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1.
Afr Health Sci ; 19(2): 1858-1865, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31656468

RESUMO

Background: A significant proportion of newborns in the developing countries are born with congenital anomalies. Objective: This study investigated congenital infections due to Rubella virus, Toxoplasma gondii, Treponema pallidum among presumed normal neonates from full term pregnant women in Mwanza, Tanzania. Methods: Sera from mothers were tested for Treponema pallidum and Toxoplasma gondii infection while newborns from mothers with acute infections were tested for T. pallidum and T. gondii, and all newborns were tested for Rubella IgM antibodies. Results: A total of 13/300 (4.3 %) mothers had T. pallidum antibodies with 3 of them having acute infection. Two (0.7 %) of the newborns from mothers with acute infection were confirmed to have congenital syphilis. Regarding toxoplasmosis, 92/300 (30.7 %) mothers were IgG seropositive and 7 had borderline positivity, with only 1/99 (1%) being IgM seropositive who delivered IgM seronegative neonate. Only 1/300 (0.3 %) newborn had rubella IgM antibodies indicating congenital rubella infection. Conclusion: Based on these results, it is estimated that in Mwanza city in every 100,000 live births about 300 and 600 newborns have congenital rubella and syphilis infections, respectively. Rubella virus and T. pallidum are likely to be among common causes of congenital infections in developing countries.


Assuntos
Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Vírus da Rubéola/imunologia , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/congênito , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/epidemiologia , Sífilis Congênita/epidemiologia , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Congênita/epidemiologia , Treponema pallidum/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Sangue Fetal/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/imunologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Prevalência , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/diagnóstico , Vírus da Rubéola/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Sífilis/complicações , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Sífilis Congênita/diagnóstico , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasmose/complicações , Toxoplasmose/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Congênita/diagnóstico , Treponema pallidum/isolamento & purificação , População Urbana
2.
Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo ; 61: e48, 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31531626

RESUMO

School-age children are a social group in which blood collection for laboratory testing can be perceived as an invasive procedure, with low acceptance and tolerance of stakeholders. This problem could be circumvented by replacing serum samples with saliva. For this purpose, and to make the collection of saliva samples playful and instructive for children, educational activities on hygiene and toxoplasmosis transmission and prevention were performed using toys and audiovisual tools. The target audience consisted of 7-10 year-old children from low-income families who attended public schools in the city of São Paulo. Saliva samples were used in a previously described in-house Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA) to detect anti- Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies and establish the immunological status of each of the participants. One year later, children's memory and fixation of concepts regarding hygiene habits, as well as transmission and prevention of toxoplasmosis were tested in the same schools, by means of a questionnaire application, using students who did not participate in the first intervention as controls. The prevalence of positive anti- T. gondii IgG among students was 50% (82/164). One year later, 45 children had more knowledge on toxoplasmosis (28/45 vs 29/147) and they drew the cat's involvement in the transmission of toxoplasmosis more often than controls (28/45 vs 29/147). Sorted according to the presence of specific IgG in saliva, recovered positive students presented worse memory of the above cited knowledge as did saliva-negative IgG students, but both groups had isolated higher frequency of fixed knowledge than non-intervened students. Our data show that there is a high prevalence of T. gondii infection in school-children from low-income areas; saliva is an alternative to blood for anti- T. gondii IgG detection; and a one-day educational intervention in school-children was effective in promoting knowledge fixation on hygiene and toxoplasmosis transmission and prevention after one year.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/análise , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Higiene , Imunoglobulina G/análise , Saliva/parasitologia , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Criança , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pobreza , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(3): 518-521, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482939

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to report an outbreak of human toxoplasmosis at a research institution in Londrina, Paraná, from December 2015 to February 2016. Blood samples from 26 symptomatic individuals were collected and the microparticle chemiluminescence immunoassay was performed to detect IgM, IgG and specific IgG avidity test in the official laboratory. A total of 20 people with symptoms and serology compatible with acute toxoplasmosis (IgM positive and IgG with low avidity) were selected as cases, while 45 asymptomatic employees working in the same teams and during the same shifts were selected as controls. All the participants of the investigation answered an epidemiological questionnaire. Three samples of water and one sludge from the institution's supply cisterns, 10 soil samples, 11 plant samples, three cat fecal samples and one domestic feline cadaver were collected for analysis of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for T. gondii. After analyzing the epidemiological data, the consumption of vegetables in the restaurant of the institution was the only variable associated with the occurrence of the disease. In laboratory results, all the samples showed negative results to PCR. The rapid recognition of the outbreak, early notification and investigation could have broken the chain of transmission early, thus preventing the emergence of new cases. In addition, the adoption of good food handling practices could have prevented the occurrence of the outbreak.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Surtos de Doenças , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Gatos , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoensaio , Luminescência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
4.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(3): 383-394, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390432

RESUMO

This study evaluated the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Leptospira spp. in dogs from Foz do Iguaçu, Paraná, Brazil. Indirect immunofluorescent antibody test was used to detect antibodies anti-T.gondii and anti-N. caninum. Immunoenzymatic assay and microscopic serum agglutination were used for screening antibodies anti-T.gondii and anti-Leptospira spp., respectively. The results were: 67.02% of the samples reactive for T.gondii and 1.38% for N. caninum, both without statistically significant variables. For Leptospira spp. the results indicated seroprevalence of 23.11%. The analysis of the variables without distinction of serovar showed association for intrinsic characteristics as breed, age, nutritional status and dog category. The extrinsic variables as city region and access to the street presented association (p<0.05). The most prevalent serovars were: Canicola 59.47%; Bratislava 13.07% and Butembo 15.68%. Variables that make up the adjusted multiple analysis model using Leptospira spp. were: age, breed and nutritional status; serovar Canicola, sex, nutritional status and area (p<0.05); serovar Bratislava, lymphadenomegaly and presence of fleas (p<0.05). Given the results obtained, dogs can be used as sentinels for toxoplasmosis and leptospirosis in Foz do Iguaçu and other cities with similar outcomes. In addition, preventive measures should be taken by health authorities because they are zoonoses and humans are also at risk.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/veterinária , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Brasil/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/diagnóstico , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Cães , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo , Leptospira/imunologia , Leptospirose/diagnóstico , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Neospora/imunologia , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/diagnóstico
5.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(3): 403-409, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390435

RESUMO

To estimate the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum, using an indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA), and identify the risk factors associated, serum samples were collected from 1,070 pigs from 320 backyard pig farming in the of Mato Grosso state. The animal-level seroprevalence of T. gondii and N. caninum was 32.48% and 13.49%, respectively, with a herd seroprevalence of 55.63% for T. gondii and 27.81% for N. caninum. Feeding the animals with leftovers increases the probability of the presence of anti-T. gondii antibodies in pigs by 1.09-fold. Unlike to T. gondii, feeding with leftovers was found to be negatively associated with N. caninum seropositivity in farm-level analysis and in the animal-level model, so decreasing the chances of positivity. Yet, age was considered a risk factor for N. caninum seropositivity. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the impact of T. gondii infection on backyard pig farming production, and its importance as a source of toxoplasmosis infection in humans in the Mato Grosso state, as well as, the role of domestic pigs in the epidemiology of neosporosis.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Coccidiose/veterinária , Neospora/imunologia , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Suínos/parasitologia , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/diagnóstico , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Feminino , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Doenças dos Suínos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/diagnóstico
6.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(3): 395-402, 2019 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411314

RESUMO

Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii. In cetaceans, T. gondii infection is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Despite the worldwide range and broad cetacean host record of T. gondii infection, there is limited information on toxoplasmosis in cetaceans from the Southern hemisphere. We investigated the occurrence of T. gondii by histopathology and immunohistochemistry in tissue samples of 185 animals comprising 20 different cetacean species from Brazil. Three out of 185 (1.6%) animals presented T. gondii-associated lesions: a captive killer whale Orcinus orca, a free-ranging common bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus and a free-ranging Guiana dolphin Sotalia guianensis. The main lesions observed in these animals were necrotizing hepatitis, adrenalitis and lymphadenitis associated with protozoal cysts or extracellular tachyzoites presenting immunolabeling with anti-T. gondii antibodies. This study widens the spectrum of species and the geographic range of this agent in Brazil, and provides the first reports of T. gondii infection in a captive killer whale and in a free-ranging common bottlenose dolphin in South America.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Cetáceos/parasitologia , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cetáceos/classificação , Imuno-Histoquímica , Toxoplasmose Animal/diagnóstico , Toxoplasmose Animal/patologia
7.
Exp Parasitol ; 205: 107733, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408623

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii is a ubiquitous protozoan of major medical and veterinary importance. Its treatment is difficult since the available drugs have severe side effects and reactivation may occur anytime. Vaccination with irradiated parasites exhibits ideal characteristics for vaccine development. In our experimental mice model, the protection against challenge with the virulent RH strain was assessed, using 255Gy irradiated tachyzoites. Eighty mice were allocated into 3 groups: naive control group, challenged with virulent RH tachyzoites group and a third group which is challenged with 1 × 106 irradiated tachyzoites, administered as two biweekly doses intraperitoneally. Protection was tested by challenging vaccinated mice with the virulent type RH tachyzoites 30 days after the 2nd vaccination dose. The assessment was built on qualitative clinical, quantitative parasitological, histopathological parameters and measurement of serum Nitric Oxide (NO). The results showed prolonged survival rate, absence of tachyzoites in the peritoneal aspirate by counting, absence of tachyzoites in all examined organs by impression smears, amelioration of histopathological changes in the liver, spleen, brain and lung specimens and increase of the serum NO level in the vaccinated group. Therefore, we propose that irradiated Toxoplasma tachyzoites confer protection for challenged mice and could be an alternative immunization schedule for vaccine development especially for who are at risk of severe immunosuppression.


Assuntos
Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasma/efeitos da radiação , Toxoplasmose Animal/prevenção & controle , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia , Vacinação/métodos , Animais , Líquido Ascítico/parasitologia , Encéfalo/parasitologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Colorimetria , Feminino , Raios gama , Fígado/parasitologia , Fígado/patologia , Pulmão/parasitologia , Pulmão/patologia , Camundongos , Óxido Nítrico/análise , Baço/parasitologia , Baço/patologia , Taxa de Sobrevida , Toxoplasmose Animal/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/mortalidade
8.
Asia Pac J Ophthalmol (Phila) ; 8(4): 280-284, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31369405

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to provide a retrospective analysis of the presentation, demographics, and treatment regimens for ocular toxoplasmosis at a large tertiary referral uveitis center. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 48 patients with ocular toxoplasmosis who presented to Sydney Eye Hospital participated in this study. METHODS: This is a retrospective review of patient files who presented to Sydney Eye Hospital between 2007 and 2016 with clinical features consistent with ocular toxoplasmosis. Baseline risk factors and treatment details were recorded and analyzed. Main outcome measures were visual acuity and relapse rate compared with other studies in ocular toxoplasmosis. RESULTS: The median age was 35.5 (interquartile range 21-50) with 30 (60%) patients having no previous symptomatic episodes or evidence of chorioretinal scarring. Visual acuity at presentation was 0.51 or 6/19 (SE 0.096) and at follow-up 0.31 or 6/12 (SE 0.094). Nine patients experienced a recurrence during the period of observation with median time to recurrence 2.2 years (SE 0.45) and the relapse rate was 0.09/person-years. Location of lesion was predominantly within the vascular arcades (n = 44) with macular involvement in 9 patients. Most patients received clindamycin therapy (n = 34) with pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine was used for those with macula involvement. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with ocular toxoplasmosis had fewer recurrences compared with other published series and had better visual recovery. The majority of patients received clindamycin and oral prednisolone which were well tolerated with pyrimethazine and sulfadiazine reserved for those with macula-involving disease.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/administração & dosagem , Infecções Oculares Parasitárias/diagnóstico , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Toxoplasmose Ocular/diagnóstico , Acuidade Visual , Administração Oral , Adulto , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/análise , Austrália/epidemiologia , DNA de Protozoário/análise , Quimioterapia Combinada , Infecções Oculares Parasitárias/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Oculares Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Feminino , Angiofluoresceinografia/métodos , Seguimentos , Fundo de Olho , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasmose Ocular/tratamento farmacológico , Toxoplasmose Ocular/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Exp Parasitol ; 204: 107722, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279928

RESUMO

In the present study, we attempted to identify antigens with high sensitivity and specificity for the serological diagnosis of human toxoplasmosis. We investigated soluble proteins from the tachyzoites of the RH strain of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) and excreted/secreted antigens (ESAs) from the peritoneal protein of T. gondii-infected mice. One-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and western blot analysis revealed that in both soluble tachyzoite antigens and ESAs, the antigens located between 25 and 35 kDa had high diagnostic sensitivity. Further analysis of antigenic specificity revealed that the antigens located between 25 and 35 kDa were specifically recognized by the sera of toxoplasmosis patients, but other parasitic diseases were not. The protein spots between 25 and 35 kDa were selected after two-dimensional electrophoresis of both soluble tachyzoite antigens and ESAs. GRA2, GRA7, and triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) were successfully characterized from the protein spots using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectroscopy analysis. We expressed, purified, and evaluated proteins GRA2, GRA7, and TPI. TPI is a novel antigen with potential for the serological diagnosis of toxoplasmosis, and composite recombinant proteins (TPI, GRA2, and GRA7) have great sera diagnostic value for the detection of the disorder.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Antígenos de Protozoários/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose/diagnóstico , Animais , Western Blotting , DNA Complementar/biossíntese , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Focalização Isoelétrica , Espectrometria de Massas , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Proteínas de Protozoários/imunologia , RNA de Protozoário/genética , RNA de Protozoário/isolamento & purificação , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Toxoplasmose/sangue , Toxoplasmose/imunologia , Triose-Fosfato Isomerase/imunologia , Eletroforese em Gel Diferencial Bidimensional
10.
Exp Parasitol ; 204: 107723, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299265

RESUMO

Toxoplasmosis, caused by apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, is a common food-borne disease in humans. Undercooked meat is a potential source of T. gondii infection. As meat of chicken or rabbit is consumed worldwide, tools such as ELISA for the detection of infection of this parasite in rabbits and chickens are much-needed. To search diagnostic antigens of T. gondii special for rabbits and chickens, we conducted two dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), Western blotting and mass spectrometry (MS) with T. gondii tachyzoite proteins. When probed with rabbit or chicken anti-T. gondii sera, about 60 positive spots among over 500 visible protein spots were detected. In subsequent mass spectrometric analysis, microneme 4 (MIC4) and a putative rhoptry protein are of diagnositic value among the 13 spots selectively picked from the equivalent gel. This study encourages further validation of these candidate antigens for the development of immunologic tools for the detection of T. gondii infection in chickens and rabbits.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Protozoários/análise , Parasitologia de Alimentos , Carne/parasitologia , Proteínas de Protozoários/imunologia , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/diagnóstico , Animais , Western Blotting , Galinhas , Biologia Computacional , Soros Imunes/imunologia , Immunoblotting , Proteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Distribuição Normal , Coelhos , Testes Sorológicos , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Toxoplasmose Animal/imunologia , Eletroforese em Gel Diferencial Bidimensional
11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 581, 2019 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31272401

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Toxoplasmosis is caused by an obligatory intracellular coccidian protozoan organism, Toxoplasma gondii. It has a worldwide distribution, affecting one-third of the world population. Psychiatric patients have a higher risk of exposure to Toxoplasma gondii infection due to lack of good personal hygiene. The burden of toxoplasmosis among psychiatric patients in Ethiopia has not been studied extensively. Thus, the study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and associated risk factors among psychiatric outpatients at the University of Gondar Comprehensive and Specialized Hospital Psychiatric clinic. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the University of Gondar Comprehensive and Specialized Hospital from February to May 2018. Venous blood was collected from 304 study participants (152 psychiatric outpatients and 152 control groups). Anti-toxoplasma antibodies were determined using Onsite Toxo immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) Rapid Test. A Chi-square test was carried out to compare the two groups and a logistic regression analysis was conducted to check the association between variables. P-value less than 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. RESULTS: The seroprevalence rate of anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies was 33.6, and 16.4% in the psychiatric outpatients and the control samples, respectively. Anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgM sero-prevalence was 1.3% in the former patients and 3.9% in the latter group. Owing cat (AOR = 2.862 95% CI = 1.445-5.666 P = 0.003), cleaning cat excreta (AOR = 2.966 95% CI = 1.317-2.652 P = 0.007), and farming (AOR = 2.058 95% CI = 1.018-4.163 P = 0.045) were found to be significantly associated with the sero-prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibody. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlighted that, the prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies was significantly higher in psychiatric outpatients than the control group (p = 0.001). Cat ownership, cleaning of cat excreta, and farming were found to be statistically significantly associated with the seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibody.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose/parasitologia , Adulto , Animais , Gatos , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Fazendas , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Masculino , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Immunoassay Immunochem ; 40(5): 495-501, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31317821

RESUMO

Toxoplasmosis, caused by T. gondii, is an important zoonosis worldwide. In Ghana, information on the disease in humans abounds but scanty in animals. This study was therefore conducted to estimate the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection sheep and goats sampled from the Kumasi Abattoir in Ashanti Region, Ghana. A total of 347 serum samples collected from 170 sheep and 177 goats were analyzed for the presence of T. gondii antibodies using a commercial ELISA kit. Results of this study estimated the seroprevalence of 23.7% in goats an, 35.9% in sheep. In sheep, 24 (35.82%) out of a total of 67 male samples were positive and 37 (35.92%) out of a total of 104 female samples were positive while in goats, 6 (8.2%) bucks out of a total of 73 were positive while 36 (34.6%) does out of a total of 104 were positive. There was a significant difference in the rate of seropositivity of female goats (p-value 0.01). This study confirms the existence of T. gondii infection in small ruminants in Ghana and it showed that sheep and dogs are more at risk to T. gondii infection hence meat from such animals could be a potential risk to public health if consumed raw or undercooked.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/imunologia , Cabras/imunologia , Cabras/parasitologia , Ovinos/imunologia , Ovinos/parasitologia , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Gana , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
13.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(2): 221-228, 2019 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271639

RESUMO

Geese, ducks, mallards, and swans are birds of the order Anseriformes, which are found in the wild, in zoos and parks, and raised for meat consumption. Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis sp., and Neospora caninum are protozoans of several species of animals. Wild and domestic birds can serve as intermediate hosts, disseminators and potential sources of infection of these protozoa to humans through contaminated meat. The aims of this study were: (i) to perform a serological survey of T. gondii, Sarcocystis sp. and N. caninum in geese (Anser sp.) from public parks and from captivity and (ii) to compare seroprevalence between these two locations. Antibodies were detected by Immunofluorescence antibody test using the serum of 149 geese. Antibodies to Sarcocystis sp., T. gondii, and N. caninum were detected in 28.18%, 18% and 0.67% of geese, respectively; 57% of geese from urban parks and 26.53% of geese from captivity were seropositive for at least one protozoa. The results indicate environmental contamination, particularly for the occurrence of antibodies against T. gondii - a zoonosis that causes toxoplasmosis and is transmitted through oocyte ingestion. This is the first serological survey of T. gondii, Sarcocystis sp. and N. caninum in geese from urban parks in Curitiba, Brazil.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Gansos/parasitologia , Neospora/imunologia , Sarcocystis/imunologia , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Imunofluorescência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , População Urbana
14.
Korean J Parasitol ; 57(3): 303-308, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284355

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii is an apicomplexan parasite that can cause toxoplasmosis in a wide range of warm-blooded animals including humans. In this study, we analyzed seroprevalence of T. gondii among 467 school children living in the rural areas of Pyin Oo Lwin and Naung Cho, Myanmar. The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii among school children was 23.5%; 22.5% of children were positive for T. gondii IgG, 0.4% of children were positive for T. gondii IgM, and 0.6% of children were positive for both T. gondii IgG and IgM. Geographical factors did not significantly affect the seroprevalence frequency between Pyin Oo Lwin and Naung Cho, Myanmar. No significant difference was found between males (22.2%) and females (25.0%). The overall seroprevalence among school children differed by ages (10 years old [13.6%], 11-12 years old [19.8%], 13-14 years old [24.6%], and 15-16 years old [28.0%]), however, the result was not significant. Polymerase chain reaction analysis for T. gondii B1 gene for IgG-positive and IgM-positive blood samples were negative, indicating no direct evidence of active infection. These results collectively suggest that T. gondii infection among school children in Myanmar was relatively high. Integrated and improved strategies including reinforced education on toxoplasmosis should be implemented to prevent and control T. gondii infection among school children in Myanmar.


Assuntos
Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasmose/sangue , Toxoplasmose/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Masculino , Mianmar/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose/parasitologia
15.
Vet Parasitol ; 271: 51-53, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303203

RESUMO

The consumption of undercooked infected chicken can be a source of infection for humans and carnivores regarding the zoonotic protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Furthermore, free-range chickens are sentinels for the presence of T. gondii oocysts in the environment because they feed from the ground. By using the modified agglutination test (MAT), we investigated the presence of antibodies to T. gondii in 178 free-range and 170 broiler chickens raised indoors and slaughtered in Portugal. Prevalence of specific antibodies was 5.6% in free-range and 0.0% in broiler chickens raised indoors (p =  0.002).


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Galinhas , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/sangue , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
16.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(2): 245-257, 2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215610

RESUMO

This is a cross-sectional study to assess the presence of antibodies in ruminants against selected pathogens associated with reproductive disorders in cattle in four Brazilian states, including the zoonotic agent Coxiella burnetii. The used tests were Virus Neutralization Assay for IBR and BVD, Microscopic Agglutination Test for Leptospira spp., Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test (IFAT) for C. burnetii and Toxoplasma gondii, and Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Neospora caninum and Trypanosoma vivax. Seropositivity for C. burnetii was 13.7% with titers from 128 to 131,072; 57.8% for BoHV-1, with titers between 2 and 1,024; 47.1% for BVDV-1a, with titers from 10 to 5,120; 89.2% for N. caninum; 50% for T. vivax; and 52.0% for Leptospira spp., with titers between 100 to 800 (the following serovars were found: Tarassovi, Grippotyphosa, Canicola, Copenhageni, Wolffi, Hardjo, Pomona and Icterohaemorrhagiae); 19.6% for T. gondii with titer of 40. This is the first study that has identified C. burnetii in cattle associated with BoHV and BVDV, N. caninum, Leptospira spp., T. gondii and T. vivax. Thus, future studies should be conducted to investigate how widespread this pathogen is in Brazilian cattle herds.


Assuntos
Doença das Mucosas por Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina/complicações , Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Leptospirose/veterinária , Febre Q/veterinária , Toxoplasmose Animal/complicações , Tripanossomíase Africana/veterinária , Aborto Animal , Testes de Aglutinação , Animais , Doença das Mucosas por Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina/diagnóstico , Doença das Mucosas por Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/virologia , Coccidiose/complicações , Coccidiose/diagnóstico , Coccidiose/epidemiologia , Coxiella burnetii/imunologia , Estudos Transversais , Vírus da Diarreia Viral Bovina/imunologia , Endometrite/etiologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Feminino , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo/veterinária , Infertilidade Feminina/etiologia , Leptospira/imunologia , Leptospirose/complicações , Leptospirose/diagnóstico , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Neospora/imunologia , Febre Q/complicações , Febre Q/diagnóstico , Febre Q/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/diagnóstico , Trypanosoma vivax/imunologia , Tripanossomíase Africana/complicações , Tripanossomíase Africana/diagnóstico , Tripanossomíase Africana/epidemiologia
17.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(2): 283-290, 2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215612

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii in naturally infected equids in northeastern Brazil. Serum samples from 569 equids (528 horses, 8 mules and 33 donkeys) were subjected to the indirect fluorescent antibody test. Generalized linear models were used to evaluate associated factors. Among the 569 animals sampled, 118 (30.6%) living in rural areas and 14 (26.42%) in urban areas were seropositive (p>0.05). Seropositive animals were observed on 95% of the farms and in all the municipalities. Donkeys/mules as the host, presence of domestic cats and rats on the farm, ingestion of lagoon water and goat rearing remained in the final model as factors associated with infection. Preventive measures such as avoiding the presence of domestic cats close to rearing areas, pastures and sources of water for the animals should be adopted. The wide-ranging distribution of positive animals also indicated that infection in other domestic animals and in humans, through the contaminated environment, was possible. It should be highlighted that there was the possibility that donkeys and mules would continue to have detectable titers for longer, thus explaining the prevalence found. Further studies are needed to confirm this possibility.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Equidae/parasitologia , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Equidae/classificação , Feminino , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo/veterinária , Gravidez , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasmose Animal/diagnóstico
18.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(3): 508-513, 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31188949

RESUMO

Toxoplasmosis is an important zoonosis for pregnant women and immunosuppressed people. The pig population also becomes infected by this pathogen, and undercooked or raw meat is an important source of infection for humans. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the rate of exposure of pigs to T. gondii in the municipality of Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte and seek to identify associations with possible risk factors. Blood samples were collected from 412 pigs and were analyzed using the immunofluorescence assay. Among these 412 serum samples, 40.7% were seropositive for T. gondii. The IgG antibody titers were 64 (56 specimens), 128 (32), 256 (37), 512 (23), 1024 (14), 2048 (5) and 4046 (1). Seropositivity for T. gondii was found to be related (p-value < 0.05) to the following factors: female gender, semi-confined rearing system, use of well water, dewormed animals, presence of cats, goats, sheep, mice and vultures on the farm and carcasses left on the ground. In contrast, seropositivity was not related (p-value < 0.05) to the age of the pigs, type of facility or feeding with human food remains. Preventive measures need to be adopted on the farms studied here, with the aim of decreasing the animals' intake of sporulated oocysts.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Suínos/parasitologia , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Técnica Indireta de Fluorescência para Anticorpo/veterinária , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
19.
Parasitol Res ; 118(7): 2065-2077, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31187222

RESUMO

This study tested for association between Toxoplasma gondii and pregnancy and abortion to investigate sub-optimal reproduction in farmed red deer (Cervus elaphus). Sera from a sub-sample (n = 2304) of pregnant and non-pregnant hinds in early gestation at first pregnancy scan (scan 1) and approximately at the end of second trimester at second pregnancy scan (scan 2) were tested for T. gondii antibodies using a validated ELISA. Foetuses and/or uteri from pregnant, non-pregnant, and aborting hinds at scan 1, scan 2, or weaning were tested for T. gondii DNA by nested PCR. At scan 1, 31.1% of 861 rising two-year-old (R2) and 28.3% of 357 mixed-aged (MA, ≥ 2 years) hinds were sero-positive. There was no association between scan 1 serology and non-pregnancy at animal (R2, p = 0.05 and MA, p = 0.43) or herd level (R2, p = 0.37). Toxoplasma gondii DNA was detected in 3/18 placenta and 4/18 foetal brains from aborting R2 hinds and 15/157 R2 and 3/21 MA uteri from non-pregnant hinds at scan 1. At scan 2, sero-prevalence was higher (odds ratio = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.04-2.48) in aborted (34.3% of 268) than in non-aborted (23.5% of 446) R2 hinds (p = 0.03) and 7.9% of abortions between scans were attributable to T. gondii exposure. Within-herd sero-prevalence at scan 2 was positively associated with daily abortion rate in R2 herds with aborted hinds (p < 0.001) but not in MA herds (p = 0.07). Toxoplasma gondii DNA was detected in 27/169 uteri, 2/20 cotyledons, and 1/5 foetal brains from aborted hinds at scan 2 and in uteri from 5/33 hinds not rearing a calf to weaning. Toxoplasma gondii RFLP genotyping of five loci revealed a unique type I/III genotype pattern, TgRDNZ1, in a foetal brain sample, not been previously reported in deer. These findings provide serological and molecular evidence that T. gondii infection is associated with abortion in red deer, possibly in all three trimesters.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido/veterinária , Cervos/parasitologia , Reprodução , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Animais , DNA de Protozoário/análise , Fazendas , Feminino , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Placenta/parasitologia , Gravidez , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasmose Animal , Desmame
20.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 303, 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31202271

RESUMO

Parasites comprise diverse and complex organisms, which substantially impact human and animal health. Most parasites have complex life-cycles, and by virtue of co-evolution have developed multifaceted, often life-cycle stage-specific relationships with the immune system of their hosts. The complexity in the biology of many parasites often limits our knowledge of parasite-specific immune responses, to in vitro studies only. The relatively recent development of methods to stably manipulate the genetic make-up of many parasites has allowed a better understanding of host-parasite interactions, particularly in vivo. In this regard, the use of transgenic parasites can facilitate the study of immunomodulatory mechanisms under in vivo conditions. Therefore, in this review, we specifically highlighted the current developments in the use of transgenic parasites to unravel the host's immune response to different life-cycle stages of some key parasite species such as Leishmania, Schistosoma, Toxoplasma, Plasmodium and Trypanosome and to some degree, the use of transgenic nematode parasites is also briefly discussed.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Transferência de Genes , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/imunologia , Parasitos/genética , Parasitos/imunologia , Animais , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/genética , Humanos , Leishmania/genética , Leishmania/imunologia , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida/genética , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida/imunologia , Camundongos , Plasmodium/genética , Plasmodium/imunologia , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasma/imunologia
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