled with the faeces following treatment with Procox(®) as compared with faecal worm numbers after reference treatment with Drontal(®), by thus avoiding necropsy of the animals.In the T. cati study, emodepside was at 99.9 %, 100 % and 96.5 % effective at a dosage of 0.5 mg, 0.25 mg and 0.1 mg per kg body weight, respectively. Against A. tubaeforme emodepside was at 95.7 % and 100 % effective at a dosage of 0.1 mg and 0.25 mg per kg body weight. No adverse events were seen during either study.It can be concluded that Procox(®) is efficacious for the control of mature adult T. cati and A. tubaeforme infections in cats at a single-dose rate of 0.25 mg emodepside/kg body weight.


Assuntos
Ancylostoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Ancilostomíase/veterinária , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Depsipeptídeos/uso terapêutico , Toxocara/efeitos dos fármacos , Toxocaríase/tratamento farmacológico , Triazinas/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Ancilostomíase/tratamento farmacológico , Ancilostomíase/parasitologia , Animais , Antinematódeos/administração & dosagem , Antinematódeos/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos , Depsipeptídeos/administração & dosagem , Combinação de Medicamentos , Avaliação de Medicamentos , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/patogenicidade , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Toxocaríase/parasitologia , Triazinas/administração & dosagem
14.
Turkiye Parazitol Derg ; 35(1): 10-4, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21618184

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The first aim of the present study was to determine the efficiency of A. absinthium extract on cats naturally infected with Toxocara cati. The second aim was to determine the efficiency of the extract on the embryonic development of T. cati eggs in vitro. METHODS: Artemisia absinthium extract was orally administrated to cats at the doses of 300 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg body weight in Group 1 and 2, respectively. It was given only once a day and the treatment continued 7 consecutive days. The faeces of the cats were examined both macroscopically and microscopically by flotation procedure with saturated salt solution pre-, during and post- treatment period. The faecal analysis was maintained during 8 days after completing the extract administration. The alteration of faecal egg numbers was performed by using the McMaster technique. RESULTS: The faecal egg numbers per gram were decreased gradually in cats in the trial groups. In the treatment period, the activities of ALT, AST, ALP, urea and creatinine were located within the physiological ranges in cats. In in vitro trials with A. absinthium extract, the embryonic development of T. cati eggs was identical in all groups (treatment and control). A. absinthium extract did not inhibit larval development in eggs in in vitro trials. CONCLUSION: This plant extract may be an alternative choice in the treatment of parasitic diseases in future.


Assuntos
Artemisia absinthium/química , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Toxocaríase/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Flores/química , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Toxocara/efeitos dos fármacos , Toxocara/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Toxocaríase/parasitologia
15.
Parasitol Res ; 108(4): 1047-54, 2011 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21110041

RESUMO

The anthelminthic efficacy of some differently obtained extracts of several plants was tested in vivo in laboratory animals and in vitro. The extracts were obtained by ethanolic, methanolic, aqueous, or chloroform, respectively, acetonitrile polyethylenglycol (PEG) and/or propylencarbonate (PC) elution at room temperature or at 37°C. The plants used were bulbs of onions, garlic, chives, coconut, birch tree, ananas, cistrose, banana, chicory, date palm fruit, fig, pumpkin, and neem tree seeds. The worm systems tested both in vivo and in vitro were Trichuris muris and Angiostrongylus cantonensis but only in vivo Toxocara cati. The tests clearly showed that the different extraction methods eluted different components and different mass amounts, which had different efficacies against the above-cited worms. In vitro effects against A. cantonensis and T.muris were best with aqueous extracts, followed by chloroform extracts. The other plant extracts showed only low or no effects on A. cantonensis in vitro. In the case of T. muris, best results were obtained in vivo and in vitro with PEG/PC extracts of the onion followed by the aqueous extract of coconut. The complete elimination of worms in the in vivo experiments with T. muris was obtained when infected mice were treated with a 1:1 mixture of extracts of coconut and onion being produced by elutions with a mixture of 1:1 PEG and PC and fed daily for 8 days. T. cati in a naturally infected cat was eliminated by daily oral application of 6 ml coco's fluid for 5 days. This study shows that a broad spectrum of plants has anti-nematodal activities, the intensity of which, however, depends on the mode of extraction. This implicates that, if results should be really comparable, the same extraction methods at the same temperatures have to be used. Furthermore, efficacy in in vitro systems does not guarantee as good--if at all--efficacy in vivo.


Assuntos
Angiostrongylus cantonensis/efeitos dos fármacos , Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Toxocara/efeitos dos fármacos , Trichuris/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/isolamento & purificação , Gatos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Camundongos , Testes de Sensibilidade Parasitária , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Ratos , Infecções por Strongylida/tratamento farmacológico , Toxocaríase/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento , Tricuríase/tratamento farmacológico
16.
Trop Biomed ; 26(1): 30-9, 2009 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19696725

RESUMO

Toxocara cati (T. cati) and Toxocara canis (T. canis), roundworms of cats and dogs, are zoonotic parasites that cause visceral and ocular larval migrans in human beings. Humans and other paratenic hosts are infected by ingesting the infective Toxocara eggs from contaminated soil, unwashed hands, contaminated raw vegetables or ingestion of under-cooked organs and muscle tissues of infected paratenic hosts such as chickens, cattle and sheep. It has been shown that the seroprevalence of toxocariasis in the rural and urban children of southern Iran is high and more than 50% of cats of this area are also infected with T. cati. It is stated that consumption of raw chicken meat resulted in visceral toxocariasis. It is possible that poultry reared outdoors and feeding in open range system, gain Toxocara eggs from soil and or by eating infected earthworms as paratenic host. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of albendazole and febendazole in experimentally infected chickens with eggs of T. cati by histopathological and digestive methods. Pathologic lesions were observed only in the untreated group and larvae were detected in brain of 3 chickens of this group by squash method. No larva was observed at histopathological level in liver, lungs, brain, cardiac and skeletal muscles and other examined organs of either treated or untreated animals. No lesion was seen in other tissues of the infected untreated chickens. Treatment resulted in disappearance of the larvae and disappearance of the gross and histopathologic abnormalities from their organs. No detectable difference was observed in chemosusceptibility of the two drugs.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Benzimidazóis/uso terapêutico , Galinhas/parasitologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/tratamento farmacológico , Toxocara/efeitos dos fármacos , Toxocaríase/tratamento farmacológico , Albendazol/administração & dosagem , Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Benzimidazóis/administração & dosagem , Irã (Geográfico) , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Especificidade de Órgãos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/patologia , Toxocara/classificação , Toxocara/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Toxocara/isolamento & purificação , Toxocaríase/parasitologia , Toxocaríase/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Parasitol Res ; 105 Suppl 1: S75-81, 2009 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19575228

RESUMO

This study aimed to determine the efficacy of emodepside 2.14%/praziquantel 8.58% topical solution (Profender, Bayer) in the prevention and treatment of lactogenic Toxocara cati infections. Eight pregnant cats were orally infected with T. cati eggs during late pregnancy. Four queens were treated on day 60 post conception and four queens were left untreated. The kittens of two untreated queens were treated 28 days after birth. The two other negative control litters were left untreated. The efficacy of emodepside was determined by faecal egg counts. While faecal samples of queens and litters in the control group became positive for T. cati, egg shedding was completely prevented in all four treated queens, in their litters and in the kittens from the two litters which were treated four weeks after birth. The untreated mothers of the latter stayed also coproscopically negative, which might be explained by an oral uptake of emodepside through grooming. The treatment was well tolerated by pregnant queens as well as by four-weeks-old kittens.To our knowledge, this is the first publication that focuses on the prevention of lactogenic transmission of T. cati.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Gato/prevenção & controle , Depsipeptídeos/uso terapêutico , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Praziquantel/uso terapêutico , Toxocaríase/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Anti-Helmínticos/efeitos adversos , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Gatos , Depsipeptídeos/administração & dosagem , Depsipeptídeos/efeitos adversos , Combinação de Medicamentos , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas , Praziquantel/administração & dosagem , Praziquantel/efeitos adversos , Gravidez , Toxocara/efeitos dos fármacos , Toxocara/isolamento & purificação , Toxocaríase/prevenção & controle , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Parasitol Res ; 97 Suppl 1: S41-S50, 2005 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16228274

RESUMO

Eleven controlled studies were conducted in the United States and Europe to evaluate the efficacy of a topical solution of emodepside (3 mg/kg)+praziquantel (12 mg/kg) (Profender, Bayer AG, Leverkusen, Germany) against infection with various stages of the ascarid nematodes Toxocara cati and Toxascaris leonina. Infections were induced by administration of larvated ascarid eggs, and stage-specific efficacy was evaluated by treating cats at scheduled intervals post-inoculation. All studies featured random allocation to treatment groups, placebo-treated control animals and assessment of outcome measures by masked personnel. The product (emodepside+praziquantel topical solution) was 100% effective against mature adults and immature adult T. cati. In addition, it was 96.8% effective against third stage larvae and at least 99.4% effective against fourth stage larvae of T. cati, respectively. Efficacy against mature, immature adult and L4 stages of T. leonina exceeded 93.4%, but regulatory "adequacy of infection" criteria were not met in some studies. No adverse reactions to treatment were noted in cats treated with the emodepside+praziquantel topical solution.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Depsipeptídeos/administração & dosagem , Depsipeptídeos/uso terapêutico , Praziquantel/administração & dosagem , Praziquantel/uso terapêutico , Toxocaríase/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Tópica , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Gatos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Quimioterapia Combinada , Toxocara/classificação , Toxocara/efeitos dos fármacos
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