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1.
Saudi Med J ; 42(10): 1078-1082, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34611002

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To review the outcomes, success rate, and safety of women undergoing labor induction following a cesarean section. METHODS: This study is a retrospective review of all patients who had previous cesarean sections and were induced with prostaglandin (PGE2) or for various indications. This study was carried out at King Saud Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between 2014 and 2019. Inclusion criteria were pregnant women with previous one lower segment cesarean section, singleton cephalic fetus, normal placenta, and passed 18 months or more from previous cesarean section. RESULTS: Records of 145 women were reviewed in the study, and the success rate of induction of labor was 59.3% (95% CI: 50.8-67.4%). The rate of uterine rupture was 1.4% and maternal complication was 4.8%. The induction success rate is higher in women who had previous successful vaginal delivery than those who had no previous vaginal delivery. CONCLUSIONS: Labor induction can be considered safe in carefully selected cases owing to its good chance of success and no significant increase in maternal or fetal mortality and morbidity.


Assuntos
Cesárea , Nascimento Vaginal Após Cesárea , Feminino , Humanos , Trabalho de Parto Induzido , Gravidez , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Estudos Retrospectivos , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia
2.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(10)2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620634

RESUMO

We report the presentation, operative management and follow-up of a 31-year-old nulliparous woman who experienced a cervical avulsion injury (CAI) during labour. The woman was induced with dinoprostone gel, followed by oxytocin infusion and had a prolonged active phase. During the second stage, fetal decelerations were noted and the consultant asked to make a plan for delivery. When assessing to perform a midpelvic instrumental delivery, a cord of tissue was felt below the fetal head. A caesarean delivery was recommended based on this finding. After delivery, injuries to the broad ligament, posterior lower uterine segment vagina and cervix were repaired. The cervix was retained with the intent that some tissue be salvaged. At 6-week follow-up, transvaginal ultrasound confirmed blood flow in the cervical tissue, though cervical insufficiency was suspected on clinical examination. Our findings reinforce the seriousness of CAI and support conservative surgical management as opposed to trachelectomy or hysterectomy.


Assuntos
Colo do Útero , Trabalho de Parto Induzido , Adulto , Colo do Útero/diagnóstico por imagem , Colo do Útero/cirurgia , Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Parto Obstétrico , Feminino , Humanos , Ocitocina , Gravidez
3.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 355, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507611

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Induction of labour (IOL), or starting labour artificially, can be a lifesaving intervention for pregnant women and their babies, and rates are rising significantly globally. As rates increase, it becomes increasingly important to fully evaluate all available data, especially that from low income settings where the potential benefits and harms are greater. The goal of this paper is to describe the datasets collected as part of the Induction with Foley OR Misoprostol (INFORM) Study, a randomised trial comparing two of the recommended methods of cervical ripening for labour induction, oral misoprostol and Foley catheter, in women being induced for hypertension in pregnancy, at two sites in India during 2013-15. DATA DESCRIPTION: This dataset includes comprehensive data on 602 women who underwent IOL for hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. Women were randomly assigned to cervical ripening with oral misoprostol or a transcervical Foley catheter in two government hospitals in India. The main dataset has 367 variables including monitoring during the induction of labour, medications administered, timing and mode of delivery, measures of neonatal morbidity and mortality, maternal mortality and morbidity, maternal satisfaction and health economic data. The dataset is anonymised and available on ReShare.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Misoprostol , Ocitócicos , Cateteres , Maturidade Cervical , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Recém-Nascido , Trabalho de Parto Induzido , Gravidez
4.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e045577, 2021 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493503

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Delay in the induction of labour (IOL) process is associated with poor patient experience and adverse perinatal outcome. Our objective was to identify factors associated with delay in the IOL process and develop interventions to reduce delay. DESIGN AND SETTINGS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of maternity unit workload in a large UK district general hospital. Electronic hospital records were used to quantify delay in the IOL process and linear regression analysis was performed to assess significant associations between delay and potential causative factors. A novel computer maternity unit simulation model, MUMSIM (Maternity Unit Management SIMulation), was developed using real-world data and interventions were tested to identify those associated with a reduction in delay. PARTICIPANTS: All women giving birth at Stoke Mandeville Hospital, Buckinghamshire National Health Service (NHS) Trust in 2018 (n=4932). PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURE: Delay in the IOL process of more than 12 hours. RESULTS: The retrospective analysis of real-world maternity unit workload showed 30% of women had IOL and of these, 33% were delayed >12 hours with 20% delayed >24 hours, 10% delayed >48 hours and 1.3% delayed >72 hours. Delay was significantly associated with the total number of labouring women (p=0.008) and the number of booked IOL (p=0.009) but not emergency IOL, spontaneously labouring women or staffing shortfall. The MUMSIM computer simulation predicted that changing from slow release 24-hour prostaglandin to 6-hour prostaglandin for primiparous women would reduce delay by 4% (p<0.0001) and that additional staffing interventions could significantly reduce delay up to 17.9% (p<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Planned obstetric workload of booked IOL is associated with delay rather than the unpredictable workload of women in spontaneous labour or emergency IOL. We present a novel maternity unit computer simulation model, MUMSIM, which allows prediction of the impact of interventions to reduce delay.


Assuntos
Medicina Estatal , Carga de Trabalho , Simulação por Computador , Feminino , Humanos , Trabalho de Parto Induzido , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(34): e27063, 2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449499

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Age above 35 years at the time of birth is generally referred to as advanced maternal age (AMA), and it could be a risk factor for various complications besides genetic changes in the fetus. The primary outcome of this study was to determine if AMA is associated with emergent cesarean delivery (CD) following induction of labor (IOL). The secondary outcomes were a composite of adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes following IOL.This retrospective observational study included women with singleton, live-born, cephalic, non-anomalous pregnancies undergoing IOL from 38 0/7 to 41 6/7 weeks of gestation. Mode of delivery and other maternal and neonatal outcomes were compared between women aged ≥35 (AMA) and <35 years. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed.A total of 307 nulliparous women underwent IOL (≥35 years n = 73, 23.8%; <35 years n = 234, 76.2%) and among them, 252 (82.1%) delivered vaginally. The rate of CD was significantly higher in women of AMA (31.5% vs 13.7%, P = .001). Multivariable analysis showed that AMA was independently associated with CD (odds ratio 3.04, 95% confidence interval 1.55-5.96, P = .001). The rate of instrumental deliveries was higher in the AMA group (19.6% vs 8.2%, P = .043) and hemoglobin decrease during delivery was similar between the 2 groups (1.90 ±â€Š1.25 vs 2.02 ±â€Š1.27 mg/dL, all P > .05). Regarding neonatal outcomes, there was no difference between the 2 groups in the neonatal intensive care unit admission rate and Apgar score <7 at 5 minutes (30.3% vs 30.1% and 6.0% vs 8.2%, respectively, all P > .05). Neonatal intubation rate and severe respiratory problems were non-significantly higher in AMA (3.8% vs 2.7% and 3.4% vs 1.4%, respectively, all P > .05).AMA was associated with an approximately three-fold increased likelihood of birth by CD and operative vaginal delivery in uncomplicated nulliparous women following IOL. However, we found no evidence that IOL in primigravid women of AMA increases adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes as compared with women aged <35 years except the high prevalence of CD and operative vaginal delivery.


Assuntos
Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Trabalho de Parto Induzido/estatística & dados numéricos , Idade Materna , Resultado da Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Número de Gestações , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Readmissão do Paciente , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
6.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand ; 100(10): 1924-1930, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34255860

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Previous evidence has been conflicting regarding the effect of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic lockdowns on obstetric intervention and preterm birth rates. The literature to date suggests potentially differential underlying mechanisms based on country economic setting. We aimed to study these outcomes in an Icelandic population where uniform lockdown measures were implemented across the country. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included all singleton births (n = 20 680) during 2016-2020 identified from the population-based Icelandic Medical Birth Register. We defined two lockdown periods during March-May and October-December in 2020 according to government implemented nationwide lockdown. We compared monthly rates of cesarean section, induction of labor and preterm birth during lockdown with the same time periods in the 4 previous years (2016-2019) using logit binomial regression adjusted for confounders. RESULTS: Our results indicated a reduction in the overall cesarean section rate, which was mainly evident for elective cesarean section, both during the first (adjusted odd ratio [aOR] 0.71, 95% CI 0.51-0.99) and second (aOR 0.72, 95% CI 0.52-0.99) lockdown periods, and not for emergency cesarean section. No change during lockdown was observed in induction of labor. Our results also suggested a reduction in the overall preterm birth rate during the first lockdown (aOR 0.69, 95% CI 0.49-0.97) and in the months immediately following the lockdown (June-September) (aOR 0.67, 95% CI 0.49-0.89). The reduction during the first lockdown was mainly evident for medically indicated preterm birth (although not statistically significant) and the reduction during June-September was mainly evident for spontaneous preterm birth. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggested a reduction in elective cesarean section during COVID-19 lockdown, possibly reflecting changes in prioritization of non-urgent health care during lockdown. We also found a reduction in overall preterm birth during the first lockdown and spontaneous preterm birth following the first lockdown, but further research is needed to shed light on the underlying mechanisms for these findings.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Trabalho de Parto Induzido/estatística & dados numéricos , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Islândia , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez
7.
Am J Perinatol ; 38(12): 1231-1235, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34282578

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Preventing the first cesarean delivery (CD) is important as CD rates continue to rise. During the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, quality improvement metrics at our hospital identified lower rates of CD. We sought to investigate this change and identify factors that may have contributed to the decrease. STUDY DESIGN: We compared nulliparous singleton deliveries at a large academic hospital during the COVID-19 pandemic (April through July 2020 during a statewide "stay-at-home" order) to those in the same months 1 year prior to the pandemic (April through July 2019). The primary outcome, mode of delivery, was obtained from the electronic medical record system, along with indication for CD. RESULTS: The cohort included 1,913 deliveries: 892 in 2019 and 1,021 in 2020. Patient characteristics (age, body mass index, race, ethnicity, and insurance type) did not differ between the groups. Median gestational age at delivery was the same in both groups. The CD rate decreased significantly during the COVID-19 pandemic compared with prior (28.9 vs. 33.6%; p = 0.03). There was a significant increase in the rate of labor induction (45.7 vs. 40.6%; p = 0.02), but no difference in the proportion of inductions that were elective (19.5 vs. 20.7%; p = 0.66). The rate of CD in labor was unchanged (15.9 vs. 16.3%; p = 0.82); however, more women attempted a trial of labor (87.0 vs. 82.6%; p = 0.01). Thus, the proportion of CD without a trial of labor decreased (25.1 vs. 33.0%; p = 0.04). CONCLUSION: There was a statistically significant decrease in CD during the COVID-19 pandemic at our hospital, driven by a decrease in CD without a trial of labor. The increased rate of attempted trial of labor suggests the presence of patient-level factors that warrant further investigation as potential targets for decreasing CD rates. Additionally, in a diverse and medically complex population, increased rates of labor induction were not associated with increased rates of CD. KEY POINTS: · Primary CD rate fell during COVID-19 pandemic.. · Decrease was driven by more women attempting labor.. · Higher rate of induction without rise in CD rate was found..


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Paridade , Adulto , Boston , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Trabalho de Parto Induzido/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Prova de Trabalho de Parto
8.
JAMA ; 326(2): 145-153, 2021 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34255007

RESUMO

Importance: Timely delivery of infants suspected of having fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a balance between preventing stillbirth and minimizing prematurity, particularly because many infants with suspected FGR have normal growth. Objective: To explore the association between iatrogenic delivery for suspected FGR and childhood school outcomes. Design, Setting, and Participants: A retrospective whole-population cohort study linking perinatal data from births 32 weeks' or more gestation between January 1, 2003, to December 31, 2013, to developmental and educational test scores at preparatory school, and at school grades 3, 5, and 7 in Victoria, Australia. Follow-up was concluded in 2019. Exposures: Suspicion or nonsuspicion of FGR, presence or absence of iatrogenic delivery (defined as early induction of labor or cesarean delivery prior to labor) for suspected FGR, and presence or absence of small for gestational age (SGA). Main Outcomes and Measures: The coprimary outcomes were being in the bottom 10th percentile on 2 or more of 5 developmental domains at school entry and being below the national minimum standard on 2 or more of 5 educational domains in grades 3, 5, or 7. Results: In the birth population of 705 937 infants, the mean gestation at birth was 39.1 (SD, 1.5) weeks and the mean birth weight was 3426 (SD, 517) grams. The birth population linked to 181 902 children with developmental results and 425 717 children with educational results. Compared with infants with severe SGA (birth weight <3rd percentile) not suspected of having FGR, infants with severe SGA delivered for suspected FGR were born earlier (mean gestation, 37.9 weeks vs 39.4 weeks). They also had a significantly increased risk of poor developmental outcome at school entry (16.2% vs 12.7%; absolute difference, 3.5% [95% CI, 0.5%-6.5%]); adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.36 [95% CI, 1.07-1.74]) and poor educational outcomes in grades 3, 5, and 7 (for example, in grade 7: 13.4% vs 10.5%; absolute difference, 2.9% [95% CI, 0.4%-5.5%]); aOR, 1.33 [95% CI, 1.04-1.70]). There was no significant difference between infants with normal growth (birth weight ≥10th percentile) delivered for suspected FGR and those not suspected of having FGR in developmental outcome (8.6% vs 8.1%; absolute difference, 0.5% [95% CI, -1.1% to 2.0%]); aOR, 1.17 [95% CI, 0.95-1.45]) or educational outcome in grade 3, 5 or 7, despite being born earlier (mean gestation, 38.0 weeks vs 39.1 weeks). Conclusions and Relevance: In this exploratory study conducted in Victoria, Australia, iatrogenic delivery of infants with severe SGA due to suspected FGR was associated with poorer school outcomes compared with infants with severe SGA not suspected of having FGR. Iatrogenic delivery of infants with normal growth due to suspected FGR was not associated with poorer school outcomes compared with infants with normal growth not suspected of having FGR.


Assuntos
Cesárea , Escolaridade , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Trabalho de Parto Induzido , Adulto , Criança , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Avaliação Educacional , Feminino , Seguimentos , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Idade Materna , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Nascimento Prematuro , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vitória/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 263: 148-152, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34214801

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study are to assess (changes in) local procedures for inpatient cervical priming as part of induction of labor and to identify the implementation of outpatient cervical priming in the Netherlands. METHODS: This survey study was conducted from October 2019 until January 2020; obstetricians of all 72 hospitals with a maternity unit in the Netherlands received a questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of three parts: basic hospital data, local protocol on methods of inpatient induction of labor (IPI), local protocol for outpatient induction of labor (OPI). RESULTS: A response was received from 66/72 hospitals, giving a response rate of 92%. For IPI the most preferred method was a Foley catheter (87.9%), 27.6% protocols switched to prostaglandins after day 1 if the cervix was not ripe yet. A prostaglandin gel or pessary was not the preferred method on day 1 but only used after 24 h in 5 hospitals (7.6%). OPI was offered in 53% (35/66 hospitals), all using a Foley catheter. CONCLUSION: In the Netherlands, local protocols for IPI have shifted towards the use of a Foley catheter. More than half of the hospitals offer OPI. As safety and efficacy data of OPI are lacking, research on this topic is urgently warranted.


Assuntos
Maturidade Cervical , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Feminino , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , Trabalho de Parto Induzido , Países Baixos , Gravidez , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Front Public Health ; 9: 689115, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34222185

RESUMO

Objective: Out-of-hospital (outpatient) cervical ripening prior to induction of labor (IOL) is discussed for its potential to decrease the burden on hospital resources. We assessed the cost and clinical outcomes of adopting an outpatient strategy with a synthetic hygroscopic cervical dilator, which is indicated for use in preinduction cervical ripening. Methods: We developed a cost-consequence model from the hospital perspective with a time period from IOL to post-delivery discharge. A hypothetical cohort of women to undergo IOL at term with an unfavorable cervix (all risk levels) were assessed. As the standard of care (referred to as IP-only) all women were ripened as inpatients using the vaginal PGE2 insert or the single-balloon catheter. In the comparison (OP-select), 50.9% of low-risk women (41.4% of the study population) received outpatient cervical ripening using a synthetic hygroscopic cervical dilator and the remaining women were ripened as inpatients as in the standard of care. Model inputs were sourced from a structured literature review of peer-reviewed articles in PubMed. Testing of 2,000 feasible scenarios (probabilistic multivariate sensitivity analysis) ascertained the robustness of results. Outcomes are reported as the average over all women assessed, comparing OP-select to IP-only. Results: Implementing OP-select resulted in hospital savings of US$689 per delivery, with women spending 1.48 h less time in the labor and delivery unit and 0.91 h less in the postpartum recovery unit. The cesarean-section rate was decreased by 3.78 percentage points (23.28% decreased to 19.50%). In sensitivity testing, hospital costs and cesarean-section rate were reduced in 91% of all instances. Conclusion: Our model analysis projects that outpatient cervical ripening has the potential to reduce hospital costs, hospital stay, and the cesarean section rate. It may potentially allow for better infection-prevention control during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and to free up resources such that more women might be offered elective IOL at 39 weeks.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Maturidade Cervical , Colo do Útero , Cesárea , Feminino , Custos Hospitalares , Hospitais , Humanos , Trabalho de Parto Induzido , Pandemias , Gravidez , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos
11.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 6: CD014484, 2021 06 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34155622

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Misoprostol given orally is a commonly used labour induction method. Our Cochrane Review is restricted to studies with low-dose misoprostol (initially ≤ 50 µg), as higher doses pose unacceptably high risks of uterine hyperstimulation. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of low-dose oral misoprostol for labour induction in women with a viable fetus in the third trimester of pregnancy. SEARCH METHODS: We searched Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register, ClinicalTrials.gov,  the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (14 February 2021) and reference lists of retrieved studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised trials comparing low-dose oral misoprostol (initial dose ≤ 50 µg) versus placebo, vaginal dinoprostone, vaginal misoprostol, oxytocin, or mechanical methods; or comparing oral misoprostol protocols (one- to two-hourly versus four- to six-hourly; 20 µg to 25 µg versus 50 µg; or 20 µg hourly titrated versus 25 µg two-hourly static). DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Using Covidence, two review authors independently screened reports, extracted trial data, and performed quality assessments. Our primary outcomes were vaginal birth within 24 hours, caesarean section, and hyperstimulation with foetal heart changes. MAIN RESULTS: We included 61 trials involving 20,026 women. GRADE assessments ranged from moderate- to very low-certainty evidence, with downgrading decisions based on imprecision, inconsistency, and study limitations. Oral misoprostol versus placebo/no treatment (four trials; 594 women) Oral misoprostol may make little to no difference in the rate of caesarean section (risk ratio (RR) 0.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.59 to 1.11; 4 trials; 594 women; moderate-certainty evidence), while its effect on uterine hyperstimulation with foetal heart rate changes is uncertain (RR 5.15, 95% CI 0.25 to 105.31; 3 trials; 495 women; very low-certainty evidence). Vaginal births within 24 hours was not reported. In all trials, oxytocin could be commenced after 12 to 24 hours and all women had pre-labour ruptured membranes. Oral misoprostol versus vaginal dinoprostone (13 trials; 9676 women) Oral misoprostol probably results in fewer caesarean sections (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.78 to 0.90; 13 trials, 9676 women; moderate-certainty evidence). Subgroup analysis indicated that 10 µg to 25 µg (RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.74 to 0.87; 9 trials; 8652 women) may differ from 50 µg (RR 1.10, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.34; 4 trials; 1024 women) for caesarean section. Oral misoprostol may decrease vaginal births within 24 hours (RR 0.93, 95% CI 0.87 to 1.00; 10 trials; 8983 women; low-certainty evidence) and hyperstimulation with foetal heart rate changes (RR 0.49, 95% CI 0.40 to 0.59; 11 trials; 9084 women; low-certainty evidence). Oral misoprostol versus vaginal misoprostol (33 trials; 6110 women) Oral use may result in fewer vaginal births within 24 hours (average RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.68 to 0.95; 16 trials, 3451 women; low-certainty evidence), and less hyperstimulation with foetal heart rate changes (RR 0.69, 95% CI 0.53 to 0.92, 25 trials, 4857 women, low-certainty evidence), with subgroup analysis suggesting that 10 µg to 25 µg orally (RR 0.28, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.57; 6 trials, 957 women) may be superior to 50 µg orally (RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.61 to 1.11; 19 trials; 3900 women). Oral misoprostol probably does not increase caesarean sections overall (average RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.86 to 1.16; 32 trials; 5914 women; low-certainty evidence) but likely results in fewer caesareans for foetal distress (RR 0.74, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.99; 24 trials, 4775 women). Oral misoprostol versus intravenous oxytocin (6 trials; 737 women, 200 with ruptured membranes) Misoprostol may make little or no difference to vaginal births within 24 hours (RR 1.12, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.33; 3 trials; 466 women; low-certainty evidence), but probably results in fewer caesarean sections (RR 0.67, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.90; 6 trials; 737 women; moderate-certainty evidence). The effect on hyperstimulation with foetal heart rate changes is uncertain (RR 0.66, 95% CI 0.19 to 2.26; 3 trials, 331 women; very low-certainty evidence). Oral misoprostol versus mechanical methods (6 trials; 2993 women) Six trials compared oral misoprostol to transcervical Foley catheter. Misoprostol may increase vaginal birth within 24 hours (RR 1.32, 95% CI 0.98 to 1.79; 4 trials; 1044 women; low-certainty evidence), and probably reduces the risk of caesarean section (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.75 to 0.95; 6 trials; 2993 women; moderate-certainty evidence). There may be little or no difference in hyperstimulation with foetal heart rate changes (RR 1.31, 95% CI 0.78 to 2.21; 4 trials; 2828 women; low-certainty evidence). Oral misoprostol one- to two-hourly versus four- to six-hourly (1 trial; 64 women) The evidence on hourly titration was very uncertain due to the low numbers reported. Oral misoprostol 20 µg hourly titrated versus 25 µg two-hourly static (2 trials; 296 women) The difference in regimen may have little or no effect on the rate of vaginal births in 24 hours (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.16; low-certainty evidence). The evidence is of very low certainty for all other reported outcomes. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Low-dose oral misoprostol is probably associated with fewer caesarean sections (and therefore more vaginal births) than vaginal dinoprostone, and lower rates of hyperstimulation with foetal heart rate changes. However, time to birth may be increased, as seen by a reduced number of vaginal births within 24 hours. Compared to transcervical Foley catheter, low-dose oral misoprostol is associated with fewer caesarean sections, but equivalent rates of hyperstimulation. Low-dose misoprostol given orally rather than vaginally is probably associated with similar rates of vaginal birth, although rates may be lower within the first 24 hours. However, there is likely less hyperstimulation with foetal heart changes, and fewer caesarean sections performed due to foetal distress. The best available evidence suggests that low-dose oral misoprostol probably has many benefits over other methods for labour induction. This review supports the use of low-dose oral misoprostol for induction of labour, and demonstrates the lower risks of hyperstimulation than when misoprostol is given vaginally. More trials are needed to establish the optimum oral misoprostol regimen, but these findings suggest that a starting dose of 25 µg may offer a good balance of efficacy and safety.


Assuntos
Trabalho de Parto Induzido/métodos , Misoprostol/administração & dosagem , Ocitócicos/administração & dosagem , Administração Intravaginal , Administração Oral , Índice de Apgar , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Dinoprostona/administração & dosagem , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca Fetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/estatística & dados numéricos , Ocitocina/administração & dosagem , Parto , Placebos/administração & dosagem , Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Tempo , Útero/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
J Obstet Gynaecol Res ; 47(9): 3171-3178, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34162016

RESUMO

AIM: To compare the efficacy and safety of dinoprostone vaginal insert (DVI) alone versus DVI with adjunctive sweeping of membranes (ASM) for induction of labor (IOL). METHODS: Single-center, prospective, randomized controlled trial; women with singleton term pregnancies, cervical dilation ≥1 and <3 cm, intact membranes allocated to either DVI or DVI with ASM. The primary outcome was vaginal delivery within 24 h of insertion. Secondary outcomes included mean time from insertion to delivery, tachysystole, operative delivery for non-reassuring fetal status (NRFS), tocolytics, fetal outcomes, pain information, and subject satisfaction. RESULTS: One hundred and four received DVI (Group 1) alone and 104 DVI with ASM (Group 2). The rate of vaginal delivery within 24 h was 53% versus 56%, cesarean rate 8.7% versus 10.6% in Groups 1 and 2 respectively. Although the duration of labor was similar in both groups, about 6% of women required additional ripening with dinoprostone vaginal tablets in Group 2 compared to 11.5% in Group 1 (p-value = 0.2). The frequency of hyperstimulation syndrome, failed induction, analgesic requirements, and fetal outcomes were comparable. The majority (83%-86%) in either cohort were satisfied with their labor experience. Multivariate logistic regression demonstrated a slightly better chance for vaginal delivery within 24 h (odds ratio [OR] 1.22 [95% confidence interval, CI 0.65-2.29]; p-value 0.53] for DVI with ASM, although statistically insignificant. Younger maternal age and multiparity (OR 10.36 [95% CI 4.88-23.67]; p-value <0.0001) contributed to successful IOL. CONCLUSION: DVI with ASM is at least as efficacious as DVI for cervical ripening with no increase in morbidity. Although DVI with ASM group less often needed additional dinoprostone tablets to complete the process of IOL (p-value = 0.2), adjunctive sweeping has not been shown to have a significant impact on the duration of labor or mode of delivery.


Assuntos
Misoprostol , Ocitócicos , Administração Intravaginal , Maturidade Cervical , Dinoprostona , Feminino , Humanos , Trabalho de Parto Induzido , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
13.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e046046, 2021 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34130959

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Late preterm prelabour rupture of membranes (PROM between 34+0 and 36+6 weeks gestational age) is an important clinical dilemma. Previously, two large Dutch randomised controlled trials (RCTs) compared induction of labour (IoL) to expectant management (EM). Both trials showed that early delivery does not reduce the risk of neonatal sepsis as compared with EM, although prematurity-related risks might increase. An extensive, structured long-term follow-up of these children has never been performed. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The PPROMEXIL Follow-up trial (NL6623 (NTR6953)) aims to assess long-term childhood outcomes of the PPROMEXIL (ISRCTN29313500) and PPROMEXIL-2 trial (ISRCTN05689407), two multicentre RCTs using the same protocol, conducted between 2007 and 2010 evaluating IoL versus EM in women with late preterm PROM. The PPROMEXIL Follow-up will analyse children of mothers with a singleton pregnancy (PPROMEXIL trial n=520, PPROMEXIL-2 trial n=191, total IoL n=359; total EM n=352). At 10-12 years of age all surviving children will be invited for a neurodevelopmental assessment using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-V, Color-Word Interference Test and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2. Parents will be asked to fill out questionnaires assessing behaviour, motor function, sensory processing, respiratory problems, general health and need for healthcare services. Teachers will fill out the Teacher Report Form and answer questions regarding school attainment. For all tests means with SDs will be compared, as well as predefined cut-off scores for abnormal outcome. Sensitivity analyses consisting of different imputation techniques will be used to deal with lost to follow-up. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study has been granted approval by the Medical Centre Amsterdam (MEC) of the AmsterdamUMC (MEC2016_217). Results will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals and summaries shared with stakeholders. This protocol is published before analysis of the results. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NL6623 (NTR6953).


Assuntos
Ruptura Prematura de Membranas Fetais , Conduta Expectante , Criança , Atenção à Saúde , Feminino , Ruptura Prematura de Membranas Fetais/terapia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Trabalho de Parto Induzido , Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
14.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e047040, 2021 05 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34059509

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We compared intrapartum interventions and outcomes for mothers, neonates and children up to 16 years, for induction of labour (IOL) versus spontaneous labour onset in uncomplicated term pregnancies with live births. DESIGN: We used population linked data from New South Wales, Australia (2001-2016) for healthy women giving birth at 37+0 to 41+6 weeks. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were performed for intrapartum interventions, postnatal maternal and neonatal outcomes, and long-term child outcomes adjusted for maternal age, country of birth, socioeconomic status, parity and gestational age. RESULTS: Of 474 652 included births, 69 397 (15%) had an IOL for non-medical reasons. Primiparous women with IOL versus spontaneous onset differed significantly for: spontaneous vaginal birth (42.7% vs 62.3%), instrumental birth (28.0% vs 23.9%%), intrapartum caesarean section (29.3% vs 13.8%), epidural (71.0% vs 41.3%), episiotomy (41.2% vs 30.5%) and postpartum haemorrhage (2.4% vs 1.5%). There was a similar trend in outcomes for multiparous women, except for caesarean section which was lower (5.3% vs 6.2%). For both groups, third and fourth degree perineal tears were lower overall in the IOL group: primiparous women (4.2% vs 4.9%), multiparous women (0.7% vs 1.2%), though overall vaginal repair was higher (89.3% vs 84.3%). Following induction, incidences of neonatal birth trauma, resuscitation and respiratory disorders were higher, as were admissions to hospital for infections (ear, nose, throat, respiratory and sepsis) up to 16 years. There was no difference in hospitalisation for asthma or eczema, or for neonatal death (0.06% vs 0.08%), or in total deaths up to 16 years. CONCLUSION: IOL for non-medical reasons was associated with higher birth interventions, particularly in primiparous women, and more adverse maternal, neonatal and child outcomes for most variables assessed. The size of effect varied by parity and gestational age, making these important considerations when informing women about the risks and benefits of IOL.


Assuntos
Cesárea , Web Semântica , Austrália , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Trabalho de Parto Induzido , New South Wales/epidemiologia , Parto , Gravidez
15.
Mo Med ; 118(3): 246-252, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34149085

RESUMO

We examined the interaction between race and labor induction in cesarean delivery in a cohort of 600,000 deliveries in the Cerner Health Facts database. Black women had higher likelihood cesarean (28.9 vs. 26.5%) and lower likelihood of induction of labor at delivery compared to white women (27.2 vs. 32.5%). Induction modified the association between race and cesarean-Black women (odds ratio=1.36, 95% confidence interval 1.30, 1.43) who were induced had significantly increased odds of cesarean delivery.


Assuntos
Cesárea , Trabalho de Parto Induzido , Afro-Americanos , Estudos de Coortes , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Aust Health Rev ; 45(4): 418-424, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34097850

RESUMO

Objective This study examined hospitalisations and associated in-patient costs for babies during the first year of life following spontaneous labour, compared with labour induction or prelabour Caesarean section, at each gestational age. Methods Birth data for singleton liveborn babies from 33 weeks gestation in New South Wales from 2005 to 2014 were linked to hospital and death data. Generalised linear models were used to examine the association between the type of labour and the length of hospitalisations and hospital costs. Results From 2005 to 2014, 598640 women gave birth to 1187451 liveborn singleton babies. The mean total length of hospitalisations and costs of hospitalisations for babies in the first year of life decreased significantly as week of gestational age increased to 39 weeks, then plateaued. Overall, the total length of hospitalisations and hospital costs were significantly (P<0.001) lower for babies born after spontaneous labour (5.6 days and A$8405 respectively) than for babies born following labour induction (6.1 days and A$9452 respectively) or prelabour Caesarean section (8.2 days and A$12320 respectively). Conclusions Babies born following spontaneous labour spend less time in hospital and have lower hospital costs than those born following labour induction or prelabour Caesarean section. Hospitalisations and costs decrease with each week of gestational age until 39 weeks. What is known about the topic? It is known that induction of labour and prelabour Caesarean sections are increasing, and this increase has changed the distribution of gestational age towards birth at earlier ages. It is also known that babies born before 39 weeks of gestation are at increased risk of mortality and morbidity. What does this paper add? This study shows that babies born following spontaneous labour spend the least amount of time in hospital and subsequently have the lowest hospital costs at each week of gestation compared with babies born following labour induction or prelabour Caesarean section. This study also shows a small but significant economic advantage of labour induction compared with prelabour Caesarean delivery. This study quantifies the mean time babies spend in hospital in their first year of life, by week of gestational age and mode of birth. What are the implications for practitioners? The findings from this study can assist clinicians in judicious decision making when balancing the risks and benefits of early planned births. Clinicians can use the results of this study to inform women who are intending to have a planned birth of risks they may not have anticipated, such as the increased risk of rehospitalisation. The finding that hospitalisations and costs continue to decline until 39 weeks gestation can be used to reinforce the importance of continuing the pregnancy beyond 37 weeks if safe to do so, even though 37 weeks is considered term.


Assuntos
Cesárea , Trabalho de Parto Induzido , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Hospitalização , Humanos , Lactente , New South Wales , Gravidez
17.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e046433, 2021 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34135044

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To explore how the time of delivery influences childbirth experience. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Childbirth in the four Helsinki and Uusimaa Hospital District hospitals, Finland, from 2012 to 2018. PARTICIPANTS: 105 847 childbirths with a singleton live fetus. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Childbirth experience measured by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). RESULTS: The major difference in average childbirth experience measured by VAS was between primiparas (8.03; 95% CI 8.01 to 8.04) and multiparas (8.47; 95% CI 8.45 to 8.48). Risk ratio (RR) of the low VAS (≤5) was 2.3 when primiparas were compared with multiparas. Differences in VAS between distinct periods were found in two stages: annual and time of day. The decrease in VAS from 2012-2016 to 2017-2018 in primiparas was from 7.97 (95% CI 7.95 to 7.99) to 7.80 (95% CI 7.77 to 7.83) and from 2014-2016 to 2017-2018 in multiparas from 8.60 (95% CI 8.58 to 8.61) to 8.49 (95% CI 8.47 to 8.52). Corresponding RRs of low VAS were 1.3 for primiparas and 1.2 for multiparas. Hourly differences in VAS were detected in primiparas between office hours 08:00-15:59 (7.97; 95% CI 7.94 to 7.99) and other times (night 00:00-07:59; 7.91; 95% CI 7.88 to 7.94; and evening 16:00-23:59; 7.90; 95% CI 7.87 to 7.92). In multiparas differences in VAS were detected between evening (8.52; 95% CI 8.50 to 8.54) and other periods (night; 8.56; 95% CI 8.54 to 9.58; and office hours; 8.57; 95% CI 8.55 to 8.59). CONCLUSION: The maternal childbirth experience depended on the time of delivery. Giving birth during the evening led to impaired childbirth experience in both primiparas and multiparas, compared with delivery at other times. The impact of labour induction on childbirth experience should be further examined. The reorganisation of delivery services and the reduction of birth preparations might affect annual VAS. VAS is a simple method of measuring the complex entity of childbirth experience, and our results indicate its ability to capture temporal variation.


Assuntos
Trabalho de Parto Induzido , Parto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Finlândia , Humanos , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos
18.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(5)2021 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34065827

RESUMO

The PROPESS, a controlled-release dinoprostone vaginal delivery system, is a pharmacological cervical ripening intervention and promotes cervical change causing uterine contraction. During insertion of the PROPESS, uterine hyperstimulation could occur and result in fetal heart rate (FHR) abnormality. We report a case of uterine hyperstimulation accompanied with FHR abnormality caused by the PROPESS in a pregnant woman. Postural change, oxygenation, fluid infusion, and the immediate PROPESS removal were ineffective to address the adverse event, so we administered nitroglycerin for acute uterine relaxation. The nitroglycerin resulted in uterine relaxation, and the FHR abnormality was resolved immediately, thereby preventing an emergency cesarean section. Therefore, nitroglycerin could be considered an effective option for uterine hyperstimulation accompanied with FHR abnormality caused by the PROPESS.


Assuntos
Dinoprostona , Ocitócicos , Cesárea , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca Fetal , Humanos , Trabalho de Parto Induzido , Nitroglicerina/uso terapêutico , Ocitócicos/uso terapêutico , Gravidez
19.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 126, 2021 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34030675

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Post-term gestation beyond 41+6 completed weeks of gestation is known to be associated with a sharp increase in the risk of stillbirth and perinatal mortality. However, the risk of common adverse outcomes related to labour, such as shoulder dystocia and post-partum haemorrhage for those delivering at this advanced gestation, remains poorly characterised. The objective of this study was to examine the risk of adverse, labour-related outcomes for women progressing to 42 weeks gestation or beyond, compared with those giving birth at 39 completed weeks. METHODS: We performed a state-wide cohort study using routinely collected perinatal data in Australia. Comparing the two gestation cohorts, we examined the adjusted relative risk of clinically significant labour-related adverse outcomes, including macrosomia (≥ 4500 at birth), post-partum haemorrhage (≥1000 ml), shoulder dystocia, 3rd or 4th degree perineal tear and unplanned caesarean section. Parity, maternal age and mode of birth were adjusted for using logistic regression. RESULTS: The study cohort included 91,314 women who birthed at 39 completed weeks and 4317 at ≥42 completed weeks. Compared to 39 weeks gestation, those giving birth ≥42 weeks gestation had an adjusted relative risk (aRR) of 1.85 (95% CI 1.55-2.20) for post-partum haemorrhage following vaginal birth, 2.29 (95% CI 1.89-2.78) following instrumental birth and 1.44 (95% CI 1.17-1.78) following emergency caesarean section; 1.43 (95% CI 1.16-1.77) for shoulder dystocia (for non-macrosomic babies); and 1.22 (95% CI 1.03-1.45) for 3rd or 4th degree perineal tear (all women). The adjusted relative risk of giving birth to a macrosomic baby was 10.19 (95% CI 8.26-12.57) among nulliparous women and 4.71 (95% CI 3.90-5.68) among multiparous women. The risk of unplanned caesarean section was 1.96 (95% CI 1.86-2.06) following any labour and 1.47 (95% CI 1.38-1.56) following induction of labour. CONCLUSIONS: Giving birth at ≥42 weeks gestation may be an under-recognised risk factor for several important, labour-related adverse outcomes. Clinicians should be aware that labour at this advanced gestation incurs a higher risk of adverse outcomes. In addition to known perinatal risks, the risk of obstetric complications should be considered in the counselling of women labouring at post-term gestation.


Assuntos
Cesárea , Trabalho de Parto , Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Trabalho de Parto Induzido , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
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