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1.
J Nerv Ment Dis ; 208(2): 118-126, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31985560

RESUMO

This study investigated the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in a cohort of 101 Italian inpatients affected by mood or schizophrenia-spectrum disorders and compared clinical features between seronegative and seropositive subjects. Patients diagnosed according to DSM-5 criteria underwent clinical assessments and blood collection to test parasite-specific IgG/IgM serum levels. Twenty-eight patients (27.7%) had IgG anti-T. gondii, and none had IgM antibodies. We found higher prevalence rate in patients aged 40 years or older, as compared with younger. No significant association was detected between T. gondii and a specific diagnostic category; however, bipolar disorder (BD)-II showed the highest positivity rate (40.9%). The seropositive status was significantly associated with a lower presence of psychotic symptoms, higher number of total episodes of predominant excitatory polarity, longer illness duration, and lower severity of current episode, particularly anxiety, depressive, and withdrawal/retardation symptoms. These preliminary results seem to point out an association between chronic toxoplasmosis and a specific subtype of BD.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/diagnóstico , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Toxoplasmose/diagnóstico , Toxoplasmose/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Transtorno Bipolar/epidemiologia , Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Doença Crônica , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Correlação de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasmose/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 52: e20190250, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800920

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Toxoplasmosis is an asymptomatic disease that can lead to systemic disease in the fetus of pregnant women with primary infection. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of toxoplasmosis, associated factors, and correlation between the serology of pregnant women and their pets, in the municipality of Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 196 pregnant women and their cats or dogs (n=89). Semi-structured interviews were conducted and serum samples from the pregnant women were tested to detect IgM and IgG antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii, and avidity tests were performed for IgM-positive samples. The serum collected from pets were tested for IgG antibodies, and IgM antibodies in cats. A non-conditional logistic regression analysis was performed to identify infection-associated factors. RESULTS: IgG and IgM antibodies were detected in 67.9% (133/196) and 1.5% (3/196) samples, respectively, for women with an avidity of over 60%. Age ≥ 25 and the presence of cats in the vicinity were found to be associated with infection, while the level of education and previous orientation toward prevention of toxoplasmosis were protective factors in pregnant women. IgG antibodies were detected in 46.1% (41/89) of the animals, and cats were found to be negative for IgM. For the animals, age ≥ 1 year was a factor associated with infection. There was no correlation between serology of the pregnant women and the animals (p=0.15). CONCLUSIONS: An elevated prevalence of toxoplasmosis was detected in the region. Therefore, the adoption of preventive measures by public healthcare bodies is recommended.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose/epidemiologia , Adulto , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Gatos , Estudos Transversais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Gravidez , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/etiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Toxoplasmose/diagnóstico , Toxoplasmose/etiologia
3.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 53: e20190282, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859952

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Despite the success of antiretrovirals, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfections continue to cause mortality. We investigated the prevalence of coinfections in women with HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in Sergipe, Brazil. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study. The coinfections investigated were syphilis, hepatitis B and C, toxoplasmosis, rubella, tuberculosis, and cytomegalovirus. RESULTS: Among the 435 women, 85 (19.5%) had coinfections. The most prevalent was HIV/syphilis, followed by tuberculosis, toxoplasmosis, hepatitis C, hepatitis B, and rubella. Additionally, 300 (96.2%) were seropositive for cytomegalovirus immunoglobulin G. CONCLUSIONS: Despite significant progress in the treatment for people with HIV, coinfections continued to affect this population.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Coinfecção , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
4.
Afr Health Sci ; 19(2): 1858-1865, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31656468

RESUMO

Background: A significant proportion of newborns in the developing countries are born with congenital anomalies. Objective: This study investigated congenital infections due to Rubella virus, Toxoplasma gondii, Treponema pallidum among presumed normal neonates from full term pregnant women in Mwanza, Tanzania. Methods: Sera from mothers were tested for Treponema pallidum and Toxoplasma gondii infection while newborns from mothers with acute infections were tested for T. pallidum and T. gondii, and all newborns were tested for Rubella IgM antibodies. Results: A total of 13/300 (4.3 %) mothers had T. pallidum antibodies with 3 of them having acute infection. Two (0.7 %) of the newborns from mothers with acute infection were confirmed to have congenital syphilis. Regarding toxoplasmosis, 92/300 (30.7 %) mothers were IgG seropositive and 7 had borderline positivity, with only 1/99 (1%) being IgM seropositive who delivered IgM seronegative neonate. Only 1/300 (0.3 %) newborn had rubella IgM antibodies indicating congenital rubella infection. Conclusion: Based on these results, it is estimated that in Mwanza city in every 100,000 live births about 300 and 600 newborns have congenital rubella and syphilis infections, respectively. Rubella virus and T. pallidum are likely to be among common causes of congenital infections in developing countries.


Assuntos
Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Vírus da Rubéola/imunologia , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/congênito , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/epidemiologia , Sífilis Congênita/epidemiologia , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Congênita/epidemiologia , Treponema pallidum/imunologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Sangue Fetal/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/imunologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Prevalência , Rubéola (Sarampo Alemão)/diagnóstico , Vírus da Rubéola/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Sífilis/complicações , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Sífilis Congênita/diagnóstico , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasmose/complicações , Toxoplasmose/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose Congênita/diagnóstico , Treponema pallidum/isolamento & purificação , População Urbana
5.
Parasitol Res ; 118(12): 3449-3457, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31659453

RESUMO

We assessed the risk for toxoplasmosis in 10 school restaurants in Armenia (Quindio, Colombia). We analyzed the presence of Toxoplasma gondii DNA in the food, water, and living and inert surfaces of school restaurants, and we correlated these findings with the results of food safety inspection scores and with the prevalence of specific anti-T. gondii antibodies in children who ate at these restaurants. Of the 213 samples, 6.1% were positive using PCR to test for T. gondii DNA. Positive samples were found in meat, water, cucumber, guava juice, inert surfaces, and living surfaces. In 60% (6/10) of the public school restaurants, there was at least one PCR T. gondii-positive sample. In 311 serum samples from children who attended the restaurants, 101 (33%) were positive for IgG and 12 (3.9%) for IgM anti-T. gondii. The median of the compound score for the fulfillment of inspection for food safety conditions was of 60.7% (range 50-72). Higher T. gondii PCR positivity in surfaces, food, or water at each restaurant was correlated with lower inspection scores for water supply and water storage conditions. Lower scores in physical infrastructure and disinfection procedures and higher scores in furniture were correlated with a higher prevalence of IgG anti-T. gondii in children who ate at those restaurants. Inspection scores can identify restaurants with a higher risk for the presence of T. gondii.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Parasitologia de Alimentos , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasmose/epidemiologia , Animais , Anticorpos Anti-Idiotípicos/sangue , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Armênia/epidemiologia , Criança , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Carne/parasitologia , Prevalência , Restaurantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Toxoplasma/classificação , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasmose/sangue , Toxoplasmose/diagnóstico , Toxoplasmose/parasitologia
6.
Turkiye Parazitol Derg ; 43(Suppl 1): 1-7, 2019 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587535

RESUMO

Objective: Since symptomatic toxoplasmosis in in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) almost always occurs as a result of reactivation of chronic infection, screening Toxoplasma serology has an important role in the follow up of the main disease in these populations. In this meta-analysis, we aimed to reveal the difference in the seroprevalence rates of Toxoplasma gondii infection between groups in relation to CD4 counts (CD4-counts ≥200 and <200 cells/mm3) HIV-infected population. Methods: The meta-analysis was performed by searching for the studies in English that were published in the last 20-year period in databases including PubMed, Google Scholar, Embase, Science Direct and Web of Science. The process of searching was carried out using the keywords: "Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome", "AIDS", "Human immunodeficiency virus", "HIV", "Toxoplasma", "Toxoplasmosis", "Toxoplasma gondii", "seroprevalence", "prevalence" and "immunoglobulin G". Results: A total of 16 studies including 3982 seropositive samples of T. gondii, 2792 of which were in first group (HIV positive patients with CD4-counts ≥200 cells/mm3) and 1190 were in second group (HIV positive patients with CD4-counts <200 cells/mm3), were included in the meta-analysis. The seroprevalence of T. gondii was 40.03% in HIV-positive patients with CD4 counts ≥200 cells/mm3, and 43.5% in the group with CD4 counts <200 cells/mm3. Seroprevalence rates in the studies included in the meta-analysis showed variability (heterogeneity) in both groups and heterogeneity between studies was higher in group 1 [Group 1; Cochran Q=994.16, DF=15, I²=98.49%, p<0.0001 and group 2; Cochran Q=368.50, DF=15, I²=95.93%, p<0.0001]. Conclusion: We concluded that HIV/AIDS patients with low CD4 counts have higher epidemiological risk as well as immunological risk of toxoplasmosis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first meta-analysis evaluating the seroprevalence of T. gondii in AIDS/HIV population by comparing the seroprevalance of T. gondii in subgroups formed according to CD4 counts.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/complicações , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/imunologia , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasmose/complicações , Toxoplasmose/imunologia
7.
Turkiye Parazitol Derg ; 43(Suppl 1): 8-12, 2019 10 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587536

RESUMO

Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the distribution of anti-Toxoplasma gondii immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immünoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies in patients with suspected toxoplasmosis admitted to the Practice and Research Center of Health of the Medical Faculty of Uludag University. Methods: The blood samples examined for the presence of anti-T. gondii IgG antibody and anti-T. gondii IgM antibody by an enzyme linked fluorescent assay test, anti-T. gondii IgG avidity value was evaluated by VIDAS (BioMérieux, France) kit. Results: In our study, anti-T. gondii IgG seropositivity in 3311 (30.7%) of 10.603 cases and anti-T. gondii IgM seropositivity in 1423 (9.7%) of 14.618 cases were detected. Seropositivity of anti-T. gondii IgG was 37.5% in women of childbearing age group. The avidity value was high in 56.1% (n=156) and low in 28.9% (n=80) of childbearing age group women with positive anti-T. gondii IgG and anti-T. gondii IgM test. Conclusion: Especially in regions where seroprevalence is high, we think that pregnant women and women of childbearing age should be investigated in terms of T. gondii antibodies.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Afinidade de Anticorpos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Imunofluorescência , Hospitalização , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasmose/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 826, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533667

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between Toxoplasma gondii infection and thyroid disease has been poorly studied. Therefore, we sought to determine the association between T. gondii seropositivity and thyroid dysfunction. METHODS: We performed an age- and gender-matched case-control study of 176 patients suffering from hypothyroidism (n = 161) or hyperthyroidism (n = 15) and 528 control subjects without these diseases in a public hospital in Durango City, Mexico. Anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies were determined in sera from cases and controls using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunoassay. RESULTS: Anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies were found in 11 (6.3%) of 176 patients suffering from thyroid dysfunction and in 48 (9.1%) of 528 control subjects (OR = 0.66; 95% CI: 0.33-1.31; P = 0.23). Stratification by two groups of age (50 years and younger, and 51 year and older) showed that the youngest group of patients with thyroid dysfunction had a significantly lower seroprevalence of T. gondii infection than its age- and gender-matched control group (1/83: 1.2% vs 23/257: 8.6%; OR = 0.12; 95% CI: 0.01-0.93; P = 0.01). This stratification also showed that the youngest group of patients with hypothyroidism had a significantly lower seroprevalence of T. gondii infection than its age- and gender matched control group (0/75: 0% vs 21/233: 9.0%; P = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that thyroid dysfunction is not associated with seropositivity to T. gondii in general; however, in young (50 years or less) patients, a negative association between infection and thyroid dysfunction and hypothyroidism was found. Further research to confirm this negative association is needed.


Assuntos
Hipotireoidismo/diagnóstico , Toxoplasmose/diagnóstico , Adulto , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Hospitais Públicos , Humanos , Hipotireoidismo/complicações , Hipotireoidismo/epidemiologia , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasmose/complicações , Toxoplasmose/epidemiologia
9.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 28(3): 518-521, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482939

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to report an outbreak of human toxoplasmosis at a research institution in Londrina, Paraná, from December 2015 to February 2016. Blood samples from 26 symptomatic individuals were collected and the microparticle chemiluminescence immunoassay was performed to detect IgM, IgG and specific IgG avidity test in the official laboratory. A total of 20 people with symptoms and serology compatible with acute toxoplasmosis (IgM positive and IgG with low avidity) were selected as cases, while 45 asymptomatic employees working in the same teams and during the same shifts were selected as controls. All the participants of the investigation answered an epidemiological questionnaire. Three samples of water and one sludge from the institution's supply cisterns, 10 soil samples, 11 plant samples, three cat fecal samples and one domestic feline cadaver were collected for analysis of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for T. gondii. After analyzing the epidemiological data, the consumption of vegetables in the restaurant of the institution was the only variable associated with the occurrence of the disease. In laboratory results, all the samples showed negative results to PCR. The rapid recognition of the outbreak, early notification and investigation could have broken the chain of transmission early, thus preventing the emergence of new cases. In addition, the adoption of good food handling practices could have prevented the occurrence of the outbreak.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Surtos de Doenças , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Gatos , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoensaio , Luminescência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
10.
Turkiye Parazitol Derg ; 43(3): 106-110, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31502771

RESUMO

Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women who were admitted to our hospital in their first trimester and to contribute to screening and management strategies by evaluating clinical outcomes. Methods: In this retrospective study, women in their first trimester of pregnancy who were aged between 15-49 years, admitted to the Mersin University Medical Faculty Gynecology and Obstetrics outpatient clinic between 2012-2017, and screened for Toxoplasma gondii immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies were included. The data was obtained from the hospital's digital records. First, the high-risk patients were identified who had anti-T. gondii IgM seropositivity and subsequently underwent anti-T. gondii immunoglobulin G (IgG) and anti-T. gondii IgG avidity tests. Next, the invasive procedures and medical treatments performed for diagnosis and treatment, as well as the clinical course and results for each patient were evaluated. Cases were then analyzed according to the admittance year and patient's age. Results: Anti-T. gondii IgM positivity was found in 266 (7.66%) of 3474 pregnant women meeting the study's criteria. The frequency of the Toxoplasma IgM seropositivity was the highest in the 15-25 age group and this frequency decreased gradually as the age of the patients increased. Congenital toxoplasmosis was detected in 1 of 61 patients who had a positive polymerase chain reaction for T. gondii performed in the amniotic fluid. Conclusion: In our province, the prevalence of anti-T. gondii IgM was found to be 7.66% in pregnant women who were admitted to a tertiary health institution in their first trimester of pregnancy. This rate is much higher than the average in Turkey; therefore, we suggest that routine screening of pregnant women for T. gondii may be recommended in this region.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Afinidade de Anticorpos , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Técnicas Imunoenzimáticas , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Toxoplasmose Congênita/epidemiologia , Turquia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Bull Soc Pathol Exot ; 112(2): 79-89, 2019.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478622

RESUMO

To assess the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis among pregnant women in Benin, we conducted a meta-analysis using the PRISMA criteria. Al research published between 1990 and 2018 on toxoplasmosis among pregnant women Benin were eligible. A total of five databases were investigated, and the extracted data were subjected to a meta-analysis under R 3.1 using both random effect model and fixed effect model. The overall prevalence of toxoplasma-specific IgG among pregnant women was 47% (CI 95%: 40-53) and that of specific IgM was 2% (CI 95%: 1-3). The infection rate in urban areas (52%) was significantly higher than in rural areas (33%). The two main risk factors identified by the various eligible studies were the age of the pregnant women and the consumption of raw vegetables. We show that toxoplasmosis is endemic in pregnant women in Benin, implying that primary prevention measures must be put in place by the competent authorities to control this infection.


Assuntos
Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose/epidemiologia , Adulto , Benin/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Prevalência , Análise de Regressão , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Adulto Jovem
12.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 27: e3160, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Português, Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432916

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to analyze the trend and spatial distribution of some diseases that require compulsory notification in pregnant women. METHOD: ecological study, with data from the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System, of the incidence of the six most frequent diseases that, require compulsory notification, in pregnant women. The Prais-Winsten model was used to analyze the trend classified as stable, decreasing and increasing, according to macro-regions. For the spatial analysis, the incidences distributed in percentiles, in choropleth maps, by Health Regions were calculated. RESULTS: the most frequent infections were syphilis, dengue, Human Immunodeficiency Virus, influenza, hepatitis and toxoplasmosis. Incidence increased by 30.8%, 30.4%, 15.4% and 2.6%, on average, for syphilis, toxoplasmosis, dengue and Human Immunodeficiency Virus, respectively. On average, the incidence of syphilis increased by 40.5% in Macro-regional North and 38% in Macro-regional Northwest. The spatial analysis showed, in the last four years, high incidence of dengue, syphilis and infection by Human Immunodeficiency Virus, which reached 180.2, 141.7 and 100.8 cases per 10,000 live births, respectively. CONCLUSION: there were increased incidences of infection in pregnant women due to syphilis, toxoplasmosis and Human Immunodeficiency Virus, with differences in their spatial distribution, indicating that these diseases should be a priority in the care of pregnant women in more affected regions.


Assuntos
Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Dengue/epidemiologia , Notificação de Doenças , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hepatite/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Toxoplasmose/epidemiologia
13.
Korean J Parasitol ; 57(3): 303-308, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284355

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondii is an apicomplexan parasite that can cause toxoplasmosis in a wide range of warm-blooded animals including humans. In this study, we analyzed seroprevalence of T. gondii among 467 school children living in the rural areas of Pyin Oo Lwin and Naung Cho, Myanmar. The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii among school children was 23.5%; 22.5% of children were positive for T. gondii IgG, 0.4% of children were positive for T. gondii IgM, and 0.6% of children were positive for both T. gondii IgG and IgM. Geographical factors did not significantly affect the seroprevalence frequency between Pyin Oo Lwin and Naung Cho, Myanmar. No significant difference was found between males (22.2%) and females (25.0%). The overall seroprevalence among school children differed by ages (10 years old [13.6%], 11-12 years old [19.8%], 13-14 years old [24.6%], and 15-16 years old [28.0%]), however, the result was not significant. Polymerase chain reaction analysis for T. gondii B1 gene for IgG-positive and IgM-positive blood samples were negative, indicating no direct evidence of active infection. These results collectively suggest that T. gondii infection among school children in Myanmar was relatively high. Integrated and improved strategies including reinforced education on toxoplasmosis should be implemented to prevent and control T. gondii infection among school children in Myanmar.


Assuntos
Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasmose/sangue , Toxoplasmose/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Masculino , Mianmar/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose/parasitologia
14.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(2): 216-217, 2019 May 07.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31184063

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in different genders, ages, and ethnic populations of three border regions in Yunnan Province, China, in order to provide the basic data for prevention and control of toxoplasmosis in these areas. METHODS: A total of 561 serum samples were collected from the local hospitals of three border regions of Yunnan Province (222 serum samples from China-Vietnam border region, 170 serum samples from China-Laos border region, and 169 serum samples from China-Myanmar border region) from November 2015 to May 2016. The detection of IgG antibodies of T. gondii was performed by ELISA. RESULTS: In total, 44 (7.84%) of the 561 serum samples were anti-Toxoplasma IgG positive. The positive rates were 8.56% (19/222), 8.82% (15/170) and 5.92% (10/169) in China-Vietnam, China-Laos, and China-Myanmar border regions, respectively. The anti-Toxoplasma IgG positive rates were 5.63%(16/284) in Han, 10.96% (8/73) in Hani, 13.70% (10/73) in Dai, 4.17% (2/48) in Miao, 11.11% (1/9) in Lahu, 7.69% (1/13) in Jinuo, 12.00% (3/25) in Yao, and 11.11% (3/27) in Yi, respectively. The anti-Toxoplasma IgG positive rate in minorities was 10.11%, which was higher than that in Han significantly (χ2 = 3.884, P < 0.05), and the positive rate in Dai was higher than that in Han significantly (χ2 = 5.594, P < 0.05). The anti-Toxoplasma IgG positive rate in the 11-20-year age group was 23.53% (4/17), which was higher than that in the 0-10 [4.23% (3/71)] (χ2 = 4.593, P < 0.05) and 31-40-year groups [4.00% (3/75)] (χ2 = 4.997, P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: There are different degrees of T. gondii infection in the human population in the border areas in Yunnan Province, and the risk of infection in ethnic minorities is higher than that in Han nationality. The prevention and control of toxoplasmosis should focus on the minority population.


Assuntos
Toxoplasmose , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose/sangue , Toxoplasmose/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose/prevenção & controle
15.
Vet Parasitol ; 269: 42-52, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31079827

RESUMO

Toxoplasmosis, caused by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, is an important disease with worldwide distribution. Infection can occur from ingesting raw or undercooked infected meat, and among food animal species, pork is known to be one of the main sources of meat-borne infection. Here, we present results of the first systematic review and meta-analysis on the global T. gondii seroprevalence in pigs. PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, and EMBASE databases were comprehensively searched for relevant studies published between January 1, 1990 and October 25, 2018. We used a random effects model to calculate pooled seroprevalence estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and analyzed data from five continents. We also conducted subgroup and meta-regression analyses to evaluate the effects of geographical and climate variables on pooled seroprevalence rates. Among 1542 publications identified, 148 studies containing 150 datasets were included in the meta-analysis, and comprised 148,092 pigs from 47 countries. The pooled global T. gondii seroprevalence in pigs was estimated to be 19% (95%CI, 17-22%; 23,696/148,092), with the lowest seroprevalence in Europe (13%; 10-15%) and highest seroprevalence in Africa (25%; 17-34%) and North America (25%; 19-33%). The seropositivity rates in Asia and South America regions were (21%, 16-26%) and (23%; 17-30%), respectively. A significantly higher T. gondii seroprevalence was associated with higher mean annual temperature and lower geographical latitude. The presence of cats on farms was identified as a potential risk factor for T. gondii seropositivity (OR, 1.41; 95%CI, 1.00-2.02). Our findings highlight the importance of pigs as a possible source of human T. gondii infections.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Carne Vermelha/parasitologia , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose/epidemiologia , África/epidemiologia , Animais , Ásia/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Saúde Global , Humanos , América do Norte/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , América do Sul/epidemiologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/parasitologia , Temperatura Ambiente , Toxoplasmose/parasitologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia , Zoonoses
16.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 279, 2019 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31097016

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Toxoplasma gondii is an opportunistic parasite that causes a clinical manifestation known as toxoplasmosis. We investigated the prevalence and potential risk factors of T. gondii infection among women in Khartoum, Sudan. A sero-parasitological cross-sectional study included 100 women aging between 15 and 50 years old was conducted between January and November 2018. Serum samples were collected and investigated for the presence of anti-T. gondii immunoglobulins. RESULTS: Mean age of the women population included was 26.75 ± 8.25 with a range between 15 and 50 years. Sero-prevalence of T. gondii antibodies was 27% (27/100) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 18.6-36.8%. Among seropositive population 81% (22/27), 15% (4/27) and 4% (1/27) were seropositive for IgG antibodies, IgM antibodies and both antibodies respectively. Age group 21-30 years old had the highest frequency of detected IgG (10/45) and IgM (3/45). Married women had the highest frequency of detected IgG or IgM, 18/79 and 3/79, respectively. Risk factors analysis showed a total of 37/100 participants were having direct contact with cats and 66/100 have a frequent raw meat consumption, neither direct cats contact nor raw meat consumption had a statistically significant association with seropositivity to T. gondii (P value = 0.052 and 0.565, respectively).


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Doenças do Gato/imunologia , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Doenças do Gato/transmissão , Gatos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Imunocompetência , Estado Civil , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Sudão/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose/imunologia , Toxoplasmose/parasitologia , Toxoplasmose/transmissão
17.
Parasitol Res ; 118(7): 2271-2276, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31098728

RESUMO

The presence and abundance of vertebrates influences the circulation of zoonotic diseases. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are widely distributed in North America and deer densities are frequently high in unhunted areas, including most major metropolitan regions. This study investigated the seroprevalence for Toxoplasma gondii from live-captured and culled deer sampled in two suburban forest preserves around Chicago, Illinois, from 1995 to 1999. Seroprevalence for T. gondii was 55.9% (n = 443) and was significantly higher at the northern study site, Des Plaines. Seroprevalence for T. gondii varied by year and month. Multivariate logistic regression (LR) screened main effect variables (age, sex, site, year, and month) by backward stepwise elimination. The final LR model for T. gondii contained all main effect variables. This study provides baseline data for future T. gondii suburban deer studies and information to public health and wildlife officials regarding the prevalence a parasitic pathogen present in two public forest preserves in Chicago, Illinois.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Cervos/parasitologia , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Chicago/epidemiologia , Feminino , Florestas , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasmose/parasitologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia , Zoonoses/parasitologia
18.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 329, 2019 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30999869

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Vietnam, few studies have determined the epidemiological status of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women and no routine prenatal screening is in place. This study was conducted to evaluate the seroprevalence of this zoonotic parasitic infection in pregnant women in Northern Vietnam and to assess the association with awareness, risk factors and congenital toxoplasmosis. METHODS: Approximately 800 pregnant women were included in the study from two hospitals, one in Hanoi and one in Thai Binh province, which is known to have a dense cat population. Serological immunoglobulin G (IgG) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) detection was performed to estimate the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis and sero-incidence of maternal and congenital toxoplasmosis. In addition, a survey was conducted about awareness, clinical history, presentation of signs and symptoms relating to toxoplasmosis and to detect biologically plausible and socio-demographic risk factors associated with toxoplasmosis. Associations with seroprevalence were assessed using univariable and multivariable analysis. RESULTS: The mean IgG seroprevalence after the full diagnostic process was 4.5% (95% confidence interval(CI): 2.7-7.0) and 5.8% (95% CI: 3.7-8.6) in Hanoi and Thai Binh hospital, respectively, and included one seroconversion diagnosed in Thai Binh hospital. Only 2.0% of the pregnant women in Hanoi hospital and 3.3% in Thai Binh hospital had heard about toxoplasmosis before this study. CONCLUSION: Since the percentage of seronegative, and thus susceptible, pregnant women was high and the awareness was low, we suggest to distribute information about toxoplasmosis and its prevention among women of child bearing age. Furthermore, future studies are recommended to investigate why such a low seroprevalence was seen in pregnant women in Northern Vietnam compared to other countries in South East Asia and globally.


Assuntos
Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose/epidemiologia , Adulto , Animais , Gatos , Feminino , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Densidade Demográfica , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasmose Congênita/epidemiologia , Vietnã/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
19.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 327, 2019 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30991956

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma gondii infection is a great health concern to pregnant women and the developing fetus. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii and its associated factors in Adwa district. METHODS: A facility based cross-sectional study was conducted from January to June 2018 in Adwa district. Structured, a pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect the demographic and risk factor related data. Serum sample, collected from each of the study subjects was tested for IgG and IgM anti T.godii specific antibodies using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. A bivariable and multivariable logistic regression model was applied to show association between the dependent and independent variables considering P < 0.05 and the 95% confidence interval. RESULT: Out of the 360, 128 (35.6%) pregnant women were found to be positive for antibodies specific to T. gondii. Furthermore, 117 (32.5%) women were positive only for IgG, and 11 (3.1%) were positive both for IgM and IgG antibodies. Age, educational level, habit of hand washing after contact with garden soil or domestic animals, presence of domestic cat, history of contact with domestic dog and consumption of raw vegetables were significantly associated with T. gondii. CONCLUSION: The seroprevalence of T. gondii among pregnant women in the study area is low compared to the other regions of Ethiopia, and within the range of the seroprevalences in the central and East Africa region. However, efforts should be done to create awareness on the potential risk factors of the parasite in the community.


Assuntos
Complicações Parasitárias na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Gatos , Estudos Transversais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Jardinagem , Desinfecção das Mãos , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Modelos Logísticos , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasmose Congênita/epidemiologia
20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31016927

RESUMO

Toxoplasma gondiiis an important zoonotic pathogen and its infection has a significant impact on human health and animal husbandry. This review presents the research progresses in the epidemic, genotype, pathogenicity, diagnosis, treatment and vaccine development of Toxoplasma and toxoplasmosis in China, so as to provide the reference for the study of the pathogen and the disease in the country.


Assuntos
Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose , Animais , Antiparasitários/uso terapêutico , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Prevalência , Pesquisa/tendências , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasmose/tratamento farmacológico , Toxoplasmose/epidemiologia , Toxoplasmose/parasitologia , Toxoplasmose/prevenção & controle
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