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1.
Rev Med Liege ; 75(10): 676-681, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030845

RESUMO

In Wallonia, almost one fourth of cesarean sections are performed on nulliparous women with vertex nonanomalous singleton gestations who underwent induction of labor. The purpose of this study is to compare maternal and neonatal outcomes with elective induction of labor versus spontaneous onset of labor. Data for all deliveries at CHU de Liège over a two-year period were obtained. Women with vertex nonanomalous singleton gestations who delivered from 3900 to 40+6 weeks were selected. We tested the association of elective induction and operative vaginal delivery, cesarean section, post-partum hemorrhage, episiotomy and perineal lacerations, length of labor, length of stay, 1-min and 5-min APGAR inferior to 7 and admission to neonatal intensive care unit. Length of stay was significantly longer in all induced women. In nulliparous women, there was a 45 % probability of operative vaginal delivery or cesarean section delivery in those who underwent elective induction of labor. In light of these results, it seems that our policy of elective induction of labor in nulliparous women is causing unnecessary and potentially avoidable interventions.


Assuntos
Cesárea , Trabalho de Parto Induzido , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos
2.
Rev Saude Publica ; 54: 88, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876302

RESUMO

In Brazil, the excess of interventions that anticipate childbirth, such as cesarean sections and labor inductions, has resulted in the shortening of pregnancy, with negative consequences on maternal-infant outcomes. This commentary presents a novel way to measure gestational age: the continuous variable "Potential pregnancy days lost." Using data from the Live Birth Information System (SINASC), we counted the missing days between the period until childbirth and the average duration of pregnancy (280 days), or the lost weeks. This measure can be used as an outcome variable (socioeconomic-demographic characteristics of the mother, type of childbirth, financing, etc.) or exposure variable (for neonatal, infant, and maternal outcomes). The indicator can be used in municipal and national cohorts and intervention studies to analyze hospitals and regions. We discuss the limits and scope of gestational age measures and, given their inaccuracies, the importance of studying their trends.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico , Trabalho de Parto Induzido , Brasil , Cesárea , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Gravidez
3.
J Pregnancy ; 2020: 4985693, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32953176

RESUMO

Cervical assessment on the Bishop scale prior to induction of labor (IOL) is one of the strongest prognostic criteria in relation to the success of the procedure. The commonly used preinduction methods are mainly aimed at reducing the percentage of cesarean sections. Our study has analyzed obstetric results of patients who had unripe cervix (Bishop score <7) before IOL and used preinduction (Foley catheter or misoprostol vaginal insert releasing 7 mcg of misoprostol per hour for 24 hours) with obstetric results of patients in whom, due to favourable cervix, only a low-dose infusion of oxytocin was used. We reviewed the medical records of 1010 single pregnancies in whom IOL was performed. We divided the patients into two groups: group A (where preinduction was used) and group B (Bishop score ≥7 points) where preinduction was not used. Patients in group A were more likely to complete the delivery by caesarean section (OR = 4.58, 95% CI 3.22-6.51), and more likely to have events that were indications for operative delivery: unreassuring fetal heart rate trace (OR = 3.29, 95% CI 2.07-5.23) and arrested labor or failed induction (OR = 3.4, 95% CI 2.06-5.62). The groups did not differ in the percentage of vacuum extraction, postpartum haemorrhage, and meconium stained amniotic fluid. In group B, more infants were born with umbilical cord blood pH <7.1 (1.38% vs. 0%), both groups included no deliveries of newborns with Apgar score ≤3 points, the groups did not differ in terms of the percentage of newborns with Apgar score between 4 and 7 at birth (OR = 0.66, 95% CI 0.29-1.49). The immature cervix and the need to use labor preinduction is a risk factor for caesarean section. The necessity of preinduction does not impair neonatological results.


Assuntos
Colo do Útero/fisiologia , Trabalho de Parto Induzido/efeitos adversos , Trabalho de Parto Induzido/métodos , Trabalho de Parto , Adulto , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Ocitocina/administração & dosagem , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
4.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD007372, 2020 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32852803

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The setting in which induction of labour takes place (home or inpatient) is likely to have implications for safety, women's experiences and costs. Home induction may be started at home with the subsequent active phase of labour happening either at home or in a healthcare facility (hospital, birth centre, midwifery-led unit). More commonly, home induction starts in a healthcare facility, then the woman goes home to await the start of labour. Inpatient induction takes place in a healthcare facility where the woman stays while awaiting the start of labour. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects on neonatal and maternal outcomes of third trimester home induction of labour compared with inpatient induction using the same method of induction. SEARCH METHODS: For this update, we searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register, ClinicalTrials.gov, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (31 January 2020)), and reference lists of retrieved studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Published and unpublished randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in which home and inpatient settings for induction have been compared. We included conference abstracts but excluded quasi-randomised trials and cross-over studies. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed study reports for inclusion. Two review authors carried out data extraction and assessment of risk of bias independently. GRADE assessments were checked by a third review author. MAIN RESULTS: We included seven RCTs, six of which provided data on 1610 women and their babies. Studies were undertaken between 1998 and 2015, and all were in high- or upper-middle income countries. Most women were induced for post dates. Three studies reported government funding, one reported no funding and three did not report on their funding source. Most GRADE assessments gave very low-certainty evidence, downgrading mostly for high risk of bias and serious imprecision. 1. Home compared to inpatient induction with vaginal prostaglandin E (PGE) (two RCTs, 1028 women and babies; 1022 providing data). Although women's satisfaction may be slightly better in home settings, the evidence is very uncertain (mean difference (MD) 0.16, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.02 to 0.34, 1 study, 399 women), very low-certainty evidence. There may be little or no difference between home and inpatient induction for other primary outcomes, with all evidence being very low certainty: - spontaneous vaginal birth (average risk ratio (RR) [aRR] 0.91, 95% CI 0.69 to 1.21, 2 studies, 1022 women, random-effects method); - uterine hyperstimulation (RR 1.19, 95% CI 0.40 to 3.50, 1 study, 821 women); - caesarean birth (RR 1.01, 95% CI 0.81 to 1.28, 2 studies, 1022 women); - neonatal infection (RR 1.29, 95% CI 0.59 to 2.82, 1 study, 821 babies); - admission to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) (RR 1.20, 95% CI 0.50 to 2.90, 2 studies, 1022 babies). Studies did not report serious neonatal morbidity or mortality. 2. Home compared to inpatient induction with controlled release PGE (one RCT, 299 women and babies providing data). There was no information on whether the questionnaire on women's satisfaction with care used a validated instrument, but the findings presented showed no overall difference in scores. We found little or no difference between the groups for other primary outcomes, all also being very low-certainty evidence: - spontaneous vaginal birth (RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.14, 1 study, 299 women); - uterine hyperstimulation (RR 1.01, 95% CI 0.51 to 1.98, 1 study, 299 women); - caesarean births (RR 0.95, 95% CI 0.64 to 1.42, 1 study, 299 women); - admission to NICU (RR 1.38, 0.57 to 3.34, 1 study, 299 babies). The study did not report on neonatal infection nor serious neonatal morbidity or mortality. 3. Home compared to inpatient induction with balloon or Foley catheter (four RCTs; three studies, 289 women and babies providing data). It was again unclear whether questionnaires reporting women's experiences/satisfaction with care were validated instruments, with one study (48 women, 69% response rate) finding women were similarly satisfied. Home inductions may reduce the number of caesarean births, but the data are also compatible with a slight increase and are of very low-certainty (RR 0.64, 95% CI 0.41 to 1.01, 2 studies, 159 women). There was little or no difference between the groups for other primary outcomes with all being very low-certainty evidence: - spontaneous vaginal birth (RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.54 to 1.98, 1 study, 48 women): - uterine hyperstimulation (RR 0.45, 95% CI 0.03 to 6.79, 1 study, 48 women); - admission to NICU (RR 0.37, 95% CI 0.07 to 1.86, 2 studies, 159 babies). There were no serious neonatal infections nor serious neonatal morbidity or mortality in the one study (involving 48 babies) assessing these outcomes. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Data on the effectiveness, safety and women's experiences of home versus inpatient induction of labour are limited and of very low-certainty. Given that serious adverse events are likely to be extremely rare, the safety data are more likely to come from very large observational cohort studies rather than relatively small RCTs.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial/métodos , Maturidade Cervical , Hospitalização , Trabalho de Parto Induzido/métodos , Cateterismo/métodos , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Dinoprostona , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Tempo de Internação , Ocitócicos , Segurança do Paciente , Satisfação do Paciente , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
5.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237132, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764773

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The safety of methods of labor induction in women with previous cesarean deliveries is still debated. We investigated perinatal outcomes associated with labor induction among women with a trial of labor after one cesarean delivery. METHODS: This retrospective study included 339 women with a trial of labor after one prior cesarean and a singleton term fetus in cephalic presentation in 2013-2016 in a French maternity unit. Labor induction was performed with oxytocin, artificial rupture of membranes and/or prostaglandin E2, according to the Bishop score. The primary outcome was a composite of uterine rupture, low Apgar score, neonatal resuscitation or admission to a neonatal unit. The secondary outcomes included cesarean delivery after onset of labor, postpartum hemorrhage and maternal hospital stay after delivery. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios adjusted (aOR) for potential confounders. RESULTS: In our sample, 67.3% of women had spontaneous labor and 32.7% were induced. More than half of the women received oxytocin during labor regardless of the mode of labor. The proportions of the composite outcome and of cesarean after onset of labor were higher in the induced group compared to the spontaneous group (26.1% vs 15.8%, p = 0.02 and 45.0% vs 27.6%, p<0.01, respectively). There were 9 uterine ruptures (2.6%) and this proportion was higher in the induced group compared to the spontaneous group, although this difference was not statistically significant (3.6% vs 2.2%, p = 0.48). After adjustment, labor induction was associated with higher risks of the composite outcome (aOR = 2.45, 95% CI: 1.29-4.65), cesarean after onset of labor (aOR = 2.06, 95% CI: 1.15-3.68) and maternal hospital stay after delivery ≥6 days (aOR = 6.20, 95% CI: 3.25-11.81). No association was found with postpartum hemorrhage. CONCLUSION: Labor induction after one prior cesarean was associated with a higher risk of adverse perinatal outcome. Nevertheless, the higher proportion of uterine rupture did not differ significantly from that in the spontaneous labor group.


Assuntos
Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/estatística & dados numéricos , Trabalho de Parto Induzido/efeitos adversos , Ruptura Uterina/epidemiologia , Nascimento Vaginal Após Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Índice de Apgar , Dinoprostona/administração & dosagem , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Trabalho de Parto Induzido/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Ocitócicos/administração & dosagem , Ocitócicos/efeitos adversos , Ocitocina/administração & dosagem , Gravidez , Gravidez de Alto Risco , Ressuscitação/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Ruptura Uterina/etiologia , Nascimento Vaginal Após Cesárea/métodos , Nascimento Vaginal Após Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos
6.
Mymensingh Med J ; 29(3): 616-621, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32844802

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to find out the effectiveness and safety of vaginal misoprostol in delivering the dead fetus in cases of intrauterine fetal death (IUFD). This cross sectional study was undertaken among all consecutive patients admitted at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Dhaka Medical College Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh, from October 2012 to September 2013, were included for this study. Vaginal misoprostol was applied in 50 cases that were admitted and diagnosed as a case of IUFD. After taking informed written consent from patients 50µgm of tablet misoprostol was introduced per vaginally into the posterior fornix. Doses were repeated in every 4 hours up to effective contraction to a maximum 6 doses. Follow up was done in hourly interval. Those who did not respond, decision for other methods like oxytocin infusion or LUCS were done. Study showed 60% (n=30) patients belonged to age group of 18-24 years. Among study population 44% (n=22) of the patients belonged to 22-32 weeks of gestation, 30% (n=15) were 33-37 weeks and 26% (n=13) were 38-42 weeks. The causes of intrauterine death were unidentified among 60% (n=30) of cases. Regarding antenatal check up 54% (n=27) had no checkup, 26% (n=13) were irregular and 20% (n=10) were regular. 60% (n=30) of the patients had less Bishop Score <3. Ninety six percent (96%) (n=48) patients responded with vaginal misoprostol and only 4% (n=2) were non responder group. Most 84% (n=42) of the cases needed 2-3 doses, only 8% (n=4) cases needed single dose and 8% (n=4) cases needed 4 to 6 doses. The induction delivery interval varied from 6 to 23 hours and maximum 52% (n=26) of the patients delivered within 12 hours. Adverse effects such as uterine hyper stimulation, tachysystole were not detected. The major complications observed like postpartum hemorrhage 4% (n=2), reduced platelet count 2% (n=1), and chorioamnionitis 4% (n=2). However minor complications like nausea, shivering and mild fever also observed in few cases. Study showed successful induction of labor by misoprostol in a shorter time with significantly less side effects.


Assuntos
Misoprostol , Administração Intravaginal , Adolescente , Adulto , Bangladesh , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Morte Fetal , Humanos , Trabalho de Parto Induzido , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
7.
Arch Gynecol Obstet ; 302(3): 579-584, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32617665

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare the effectiveness of the Cook vaginal cervical ripening balloon (CCRB) with prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) insert for induction of labor in late pregnancy in primipara. METHODS: We evaluated the effectiveness and safety of induction of labor using the improved Bishop score after CCRB or PGE2 administration, total stage of labor, hours until delivery (hours from placement of CCRB or PGE2 insert to parturition and delivery), delivery rate within 24 h, spontaneous delivery rate, successful induction rate, overstimulation syndrome, urgent delivery rate, pain scores, cesarean section rate, and outcomes related to delivery and perinatal morbidity, such as puerperal infection rate, total cost, satisfaction survey, and so on. RESULTS: The improved Bishop Score and delivery rate within 24 h in the CCRB group were significantly higher than in the PGE2 group. The total stage of labor and hours until delivery in the CCRB group were significantly shorter than that in the PGE2 group. Rate of overstimulation syndrome and pain scores in the CCRB group were significantly lower than in the PGE2 group. Compared with the PGE2 group, the mean duration of hospitalization in the CCRB group was shorter and the total cost was less. No difference in satisfaction between the PGE2 and CCRB groups was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with PGE2, CCRB reduced the total stage of labor, hours until delivery, pain scores, mean length of hospitalization, and total cost. CCRB increased the rate of delivery within 24 h with similar safety and maternal satisfaction compared with PGE2.


Assuntos
Maturidade Cervical , Colo do Útero/efeitos dos fármacos , Dinoprostona/administração & dosagem , Trabalho de Parto Induzido/métodos , Ocitócicos/administração & dosagem , Administração Intravaginal , Adulto , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , China , Dinoprostona/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Ocitócicos/uso terapêutico , Gravidez , Resultado do Tratamento , Vagina
8.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 7: CD004945, 2020 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32666584

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Risks of stillbirth or neonatal death increase as gestation continues beyond term (around 40 weeks' gestation). It is unclear whether a policy of labour induction can reduce these risks. This Cochrane Review is an update of a review that was originally published in 2006 and subsequently updated in 2012 and 2018. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of a policy of labour induction at or beyond 37 weeks' gestation compared with a policy of awaiting spontaneous labour indefinitely (or until a later gestational age, or until a maternal or fetal indication for induction of labour arises) on pregnancy outcomes for the infant and the mother. SEARCH METHODS: For this update, we searched Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register, ClinicalTrials.gov and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (17 July 2019), and reference lists of retrieved studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) conducted in pregnant women at or beyond 37 weeks, comparing a policy of labour induction with a policy of awaiting spontaneous onset of labour (expectant management). We also included trials published in abstract form only. Cluster-RCTs, quasi-RCTs and trials using a cross-over design were not eligible for inclusion in this review. We included pregnant women at or beyond 37 weeks' gestation. Since risk factors at this stage of pregnancy would normally require intervention, only trials including women at low risk for complications, as defined by trialists, were eligible. The trials of induction of labour in women with prelabour rupture of membranes at or beyond term were not considered in this review but are considered in a separate Cochrane Review. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion, assessed risk of bias and extracted data. Data were checked for accuracy. We assessed the certainty of evidence using the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: In this updated review, we included 34 RCTs (reporting on over 21,000 women and infants) mostly conducted in high-income settings. The trials compared a policy to induce labour usually after 41 completed weeks of gestation (> 287 days) with waiting for labour to start and/or waiting for a period before inducing labour. The trials were generally at low to moderate risk of bias. Compared with a policy of expectant management, a policy of labour induction was associated with fewer (all-cause) perinatal deaths (risk ratio (RR) 0.31, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.15 to 0.64; 22 trials, 18,795 infants; high-certainty evidence). There were four perinatal deaths in the labour induction policy group compared with 25 perinatal deaths in the expectant management group. The number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) with induction of labour, in order to prevent one perinatal death, was 544 (95% CI 441 to 1042). There were also fewer stillbirths in the induction group (RR 0.30, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.75; 22 trials, 18,795 infants; high-certainty evidence); two in the induction policy group and 16 in the expectant management group. For women in the policy of induction arms of trials, there were probably fewer caesarean sections compared with expectant management (RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.85 to 0.95; 31 trials, 21,030 women; moderate-certainty evidence); and probably little or no difference in operative vaginal births with induction (RR 1.03, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.10; 22 trials, 18,584 women; moderate-certainty evidence). Induction may make little or difference to perineal trauma (severe perineal tear: RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.26; 5 trials; 11,589 women; low-certainty evidence). Induction probably makes little or no difference to postpartum haemorrhage (RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.15, 9 trials; 12,609 women; moderate-certainty evidence), or breastfeeding at discharge (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.04; 2 trials, 7487 women; moderate-certainty evidence). Very low certainty evidence means that we are uncertain about the effect of induction or expectant management on the length of maternal hospital stay (average mean difference (MD) -0.19 days, 95% CI -0.56 to 0.18; 7 trials; 4120 women; Tau² = 0.20; I² = 94%). Rates of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission were lower (RR 0.88, 95% CI 0.80 to 0.96; 17 trials, 17,826 infants; high-certainty evidence), and probably fewer babies had Apgar scores less than seven at five minutes in the induction groups compared with expectant management (RR 0.73, 95% CI 0.56 to 0.96; 20 trials, 18,345 infants; moderate-certainty evidence). Induction or expectant management may make little or no difference for neonatal encephalopathy (RR 0.69, 95% CI 0.37 to 1.31; 2 trials, 8851 infants; low-certainty evidence, and probably makes little or no difference for neonatal trauma (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.63 to 1.49; 5 trials, 13,106 infants; moderate-certainty evidence) for induction compared with expectant management. Neurodevelopment at childhood follow-up and postnatal depression were not reported by any trials. In subgroup analyses, no differences were seen for timing of induction (< 40 versus 40-41 versus > 41 weeks' gestation), by parity (primiparous versus multiparous) or state of cervix for any of the main outcomes (perinatal death, stillbirth, NICU admission, caesarean section, operative vaginal birth, or perineal trauma). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is a clear reduction in perinatal death with a policy of labour induction at or beyond 37 weeks compared with expectant management, though absolute rates are small (0.4 versus 3 deaths per 1000). There were also lower caesarean rates without increasing rates of operative vaginal births and there were fewer NICU admissions with a policy of induction. Most of the important outcomes assessed using GRADE had high- or moderate-certainty ratings. While existing trials have not yet reported on childhood neurodevelopment, this is an important area for future research. The optimal timing of offering induction of labour to women at or beyond 37 weeks' gestation needs further investigation, as does further exploration of risk profiles of women and their values and preferences. Offering women tailored counselling may help them make an informed choice between induction of labour for pregnancies, particularly those continuing beyond 41 weeks - or waiting for labour to start and/or waiting before inducing labour.


Assuntos
Trabalho de Parto Induzido/efeitos adversos , Gravidez Prolongada , Conduta Expectante , Cesárea/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/estatística & dados numéricos , Morte Perinatal , Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Risco , Natimorto/epidemiologia
9.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0227941, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32722667

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare synthetic oxytocin infusion regimens used during labour, calculate the International Units (IU) escalation rate and total amount of IU infused over eight hours. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: Twelve countries, eleven European and South Africa. SAMPLE: National, regional or institutional-level regimens on oxytocin for induction and augmentation labour. METHODS: Data on oxytocin IU dose, infusion fluid amount, start dose, escalation rate and maximum dose were collected. Values for each regimen were converted to IU in 1000ml diluent. One IU corresponded to 1.67µg for doses provided in grams/micrograms. IU hourly dose increase rates were based on escalation frequency. Cumulative doses and total IU amount infused were calculated by adding the dose administered for each previous hour. Main Outcome Measures Oxytocin IU dose infused. RESULTS: Data were obtained on 21 regimens used in 12 countries. Details on the start dose, escalation interval, escalation rate and maximum dose infused were available from 16 regimens. Starting rates varied from 0.06 IU/hour to 0.90 IU/hour, and the maximum dose rate varied from 0.90 IU/hour to 3.60 IU/hour. The total amount of IU oxytocin infused, estimated over eight hours, ranged from 2.38 IU to 27.00 IU, a variation of 24.62 IU and an 11-fold difference. CONCLUSION: Current variations in oxytocin regimens for induction and augmentation of labour are inexplicable. It is crucial that the appropriate minimum infusion regimen is administered because synthetic oxytocin is a potentially harmful medication with serious consequences for women and babies when inappropriately used. Estimating the total amount of oxytocin IU received by labouring women, alongside the institution's mode of birth and neonatal outcomes, may deepen our understanding and be the way forward to identifying the optimal infusion regimen.


Assuntos
Trabalho de Parto , Ocitócicos/administração & dosagem , Ocitocina/administração & dosagem , Esquema de Medicação , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Trabalho de Parto Induzido , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Gravidez
10.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(6)2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32606133

RESUMO

We present a case of a 38+1 weeks pregnant patient (G1P0) with a proven COVID-19 infection, who was planned for induction of labour because of pre-existent hypertension, systemic lupus erythematosus, respiratory problem of coughing and mild dyspnoea without fever during the COVID-19 pandemic in March 2020. To estimate the risk of vertical transmission of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome CoronaVirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) during labour and delivery, we collected oropharyngeal, vaginal, urinary, placental and neonatal PCRs for SARS-CoV-2 during the period of admission. All PCRs, except for the oropharyngeal, were negative and vertical transmission was not observed. Labour and delivery were uncomplicated and the patient and neonate were discharged the next day. We give a short overview of the known literature about SARS-CoV-2-related infection during pregnancy, delivery and outcome of the neonate.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Corticosteroides , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão , Recém-Nascido , Trabalho de Parto Induzido , Mastocitose Sistêmica , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Gravidez
11.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 100(25): 1979-1982, 2020 Jul 07.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629600

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the effect of induction on maternal and neonatal outcomes of vaginal birth after cesarean section (VBAC). Methods: Retrospective cohort study. A total of 452 pregnant women who underwent trail of labor after cesarean section (TOLAC) from January 2015 to March 2019 of Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Capital Medical University were enrolled. According to the mode of the onset of labor, those 331 women who underwent VBAC were divided into spontaneous labor group (n=280) and induction group(n=51). According to induction methods, the pregnant women in the induction group was divided into the low-dose oxytocin subgroup (n=35) and other method subgroup (n=16, 9 cases with cervical ripening by balloon and 7 cases combined with oxytocin). The effect of induction on labor duration and maternal and neonatal outcome in VBAC were analyzed. Results: No maternal and neonatal death occurred. There were 23.0% (76/331) with forceps, 15.1% (50/331) of postpartum hemorrhage, and 24.5% (81/331) of fetal distress. The gravidity, birth weight and the gestational weeks of delivery in the induction group were significantly higher than those in the spontaneous onset group [2.0 (2.0-3.0) vs 2.0(1.0-2.0) times, 39.0(38.0-40.0) vs 38.0(37.0-39.0) weeks, (3 467±372) vs (3 168±538) g, Z=-3.548,-3.892,-3.813, all P<0.01]. The duration of the second stage of labor was significantly longer than that of the spontaneous onset group [43(26-60) vs 30(17-49) min, Z=-2.145,P<0.05], but the duration of the first stage, the total duration of labor, the rate of forceps, the incidence of postpartum hemorrhage, the rate of perineal incision and the incidence of fetal distress were not obvious different (all P>0.05). The duration of the first stage and total duration in oxytocin group were significantly shorter than those other method group [260(210-435) vs 325(250-490) min, 450(355-620) vs 523(370-668) min, Z=-2.001,-1.913, all P<0.05]. There were not significantly different in the duration of second stage, mode of delivery, perineal injury, the rate of postpartum hemorrhage, and fetal distress in the two groups (all P>0.05). Conclusion: Pregnant women who have undergone TOLAC after caesarean section can be induced after fully evaluation. Although induction prolongs the labor duration, it does not affect the maternal and neonatal complication rate.


Assuntos
Hemorragia Pós-Parto , Nascimento Vaginal Após Cesárea , Maturidade Cervical , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Trabalho de Parto Induzido , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 6: CD012970, 2020 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32575163

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is carbohydrate intolerance first recognised during pregnancy and associated with complications for mothers and babies. Probiotics are naturally occurring micro-organisms, which when ingested in adequate amounts, may confer health benefits. Evidence of the role of probiotics as treatment for GDM is limited. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of probiotics in treating women with GDM on maternal and infant outcomes. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register ClinicalTrials.gov, WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (24 July 2019), and reference lists of retrieved studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the use of probiotics versus placebo/standard care for the treatment of GDM. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed study eligibility, extracted data, checked data accuracy, and assessed risk of bias of included trials. The certainty of evidence for selected maternal and infant/child outcomes was assessed using GRADE. MAIN RESULTS: Nine RCTs (695 pregnant women with GDM) comparing probiotics versus placebo were identified. The overall risk of bias in the nine RCTs was low to unclear and the evidence was downgraded for imprecision due to the small numbers of women participating in the trials. The trials were carried out in hospitals and universities in Iran (seven trials), Thailand (one trial) and Ireland (one trial). All trials compared probiotics with placebo. Maternal outcomes We are uncertain if probiotics have any effect compared with placebo on hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, (risk ratio (RR) 1.50, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.64 to 3.53; participants = 256; studies = 3; low-certainty evidence) and mode of birth as caesareans (average RR 0.64, 95% CI 0.30 to 1.35; participants = 267; studies = 3; low-certainty evidence) because the certainty of evidence is low and the 95% CIs span possible benefit and possible harm. No trials reported primary outcomes of: mode of birth as vaginal/assisted and subsequent development of type 2 diabetes. We are uncertain if probiotics have any effect compared with placebo on induction of labour (RR 1.33, 95% CI 0.74 to 2.37; participants = 127; studies = 1; very low-certainty evidence). For other secondary maternal outcomes, we are uncertain if there are differences between probiotics and placebo for: postpartum haemorrhage; weight gain during pregnancy intervention and total gestational weight gain; fasting plasma glucose and need for extra pharmacotherapy (insulin). Probiotics may be associated with a slight reduction in triglycerides and total cholesterol. In probiotics compared with placebo, there was evidence of reduction in markers for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and HOMA-B; and insulin secretion. There was also an increase in quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI). Probiotics were associated with minor benefits in relevant bio-markers with evidence of a reduction in inflammatory markers high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and marker of oxidative stress malondialdehyde; and an increase in antioxidant total glutathione, but we are uncertain if there is any difference in total antioxidant capacity. No trials reported secondary outcomes: perineal trauma, postnatal weight retention or return to pre-pregnancy weight and postnatal depression. Infant/child/adult outcomes We are uncertain if probiotics have any effect, compared with placebo, on the risk of large-for-gestational-age babies (RR 0.73, 95% CI 0.35 to 1.52; participants = 174; studies = 2; low-certainty evidence) or infant hypoglycaemia (RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.39 to 1.84; participants = 177; studies = 3; low-certainty evidence) because the certainty of evidence is low and the 95% CIs span possible benefit and possible harm. No trials reported primary outcomes of: perinatal (fetal/neonatal) mortality; or neurosensory disability. For other secondary outcomes, we are uncertain if there is any difference between probiotics and placebo in gestational age at birth, preterm birth, macrosomia, birthweight, head circumference, length, infant hypoglycaemia, and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admissions. There was evidence of a reduction in infant hyperbilirubinaemia with probiotics compared with placebo. No trials reported secondary outcomes: infant adiposity, and later childhood adiposity. There were no adverse events reported by any of the trials. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Low-certainty evidence means we are not certain if there is any difference between probiotic and placebo groups in maternal hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, caesareans; and large-for-gestational-age babies. There were no adverse events reported by the trials. Due to the variability of probiotics used and small sample sizes of trials, evidence from this review has limited ability to inform practice. Well-designed adequately-powered trials are needed to identify whether probiotics may improve maternal blood glucose levels and/or infant/child/adult outcomes; and whether they can be used to treat GDM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional/terapia , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Criança , Intervalos de Confiança , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/epidemiologia , Recém-Nascido , Criança Pós-Termo , Trabalho de Parto Induzido/estatística & dados numéricos , Razão de Chances , Placebos/uso terapêutico , Gravidez , Probióticos/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32527660

RESUMO

This chapter aims to provide an evidence-based approach to cervical-ripening methods and induction of labor in high-, middle-, and low-income countries. We will review the epidemiology of induction and will also review pharmacological and mechanical methods of cervical-ripening as well as oxytocin for induction. Lastly, we will review current guidelines of when to determine an induction to be failed.


Assuntos
Maturidade Cervical/efeitos dos fármacos , Trabalho de Parto Induzido , Ocitócicos/farmacologia , Ocitocina/farmacologia , Maturidade Cervical/fisiologia , Dinoprostona , Feminino , Humanos , Ocitócicos/administração & dosagem , Ocitocina/administração & dosagem , Gravidez
15.
Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi ; 55(5): 317-321, 2020 May 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32464719

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the appropriate method of labor induction in the second trimester for complete placenta previa patients. Methods: The labor induction outcomes of 85 cases with complete placenta previa in the second trimester were retrospectively analyzed. Twenty patients in group A were treated with cesarean section, 30 patients in group B were treated with ethacridine and mifepristone combined with uterine artery embolization (UAE), and 35 patients in group C were induced by using ethacridine and mifepristone. The clinical features and induction outcomes of three groups were compared. Results: The total duration of labor in group B [(28.7±30.1) hours] was significantly longer than that of group C [(24.3±21.9) hours; P<0.05]. The total amount of blood loss during induction and labor in group B [(302±271) ml] was significantly lower than those of group C [(393±523) ml] and group A [(626±487) ml; P<0.05]. The incidence of fever in group B (13%, 4/30) was significantly higher than those of group C (11%, 4/35) and group A (10%, 2/20; P<0.05). In group C, 13 patients (37%, 13/35) underwent emergency UAE, and 2 patients (6%, 2/35) underwent emergency cesarean section. As to average hemoglobin level and blood transfusion rate, there were no difference among the three groups (all P>0.05). Conclusion: Prophylactic UAE combined with drug induction in patients with complete placenta previa in the second trimester could significantly reduce the amount of bleeding during induction and reduce the risk of emergency procedures.


Assuntos
Trabalho de Parto Induzido/métodos , Placenta Prévia/fisiopatologia , Embolização da Artéria Uterina/métodos , Adulto , Cesárea , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Segundo Trimestre da Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Anaesth Crit Care Pain Med ; 39(3): 345-349, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32405520

Assuntos
Anestesia Obstétrica/métodos , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Analgesia Obstétrica/métodos , Anestesia Obstétrica/efeitos adversos , Cesárea , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Infecção Hospitalar/transmissão , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Doulas , Feminino , Monitorização Fetal , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Trabalho de Parto Induzido , Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/terapia , Gravidez de Alto Risco , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/epidemiologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/terapia , Telemedicina , Trombofilia/tratamento farmacológico , Trombofilia/etiologia
17.
PLoS Med ; 17(5): e1003103, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442207

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Variations in intervention rates, without subsequent reductions in adverse outcomes, can indicate overuse. We studied variations in and associations between commonly used childbirth interventions and adverse outcomes, adjusted for population characteristics. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In this multinational cross-sectional study, existing data on 4,729,307 singleton births at ≥37 weeks in 2013 from Finland, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Iceland, Ireland, England, the Netherlands, Belgium, Germany (Hesse), Malta, the United States, and Chile were used to describe variations in childbirth interventions and outcomes. Numbers of births ranged from 3,987 for Iceland to 3,500,397 for the USA. Crude data were analysed in the Netherlands, or analysed data were shared with the principal investigator. Strict variable definitions were used and information on data quality was collected. Intervention rates were described for each country and stratified by parity. Uni- and multivariable analyses were performed, adjusted for population characteristics, and associations between rates of interventions, population characteristics, and outcomes were assessed using Spearman's rank correlation coefficients. Considerable intercountry variations were found for all interventions, despite adjustments for population characteristics. Adjustments for ethnicity and body mass index changed odds ratios for augmentation of labour and episiotomy. Largest variations were found for augmentation of labour, pain relief, episiotomy, instrumental birth, and cesarean section (CS). Percentages of births at ≥42 weeks varied from 0.1% to 6.7%. Rates among nulliparous versus multiparous women varied from 56% to 80% versus 51% to 82% for spontaneous onset of labour; 14% to 36% versus 8% to 28% for induction of labour; 3% to 13% versus 7% to 26% for prelabour CS; 16% to 48% versus 12% to 50% for overall CS; 22% to 71% versus 7% to 38% for augmentation of labour; 50% to 93% versus 25% to 86% for any intrapartum pain relief, 19% to 83% versus 10% to 64% for epidural anaesthesia; 6% to 68% versus 2% to 30% for episiotomy in vaginal births; 3% to 30% versus 1% to 7% for instrumental vaginal births; and 42% to 70% versus 50% to 84% for spontaneous vaginal births. Countries with higher rates of births at ≥42 weeks had higher rates of births with a spontaneous onset (rho = 0.82 for nulliparous/rho = 0.83 for multiparous women) and instrumental (rho = 0.67) and spontaneous (rho = 0.66) vaginal births among multiparous women and lower rates of induction of labour (rho = -0.71/-0.66), prelabour CS (rho = -0.61/-0.65), overall CS (rho = -0.61/-0.67), and episiotomy (multiparous: rho = -0.67). Variation in CS rates was mainly due to prelabour CS (rho = 0.96). Countries with higher rates of births with a spontaneous onset had lower rates of emergency CS (nulliparous: rho = -0.62) and higher rates of spontaneous vaginal births (multiparous: rho = 0.70). Prelabour and emergency CS were positively correlated (nulliparous: rho = 0.74). Higher rates of obstetric anal sphincter injury following vaginal birth were found in countries with higher rates of spontaneous birth (nulliparous: rho = 0.65). In countries with higher rates of epidural anaesthesia (nulliparous) and spontaneous births (multiparous), higher rates of Apgar score < 7 were found (rhos = 0.64). No statistically significant variation was found for perinatal mortality. Main limitations were varying quality of data and missing information. CONCLUSIONS: Considerable intercountry variations were found for all interventions, even after adjusting for population characteristics, indicating overuse of interventions in some countries. Multivariable analyses are essential when comparing intercountry rates. Implementation of evidence-based guidelines is crucial in optimising intervention use and improving quality of maternity care worldwide.


Assuntos
Países Desenvolvidos/estatística & dados numéricos , Parto , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adulto , Cesárea , Chile , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Trabalho de Parto Induzido/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde Materna , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32360367

RESUMO

Augmentation of labour aims at improving the efficiency of uterine contractions in order to reduce maternal and foetal adverse outcomes associated with prolonged labour. This review covers the current best practice for different methods of augmentation of labour, namely, artificial rupture of membranes and oxytocin infusion as a prevention of, or therapy for, prolonged labour. The review highlights essential practice points and identifies knowledge gaps for future research in this important area of clinical obstetric practice.


Assuntos
Ocitócicos/farmacologia , Ocitocina/farmacologia , Contração Uterina/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Trabalho de Parto Induzido , Ocitócicos/administração & dosagem , Ocitocina/administração & dosagem , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Arch Gynecol Obstet ; 302(1): 93-99, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32415469

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To describe patterns of physiological and psychological stress during induced labor and their correlation to obstetrical and neonatal outcomes. METHODS: This prospective, observational study included 167 women, with low-risk, singleton pregnancies, who delivered at term, at a tertiary academic center from 2015 through 2018. Among them, 72 (43%) underwent induction and 95 (57%) had spontaneous labor onset. Physiological stress was evaluated by salivary cortisol measurements and emotional stress by questionnaires (visual analogue stress scale 0-10) during latent phase, active phase and full dilation stages of labor, as well as 2 min and 2 h postpartum. Cord blood cortisol and pH were obtained. Stress patterns were compared between parturients who did or did not undergo induction. Modes of delivery, labor and delivery complications, and early neonatal outcomes were compared. Mothers completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. RESULTS: Induced women had lower cortisol concentrations during the latent phase compared to spontaneous onset of labor (p = 0.003), with no differences during active (p = 0.237), full dilation (0.668), 2 min and 2 h after delivery (p = 0.666). Stress scale and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale scores were similar between groups. Cord cortisol (p = 0.294), 1-min Apgar score ≤ 7 (p = 0.502) and 5-min Apgar score ≤ 7 (p = 0.37) were similar. All had cord pH > 7. CONCLUSIONS: Induction does not increase stress during labor. Moreover, it might have a positive effect on reducing cortisol during the latent phase. These findings might reassure women who are concerned about induction of labor.


Assuntos
Hidrocortisona/análise , Trabalho de Parto Induzido/psicologia , Trabalho de Parto/psicologia , Angústia Psicológica , Saliva/química , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Trabalho de Parto/fisiologia , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Estresse Fisiológico , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Inquéritos e Questionários
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