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1.
Evol Psychol ; 19(1): 14747049211000714, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33752457

RESUMO

It is puzzling why countries do not all implement stringent behavioral control measures to prevent the spread of COVID-19 even though preventive behaviors have been proven to be the only effective means to stop the pandemic. We provide a novel evolutionary life history explanation whereby pathogenic and parasitic prevalence represents intrinsic rather than extrinsic mortality risk that drives slower life history strategies and the related disease control motivation in all animals but especially humans. Our theory was tested and supported based on publicly available data involving over 150 countries. Countries having a higher historical prevalence of infectious diseases are found to adopt slower life history strategies that are related to prompter COVID-19 containment actions by the government and greater compliance by the population. Findings could afford governments novel insight into the design of more effective COVID-19 strategies that are based on enhancing a sense of control, vigilance, and compliance in the general population.


Assuntos
Controle Comportamental , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Infecções , Traços de História de Vida , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Controle Comportamental/legislação & jurisprudência , Controle Comportamental/métodos , Controle Comportamental/psicologia , /prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/tendências , Comportamento Cooperativo , Saúde Global , Regulamentação Governamental , Humanos , Infecções/epidemiologia , Infecções/psicologia , Infecções/transmissão , Prevalência
2.
J Anim Ecol ; 90(2): 314-316, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33538347

RESUMO

In Focus: Dhellemmes, F., Finger J.S., Smukall M.J., Gruber S.H., Guttridge T.L., Laskowski K.L., & J. Krause. (2020) Personality-driven life-history trade-offs differ in two subpopulations of free-ranging predators. Journal of Animal Ecology, 90, 260-272. Life-history theory predicts that explorative individuals live-fast-but-die-young as they take risks to rapidly accumulate resources. Dhellemmes et al. (2020) show that fast-exploring sharks forage in risky habitats, where they grow-fast-but-die-young. In higher risk environments, however, this personality-related pace-of-life-syndrome does not exist because neither fast- nor slow-exploring types venture out into risky areas. The study thereby reveals the key role of ecology as a mediator of personality-related pace-of-life-syndromes in the wild.


Assuntos
Traços de História de Vida , Tubarões , Animais , Ecossistema , Aprendizagem , Personalidade
3.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 43(1): 31, 2021 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33629158

RESUMO

More than a century ago, Edward W. Nelson and Edward A. Goldman spent 14 years (1892-1906) traveling across much of Mexico in one of the most critical biological expeditions ever undertaken by two naturalists. This long-term survey was a cornerstone in Mexican mammalogy development; however, their specific role in discovering taxa that were practically unknown before the expedition is not yet necessarily recognized. In a time when the historical aspect of knowledge on mammals is being ignored for the new generations of mammalogists, a detailed analysis of the legacy of the survey is essential. Here I focus on shrews (Eulipotyphla, Soricidae) to analyze how the fieldwork and the specimens they collected have contributed to the current knowledge of shrews in the country. Nelson and Goldman collected 474 specimens of shrews, representing 31 of the 40 species that have currently been recognized. This collection has been key to building taxonomic, evolutionary, and biogeographic knowledge of shrews in the country. The success of the expedition was primarily due to the epistemic role of novel methods and approaches in natural history research at the time. The collection also offers the opportunity to document the loss of species and ecological interactions as indirect consequences of human activities, especially in montane regions. I argue that the value of this expedition can still increase with the use of modern biodiversity study tools and the digitization and access of ancient material such as photographs, field notes, and correspondence.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Biodiversidade , Traços de História de Vida , História Natural/história , Musaranhos , Animais , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , México , Filogenia , Musaranhos/classificação , Musaranhos/fisiologia
4.
Environ Res ; 195: 110893, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33607093

RESUMO

The environment, directly and indirectly, affects many mosquito traits in both the larval and adult stages. The availability of food resources is one of the key factors influencing these traits, although its role in mosquito fitness and pathogen transmission remains unclear. Larvae nutritional status determines their survivorship and growth, having also an impact on adult characteristics like longevity, body size, flight capacity or vector competence. During the adult stage, mosquito diet affects their survival rate, fecundity and host-seeking behaviour. It also affects mosquito susceptibility to infection, which may determine the vectorial capacity of mosquito populations. The aim of this review is to critically revise the current knowledge on the effects that both larval and adult quantity and quality of the diet have on mosquito life history traits, identifying the critical knowledge gaps and proposing future research lines. The quantity and quality of food available through their lifetime greatly determine adult body size, longevity or biting frequency, therefore affecting their competence for pathogen transmission. In addition, natural sugar sources for adult mosquitoes, i.e., specific plants providing high metabolic energy, might affect their host-seeking and vertebrate biting behaviour. However, most of the studies are carried out under laboratory conditions, highlighting the need for studies of feeding behaviour of mosquitoes under field conditions. This kind of studies will increase our knowledge of the impact of diets on pathogen transmission, helping to develop successful control plans for vector-borne diseases.


Assuntos
Aedes , Traços de História de Vida , Animais , Dieta , Larva , Mosquitos Vetores
5.
Ecol Lett ; 24(5): 970-983, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33638576

RESUMO

Life history strategies are fundamental to the ecology and evolution of organisms and are important for understanding extinction risk and responses to global change. Using global datasets and a multiple response modelling framework we show that trait-climate interactions are associated with life history strategies for a diverse range of plant species at the global scale. Our modelling framework informs our understanding of trade-offs and positive correlations between elements of life history after accounting for environmental context and evolutionary and trait-based constraints. Interactions between plant traits and climatic context were needed to explain variation in age at maturity, distribution of mortality across the lifespan and generation times of species. Mean age at maturity and the distribution of mortality across plants' lifespan were under evolutionary constraints. These findings provide empirical support for the theoretical expectation that climatic context is key to understanding trait to life history relationships globally.


Assuntos
Traços de História de Vida , Evolução Biológica , Ecologia , Fenótipo , Plantas
6.
J Insect Sci ; 21(1)2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33638986

RESUMO

Vernonia [Vernonia galamensis (Cass.) Less.] (Asterales: Asteraceae) was examined as a potential trap crop for the cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L., Malvales: Malvaceae) arthropod complex. Four rows of vernonia were embedded within a 96-row cotton field. The abundance of true bug pests, true bug predators, and spiders were determined by whole-plant and sweep net sampling procedures during the early, middle, and late phases of the cotton-growing season. The census data showed that the arthropods had a strong preference for the vernonia trap crop throughout the cotton-growing season. The movement of the arthropods from the trap crop into cotton was also measured using the protein immunomarking technique as a mark-capture procedure. The arthropods inhabiting the vernonia trap crop were marked directly in the field with a broadcast spray application of egg albumin (protein) during each phase of the study. In turn, the captured specimens were examined for the presence of the mark by an egg albumin-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Very few marked specimens were captured beyond the vernonia trap crop 1, 3, and 6 d after each marking event. The arthropods' strong attraction and fidelity to vernonia indicate that it could serve as a trap crop for cotton pests and a refuge for natural enemies.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Controle de Insetos/métodos , Insetos/fisiologia , Traços de História de Vida , Aranhas/fisiologia , Vernonia , Animais , Arizona , Produção Agrícola , Gossypium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vernonia/crescimento & desenvolvimento
7.
J Insect Sci ; 21(1)2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33560354

RESUMO

The western tarnished plant bug, Lygus hesperus Knight, overwinters as a diapausing adult in response to short day lengths. Once environmental conditions are favorable, the bugs revert to an active reproductive state. To determine the impact on life-history traits of diverting resources toward diapause rather than oogenesis during early adulthood, diapausing and nondiapausing L. hesperus females were reared from the same cohorts. Body mass, ovarian maturation, ovipositional activity, and survivorship were monitored starting either at the time of release from diapause-inducing conditions or at adult eclosion for diapausers and nondiapausers, respectively. Females that had gone through 2 wk of diapause were larger and able to mobilize the resources necessary for oogenesis faster than nondiapausers, initiating oogenesis and ovipositing sooner and at a faster initial rate. However, lifetime egg production and average daily rates were similar for both groups. Postdiapausers lived longer than nondiapausers by an average of 19 d, which is five more than the 2-wk period when they were reproductively senescent. Overall, the results indicate that short-term diapause does not have a negative impact on life history. Furthermore, the extra endogenous resources stored during diapause may be able to enhance the alacrity with which the female can take advantage of improved environmental conditions and may prolong life by shielding the females against environmental stressors such as temperature extremes, oxidative agents, or food deficits.


Assuntos
Diapausa de Inseto , Heterópteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Traços de História de Vida , Oviposição , Animais , Feminino
8.
J Insect Sci ; 21(1)2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33560361

RESUMO

Pest management of emerging pests can be challenging because very little fundamental knowledge is available to inform management strategies. One such pest, the red-headed flea beetle Systena frontalis (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is increasingly being identified as a pest of concern in cranberries Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton (Ericales: Ericaceae). To improve our understanding of this pest and to develop more targeted management programs, we conducted field and laboratory studies to characterize the development, seasonal emergence patterns, and density-dependent plant injury. We found that significantly more flea beetle eggs hatched when exposed to sustained cold treatment between 0 and 5°C for 15 wk than at warmer temperatures, and for shorter and longer cold-period durations. The adults emerged sporadically over the summer, were patchily distributed, fed on both fruit and foliage, and preferentially fed on new plant growth. Using soil cores, we found eggs and larvae located relatively deep (>30 cm) in the soil. These patterns indicate that S. frontalis likely overwinters as eggs, and that targeting the larval stage may be the most effective management approach. Despite the cryptic nature of the larvae, continuing to improve our understanding of this life stage will be critical to optimizing control strategies.


Assuntos
Besouros/fisiologia , Herbivoria , Controle de Insetos , Traços de História de Vida , Vaccinium macrocarpon , Animais , Besouros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Óvulo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Densidade Demográfica , Vaccinium macrocarpon/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Wisconsin
9.
J Anim Ecol ; 90(4): 931-942, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33426705

RESUMO

Age-related variation in reproductive performance in long-lived iteroparous vertebrate species is common, with performance being influenced by within-individual processes, such as improvement and senescence, in combination with among-individual processes, such as selective appearance and disappearance. Few studies of age-related reproductive performance have compared the role of these drivers within a metapopulation, subject to varying degrees of resource competition. We accounted for within- and among-individual changes among known-aged Adélie penguins Pygoscelis adeliae during 17 years (1997-2013), at three clustered colonies of disparate size, to understand patterns in age-related reproductive success during early and late adulthood. Age at first reproduction (AFR) was lowest, and number of breeding attempts highest, at the largest colony. Regardless of AFR, success improved with early post-recruitment experience. For both oldest and youngest recruitment groups, peak performance occurred at the end of their reproductive life span indicating a possible cost of reproduction. Intermediate recruitment groups reached peak performance in their mid-reproductive life span and with intermediate breeding experience, before decreasing. Breeding success was lowest for the initial breeding attempt regardless of AFR, but we observed subsequent variation relative to recruitment age. Gaining experience by delaying recruitment positively influenced reproductive performance early in the reproductive life span and was most evident for the youngest breeders. Oldest recruits had the highest initial and peak breeding success. Differences in AFR resulted in trade-offs in reproductive life span or timing of senescence but not in the overall number of breeding attempts. Patterns differed as a function of colony size, and thus competition for resources. Early life improvement in performance at the larger colonies was primarily due to within-individual factors and at the largest colony, AFR. Regardless of colony size late-life performance was positively related to the age at last reproduction, indicating selective disappearance of lower performing individuals. These results highlight that different life-history strategies were equally successful, indicating that individuals can overcome potential trade-offs associated with early- and late-life performance. These results have important implications for understanding the evolution of life-history strategies responsible for driving population change.


Assuntos
Traços de História de Vida , Spheniscidae , Animais , Longevidade , Reprodução
10.
Ecol Lett ; 24(4): 876-890, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33492776

RESUMO

When facing an emerging infectious disease of conservation concern, we often have little information on the nature of the host-parasite interaction to inform management decisions. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that the life-history strategies of host species can be predictive of individual- and population-level responses to infectious disease, even without detailed knowledge on the specifics of the host-parasite interaction. Here, we argue that a deeper integration of life-history theory into disease ecology is timely and necessary to improve our capacity to understand, predict and mitigate the impact of endemic and emerging infectious diseases in wild populations. Using wild vertebrates as an example, we show that host life-history characteristics influence host responses to parasitism at different levels of organisation, from individuals to communities. We also highlight knowledge gaps and future directions for the study of life-history and host responses to parasitism. We conclude by illustrating how this theoretical insight can inform the monitoring and control of infectious diseases in wildlife.


Assuntos
Ecologia , Traços de História de Vida , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Humanos , Vertebrados
11.
Proc Biol Sci ; 288(1942): 20202825, 2021 01 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33434455

RESUMO

Dispersal polymorphism and mutation play significant roles during biological invasions, potentially leading to evolution and complex behaviour such as accelerating or decelerating invasion fronts. However, life-history theory predicts that reproductive fitness-another key determinant of invasion dynamics-may be lower for more dispersive strains. Here, we use a mathematical model to show that unexpected invasion dynamics emerge from the combination of heritable dispersal polymorphism, dispersal-fitness trade-offs, and mutation between strains. We show that the invasion dynamics are determined by the trade-off relationship between dispersal and population growth rates of the constituent strains. We find that invasion dynamics can be 'anomalous' (i.e. faster than any of the strains in isolation), but that the ultimate invasion speed is determined by the traits of, at most, two strains. The model is simple but generic, so we expect the predictions to apply to a wide range of ecological, evolutionary, or epidemiological invasions.


Assuntos
Traços de História de Vida , Reprodução , Evolução Biológica , Aptidão Genética , Modelos Biológicos , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo Genético , Dinâmica Populacional
12.
Biol Lett ; 17(1): 20200643, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33497592

RESUMO

Island species are often predictably different from their mainland counterparts. Milder climates and reduced predation risk on islands have been involved to explain shifts in body size and a suite of life-history traits such as clutch size and offspring growth rate. Despite the key role of adult survival on risk taking and reproduction, the prediction that living on islands increases adult survival has yet to be tested systematically. I gathered data on adult annual apparent survival from the island and mainland year-round resident species of birds from around the world. With this large dataset (697 species), I found that species of birds living on islands showed higher apparent survival than their mainland counterparts in the two Hemispheres and at all latitudes, controlling for several known predictors of adult survival, including body size, clutch size and breeding system. These results shed light on the ecological factors that influence survival on islands and extend the life-history island syndrome to adult survival.


Assuntos
Aves , Traços de História de Vida , Animais , Tamanho da Ninhada , Ilhas , Reprodução
13.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 516, 2021 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33483517

RESUMO

Understanding how biological and environmental factors interactively shape the global distribution of plant and animal genetic diversity is fundamental to biodiversity conservation. Genetic diversity measured in local populations (GDP) is correspondingly assumed representative for population fitness and eco-evolutionary dynamics. For 8356 populations across the globe, we report that plants systematically display much lower GDP than animals, and that life history traits shape GDP patterns both directly (animal longevity and size), and indirectly by mediating core-periphery patterns (animal fecundity and plant dispersal). Particularly in some plant groups, peripheral populations can sustain similar GDP as core populations, emphasizing their potential conservation value. We further find surprisingly weak support for general latitudinal GDP trends. Finally, contemporary rather than past climate contributes to the spatial distribution of GDP, suggesting that contemporary environmental changes affect global patterns of GDP. Our findings generate new perspectives for the conservation of genetic resources at worldwide and taxonomic-wide scales.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Clima , Ecossistema , Variação Genética , Plantas/genética , Algoritmos , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Evolução Molecular , Genética Populacional , Geografia , Traços de História de Vida , Modelos Teóricos , Filogenia , Dispersão Vegetal , Plantas/classificação
14.
Oecologia ; 195(2): 327-339, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33481090

RESUMO

Invasive species-species that have successfully overcome the barriers of transport, introduction, establishment, and spread-are a risk to biodiversity and ecosystem function. Introduction effort is one of the main factors underlying invasion success, but life history traits are also important as they influence population growth. In this contribution, we first investigated life history traits of the Barbary ground squirrel, Atlantoxerus getulus, a species with a very low introduction effort. We then studied if their invasion success was due to a very fast life history profile by comparing their life history traits to those of other successful invasive mammals. Next, we examined whether the number of founders and/or a fast life history influences the invasion success of squirrels. Barbary ground squirrels were on the fast end of the "fast-slow continuum", but their life history was not the only contributing factor to their invasion success, as the life history profile is comparable to other invasive species that do not have such a low introduction effort. We also found that neither life history traits nor the number of founders explained the invasion success of introduced squirrels in general. These results contradict the concept that introduction effort is the main factor explaining invasion success, especially in squirrels. Instead, we argue that invasion success can be influenced by multiple aspects of the new habitat or the biology of the introduced species.


Assuntos
Traços de História de Vida , Animais , Ecossistema , Espécies Introduzidas , Mamíferos , Sciuridae
15.
J Insect Sci ; 21(1)2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33400796

RESUMO

The western tarnished plant bug, Lygus hesperus Knight, overwinters as a diapausing adult in response to short day lengths. Once environmental conditions are favorable, the bugs revert to an active reproductive state. To determine the impact on life-history traits of diverting resources toward diapause rather than oogenesis during early adulthood, diapausing and nondiapausing L. hesperus females were reared from the same cohorts. Body mass, ovarian maturation, ovipositional activity, and survivorship were monitored starting either at the time of release from diapause-inducing conditions or at adult eclosion for diapausers and nondiapausers, respectively. Females that had gone through 2 wk of diapause were larger and able to mobilize the resources necessary for oogenesis faster than nondiapausers, initiating oogenesis and ovipositing sooner and at a faster initial rate. However, lifetime egg production and average daily rates were similar for both groups. Postdiapausers lived longer than nondiapausers by an average of 19 d, which is five more than the 2-wk period when they were reproductively senescent. Overall, the results indicate that short-term diapause does not have a negative impact on life history. Furthermore, the extra endogenous resources stored during diapause may be able to enhance the alacrity with which the female can take advantage of improved environmental conditions and may prolong life by shielding the females against environmental stressors such as temperature extremes, oxidative agents, or food deficits.


Assuntos
Diapausa de Inseto , Heterópteros/fisiologia , Traços de História de Vida , Oogênese , Oviposição , Animais , Feminino , Heterópteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento
16.
Environ Pollut ; 271: 116409, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33418289

RESUMO

The gut microbiota has been increasingly recognized to regulate host fitness, which in turn is dependent on stability of community structure and composition. Many biotic and abiotic factors have been demonstrated to shape gut microbiota of cladocerans. However, the interactive effects of these variables on cladocerans fitness due to alteration of gut microbiota and their linkage with life history parameters are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the responses of Daphnia magna gut microbiota to the combined effects of toxic Microcystis aeruginosa and high temperature and its associations with fitness. We found that under good food regime, the temperature has no effect on the composition of the gut microbiota, whereas under high proportion of toxic M. aeruginosa and high temperature conditions, D. magna lost their symbionts. High proportion of toxic M. aeruginosa and high temperature had synergistically negative effects on D. magna performance due to altered gut microbiota. The high abundance of symbiotic Comamonadaceae and good food increased D. magna fitness. The present study illustrates that understanding life history strategies in response to multiple stressors related to changes in the gut microbiota diversity and composition requires integrated approaches that incorporate multiple linked traits and tether them to one another.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Traços de História de Vida , Microcystis , Animais , Daphnia , Temperatura
17.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 207: 111133, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32896818

RESUMO

Anthropogenic pollution has a disadvantageous influence on various life-history traits. Although direct effects are well known, potential fitness-related trans-generational costs are less studied. Previously, empirical findings have demonstrated that environmental conditions faced by the parental generation have an effect on the traits expressed by their offspring. Here, to study this conjecture larvae of the common fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) were either exposed to a sub-lethal concentration of copper or reared on uncontaminated larval medium. Adult flies were kept under uncontaminated conditions. For the next generation, individuals were mated with their own group and their offspring were either exposed to copper or fed with uncontaminated larval medium. We found that in the parental generation copper exposure reduced fecundity compared with uncontaminated controls. In the progeny, females suffered impaired fecundity only if their larval condition differed from the conditions experienced by their parents. If the progeny was raised under similar conditions than the parental generation, no effect on fecundity was discovered, suggesting acclimatization to the prevailing conditions after short-time copper exposure (two generations). Our results demonstrate that exposure to an environmental stressor like heavy metals causes intra-and trans-generational fitness costs. Further, individuals may be able to acclimatize in prevailing contaminated conditions, but this might in turn debase fitness under uncontaminated conditions. Our findings are consistent with the prediction of the adaptive parental effects hypothesis which states that parents may produce offspring that are more successful under conditions faced by their parents.


Assuntos
Cobre/toxicidade , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Aclimatação , Animais , Feminino , Fertilidade , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Traços de História de Vida , Metais Pesados , Fenótipo
18.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 6406, 2020 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33335105

RESUMO

Body size is a key life-history trait that influences community assembly by affecting how ecological processes operate at the organism level. However, the extent to which the relative influences of ecological processes mediate the assembly of differentially sized soil organisms is still unknown. Here, we investigate the community assembly of differentially sized soil microorganisms and microfauna using a continental-scale sampling effort combined with a global-scale meta-analysis. Our results reveal a general relationship between organism body size and the stochastic-deterministic balance operating on community assembly. The smallest microorganisms (bacteria) are relatively more influenced by dispersal-based stochastic processes, while larger ones (fungi, protists and nematodes) are more structured by selection-based deterministic processes. This study elucidates a significant and consistent relationship between an organism life-history trait and how distinct ecological processes operate in mediating their respective community assemblages, thus providing a better understanding of the mechanisms supporting soil biodiversity.


Assuntos
Nematoides/anatomia & histologia , Microbiologia do Solo , Animais , Bactérias , Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Fungos , Traços de História de Vida , Nematoides/fisiologia , Solo/química
19.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 31(9): 3067-3074, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33345508

RESUMO

Long-term herbicide application may facilitate the adaptive evolution of weed populations. With Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galli population A from a rice field used for the experiment of effectiveness of herbicide in Nanling County, Anhui Province, we conducted common garden experi-ments with seeds of population A and three control populations collected from normal rice fields. Compared with the three control populations, population A had significantly lower seed production for individual plant, but higher 1000-seed weight. Population A had faster in seedling growth, higher in number of reproductive tillers, shorter life span, lower in height and biomass of individual plant, as well as lower in sensitivity to herbicide penoxsulam. Individuals from population A survived from 2× label dose (60 g·hm-2) of penoxsulam treatment at the three- to four-leaf stage showed significantly reduction in plant height, biomass, and mature seed production (1066 seeds per plant), but no difference in heading period, number of reproductive tillers, number of seeds per raceme and 1000-seed weight. The short lifespan, heavy seeds, dwarf architecture, more reproductive tillers and penoxsulam resistance made E. crus-galli var. crus-galli population A extremely adapting to rice planting systems, which should be prevented to spread to normal rice fields.


Assuntos
Echinochloa , Herbicidas , Traços de História de Vida , Oryza , Herbicidas/farmacologia , Humanos , Sementes
20.
RECIIS (Online) ; 14(4): 870-879, out.-dez. 2020.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1145563

RESUMO

O trabalho apresenta as reflexões iniciais do projeto de pós-doutorado desenvolvido no Programa de Pós-Graduação em Comunicação e Cultura da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, que pretende ouvir artistas idosos de dois grupos distintos: no primeiro os sujeitos acometidos por patologias que afetam a memória, entre elas o Alzheimer, em suas fases iniciais; e no segundo sujeitos que se constroem e são construídos identitariamente como idosos, com base em seu lugar etário. Por meio de entrevistas, usando metodologicamente uma técnica que cruza os modos de fazer da história oral com os da entrevista clínica, realizaremos encontros com artistas (músicos, atores, artistas plásticos etc.) procurando perceber as vozes desses indivíduos como sujeitos de comunicação afetados pelo tempo (e, em alguns casos, pela doença).


The work presents the initial reflections of the postdoctoral project developed on the Graduate Program in Communication and Culture at Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, which intends to listen to old artists of two different groups: in the first, subjects affected by pathologies that affect the memory, includin Alzheimer's, in its early stages; and in the second subjects who build and are built identically as old based on their age. Based on interviews, using the foundations of psychological clinic and oral history, we will hold meetings with artists (musicians, actors, visual artists, etc.) seeking to perceive the voices of these individuals as subjects of communication affected by time (and often by the disease).


El trabajo presenta las reflexiones iniciales del proyecto posdoctoral desarrollado con el Programa de Posgrado en Comunicación y Cultura de la Universidad Federal de Río de Janeiro, que pretende escuchar a artistas antiguos de dos grupos diferentes: en el primero, los sujetos afectados por patologías que afectan la memoria, incluido el Alzheimer, en sus primeras etapas; y el segundo sujetos que construyen y se construyen de manera idéntica a los ancianos, en función de su su edad. Mediante el uso de entrevistas, utilizando metodológicamente una técnica que cruza las formas de hacer historia oral con las de la entrevista clínica psicológica, mantendremos reuniones con artistas (músicos, actores, artistas visuales etc.) para percibir las voces de estas personas como sujetos de comunicación afectados por el tiempo (y a menudo por la enfermedad).


Assuntos
Humanos , Idoso , Comportamento Social , Barreiras de Comunicação , Doença de Alzheimer , Transtornos da Memória , Arte , Envelhecimento , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Entrevistas como Assunto , Relações Familiares , Traços de História de Vida
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