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1.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 85, 2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32164784

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diaphragm atrophy and dysfunction are consequences of mechanical ventilation and are determinants of clinical outcomes. We hypothesize that partial preservation of diaphragm function, such as during assisted modes of ventilation, will restore diaphragm thickness. We also aim to correlate the changes in diaphragm thickness and function to outcomes and clinical factors. METHODS: This is a prospective, multicentre, observational study. Patients mechanically ventilated for more than 48 h in controlled mode and eventually switched to assisted ventilation were enrolled. Diaphragm ultrasound and clinical data collection were performed every 48 h until discharge or death. A threshold of 10% was used to define thinning during controlled and recovery of thickness during assisted ventilation. Patients were also classified based on the level of diaphragm activity during assisted ventilation. We evaluated the association between changes in diaphragm thickness and activity and clinical outcomes and data, such as ventilation parameters. RESULTS: Sixty-two patients ventilated in controlled mode and then switched to the assisted mode of ventilation were enrolled. Diaphragm thickness significantly decreased during controlled ventilation (1.84 ± 0.44 to 1.49 ± 0.37 mm, p < 0.001) and was partially restored during assisted ventilation (1.49 ± 0.37 to 1.75 ± 0.43 mm, p < 0.001). A diaphragm thinning of more than 10% was associated with longer duration of controlled ventilation (10 [5, 15] versus 5 [4, 8.5] days, p = 0.004) and higher PEEP levels (12.6 ± 4 versus 10.4 ± 4 cmH2O, p = 0.034). An increase in diaphragm thickness of more than 10% during assisted ventilation was not associated with any clinical outcome but with lower respiratory rate (16.7 ± 3.2 versus 19.2 ± 4 bpm, p = 0.019) and Rapid Shallow Breathing Index (37 ± 11 versus 44 ± 13, p = 0.029) and with higher Pressure Muscle Index (2 [0.5, 3] versus 0.4 [0, 1.9], p = 0.024). Change in diaphragm thickness was not related to diaphragm function expressed as diaphragm thickening fraction. CONCLUSION: Mode of ventilation affects diaphragm thickness, and preservation of diaphragmatic contraction, as during assisted modes, can partially reverse the muscle atrophy process. Avoiding a strenuous inspiratory work, as measured by Rapid Shallow Breathing Index and Pressure Muscle Index, may help diaphragm thickness restoration.


Assuntos
Diafragma/diagnóstico por imagem , Respiração Artificial/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Trabalho Respiratório , Estado Terminal , Diafragma/patologia , Diafragma/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Contração Muscular/fisiologia , Debilidade Muscular/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Insuficiência Respiratória/patologia
2.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0226980, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31923192

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Pulmonary function testing (PFT) provides diagnostic information regarding respiratory physiology. However, many forms of PFT are time-intensive and require patient cooperation. Respiratory inductance plethysmography (RIP) provides thoracoabdominal asynchrony (TAA) and work of breathing (WOB) data. pneuRIPTM is a noninvasive, wireless analyzer that provides real-time assessment of RIP via an iPad. In this study, we show that pneuRIPTM can be used in a hospital clinic setting to differentiate WOB indices and breathing patterns in children with DMD as compared to age-matched healthy subjects. METHODS: RIP using the pneuRIPTM was conducted on 9 healthy volunteers and 7 DMD participants (ages 5-18) recruited from the neuromuscular clinic, under normal resting conditions over 3-5 min during routine outpatient visits. The tests were completed in less than 10 minutes and did not add excessive time to the clinic visit. Variables recorded included labored-breathing index (LBI), phase angle (Φ) between abdomen and rib cage, respiratory rate (RR), percentage of rib cage input (RC%), and heart rate (HR). The data were displayed in histogram plots to identify distribution patterns within the normal ranges. The percentages of data within the ranges (0≤ Φ ≤30 deg.; median RC %±10%; median RR±5%; 1≤LBI≤1.1) were compared. Unpaired t-tests determined significance of the data between groups. RESULTS: 100% patient compliance demonstrates the feasibility of such testing in clinical settings. DMD patients showed a significant elevation in Φ, LBI, and HR averages (P<0.006, P<0.002, P<0.046, respectively). Healthy subjects and DMD patients had similar BPM and RC% averages. All DMD data distributions were statistically different from healthy subjects based on analysis of histograms. The DMD patients showed significantly less data within the normal ranges, with only 49.7% Φ, 48.0% RC%, 69.2% RR, and 50.7% LBI. CONCLUSION: In this study, noninvasive pneuRIPTM testing provided instantaneous PFT diagnostic results. As compared to healthy subjects, patients with DMD showed abnormal results with increased markers of TAA, WOB indices, and different breathing patterns. These results are similar to previous studies evaluating RIP in preterm infants. Further studies are needed to compare these results to other pulmonary testing methods. The pneuRIPTM testing approach provides immediate diagnostic information in outpatient settings.


Assuntos
Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/fisiopatologia , Pletismografia/instrumentação , Mecânica Respiratória , Trabalho Respiratório , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Distrofia Muscular de Duchenne/diagnóstico , Pletismografia/métodos , Testes de Função Respiratória , Taxa Respiratória
3.
Pneumologie ; 74(3): 137-148, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918445

RESUMO

Nasal high-flow provides a stable oxygenation in acute hypoxemic respiratory failure, modifies breathing patterns, reduces work of breathing and can decrease hypercapnia. Thereby NHF provides more features than low-flow oxygen and acts as a ventilatory support device. Different studies show benefits of NHF compared to NIV. For these reasons we will discuss the capabilities of NHF and NIV in selected settings.


Assuntos
Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Ventilação não Invasiva/métodos , Oxigenoterapia/métodos , Oxigênio/administração & dosagem , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/métodos , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Trabalho Respiratório/fisiologia , Humanos , Hipercapnia/prevenção & controle , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Ann Acad Med Singapore ; 48(7): 224-232, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495868

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Evidence supporting non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in paediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome (PARDS) remains sparse. We aimed to describe characteristics of patients with PARDS supported with NIV and risk factors for NIV failure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a multicentre retrospective study. Only patients supported on NIV with PARDS were included. Data on epidemiology and clinical outcomes were collected. Primary outcome was NIV failure which was defined as escalation to invasive mechanical ventilation within the first 7 days of PARDS. Patients in the NIV success and failure groups were compared. RESULTS: There were 303 patients with PARDS; 53/303 (17.5%) patients were supported with NIV. The median age was 50.7 (interquartile range: 15.7-111.9) months. The Paediatric Logistic Organ Dysfunction score and oxygen saturation/fraction of inspired oxygen (SF) ratio were 2.0 (1.0-10.0) and 155.0 (119.4- 187.3), respectively. Indications for NIV use were increased work of breathing (26/53 [49.1%]) and hypoxia (22/53 [41.5%]). Overall NIV failure rate was 77.4% (41/53). All patients with sepsis who developed PARDS experienced NIV failure. NIV failure was associated with an increased median paediatric intensive care unit stay (15.0 [9.5-26.5] vs 4.5 [3.0-6.8] days; P <0.001) and hospital length of stay (26.0 [17.0-39.0] days vs 10.5 [5.5-22.3] days; P = 0.004). Overall mortality rate was 32.1% (17/53). CONCLUSION: The use of NIV in children with PARDS was associated with high failure rate. As such, future studies should examine the optimal selection criteria for NIV use in these children.


Assuntos
Pressão Positiva Contínua nas Vias Aéreas/métodos , Hipóxia/terapia , Ventilação não Invasiva/métodos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/terapia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Hipóxia/fisiopatologia , Lactente , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica , Intubação Intratraqueal , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Mortalidade , Escores de Disfunção Orgânica , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Respiração Artificial , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/metabolismo , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Falha de Tratamento , Trabalho Respiratório
5.
J Sports Sci ; 37(23): 2653-2659, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31419921

RESUMO

This study assessed the intra-individual reliability of oxygen saturation in intercostal muscles (SmO2-m.intercostales) during an incremental maximal treadmill exercise by using portable NIRS devices in a test-retest study. Fifteen marathon runners (age, 24.9 ± 2.0 years; body mass index, 21.6 ± 2.3 kg·m-2; V̇O2-peak, 63.7 ± 5.9 mL·kg-1·min-1) were tested on two separate days, with a 7-day interval between the two measurements. Oxygen consumption (V̇O2) was assessed using the breath-by-breath method during the V̇O2-test, while SmO2 was determined using a portable commercial device, based in the near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) principle. The minute ventilation (VE), respiratory rate (RR), and tidal volume (Vt) were also monitored during the cardiopulmonary exercise test. For the SmO2-m.intercostales, the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) at rest, first (VT1) and second ventilatory (VT2) thresholds, and maximal stages were 0.90, 0.84, 0.92, and 0.93, respectively; the confidence intervals ranged from -10.8% - +9.5% to -15.3% - +12.5%. The reliability was good at low intensity (rest and VT1) and excellent at high intensity (VT2 and max). The Spearman correlation test revealed (p ≤ 0.001) an inverse association of SmO2-m.intercostales with V̇O2 (ρ = -0.64), VE (ρ = -0.73), RR (ρ = -0.70), and Vt (ρ = -0.63). The relationship with the ventilatory variables showed that increased breathing effort during exercise could be registered adequately using a NIRS portable device.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Músculos Intercostais/fisiologia , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/instrumentação , Trabalho Respiratório/fisiologia , Adulto , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Taxa Respiratória/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Volume de Ventilação Pulmonar/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Eur J Pediatr ; 178(8): 1237-1242, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31187264

RESUMO

Heated, humidified, high-flow nasal cannula (HHHFNC) is increasingly being used, but there is a paucity of evidence as to the optimum flow rates in prematurely born infants. We have determined the impact of three flow rates on the work of breathing (WOB) assessed by transcutaneous diaphragm electromyography (EMG) amplitude in infants with respiratory distress or bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Flow rates of 4, 6 and 8 L/min were delivered in random order. The mean amplitude of the EMG trace and mean area under the EMG curve (AEMGC) were calculated and the occurrence of bradycardias and desaturations recorded. Eighteen infants were studied with a median gestational age of 27.8 (range 23.9-33.5) weeks and postnatal age of 54 (range 3-122) days. The median flow rate prior to the study was 5 (range 3-8) L/min and the fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) was 0.29 (range 0.21-0.50). There were no significant differences between the mean amplitude of the diaphragm EMG and the AEGMC and the number of bradycardias or desaturations between the three flow rates.Conclusions: In infants with respiratory distress or BPD, there was no advantage of using high (8 L/min) compared with lower flow rates (4 or 6 L/min) during support by HHHFNC. What is known: • Humidified high flow nasal cannulae (HHHFNC) is increasingly being used as a non-invasive form of respiratory support for prematurely born infants. • There is a paucity of evidence regarding the optimum flow rate with 1 to 8 L/min being used. What is new: • We have assessed the work of breathing using the amplitude of the electromyogram of the diaphragm at three HHHFNC flow rates in infants with respiratory distress or BPD. • No significant differences were found in the EMG amplitude results or the numbers of bradycardias or desaturations at 4, 6 and 8 L/min.


Assuntos
Displasia Broncopulmonar/terapia , Diafragma/fisiologia , Eletromiografia , Ventilação não Invasiva/métodos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/terapia , Trabalho Respiratório/fisiologia , Displasia Broncopulmonar/fisiopatologia , Cânula , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Masculino , Ventilação não Invasiva/instrumentação , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Recém-Nascido/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 51(8): 1727-1735, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30817718

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The physiological consequences of freely chosen cadence during cycling remains poorly understood. We sought to determine the effect of cadence on the respiratory and hemodynamic response to cycling exercise. METHODS: Eleven cyclists (10 males, 1 female; age, 27 ± 6 yr; V˙O2max = 60.8 ± 3.7 mL·kg·min) completed four, 6-min constant-load cycling trials at 10% below their previously determined gas exchange threshold (i.e., 63% ± 5% peak power) while pedaling at 60, 90, and 120 rpm, and a freely chosen cadence (94.3 ± 6.9 rpm) in randomized order. Standard cardiorespiratory parameters were measured and an esophageal electrode balloon catheter was used to assess electromyography of the diaphragm (EMGdi) and the work of breathing (Wb). Leg blood flow index (BFI) was determined on four muscles using near-infrared spectroscopy with indocyanine green dye injections. RESULTS: Oxygen uptake (V˙O2) increased as a function of increasing cadence (all pairwise comparisons, P < 0.05). The EMGdi and Wb were significantly greater at 120 rpm compared with all other conditions (all P < 0.01). Vastus medialis and semitendinosus BFI were significantly greater at 120 rpm compared with 60 and 90 rpm (all P < 0.05). Gastrocnemius BFI was higher at 120 rpm compared with all other cadences (all P < 0.01). No difference in BFI was found in the vastus lateralis (P = 0.06). Blood flow index was significantly correlated with the increase in V˙O2 with increasing cadence in the medial gastrocnemius (P < 0.001) and approached significance in the vastus lateralis (P = 0.09), vastus medialis (P = 0.06), and semitendinosus (P = 0.09). There was no effect of cadence on Borg 0-10 breathing or leg discomfort ratings (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: High cadence cycling at submaximal exercise intensities is metabolically inefficient and increases EMGdi, Wb, and leg muscle blood flow relative to slower cadences.


Assuntos
Ciclismo/fisiologia , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Perna (Membro)/irrigação sanguínea , Músculo Esquelético/irrigação sanguínea , Trabalho Respiratório/fisiologia , Adulto , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Diafragma/fisiologia , Eletromiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Microcirculação , Percepção/fisiologia , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional , Adulto Jovem
11.
Pulm Med ; 2019: 6364376, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30719351

RESUMO

Background: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) impairs the function of the diaphragm by placing it at a mechanical disadvantage, shortening its operating length and changing the mechanical linkage between its various parts. This makes the diaphragm's contraction less effective in raising and expanding the lower rib cage, thereby increasing the work of breathing and reducing the functional capacity. Aim of the Study: To compare the effects of diaphragmatic stretch and manual diaphragm release technique on diaphragmatic excursion in patients with COPD. Materials and Methods: This randomised crossover trial included 20 clinically stable patients with mild and moderate COPD classified according to the GOLD criteria. The patients were allocated to group A or group B by block randomization done by primary investigator. The information about the technique was concealed in a sealed opaque envelope and revealed to the patients only after allocation of groups. After taking the demographic data and baseline values of the outcome measures (diaphragm mobility by ultrasonography performed by an experienced radiologist and chest expansion by inch tape performed by the therapist), group A subjects underwent the diaphragmatic stretch technique and the group B subjects underwent the manual diaphragm release technique. Both the interventions were performed in 2 sets of 10 deep breaths with 1-minute interval between the sets. The two outcome variables were recorded immediately after the intervention. A wash-out period of 3 hours was maintained to neutralize the effect of given intervention. Later the patients of group A and group B were crossed over to the other group. Results: In the diaphragmatic stretch technique, there was a statistically significant improvement in the diaphragmatic excursion before and after the treatment. On the right side, p=0.00 and p=0.003 in the midclavicular line and midaxillary line. On the left side, p=0.004 and p=0.312 in the midclavicular and midaxillary line. In manual diaphragm release technique, there was a statistically significant improvement before and after the treatment. On the right side, p=0.000 and p=0.000 in the midclavicular line and midaxillary line. On the left side, p=0.002 and p=0.000 in the midclavicular line and midaxillary line. There was no statistically significant difference in diaphragmatic excursion in the comparison of the postintervention values of both techniques. Conclusion: The diaphragmatic stretch technique and manual diaphragm release technique can be safely recommended for patients with clinically stable COPD to improve diaphragmatic excursion.


Assuntos
Diafragma/fisiopatologia , Movimento , Manipulações Musculoesqueléticas/métodos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/terapia , Trabalho Respiratório , Idoso , Estudos Cross-Over , Diafragma/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Ultrassonografia
12.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 51(7): 1467-1476, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30649105

RESUMO

The thorax undergoes unique conditions while swimming. Hydrostatic pressure from water immersion places an external load on the thorax and increases airway resistance, and the horizontal body position results in central venous engorgement and an associated reduction in lung compliance. The aforementioned factors likely increase the work of breathing (Wb); however, this hypothesis remains untested. PURPOSE: This study aimed to compare Wb during freestyle swimming relative to cycling and to characterize the differences in the cardiorespiratory responses to swimming relative to cycling in the same individuals. METHODS: Eight collegiate swimmers (four men and four women, age = 22 ± 2 yr) performed an incremental swim test while tethered to a resistance apparatus. On a separate day, subjects performed an incremental cycle test. During swimming and cycling, metabolic and ventilatory parameters were measured using a customized metabolic cart, and inspired Wb was quantified using an esophageal balloon catheter. RESULTS: Swimming and cycling elicited statistically similar levels of peak oxygen uptake (3.87 ± 0.92 vs 4.20 ± 0.83 L·min, P = 0.143). However, peak minute ventilation (V˙E) (118 ± 3 vs 154 ± 25 L·min) and heart rate (164 ± 19 vs 183 ± 8 bpm) were significantly lower during swimming relative to cycling (both P < 0.05). Inspired Wb was higher at a V˙E of 50 L·min (+27 ± 16 J·min), 75 L·min (+56 ± 23 J·min), and 100 L·min (+53 ± 22 J·min) during swimming compared with cycling (all P < 0.05). Periods of interbreath apnea were observed while swimming (duration = 0.13-2.07 s). CONCLUSION: We interpret our findings to mean that the horizontal body position and hydrostatic pressure on the chest wall requires swimmers to generate greater inspiratory pressures to sustain adequate V˙E during exercise.


Assuntos
Postura/fisiologia , Mecânica Respiratória/fisiologia , Natação/fisiologia , Ciclismo/fisiologia , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Pressão Hidrostática , Medidas de Volume Pulmonar , Masculino , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Tórax/fisiologia , Trabalho Respiratório/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Physiol Rep ; 7(1): e13967, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30637992

RESUMO

We investigated whether heat-induced hyperventilation can be voluntarily prevented, and, if so, how this modulates respiratory mechanics and cerebral blood flow in resting heated humans. In two separate trials, 10 healthy men were passively heated using lower body hot-water immersion and a water-perfused garment covering their upper body (both 41°C) until esophageal temperature (Tes ) reached 39°C or volitional termination. In each trial, participants breathed normally (normal-breathing) or voluntarily controlled minute ventilation (VE ) at a level equivalent to that observed after 5 min of heating (controlled-breathing). Respiratory gases, middle cerebral artery blood velocity (MCAV), work of breathing, and end-expiratory and inspiratory lung volumes were measured. During normal-breathing, VE increased as Tes rose above 38.0 ± 0.3°C, whereas controlled-breathing diminished the increase in VE (VE at Tes  = 38.6°C: 25.6 ± 5.9 and 11.9 ± 1.3 L min-1 during normal- and controlled-breathing, respectively, P < 0.001). During normal-breathing, end-tidal CO2 pressure and MCAV decreased with rising Tes , but controlled-breathing diminished these reductions (at Tes  = 38.6°C, 24.7 ± 5.0 vs. 39.5 ± 2.8 mmHg; 44.9 ± 5.9 vs. 60.2 ± 6.3 cm sec-1 , both P < 0.001). The work of breathing correlated positively with changes in VE (P < 0.001) and was lower during controlled- than normal-breathing (16.1 ± 12.6 and 59.4 ± 49.5 J min-1 , respectively, at heating termination, P = 0.013). End-expiratory and inspiratory lung volumes did not differ between trials (P = 0.25 and 0.71, respectively). These results suggest that during passive heating at rest, heat-induced hyperventilation increases the work of breathing without affecting end-expiratory lung volume, and that voluntary control of breathing can nearly abolish this hyperventilation, thereby diminishing hypocapnia, cerebral hypoperfusion, and increased work of breathing.


Assuntos
Circulação Cerebrovascular , Hipertermia Induzida/efeitos adversos , Hiperventilação/fisiopatologia , Mecânica Respiratória , Adulto , Temperatura Corporal , Suspensão da Respiração , Humanos , Hiperventilação/etiologia , Masculino , Condicionamento Físico Humano/métodos , Trabalho Respiratório
15.
Respir Physiol Neurobiol ; 261: 48-54, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30605732

RESUMO

On theoretical grounds any given level of pulmonary or alveolar ventilation can be obtained at various absolute lung volumes and through many combinations of tidal volume, breathing frequency and inspiratory and expiratory timing. However, inspection of specific cases of newborn and adult mammals at rest indicates that the breathing pattern reflects a principle of economy oriented toward minimal respiratory work. The mechanisms that permit optimization of respiratory cost are poorly understood; yet, it is their efficiency and coordination that permits pulmonary ventilation at rest to require only a minimal fraction of resting metabolism. The sensitivity of the breathing pattern to the mechanical properties implies that tidal volume, breathing rate, mean inspiratory flow or other ventilatory parameters cannot be necessarily considered indicators proportional to the central neural respiratory 'drive'. The broad conclusion is that the breathing pattern adopted by newborn and adult mammals is the one that produces the adequate alveolar ventilation with minimal cost, that is, in full recognition of the mechanical characteristics of the system.


Assuntos
Respiração , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Humanos , Periodicidade , Trabalho Respiratório
16.
Eur J Pediatr ; 178(1): 105-110, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30374754

RESUMO

Our aim was to compare the work of breathing (WOB) during synchronised nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (SNIPPV) and heated humidified high flow nasal cannula (HHHFNC) when used as post-extubation support in preterm infants. A randomised crossover study was undertaken of nine infants with a median gestational age of 27 (range 24-31) weeks and post-natal age of 7 (range 2-50) days. Infants were randomised to either SNIPPV or HHHFNC immediately following extubation. They were studied for 2 h on one mode and then switched to the other modality and studied for a further 2-h period. The work of breathing, assessed by measuring the pressure time product of the diaphragm (PTPdi), and thoracoabdominal asynchrony (TAA) were determined at the end of each 2-h period. The infants' inspired oxygen requirement, oxygen saturation, heart rate and respiratory rate were also recorded. The median PTPdi was lower on SNIPPV than on HHHFNC (232 (range 130-352) versus 365 (range 136-449) cmH2O s/min, p = 0.0077), and there was less thoracoabdominal asynchrony (13.4 (range 8.5-41.6) versus 36.1 (range 4.3-50.4) degrees, p = 0.038).Conclusion: In prematurely born infants, SNIPPV compared to HHHFNC post-extubation reduced the work of breathing and thoracoabdominal asynchrony. What is Known: • The work of breathing and extubation failure are not significantly different in prematurely-born infants supported by HHHFNC or nCPAP. • SNIPPV reduces inspiratory effort and increases tidal volume and carbon dioxide exchange compared to nCPAP in prematurely born infants. What is New: • SNIPPV, as compared to HHHFNC, reduced the work of breathing in prematurely-born infants studied post-extubation. • SNIPPV, as compared to HHHFNC, reduced thoracoabdominal asynchrony in prematurely born infants studied post-extubation.


Assuntos
Extubação/métodos , Ventilação com Pressão Positiva Intermitente/métodos , Ventilação não Invasiva/métodos , Trabalho Respiratório/fisiologia , Gasometria , Cânula , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Masculino , Taxa Respiratória/fisiologia
17.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 51(2): 361-371, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30216239

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Recently a novel, time-saving respiratory muscle sprint-interval training (RMSIT) was developed. To test the extent to which RMSIT improves respiratory muscle performance compared with a conventional respiratory muscle endurance training (RMET), a novel incremental respiratory muscle test (IncRMT), loading inspiratory and expiratory muscles, was designed to assess performance changes associated with respiratory muscle training (RMT). METHODS: Healthy, moderately trained males and females (age: 26 ± 5 yr, V˙O2peak: 47 ± 12 mL·min·kg) were randomized and balanced to three groups (RMSIT 5m/5f; RMET 6m/6f; PLAT 5m/6f). Lung function, respiratory muscle strength, and IncRMT performance were tested before and after 1 month of RMT. During the IncRMT, muscle activity and muscle deoxygenation were assessed via surface EMG and near-infrared spectroscopy of sternocleidomastoid (STERNO), intercostal (INTER), and abdominal (ABDO) muscles. RESULTS: Two-way ANOVA revealed a main effect of training for increased maximal voluntary ventilation (P = 0.001) and maximal inspiratory pressure (P = 0.017). Both RMT groups increased work of breathing during training sessions to the same extent (RMSIT: +17.4 ± 8.9 kJ; RMET: +26.2 ± 16.1 kJ; P = 0.143) with a larger increase in average mouth pressure in RMSIT (RMSIT: +20.0 ± 15.0 cm H2O; RMET: +3.3 ± 1.5 cm H2O; P = 0.001). After training, IncRMT duration increased in both RMT groups compared with PLAT (RMSIT: +5.6 ± 2.1 min, P = 0.0006 vs PLAT; RMET: +3.8 ± 4.2 min, P = 0.020 vs PLAT). At similar work, only INTER activity during inspiration increased after RMET. Higher performance after RMSIT was associated with higher activity in STERNO and ABDO, but after RMET, STERNO, INTER, and ABDO showed higher activity. CONCLUSION: One month of RMSIT and RMET shows similar improvements in respiratory muscle performance despite different duration of training sessions. Also, muscular adaptations might differ.


Assuntos
Exercícios Respiratórios/métodos , Treino Aeróbico/métodos , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade/métodos , Pulmão/fisiologia , Músculos Respiratórios/fisiologia , Adaptação Fisiológica , Adulto , Eletromiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Trabalho Respiratório/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Respir Physiol Neurobiol ; 260: 131-136, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30471435

RESUMO

PURPOSE: While dyspnea on exertion (DOE) is a common complaint in otherwise healthy obese women, less is known about feelings of unpleasantness and/or negative emotions provoked by DOE. We examined whether ratings of perceived breathlessness (RPB) during exercise were associated with ratings of unpleasantness and negative emotions (depression, anxiety, frustration, anger, and fear) in obese women. METHODS: Seventy-four women (34 ± 7 yrs, 36 ± 4 kg/m2, 46 ± 5% body fat) performed 6 min of constant-load cycling (60 W); RPB (0-10 scale), and unpleasantness and negative emotions (visual analog scales, 10 cm) were assessed at the end. RESULTS: RPB were significantly correlated with unpleasantness and negative emotions (p < 0.05). The strongest correlations were between RPB and unpleasantness (r = 0.61, p < 0.001), and RPB and anxiety (r = 0.50, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: DOE can significantly provoke unpleasantness and negative emotions during exercise in obese women. This may affect their willingness to engage in regular physical activity.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Dispneia/fisiopatologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/psicologia , Ventilação Pulmonar/fisiologia , Trabalho Respiratório/fisiologia , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Composição Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Medidas de Volume Pulmonar , Consumo de Oxigênio
19.
Physiother Res Int ; 24(1): e1750, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30251299

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Faster recovery of postexertional dyspnea might enable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients to undertake more physical activity. The purpose of this study was to determine whether breathing with a positive expiratory load to reduce dynamic hyperinflation (DH) would hasten recovery. METHODS: Thirteen male COPD patients (59 ± 7 years; Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease Stages II and III) took part in a randomized cross-over trial in which they exercised by self-paced spot marching. Interventions at the end of exercise consisted of six breaths against either a 5-cm H2 O expiratory load (positive expiratory pressure [PEP]) or no load (Sham), with 3-hr rest between interventions. Recovery was followed for the next 10 min. Primary outcome measures were dyspnea during recovery and inspiratory capacity (IC), measured at rest, at the end of exercise and after the intervention; oxygen saturation, end-tidal CO2 , heart rate, and breathing frequency were also monitored. RESULTS: Patients exercised for 5 min reaching a heart rate of 70% age-predicted maximum and developed dyspnea of 3-4 on the Modified Borg CR10 scale. Dyspnea recovered significantly faster after the PEP intervention in all patients, taking 2.8 ± 0.4 min to return to baseline compared with 5.1 ± 0.6 min for Sham (p < 0.01). IC declined at the end of exercise and was improved by PEP (+270 220-460 ml, median, interquartile range) more than Sham (+100, 40-160 ml). However, PEP was equally effective in reducing dyspnea in all patients irrespective of the degree of DH. Changes in oxygen saturation, end-tidal CO2 , heart rate, and breathing frequency were similar in PEP and Sham. CONCLUSIONS: Positive expiratory pressure breathing is an effective means of reducing postexercise dyspnea and DH in COPD. The benefits were not limited to patients with high DH suggesting PEP may be used to speed recovery and increase the volume of exercise during pulmonary rehabilitation sessions and physical activity at home or work.


Assuntos
Dispneia/terapia , Respiração com Pressão Positiva , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/terapia , Trabalho Respiratório/fisiologia , Idoso , Estudos Cross-Over , Dispneia/fisiopatologia , Teste de Esforço , Tolerância ao Exercício/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Capacidade Inspiratória , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Músculos Respiratórios/fisiologia
20.
Exp Physiol ; 104(2): 180-188, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30462876

RESUMO

NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Increased respiratory muscle activation is associated with neural and cardiovascular consequences via the respiratory muscle metaboreflex. Does increased sympathetic vasoconstriction originating from the respiratory musculature elicit a reduction in blood flow to an inactive limb in order to maintain blood flow to an active limb? What is the main finding and its importance? Arm blood flow was reduced whereas leg blood flow was preserved during mild leg exercise with inspiratory resistance. Blood flow to the active limb is maintained via sympathetic control of blood flow redistribution when the respiratory muscle-induced metaboreflex is activated. ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effect of increasing inspiratory muscle work on blood flow to inactive and active limbs. Healthy young men (n = 10, 20 ± 2 years of age) performed two bilateral dynamic knee-extension and knee-flexion exercise tests at 40% peak oxygen uptake for 10 min. The trials consisted of spontaneous breathing for 5 min followed by voluntary hyperventilation either with or without inspiratory resistance for 5 min (40% of maximal inspiratory mouth pressure, inspiratory duty cycle of 50% and a breathing frequency of 40 breaths min-1 ). Mean arterial blood pressure was acquired using finger photoplethysmography. Blood flow in the brachial artery (inactive limb) and in the femoral artery (active limb) were monitored using Doppler ultrasound. Mean arterial blood pressure during exercise was higher (P < 0.05) with inspiratory resistance (121 ± 7 mmHg) than without resistance (99 ± 5 mmHg). Brachial artery blood flow increased during exercise without inspiratory resistance (120 ± 31 ml min-1 ) compared with the resting level, whereas it was attenuated with inspiratory resistance (65 ± 43 ml min-1 ). Femoral artery blood flow increased at the onset of exercise and was maintained throughout exercise without inspiratory resistance (2576 ± 640 ml min-1 ) and was unchanged when inspiratory resistance was added (2634 ± 659 ml min-1 ; P > 0.05). These results suggest that sympathetic control of blood redistribution to active limbs is facilitated, in part, by the respiratory muscle-induced metaboreflex.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Extremidades/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional/fisiologia , Músculos Respiratórios/fisiologia , Trabalho Respiratório/fisiologia , Adulto , Pressão Arterial/fisiologia , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Artéria Femoral/metabolismo , Artéria Femoral/fisiologia , Humanos , Inalação/fisiologia , Joelho/fisiologia , Masculino , Fadiga Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Reflexo/fisiologia , Respiração , Músculos Respiratórios/metabolismo , Descanso/fisiologia , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/metabolismo , Sistema Nervoso Simpático/fisiologia , Resistência Vascular/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
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