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1.
J Helminthol ; 94: e96, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679534

RESUMO

Toxocariasis is an emerging zoonotic disease caused by Toxocara canis and T. cati. Toxocariasis and its etiological agents are of global public health importance, whose burden appears underestimated, especially in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The diversity in the transmission routes of these parasites contributes to disease prevalence and often hinders disease control measures. This study aimed to review the epidemiological distribution of Toxocara infections in SSA region. A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed using PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis). We identified 94 relevant, peer-reviewed articles, out of which, 75 articles were found eligible based on Toxocara infections in dogs, cats and humans. Overall, 27,102 samples were examined for T. canis in dogs, T. cati in cats and Toxocara serology in humans, out of which 6142 were positive for Toxocara infection: 3717 (13.7%) in dogs (faecal, 3487; necropsy, 180; hair, 50); 266 (1%) in cats (faecal, 101; necropsy, 165); and 2159 (8%) in humans (serology). Overall mean prevalences of 19% (95% confidence interval (CI): 14-23%), 9% (95% CI: 0-28%) and 36% (95% CI: 24-49%) were recorded in dogs, cats and humans, respectively. Substantial heterogeneity was observed between studies and subgroups (I2 = 99%, P < 0.01). Findings from the review showed that studies on the epidemiology of Toxocara infections in the SSA region are limited. We strongly recommend focused, collaborative and coordinated studies to determine Toxocara spp. prevalence in various hosts, including food animals and the environment, through a 'One Health' approach across SSA countries.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Toxocaríase/parasitologia , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Animais , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/transmissão , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/transmissão , Cães , Fezes/parasitologia , Humanos , Toxocara/classificação , Toxocara/genética , Toxocara/isolamento & purificação , Toxocara/fisiologia , Toxocaríase/epidemiologia , Toxocaríase/transmissão , Zoonoses/parasitologia
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778390

RESUMO

Public parks are leisure environments widely used by both, adults and children, often accompained by their pets. Soil contamination of these environments by enteric viruses and intestinal parasites occurs through these animals feces. The aim of this work was to detect Carnivore protoparvovirus 1 (CPV-1) and different species of Mastadenovirus in soils samples from a park located in a medium-sized city in Brazil and evaluate the presence of helminth eggs and larvae in 18 points of a public park soil samples, as well as feces found on this site during six months. Parasitological analyzes were conducted through flotation and sedimentation techniques, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for viral detection. Of the 216 soil and 16 feces samples, 49% (106/216) and 12% (2/16) were positivefor nematodes larvae, respectively, through sedimentation techniques. Toxocara spp eggs were found in one soil sample and one feces sample, Trichuris spp eggs were found in only one feces sample and Hookworms eggs were found in four soil samples. After reconstruction work in the streets near the park, 30% (64/216) of the samples were positive for Human Mastadenovirus C (HAdV-C), 1.4% (3/216) for HAdV-E and 0.4% (1/216) for Canine Mastadenovirus A (CAdV-A). The parasitic forms found in this study have demonstrated that the contamination of the park's soil pose a threat to human and animal health. This was the first study to report the presence of HAdVs and CAdVs in soil samples.


Assuntos
Ancylostomatoidea/isolamento & purificação , Mastadenovirus/isolamento & purificação , Microbiologia do Solo , Solo/parasitologia , Toxocara/isolamento & purificação , Ancylostomatoidea/classificação , Ancylostomatoidea/genética , Animais , Cães , Fezes/parasitologia , Humanos , Mastadenovirus/classificação , Mastadenovirus/genética , Parques Recreativos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Toxocara/classificação , Toxocara/genética
3.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 203, 2019 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31053079

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dogs and cats can transmit zoonotic helminths to humans, e.g. Toxocara spp. and Echinococcus multilocularis. Strategic deworming may help minimize this risk. Studies in several European countries have shown that pets are dewormed less frequently against roundworms and tapeworms than recommended by the European Scientific Counsel Companion Animal Parasites (ESCCAP). The objective of this study was to identify percentages of dogs and cats falling into the different risk categories defined by the German ESCCAP guidelines and to evaluate whether deworming frequency and parasite monitoring in Germany follows these guidelines. RESULTS: According to questionnaire results from 500 dog and 500 cat owners, deworming of dogs in Germany averages 2.07 times/year while for cats this average is 1.72 times/year. In contrast, evaluation of risk factors placed only 2% (10/500) of dogs in ESCCAP category A with a recommended deworming/examination frequency of 1-2 times per year, while 4.8% (24/500) were placed in category B (4 treatments/examinations per year recommended), 30.8% (154/500) in category C (12 treatments/examinations per year against tapeworms and 4 treatments/examinations per year against roundworms recommended) and 62.4% (312/500) in category D (12 treatments/examinations per year recommended). All cats were placed either in risk group A [52.8% (264/500)] or D [47.2% (236/500)]. Generalized linear models indicated that risk group D cats were treated significantly more often against helminths than risk group A cats. There were no significant differences in deworming frequency between risk groups in dogs. The most important factor influencing deworming frequency was the frequency of veterinary visits. Dogs and cats were treated significantly more often if owners visited their veterinarian more than once yearly. CONCLUSIONS: The percentage distribution of risk groups considerably varied between dogs and cats. Nevertheless, 62% of dogs and 47% of cats were assigned to category D for which monthly treatments/examinations are recommended by the ESCCAP guidelines. Veterinarians play a key role in instructing pet owners with regard to helminthoses and their prevention, and should take the time for adequate risk assessments. The reported low deworming frequencies despite the high potential parasite infection risk suggests that pet owner advice through veterinarians needs to be improved.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Equinococose/parasitologia , Animais de Estimação/parasitologia , Toxocaríase/parasitologia , Zoonoses/transmissão , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Equinococose/epidemiologia , Equinococose/transmissão , Equinococose/veterinária , Echinococcus multilocularis/classificação , Echinococcus multilocularis/genética , Echinococcus multilocularis/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Toxocara/genética , Toxocara/isolamento & purificação , Toxocara/parasitologia , Toxocaríase/epidemiologia , Toxocaríase/transmissão , Adulto Jovem , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/parasitologia
4.
J Helminthol ; 93(3): 306-312, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29733009

RESUMO

Human toxocariasis, a worldwide parasitic disease, is caused by the larval stage of intestinal nematodes of dogs and cats, namely Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati. Human infection occurs by the accidental ingestion of embryonated eggs present in the soil, vegetables or on other contaminated surfaces, as well as via consumption of uncooked paratenic hosts, such as bird meat and giblets. The objective of this study was to evaluate the contamination of soil in public parks and playgrounds in Shiraz using microscopy and molecular methods. A total of 150 soil samples were collected from public parks and playgrounds in various areas of Shiraz, southern Iran. The samples were treated with saturated zinc sulphate solution, and Toxocara spp. eggs were detected by microscopic observation followed by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). To differentiate T. canis and T. cati eggs from each other, PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-rDNA region by SalI endonuclease enzyme was used. PCR-sequencing was performed to confirm the results of the PCR-RFLP method. Based on the flotation results of the 150 soil samples, six (4%) were found to be positive for Toxocara spp. eggs, whereas nested-PCR showed 24 samples to be positive (16%). Based on the PCR-RFLP method and the sequence of the ITS-rDNA region, a total of 23 out of 24 isolates were confirmed as T. cati and one out of 24 as T. canis. The results showed a higher number of soil samples to be positive for Toxocara by the molecular method than microscopy, and higher T. cati infection in soil samples, which could have an important role in human infection with toxocariasis in this region.


Assuntos
Solo/parasitologia , Toxocara/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Análise por Conglomerados , DNA de Helmintos/química , DNA de Helmintos/genética , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/química , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Irã (Geográfico) , Microscopia , Parasitologia/métodos , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Toxocara/classificação , Toxocara/genética
5.
J Helminthol ; 93(6): 677-680, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30270820

RESUMO

Toxocariasis is an important neglected tropical disease that has been suggested as a possible etiologic agent of asthma. The objective of the present study was to investigate possible significant association between Toxocara seroprevalence and asthma in a clinic-based case-control study. Blood samples were collected from human subjects aged 5-70 years, 50 of whom had signs of asthma and 50 of whom had no signs of asthma. Risk factors for asthma and Toxocara spp. infection were assessed by a questionnaire given to each patient. Blood samples were analysed to measure levels of anti-Toxocara spp. immunoglobulin G (IgG). Patients with bronchial asthma were observed to have higher Toxocara spp. seropositivity than that of the non-asthmatic controls (6 vs 2%, P = 0.47). The mean anti-Toxocara spp. antibody titre was not significantly higher in patients with bronchial asthma than in individuals without asthma (P = 0.395, 95% CI = 0.579-1.45). There was no significant difference in the mean age, sex, social class, exposure to smoking and presence of domestic dog or cat at home between the two groups (P ≥ 0.05). The presence of anti-Toxocara spp. IgG was statistically associated with higher blood eosinophils, but it was not associated with asthma (P ≥ 0.05). The observed relationship between exposure to Toxocara spp. infection and bronchial asthma in Iranian patients warrants further evaluation. An understanding of any potential influence on the pathogenesis of human asthma provides a potential avenue for prevention.


Assuntos
Asma/parasitologia , Toxocara/isolamento & purificação , Toxocaríase/parasitologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/sangue , Asma/sangue , Asma/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxocara/genética , Toxocara/imunologia , Toxocaríase/sangue , Toxocaríase/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Mitochondrial DNA A DNA Mapp Seq Anal ; 29(1): 132-135, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28141958

RESUMO

Toxocara cati (cat roundworm) is a common parasitic nematode that infects humans and other hosts, causing toxocariasis. Although its significance as a pathogen, the epidemiology, genetics and biology of T. cati remain poorly understand in China. In the present study, genetic variation in mitochondrial (mt) cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of rDNA region among T. cati in Guangdong province, subtropical China was examined. A portion of the cox1 (pcox1) and the complete ITS (ITS1 + 5.8S rDNA + ITS2) were amplified separately from individual worms by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and amplicons were then subjected to sequencing from both directions. The length of the sequences of pcox1, ITS-1, and ITS-2 were 308 bp, 462 bp, and 335 bp, respectively. The intra-specific sequence variations within T. cati were 0-3.6% for pcox1, 0-2.4% for ITS-1, and 0-2.7% for ITS-2. However, the inter-specific sequence differences were significantly higher, being 8.6%, 10.7%, and 11.3% for pcox1, ITS-1, and ITS-2, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses based on the pcox1 sequences indicated that all the isolates in Guangdong province were in genus Toxocara, which confirmed that these parasites represent T. cati. The molecular approach employed provides a powerful tool for elucidating the epidemiology, genetics, and biology of zoonotic T. cati in China and elsewhere.


Assuntos
Genes Mitocondriais , Variação Genética , Filogenia , Toxocara/genética , Animais , China , DNA de Helmintos , DNA Mitocondrial , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Toxocara/metabolismo
7.
Korean J Parasitol ; 56(6): 567-575, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30630277

RESUMO

Present study was performed to describe the morphological and molecular characterization of Toxocara tanuki (Nematoda: Ascaridae) from Korean raccoon dog, Nyctereutes procyonoides koreensis, naturally infected in the Republic of Korea (Korea). Juvenile and adult worms of T. tanuki were recovered in 5 out of 10 raccoon dogs examined and the larval worms were detected in 15 out of 20 muscle samples (75%). Small lateral alae were observed on the cranial end of the body in male and female adults and 2 long spicules (3.0-3.5 mm) were characteristically observed in the posterior end of males. In SEM observation, 18 pairs of proximal precloacal, a precloacal median, a postcloacal median and 5 pairs of postcloacal papillae were uniquely revealed in the posterior portion of males, but the proximal papillae were not shown in the lateral ends of females. Molecular analysis on the 18S rRNA partial DNA sequences was revealed the same finding in both samples, adult worms and muscle larvae, which are closely related to T. tanuki. In conclusion, it was confirmed for the first time that T. tanuki is indigenously distributed, the Korean raccoon dog is acted as the natural definitive host of this nematode in Korea and the morphological characteristics of T. tanuki were shown in specific structure for single postcloacal median papilla in male.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais/parasitologia , Cães Guaxinins , Toxocara/citologia , Toxocara/genética , Toxocaríase/parasitologia , Animais , Análise por Conglomerados , DNA de Helmintos/química , DNA de Helmintos/genética , DNA Ribossômico/química , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Feminino , Masculino , Microscopia , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Músculos/parasitologia , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , República da Coreia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Toxocara/isolamento & purificação
8.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 14: 176-180, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31014725

RESUMO

Chandigarh, a city in North-west India, has numerous parks and recreational areas where stray dogs roam freely and pet dogs are exercised. This allows for extensive human-dog interaction, which may pose a public health threat. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of gastrointestinal parasites of public health importance, and their seasonal variation, in canine faecal samples obtained from recreational parks in Chandigarh. A total of 212 samples were collected from 10 parks during the winter (January 2015; N = 107) and monsoon season (September 2015; N = 105), to assess the prevalence of intestinal zoonotic parasites and any seasonal variations. The samples were analysed for helminth eggs using McMaster counting chambers. Immunofluorescent antibody testing was used to analyse samples for Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts. The Giardia-positive samples were genotyped by conventional multi-locus PCR to determine their assemblage and zoonotic potential. Among the 212 samples, strongyle-type eggs were found in 34 (16.0%), Toxocara spp. eggs were found in 6 (2.8%), taeniid eggs in 1 (0.5%), Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in 4 (1.9%) and Giardia duodenalis cysts in 49 (23.1%). Trichuris eggs were not detected. The majority of the successfully amplified Giardia isolates belonged to canid-specific assemblages. The prevalence of Giardia cysts in faecal samples was significantly higher during winter than in the monsoon season, whereas helminth-egg prevalence unaffected by season. The prevalence of strongyle-type eggs and Giardia cysts in dog faeces was lower in more affluent areas of the city than those of less affluence. There was no significant difference in the intensity of infection between the seasons. The results indicate that faeces from dogs contaminating parks in Chandigarh do not usually contain parasite transmission stages that pose a significant risk to human health. However, the importance of minimising contamination of public parks with dog faeces is highlighted.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Giardíase/veterinária , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Parques Recreativos , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Animais , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Cryptosporidium/isolamento & purificação , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Genótipo , Giardia/genética , Giardia/isolamento & purificação , Giardíase/epidemiologia , Helmintos/genética , Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Índia/epidemiologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Saúde Pública , Toxocara/genética , Toxocara/isolamento & purificação , Zoonoses/parasitologia
9.
Acta Parasitol ; 62(3): 549-556, 2017 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28682773

RESUMO

The definitive genetic identification of Toxocara species is currently based on PCR/sequencing. The objectives of the present study were to design and conduct an in silico polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method for identification of Toxocara species. In silico analyses using the DNASIS and NEBcutter softwares were performed with rDNA internal transcribed spacers, and mitochondrial cox1 and nad1 sequences obtained in our previous studies along with relevant sequences deposited in GenBank. Consequently, RFLP profiles were designed and all isolates of T. canis and T. cati collected from dogs and cats in different geographical areas of Iran were investigated with the RFLP method using some of the identified suitable enzymes. The findings of in silico analyses predicted that on the cox1 gene only the MboII enzyme is appropriate for PCR-RFLP to reliably distinguish the two species. No suitable enzyme for PCR-RFLP on the nad1 gene was identified that yields the same pattern for all isolates of a species. DNASIS software showed that there are 241 suitable restriction enzymes for the differentiation of T. canis from T. cati based on ITS sequences. RsaI, MvaI and SalI enzymes were selected to evaluate the reliability of the in silico PCR-RFLP. The sizes of restriction fragments obtained by PCR-RFLP of all samples consistently matched the expected RFLP patterns. The ITS sequences are usually conserved and the PCR-RFLP approach targeting the ITS sequence is recommended for the molecular differentiation of Toxocara species and can provide a reliable tool for identification purposes particularly at the larval and egg stages.


Assuntos
Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Mitocôndrias/enzimologia , NADH Desidrogenase/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição , Toxocara/genética , Animais , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Mitocôndrias/genética , NADH Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Especificidade da Espécie , Toxocara/classificação
10.
Parasite ; 24: 29, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28748783

RESUMO

Echinococcus multilocularis, Toxoplasma gondii and Toxocara spp. are foodborne parasites whose eggs or oocysts are spread in the environment via canid or felid faeces. They can cause infections in humans following the raw consumption of contaminated fruit or vegetables. In this study, their occurrence was investigated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in 254 carnivore faeces deposited in 94 kitchen gardens of northeastern France that were sampled between two and six times from October 2011 to April 2013. Less than 25% of the sampled kitchen gardens contained more than 75% of the collected faeces. Of the 219 faeces that could be attributed to an emitter, cat accounted for 58%, fox for 32% and dog for 10%. Echinococcus multilocularis was detected in 35%, 11% and 7% of fox, dog and cat faeces, respectively, and Toxocara spp. in 33%, 12% and 5.5% of cat, fox and dog faeces, respectively. Toxoplasma gondii was detected in 2/125 cat faeces and 2/21 dog faeces. The 34 faeces that tested positive for E. multilocularis were found in only 19 out of the 94 sampled kitchen gardens, and the 40 faeces that tested positive for Toxocara spp. were found in 28 of them. Consequently, some kitchen gardens appeared particularly at risk of human exposure to foodborne parasites, including E. multilocularis responsible for alveolar echinococcosis (AE), which is a serious zoonosis. In endemic areas, kitchen garden owners should be informed about the zoonotic risk linked to carnivore faeces deposits and encouraged to set up preventive measures.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Equinococose Hepática/veterinária , Equinococose/veterinária , Echinococcus multilocularis/isolamento & purificação , Raposas/parasitologia , Animais , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Gatos , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Equinococose/epidemiologia , Equinococose/parasitologia , Equinococose Hepática/epidemiologia , Equinococose Hepática/parasitologia , Doenças Endêmicas/veterinária , Fezes/parasitologia , França/epidemiologia , Jardins , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Toxocara/genética , Toxocara/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação
11.
Parasite ; 24: 28, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28737135

RESUMO

Soil can be a source of human infection by many zoonotic helminth species including Echinococcus multilocularis and Toxocara spp. The prevention of alveolar echinococcosis could be greatly improved through the identification of at-risk areas. Yet very few data are available about the detection of E. multilocularis in soil, while more studies have been reported for Toxocara spp. Identification of soil contamination by E. multilocularis eggs requires the use of specific methods. This study describes the development of a method for the detection of E. multilocularis in soil samples with the concentration of eggs using a flotation/sieving method and detection by duplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Toxocara spp. egg detection was also undertaken due to the widespread presence of this parasite in soil, despite it being considered less pathogenic. Method sensitivity of 100% was reached for the detection of 10 E. multilocularis eggs spiked in 10 g of soil. Concerning Toxocara spp., method sensitivity was lower but assumed to be due to the reduced effectiveness of the DNA extraction protocol. The parasitological status for E. multilocularis and Toxocara spp. of 63 carnivore fecal samples collected in highly endemic rural areas of France and of soil samples collected under and near these fecal samples was compared. The contamination of soil samples collected under positive fecal samples for E. multilocularis (n = 3) or Toxocara spp. (n = 19) confirmed the transfer of eggs from the definitive host to the environment.


Assuntos
Carnívoros/parasitologia , Echinococcus multilocularis/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Solo/parasitologia , Toxocara/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Gatos , DNA de Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Cães , Equinococose/parasitologia , Equinococose/veterinária , Echinococcus multilocularis/genética , Fezes/parasitologia , Raposas , Óvulo , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Toxascaris/parasitologia , Toxocara/genética , Zoonoses/parasitologia
12.
Parasitol Res ; 116(3): 1085-1088, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28155105

RESUMO

Toxocara vitulorum is an ascarid that is frequently found in sub-tropical regions but little is known about infections in more temperate climates. In this study, we report the occurrence of this parasite in a beef cattle herd in eastern Germany. In June 2016, large (14-20 cm) cream-colored worms identified as adult T. vitulorum were observed in the feces of 2- to 3-month-old calves. Eggs of this parasite were subsequently detected in pooled fecal samples collected on all three farm sites. The morphological identification was supported by analysis of partial cytochrome c oxidase I and internal transcribed spacer 1 gene sequences. Clinical signs of toxocariasis, such as diarrhea and loss of body weight were not apparent.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Toxocara/fisiologia , Toxocaríase/parasitologia , Animais , Bovinos , Diarreia/parasitologia , Diarreia/veterinária , Fezes/parasitologia , Alemanha , Carne Vermelha , Toxocara/genética , Toxocara/isolamento & purificação
13.
Parasitol Res ; 116(3): 891-900, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28074315

RESUMO

A comparative study was carried out to evaluate the Strongyloides stercoralis infections in children and dogs inside and outside the segregated settlement in Medzev, Eastern Slovakia, and a survey of the soil within the settlement was included. Applying the Koga agar plate (KAP) culture method and microscopy examination of stool samples collected from 60 Roma and 21 nonRoma children, no larvae of S. stercoralis were detected but eggs of three nematodes (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and Enterobius vermicularis) and cysts of two protozoan endoparasites (Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp.) were often found. However, immunoenzymatic assay (ELISA) for the evidence of IgG antibodies against S. stercoralis showed 33.3% seroprevalence in Roma children and 23.8% prevalence in children from the majority population, attending the same school. Eosinophilia was regularly present in children with exclusive infection of S. stercoralis (eight cases) as well as in individuals suffering from mixed infections of S. stercoralis and some of the above listed parasites (16 cases); high eosinophil counts sometimes, but not always, occurred in parasitized children lacking S. stercoralis antibodies. A comparison of S. stercoralis in dogs from the settlement (40 dogs) and from a distant dog shelter (20 dogs) did not reveal remarkable differences: the direct microscopy of faecal samples revealed rhabditiform larvae in 13.3% of the dogs from the settlement (4/30) and in 10.0% of the dogs from the shelter (2/20). Out of blood samples collected from the second dog group, 55% of the dogs contained antibodies against S. stercoralis. In the soil collected from 14 various locations within the settlement, S. stercoralis larvae were observed in two samples (14.3%); however, 13 samples (92.9%) were positive for human or dog endoparasites of the genera Ancylostoma, Ascaris, Toxocara, Toxascaris, Trichuris, and Hymenolepis.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Solo/parasitologia , Strongyloides stercoralis/isolamento & purificação , Estrongiloidíase/parasitologia , Ágar , Ancylostoma/genética , Ancylostoma/isolamento & purificação , Ancylostoma/fisiologia , Animais , Ascaris , Ascaris lumbricoides/genética , Ascaris lumbricoides/isolamento & purificação , Ascaris lumbricoides/fisiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Coinfecção , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Cães , Enterobius , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Giardia lamblia/genética , Giardia lamblia/isolamento & purificação , Giardia lamblia/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Eslováquia/epidemiologia , Strongyloides stercoralis/classificação , Strongyloides stercoralis/genética , Estrongiloidíase/epidemiologia , Toxocara/genética , Toxocara/isolamento & purificação , Toxocara/fisiologia
14.
J Helminthol ; 91(5): 633-636, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27571878

RESUMO

Consuming raw and undercooked meat is known to enhance the risk of human toxocariasis because Toxocara species have a wide range of paratenic hosts, including chickens. The aim of this study was to identify species of Toxocara in naturally infected broiler chickens using molecular approaches. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was used for the differentiation of Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati larvae recovered from tissues and organs, and identified by microscopic observations. Thirty-three 35- to 47-day-old broiler chickens were used for examination of Toxocara larvae. The duodenum, liver, lungs, heart, kidneys, skeletal muscles and brain of each chicken were examined using the pepsin method, and DNA from each tissue was extracted as the template for PCR assay. The findings revealed that 5 of 33 (15.2%) broiler chickens were infected with Toxocara larvae. Larvae were recovered from the liver (n = 19), duodenum (n = 8), skeletal muscles (n = 8) and brain (n = 2) of broiler chickens naturally infected with Toxocara spp. The results showed that the frequencies of the species in the chickens were T. canis larvae (n = 5, 83.3%) and T. cati larvae (n = 1, 16.7%). Our data from the present study demonstrated the importance of broiler chickens as a paratenic host for the parasite's life cycle in the environment. The implementation of DNA amplification as a routine diagnostic technique is a specific and alternative method for identification of Toxocara larvae, and allowed the observation of specific species under field conditions within the locations where broiler chickens are typically raised and exposed to Toxocara spp. eggs or larvae.


Assuntos
Galinhas/parasitologia , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/diagnóstico , Toxocara/classificação , Toxocara/isolamento & purificação , Toxocaríase/diagnóstico , Estruturas Animais/parasitologia , Animais , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Toxocara/genética , Toxocaríase/parasitologia
15.
Korean J Parasitol ; 54(5): 645-652, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27853122

RESUMO

Toxocara vitulorum has been rarely reported in yaks at high altitudes and remote areas of Sichuan Province of Tibetan Plateau of China. The current study was designed to investigate the prevalence, associated risk factors, and phylogenetic characteristics of T. vitulorum in yak calves on the Qinghai Tibetan plateau. Fecal samples were collected from 891 yak calves and were examined for the presence of T. vitulorum eggs by the McMaster technique. A multivariable logistic regression model was employed to explore variables potentially associated with exposure to T. vitulorum infection. T. vitulorum specimens were collected from the feces of yaks in Hongyuan of Sichuan Province, China. DNA was extracted from ascaris. After PCR amplification, the sequencing of ND1 gene was carried out and phylogenetic analyses was performed by MEGA 6.0 software. The results showed that 64 (20.1%; 95% CI 15.8-24.9%), 75 (17.2; 13.8-21.1), 29 (40.9; 29.3-53.2), and 5 (7.6; 2.5-16.8) yak calves were detected out to excrete T. vitulorum eggs in yak calve feces in Qinghai, Tibet, Sichuan, and Gansu, respectively. The present study revealed that high infection and mortality by T. vitulorum is wildly spread on the Qinghai Tibetan plateau, China by fecal examination. Geographical origin, ages, and fecal consistencies are the risk factors associated with T. vitulorum prevalence by logistic regression analysis. Molecular detection and phylogenetic analysis of ND1 gene of T. vitulorum indicated that T. vitulorum in the yak calves on the Qinghai Tibetan plateau are homologous to preveiously studies reported.


Assuntos
Bovinos , Filogenia , Toxocara/classificação , Toxocara/isolamento & purificação , Toxocaríase/epidemiologia , Toxocaríase/parasitologia , Animais , Análise por Conglomerados , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Proteínas de Helminto/genética , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Homologia de Sequência , Tibet/epidemiologia , Toxocara/genética
16.
Vet Parasitol ; 226: 74-7, 2016 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27514888

RESUMO

The Siberian tiger is endangered and is listed by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature; the captive environment is utilized to maintain Siberian tiger numbers. Little information regarding the prevalence of parasites in Siberian tigers is available. A total of 277 fecal samples of Siberian tigers were analyzed in this study. The microscopic analysis indicated the presence of ascarid eggs of Toxascaris leonina and Toxocara cati. The ascarid infection rate was 67.5% in Siberian tigers. The internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS-1) phylogenetic analysis indicated that T. leonina belonged to Toxascaris and that Toxo. cati belonged to Toxocara. The infestation rate and intensity of T. leonina were higher than those of Toxo. cati. One-way analysis of variance showed that the presence of T. leonina was significantly associated with age (P<0.05). Temperature changes also influenced T. leonina and Toxo. cati infestation, and a rise in temperature caused an increase in the number of T. leonina and Toxo. cati eggs. This study provides a better understanding of ascarid infestation among the captive Siberian tigers and is helpful for the prevention of the spread of infectious parasitic diseases among other tigers in the zoo.


Assuntos
Animais de Zoológico/parasitologia , Tigres/parasitologia , Toxascaríase/veterinária , Toxocaríase/parasitologia , Distribuição por Idade , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Fezes/parasitologia , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas/veterinária , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Prevalência , Temperatura Ambiente , Toxascaríase/complicações , Toxascaríase/epidemiologia , Toxascaríase/parasitologia , Toxascaris/anatomia & histologia , Toxascaris/classificação , Toxascaris/genética , Toxocara/anatomia & histologia , Toxocara/classificação , Toxocara/genética , Toxocaríase/complicações , Toxocaríase/epidemiologia
17.
Parasitol Res ; 115(10): 3779-94, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27234034

RESUMO

Toxocara canis, Toxocara cati and Ascaris suum are worldwide-distributed zoonotic roundworms of dogs, cats and pigs, respectively. The epidemiology of these parasites in developed countries is largely unclear. Two countrywide cross-sectional serosurveys were therefore conducted in the Netherlands in 1995/1996 and 2006/2007 to investigate the prevalence, trends and risk factors for human Toxocara and Ascaris infections in the general population. The Netherlands is characterized by high pig production, freedom from stray dogs and virtual absence of autochthonous infections with the human-adapted roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides. Over the 10 years between the two serosurveys, Toxocara seroprevalence decreased significantly from 10.7 % (n = 1159) to 8.0 % (n = 3683), whereas Ascaris seroprevalence increased significantly from 30.4 % (n = 1159) to 41.6 % (n = 3675), possibly reflecting concomitant improvements in pet hygiene management and increased exposure to pig manure-contaminated soil. Increased anti-Toxocara IgGs were associated with increasing age, male gender, contact with soil, ownership of cats, cattle or pigs, hay fever, low education, high income and non-Western ethnic origin. Increased anti-Ascaris IgGs were associated with increasing age, owning pigs, low education, childhood geophagia and non-Dutch ethnic origin. Besides identifying specific groups at highest risk of Toxocara and Ascaris infections, our results suggest that these infections mainly occur through environmental, rather than foodborne, routes, with direct contact with soil or cat and pig ownership being potentially modifiable exposures.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/sangue , Ascaríase/parasitologia , Ascaris/isolamento & purificação , Toxocara/isolamento & purificação , Toxocaríase/parasitologia , Animais , Ascaríase/sangue , Ascaríase/epidemiologia , Ascaris/genética , Ascaris/fisiologia , Gatos , Bovinos , Estudos Transversais , Cães , Felis , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Esterco/parasitologia , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Solo/parasitologia , Sus scrofa , Suínos , Toxocara/genética , Toxocara/fisiologia , Toxocaríase/sangue , Toxocaríase/epidemiologia
18.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 82(10): 2950-2958, 2016 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26969697

RESUMO

Studying the environmental occurrence of parasites of concern for humans and animals based on coprosamples is an expanding field of work in epidemiology and the ecology of health. Detecting and quantifying Toxocara spp. and Echinococcus multilocularis, two predominant zoonotic helminths circulating in European carnivores, in feces may help to better target measures for prevention. A rapid, sensitive, and one-step quantitative PCR (qPCR) allowing detection of E. multilocularis and Toxocara spp. was developed in the present study, combined with a host fecal test based on the identification of three carnivores (red fox, dog, and cat) involved in the life cycles of these parasites. A total of 68 coprosamples were collected from identified specimens from Vulpes vulpes, Canis lupus familiaris, Canis lupus, Felis silvestris catus, Meles meles, Martes foina, and Martes martes With DNA coprosamples, real-time PCR was performed in duplex with a qPCR inhibitor control specifically designed for this study. All the coprosample host identifications were confirmed by qPCR combined with sequencing, and parasites were detected and confirmed (E. multilocularis in red foxes and Toxocara cati in cats; 16% of samples presented inhibition). By combining parasite detection and quantification, the host fecal test, and a new qPCR inhibitor control, we created a technique with a high sensitivity that may considerably improve environmental studies of pathogens.


Assuntos
Echinococcus multilocularis/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/parasitologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Toxocara/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Gatos , Cães , Echinococcus multilocularis/genética , Raposas , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Toxocara/genética
19.
Adv Parasitol ; 91: 87-110, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27015948

RESUMO

Parasitic worms, such as flatworms (platyhelminths) and roundworms (nematodes), cause substantial morbidity and mortality in animals and people globally. The ascaridoid nematode Toxocara canis is a zoonotic parasite of socioeconomic significance worldwide. In humans, this worm causes toxocariasis (disease) mainly in underprivileged communities in both the developed and developing worlds. While reasonably well studied from clinical and epidemiological perspectives, little is understood about the molecular biology of T. canis, its relationship with its hosts and the disease that it causes. However, a recent report of the draft genome and transcriptomes of T. canis should underpin many fundamental and applied research areas in the future. The present article gives a background on Toxocara and toxocariasis, a brief account of diagnostic approaches for specific identification and genetic analysis, and gives a perspective on the impact that the genome of T. canis and advanced molecular technologies could have on our understanding of the parasite and the diseases that it causes as well as the design of new and improved approaches for the diagnosis, treatment and control of toxocariasis.


Assuntos
Genoma Helmíntico/genética , Toxocara/genética , Toxocaríase/parasitologia , Transcriptoma/genética , Animais , Humanos , Toxocara canis/genética , Toxocaríase/diagnóstico , Toxocaríase/terapia
20.
Infect Genet Evol ; 37: 94-8, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26584512

RESUMO

Toxocara canis of canids is a parasitic nematode (ascaridoid) that infects humans and other hosts, causing different forms of toxocariasis. This species of Toxocara appears to be the most important cause of human disease, likely followed by Toxocara cati from felids. Although some studies from Malaysia and China have shown that cats can harbor another congener, T. malaysiensis, no information is available about this parasite for other countries. Moreover, the zoonotic potential of this parasite is unknown at this point. In the present study, we conducted the first investigation of domestic dogs and cats for Toxocara in Vietnam using molecular tools. Toxocara malaysiensis was identified as a common ascaridoid of domestic cats (in the absence of T. cati), and T. canis was commonly found in dogs. Together with findings from previous studies, the present results emphasize the need to explore the significance and zoonotic potential of T. malaysiensis in Vietnam and other countries where this parasite is endemic and prevalent in cats.


Assuntos
DNA de Helmintos/análise , Toxocara/classificação , Toxocara/isolamento & purificação , Toxocaríase/parasitologia , Animais , Gatos , Cães , Humanos , Filogenia , Toxocara/genética , Toxocaríase/transmissão , Vietnã , Zoonoses/parasitologia
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