Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 2.373
Filtrar
1.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 68(12): 1909-1920, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31641796

RESUMO

Tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs) are the key components in the tumour microenvironment. TAMs have two major subtypes, M1 and M2. M1 macrophages are tumour inhibitory, while M2 macrophages are tumour promotive. Repolarising TAMs from M2 to M1 is a promising strategy in cancer treatment. M1 and M2 macrophages were generated from murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs). We found that chloroquine (CQ), an autophagy inhibitor, was able to repolarise M2 macrophages to the anti-tumour M1 phenotype. The repolarised macrophages demonstrated higher phagocytotic activity towards Hep-2 laryngeal tumour cells and re-sensitised Hep-2 cells to cisplatin (CDDP) treatment in vitro. While CQ did not demonstrate cytotoxicity to Hep-2 cells in vitro, CQ treatment reduced Hep-2 laryngeal tumour growth in vivo and improved CDDP treatment outcomes. It seems that CQ-induced M2-to-M1 macrophage repolarisation played an important role in tumour growth inhibition, and the CQ/CDDP combined therapy might have clinical potential in laryngeal cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Cisplatino/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Laríngeas/imunologia , Macrófagos/fisiologia , Animais , Autofagia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Transdiferenciação Celular , Cloroquina/farmacologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Neoplasias Laríngeas/tratamento farmacológico , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Nus , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th2/imunologia
2.
Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi ; 154(4): 203-209, 2019.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597900

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a rising cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. Although majority of patients with NAFLD are benign and non-progressive, having only steatosis, some fraction of patients develop non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which can lead to cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and eventually increased liver-related mortality. Among histological features of NAFLD, it has been reported that liver fibrosis is the most important predictor of long-term outcomes. Liver fibrosis is a dynamic process characterized by the over-accumulation of extracellular matrix due to chronic liver injury resulting from any etiology including not only NASH, but also viral infection and alcoholic liver disease. Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) has been well established as a central driver of fibrosis in experimental animal models and human liver injury. It is a transdifferentiation of quiescent, vitamin-A­storing cells into proliferative and fibrogenic myofibroblasts. However, the discovery of novel pathways and mediators reveals the complexity of HSC activation. These emerging pathways include hedgehog, autophagy, free cholesterol, YAP1, hepcidin, and nuclear/G-protein coupled receptor-mediated signals. In addition, pathways of HSC clearance have been uncovered such as apoptosis, senescence, and reversion to an inactivated state. Thus, clarifying the underlying mechanisms of HSC activation could lead to the identification of novel therapeutic targets for NASH, and several drug candidates are currently being developed in clinical trials.


Assuntos
Células Estreladas do Fígado/citologia , Cirrose Hepática/terapia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/terapia , Animais , Transdiferenciação Celular , Humanos
3.
DNA Cell Biol ; 38(11): 1313-1322, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545082

RESUMO

This study investigated whether overexpression of paired-related homeobox 1 (prrx1) can successfully induce differentiation of brown adipose-derived stem cells (BADSCs) into sinus node-like cells. The experiments were performed in two groups: adenovirus-green fluorescent protein (Ad-GFP) group and Ad-prrx1 group. After 5-7 days of adenoviral transfection, the expression levels of sinus node cell-associated pacing protein (hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated potassium channel 4 [HCN4]) and ion channel (calcium channel, voltage-dependent, T type, alpha 1G subunit [Cacna1g]), as well as transcription factors (T-box 18 [TBX18], insulin gene enhancer binding protein 1 [ISL-1], paired-like homeodomain transcription factor 2 [pitx2], short stature homeobox 2 [shox2]), were detected by western blot and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Immunofluorescence assay was carried out to detect whether prrx1 was coexpressed with HCN4, TBX18, and ISL-1. Finally, whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to record pacing current hyperpolarization-activated inward current (If). The isolated cells were CD90+, CD29+, and CD45-, indicating that pure BADSCs were successfully isolated. After 5-7 days of Ad transfection into cells, the mRNA levels and protein levels of pacing-related factors (TBX18, ISL-1, HCN4, shox2, and Cacna1g) in Ad-prrx1 group were significantly higher than those in Ad-GFP group. However, the expression level of pitx2 was decreased. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that prrx1 was coexpressed with TBX18, ISL-1, and HCN4 in the Ad-prrx1 group, which did not appear in the Ad-GFP group. Whole-cell patch clamps were able to record the If current in the experimental group rather than in the Ad-GFP group. Overexpression of prrx1 can successfully induce sinus node-like cells.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo Marrom/fisiologia , Células-Tronco Adultas/fisiologia , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/fisiologia , Nó Sinoatrial/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/citologia , Células-Tronco Adultas/citologia , Animais , Transdiferenciação Celular/genética , Células Cultivadas , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Nó Sinoatrial/citologia , Transfecção
4.
Molecules ; 24(18)2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31489892

RESUMO

Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) loaded with lipid droplets (LDs) are markers of atherosclerosis. In this disease, inflammatory Group IIA-secreted phospholipase A2s (GIIA sPLA2s) are highly expressed in VSMCs, but their actions in these cells are unknown. Here, we investigated the ability of myotoxin III (MT-III), an ophidian GIIA sPLA2 sharing structural and functional features with mammalian GIIA sPLA2s, to induce LD formation and lipid metabolism factors involved in this effect. Modulation of VSMC phenotypes by this sPLA2 was also evaluated. Incubation of VSMCs with MT-III significantly increased the number of LDs. MT-III upregulated scavenger receptor type 1 (SR-A1) and lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) protein expression and enhanced acetylated-low density lipoprotein (acLDL) uptake by VSMCs, revealing the ability of a GIIA PLA2 to modulate scavenger receptor activities. MT-III induced translocation and protein expression of PPAR-γ and -ß/δ. Inhibition of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase (DGAT) and acyl-CoA:cholesterolacyltransferase (ACAT) enzymes abrogated MT-III-induced LD formation. Moreover, in response to MT-III, VSMCs acquired phagocytic activity and expressed macrophage markers CD68 and MAC-2. In conclusion, MT-III is able to stimulate VSMCs and recruit factors involved in lipid uptake and metabolism, leading to the formation of VSMC-derived foam cells with acquisition of macrophage-like markers and functions.


Assuntos
Transdiferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Espumosas/citologia , Fosfolipases A2 do Grupo II/farmacologia , Músculo Liso Vascular/citologia , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipoproteínas LDL/metabolismo , Masculino , Músculo Liso Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/citologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Ratos , Receptores Depuradores Classe A/metabolismo , Receptores Depuradores Classe E/metabolismo
5.
Sheng Li Xue Bao ; 71(4): 597-603, 2019 Aug 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31440757

RESUMO

Central nervous system injury leads to irreversible neuronal loss and glial scar formation, which ultimately results in persistent neurological dysfunction. Regenerative medicine suggests that replenishing missing neurons may be an ideal approach to repair the damage. Recent researches showed that many mature cells could be transdifferentiated into functional neurons by reprogramming. Therefore, reprogramming endogenous glia in situ to produce functional neurons shows great potential and unique advantage for repairing neuronal damage and treating neurodegenerative diseases. The present review summarized the current research progress on in situ transdifferentiation in the central nervous system, focusing on the cell types, characteristics and research progress of glial cells that could be transdifferentiated in situ, in order to provide theoretical basis for the development of new therapeutic strategies of neuronal injury and further clinical application.


Assuntos
Transdiferenciação Celular , Reprogramação Celular , Sistema Nervoso Central/citologia , Neuroglia/citologia , Neurônios/citologia , Humanos , Doenças Neurodegenerativas
6.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 222, 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438947

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatic diseases are serious problems worldwide, which may lead to the development of fibrosis and eventually cirrhosis. Despite the significant number of people affected by hepatic fibrosis, no effective treatment is available. In the liver, hepatic stellate cells are the major fibrogenic cell type that play a relevant function in chronic liver diseases. Thus, the characterization of components that control the fibrogenesis in the hepatic stellate cells is relevant in supporting the development of innovative therapies to treat and/or control liver fibrosis. The present study investigated the effects of Baccharis dracunculifolia D.C. and Plectranthus barbatus Andrews medicinal plant extracts in LX-2 transdifferentiation. METHODS: LX-2 is a human immortalized hepatic stellate cell that can transdifferentiate in vitro from a quiescent-like phenotype to a more proliferative and activated behavior, and it provides a useful platform to assess antifibrotic drugs. Then, the antifibrotic effects of hydroalcoholic extracts of Baccharis dracunculifolia and Plectranthus barbatus medicinal plants on LX-2 were evaluated. RESULTS: The results in our cellular analyses, under the investigated concentrations of the plant extracts, indicate no deleterious effects on LX-2 metabolism, such as toxicity, genotoxicity, or apoptosis. Moreover, the extracts induced changes in actin filament distribution of activated LX-2, despite not affecting the cellular markers of transdifferentiation. Consistent effects in cellular retinoid metabolism were observed, supporting the presumed activity of the plant extracts in hepatic lipids metabolism, which corroborated the traditional knowledge about their uses for liver dysfunction. CONCLUSION: The combined results suggested a potential hepatoprotective effect of the investigated plant extracts reinforcing their safe use as coadjuvants in treating imbalanced liver lipid metabolism.


Assuntos
Baccharis , Células Estreladas do Fígado , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plectranthus , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Retinoides/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular , Transdiferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Estreladas do Fígado/química , Células Estreladas do Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Estreladas do Fígado/metabolismo , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Plantas Medicinais , Retinoides/análise
7.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1165: 381-406, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399975

RESUMO

Renal inflammation is the initial, healthy response to renal injury. However, prolonged inflammation promotes the fibrosis process, which leads to chronic pathology and eventually end-stage kidney disease. There are two major sources of inflammatory cells: first, bone marrow-derived leukocytes that include neutrophils, macrophages, fibrocytes and mast cells, and second, locally activated kidney cells such as mesangial cells, podocytes, tubular epithelial cells, endothelial cells and fibroblasts. These activated cells produce many profibrotic cytokines and growth factors that cause accumulation and activation of myofibroblasts, and enhance the production of the extracellular matrix. In particular, activated macrophages are key mediators that drive acute inflammation into chronic kidney disease. They produce large amounts of profibrotic factors and modify the microenvironment via a paracrine effect, and they also transdifferentiate to myofibroblasts directly, although the origin of myofibroblasts in the fibrosing kidney remains controversial. Collectively, understanding inflammatory cell functions and mechanisms during renal fibrosis is paramount to improving diagnosis and treatment of chronic kidney disease.


Assuntos
Mediadores da Inflamação/fisiologia , Nefropatias/fisiopatologia , Rim/patologia , Transdiferenciação Celular , Fibrose , Humanos , Leucócitos/citologia , Macrófagos/citologia , Miofibroblastos/citologia
8.
Phytother Res ; 33(11): 3008-3015, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31435973

RESUMO

Airway remodeling is one important feature of childhood asthma, which is one of the most common chronic childhood diseases. Phenotype switching of airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs), defined as a reversible switching between contractile and proliferative phenotypes, plays an important role in the process of airway remodeling. Esculetin has shown antiinflammatory action in animal models of asthma; however, the effects of esculetin on ASMC phenotype switching have not been investigated. In the present study, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) was used to induce the phenotype modulation of ASMCs. The results demonstrated that esculetin pretreatment mitigated the PDGF-caused inhibitory effects on expressions of contractile phenotype protein markers, including calponin and SM22α. Esculetin also inhibited PDGF-induced migration and proliferation of ASMCs. Besides, the PDGF-induced expressions of extracellular matrix components, collagen I and fibronectin, were attenuated by esculetin pretreatment. Furthermore, PDGF-caused activation of PI3K/Akt pathway in ASMCs was inhibited by esculetin. These findings suggest that esculetin might exert its inhibitory effect on PDGF-induced ASMC phenotype switching through inhibition of PI3K/Akt pathway.


Assuntos
Remodelação das Vias Aéreas/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdiferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , Umbeliferonas/farmacologia , Remodelação das Vias Aéreas/fisiologia , Asma/metabolismo , Asma/fisiopatologia , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Criança , Colágeno Tipo I/metabolismo , Humanos , Contração Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/fisiologia , Fenótipo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Derivado de Plaquetas/metabolismo , Mucosa Respiratória/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Respiratória/fisiologia
9.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3071, 2019 07 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31296856

RESUMO

The formation of new blood vessels is essential for normal development, tissue repair and tumor growth. Here we show that inhibition of the kinase p38α enhances angiogenesis in human and mouse colon tumors. Mesenchymal cells can contribute to tumor angiogenesis by regulating proliferation and migration of endothelial cells. We show that p38α negatively regulates an angiogenic program in mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs), multipotent progenitors found in perivascular locations. This program includes the acquisition of an endothelial phenotype by MSCs mediated by both TGF-ß and JNK, and negatively regulated by p38α. Abrogation of p38α in mesenchymal cells increases tumorigenesis, which correlates with enhanced angiogenesis. Using genetic models, we show that p38α regulates the acquisition of an endothelial-like phenotype by mesenchymal cells in colon tumors and damage tissue. Taken together, our results indicate that p38α in mesenchymal cells restrains a TGF-ß-induced angiogenesis program including their ability to transdifferentiate into endothelial cells.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Proteínas Quinases JNK Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase 14 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Neoplasias Experimentais/patologia , Neovascularização Patológica/patologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Animais , Azoximetano/administração & dosagem , Azoximetano/toxicidade , Carcinógenos/administração & dosagem , Carcinógenos/toxicidade , Proliferação de Células , Transdiferenciação Celular , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Endotélio Vascular/citologia , Endotélio Vascular/patologia , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Células HT29 , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Proteína Quinase 14 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Neoplasias Experimentais/induzido quimicamente , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo
10.
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem ; 83(11): 2090-2096, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31334687

RESUMO

Myostatin (Mstn) is an important growth/differentiation factor, and knockdown of Mstn reduces fat content. Here, we knocked down Mstn expression in C2C12 myoblasts and then induced adipogenic trans-differentiation in the cells. The effects of Mstn knockdown on lipid droplet contents and H3K27me3 marker expression on adipocyte-specific genes were detected. The results showed that Mstn knockdown reduced the formation of lipid droplets, downregulated the expression of adipocyte-specific genes, and increased H3K27me3 marker expression on adipocyte-specific genes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showed that the SMAD2/SMAD3 complex could combine with the Jumonji D3 (Jmjd3) promoter and that Mstn regulated Jmjd3 expression through this process. Jmjd3 overexpression removed the H3K27me3 marker and increased the expression of adipocyte-specific genes. Overall, our results showed that Mstn regulated Jmjd3 expression through SMAD2/SMAD3, thus affecting the H3K27me3 marker on adipocyte-specific genes and the trans-differentiation from myocytes to adipocytes.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/citologia , Transdiferenciação Celular/genética , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Histona Desmetilases com o Domínio Jumonji/metabolismo , Células Musculares/citologia , Miostatina/genética , Proteínas Smad Reguladas por Receptor/metabolismo , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Regulação para Baixo/genética , Histonas/química , Histonas/metabolismo , Gotículas Lipídicas/metabolismo , Lisina/metabolismo , Metilação , Camundongos , Células Musculares/metabolismo , Miostatina/deficiência , Proteína Smad2/metabolismo , Proteína Smad3/metabolismo
11.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 76(20): 4043-4070, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31317205

RESUMO

Stem cells give rise to all cells and build the tissue structures in our body, and heterogeneity and plasticity are the hallmarks of stem cells. Epigenetic modification, which is associated with niche signals, determines stem cell differentiation and somatic cell reprogramming. Stem cells play a critical role in the development of tumors and are capable of generating 3D organoids. Understanding the properties of stem cells will improve our capacity to maintain tissue homeostasis. Dissecting epigenetic regulation could be helpful for achieving efficient cell reprograming and for developing new drugs for cancer treatment. Stem cell-derived organoids open up new avenues for modeling human diseases and for regenerative medicine. Nevertheless, in addition to the achievements in stem cell research, many challenges still need to be overcome for stem cells to have versatile application in clinics.


Assuntos
Epigênese Genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/genética , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Organoides/metabolismo , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Carcinogênese/genética , Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Carcinogênese/patologia , Diferenciação Celular , Transdiferenciação Celular , Reprogramação Celular , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Histonas/genética , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Organoides/patologia , Medicina Regenerativa/métodos , Nicho de Células-Tronco/genética , Transplante de Células-Tronco/métodos , Células-Tronco/classificação , Células-Tronco/citologia
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(15)2019 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357597

RESUMO

During sepsis, the increased synthesis of circulating lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein (LBP) activates LPS/TLR4 signaling in renal resident cells, leading to acute kidney injury (AKI). Pericytes are the major source of myofibroblasts during chronic kidney disease (CKD), but their involvement in AKI is poorly understood. Here, we investigate the occurrence of pericyte-to-myofibroblast trans-differentiation (PMT) in sepsis-induced AKI. In a swine model of sepsis-induced AKI, PMT was detected within 9 h from LPS injection, as evaluated by the reduction of physiologic PDGFRß expression and the dysfunctional α-SMA increase in peritubular pericytes. The therapeutic intervention by citrate-based coupled plasma filtration adsorption (CPFA) significantly reduced LBP, TGF-ß, and endothelin-1 (ET-1) serum levels, and furthermore preserved PDGFRß and decreased α-SMA expression in renal biopsies. In vitro, both LPS and septic sera led to PMT with a significant increase in Collagen I synthesis and α-SMA reorganization in contractile fibers by both SMAD2/3-dependent and -independent TGF-ß signaling. Interestingly, the removal of LBP from septic plasma inhibited PMT. Finally, LPS-stimulated pericytes secreted LBP and TGF-ß and underwent PMT also upon TGF-ß receptor-blocking, indicating the crucial pro-fibrotic role of TLR4 signaling. Our data demonstrate that the selective removal of LBP may represent a therapeutic option to prevent PMT and the development of acute renal fibrosis in sepsis-induced AKI.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Lesão Renal Aguda/metabolismo , Proteínas da Fase Aguda/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Transdiferenciação Celular , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Miofibroblastos/metabolismo , Pericitos/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Lesão Renal Aguda/patologia , Animais , Biópsia , Transdiferenciação Celular/genética , Células Cultivadas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Endotoxinas/efeitos adversos , Fibrose , Imuno-Histoquímica , Modelos Biológicos , Miofibroblastos/citologia , Suínos
13.
Life Sci ; 230: 197-207, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150688

RESUMO

AIMS: Increased amounts of protein, in particular albumin within renal tubular cells (TBCs), induce the expression of inflammatory and fibrogenic mediators, which are adverse prognostic factors in tubulointerstitial fibrosis and diabetic nephropathy (DN). We sought to assess the participation of the thiol-linked tertiary structure of albumin in the mechanism of protein toxicity in a model of TBCs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cultured human renal proximal tubular cells, HK-2, were exposed to isolated albumin from patients with and without DN (Stages 0, 1 and 4). The magnitude of change of the albumin tertiary structure, cell viability (LDH leakage), apoptosis (Annexin V), transdifferentiation and reticulum endoplasmic stress (Western blot and flow cytometry) and lysosomal enzyme activity were assessed. KEY FINDINGS: We found that albumin from Stage 4 patients presented >50% higher thiol-dependent changes of tertiary structure compared to Stages 0 and 1. Cells incubated with Stage 4 albumin displayed 5 times less viability, accompanied by an increased number of apoptotic cells; evidence of profibrogenic markers E-cadherin and vimentin and higher expression of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition markers α-SMA and E-cadherin and of endoplasmic reticulum stress protein GRP78 were likewise observed. Moreover, we found that cathepsin B activity in isolated lysosomes showed a significant inhibitory effect on albumin from patients in advanced stages of DN and on albumin that was intentionally modified. SIGNIFICANCE: Overall, this study showed that thiol-dependent changes in albumin's tertiary structure interfere with the lysosomal proteolysis of renal TBCs, inducing molecular changes associated with interstitial fibrosis and DN progression.


Assuntos
Nefropatias Diabéticas/metabolismo , Lisossomos/fisiologia , Albumina Sérica Humana/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Albuminas/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Caderinas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular , Transdiferenciação Celular , Nefropatias Diabéticas/fisiopatologia , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Fibrose , Humanos , Túbulos Renais/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cultura Primária de Células , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína/fisiologia , Albumina Sérica Humana/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Vimentina/metabolismo
14.
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 35(4): 313-319, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31167690

RESUMO

Objective To explore the mechanism of transdifferentiation of human renal tubular epithelial cells induced by high glucose based on reactive oxygen species (ROS)/NF-κB signaling pathway. Methods HK-2 normal human proximal tubular epithelial cells were randomly divided into blank control group, osmotic pressure control group, high glucose group and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) group. Cell morphology was observed by phase contrast microscope. Cell viability was measured by MTT assay. Flow cytometry was used to detect intracellular ROS content. Malondialdehyde (MDA) content and superoxide dismutase activity were tested by ELISA. Western blot analysis was used to examine the protein levels of NF-κBp65, phosphorylated IκBα (p-IκBα) and IKKα, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). The expressions of NF-κBp65, epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin) and alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) were assessed by immunocytochemistry. Results In high glucose group, the cells became spindle-shaped or irregular, with radial edges, enlarged intercellular space, decreased refractive index and irregular arrangement. At the same time, the cell activity decreased with the prolongation of treatment time, and the cell activity in PDTC group was higher than that in high glucose group. Compared with the blank control group, the content of ROS and MDA increased and the activity of SOD decreased in the high glucose group, while the content of ROS and MDA decreased and the activity of SOD increased in the PDTC group compared with the high glucose group. Compared with the blank group, the protein levels of NF-κBp65, p-IκBα, IKKα, MCP-1 and ICAM-1 increased in the high glucose group, while the protein levels above decreased in the PDTC group compared with the high glucose group. Compared with the blank group, the proportion of positive cells of NF-κBp65 and α-SMA increased and the proportion of positive cells of E-cadherin decreased in the high glucose group. Compared with the high glucose group, the proportion of positive cells of NF-κBp65 and α-SMA decreased and the proportion of positive cells of E-cadherin increased in the PDTC group. Conclusion High glucose can induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition in HK-2 cells. Activation of NF-κB signaling pathway mediated by ROS participates in the above process, which can be blocked by PDTC.


Assuntos
Transdiferenciação Celular , Células Epiteliais/citologia , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Linhagem Celular , Meios de Cultura , Glucose , Humanos , Túbulos Renais/citologia , Pirrolidinas , Tiocarbamatos
15.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177707

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the regulatory effect of miR-29c on the trans-differentiation of pulmonary fibroblasts into myofibroblasts induced by silica dust. Methods: Fibroblasts obtained from SD rat lung tissue and pulmonary macrophages (NR8383) were co-cultured to establish the silicosis cell model in vitro. And real time-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and Western Blot assays were performed to detect the altered expression level of miR-29c and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) . After that, the in vitro cell model was transfected with corresponding viruses to establish miR-29c overexpression and inhibition cell models, and the mRNA and protein expression levels of α-SMA were detected simultaneously. Results: Compared with control group, the expression level of miR-29c in the silicosis cell model in vitro was down-regulated significantly after 12 or 18 h exposed to SiO(2), and both of the mRNA and protein expression levels of α-SMA were up-regulated instead (P<0.05) . When transfected with corresponding viruses, the mRNA and protein expression levels of α-SMA in the pulmonary fibroblasts were significantly up-regulated in miR-29c inhibition group and down-regulated in miR-29c overexpression group (P<0.05) . Conclusion: Based on the findings, it could be safely infered that the development of pulmonary fibrosis could be impeded by inhibiting transdifferentiation process of pulmonary fibroblasts into myofibroblasts regulated by miR-29c, miR-29c could be an potential therapeutic target to lung fibrosis induced by silica.


Assuntos
Transdiferenciação Celular , MicroRNAs , Animais , Fibroblastos , MicroRNAs/fisiologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Dióxido de Silício/toxicidade
16.
Cell Mol Life Sci ; 76(20): 3953-3967, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250034

RESUMO

The brain tissue has only a limited capacity for generating new neurons. Therefore, to treat neurological diseases, there is a need of other cell sources for brain repair. Different sources of cells have been subject of intense research over the years, including cells from primary tissue, stem cell-derived cells and reprogrammed cells. As an alternative, direct reprogramming of resident brain cells into neurons is a recent approach that could provide an attractive method for treating brain injuries or diseases as it uses the patient's own cells for generating novel neurons inside the brain. In vivo reprogramming is still in its early stages but holds great promise as an option for cell therapy. To date, both inhibitory and excitatory neurons have been obtained via in vivo reprogramming, but the precise phenotype or functionality of these cells has not been analysed in detail in most of the studies. Recent data shows that in vivo reprogrammed neurons are able to functionally mature and integrate into the existing brain circuitry, and compose interneuron phenotypes that seem to correlate to their endogenous counterparts. Interneurons are of particular importance as they are essential in physiological brain function and when disturbed lead to several neurological disorders. In this review, we describe a comprehensive overview of the existing studies involving brain repair, including in vivo reprogramming, with a focus on interneurons, along with an overview on current efforts to generate interneurons for cell therapy for a number of neurological diseases.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas/terapia , Terapia Baseada em Transplante de Células e Tecidos/métodos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Interneurônios/citologia , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/terapia , Regeneração/fisiologia , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Encéfalo/citologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Lesões Encefálicas/genética , Lesões Encefálicas/metabolismo , Lesões Encefálicas/patologia , Transdiferenciação Celular , Reprogramação Celular , Fibroblastos/citologia , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Vetores Genéticos/química , Vetores Genéticos/metabolismo , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Injeções Intraventriculares , Interneurônios/metabolismo , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/genética , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/metabolismo , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/patologia , Neurogênese/genética , Transplante de Células-Tronco/métodos
17.
Gen Physiol Biophys ; 38(4): 271-280, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31219429

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the Rho GDP dissociation inhibitor (RhoGDI) on TGFß1-mediated vascular adventitia myofibroblast transdifferentiation and on the inhibition of ROCK inhibitors. Myofibroblast transdifferentiation and vascular remodeling model were induced by TGFß1 in vitro and by balloon injury in vivo. H&E (Hematoxylin & Eosin) and PSR (Picrosirius Red) staining were used to observe vascular morphology while immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry, and Western blotting were used to measure protein expression. Fasudil treatment reduced the expression of TGFß1, RhoGDI1, and RhoGDI2 in addition to vascular remodeling in the rat balloon injury model. TGFß1 induced the expression of α-SMA, TGFßRI, phospho-TGFßRI, RhoGDI1, RhoGDI2, and collagen secretion in human aortic adventitial fibroblasts (HAAFs). These effects were diminished after treatment with Y27632. Suppressing both RhoGDI1 and RhoGDI2 expression also blocked TGFß1-induced α-SMA expression and collagen secretion in HAAFs. Moreover, TGFßR inhibition blocked TGFß1-mediated collagen secretion and the expression of α-SMA, RhoGDI1, and RhoGDI2. These data suggested that ROCK inhibitors alleviate myofibroblast transdifferentiation and vascular remodeling by decreasing TGFß1-mediated expression of RhoGDI.


Assuntos
Transdiferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Miofibroblastos/citologia , Miofibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Remodelação Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Quinases Associadas a rho/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores da Dissociação do Nucleotídeo Guanina rho-Específico/biossíntese , Animais , Humanos , Ratos
18.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res ; 1866(9): 1450-1462, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31212003

RESUMO

During Freund's adjuvant induced inflammation rat mesenteric mesothelial cells transdifferentiate into mesenchymal cell. They express macrophage markers, inflammatory cytokines (TGF-ß, TNFα, IL-6), and specific receptors. When primary mesenteric cultures were treated with GM-CSF and/or TGF-ß (in vitro), similar phenotypic and biological changes were induced. It seemed likely that GM-CSF receptor-ligand complex should be internalized to initiate mesothelial-macrophage transition. To follow the intracellular route of GM-CSF receptor ß, we co-localized this receptor with various endocytic markers (Cav-1, EEA1, Rab7, and Rab11a), and carried out detailed immunocytochemical, statistical and biochemical analyses. Since STAT5 is one of the downstream element of GM-CSF signaling, we followed the expression and phosphorylation level of this transcription factor. Our results showed that in mesenteric mesothelial cells GM-CSF receptor ß is internalized by caveolae, delivered into early endosomes where the signaling events occur, STAT5A is phosphorylated by JAK2, and then translocated into the nucleus. When dynamin-dependent endocytosis of GM-CSFR ß is inhibited by dynasore, phosphorylation of STAT5A is not occurred, confirming, that the internalization of receptor ß is indispensable for signal transduction. At the early time of inflammation a significant receptor recycling can be found to the plasma membrane. Later (day 8) the receptor is delivered into late endosomes, indicating that its degradation has already started, and the regeneration of mesothelial cells can start. All of these data strongly support that the internalization of GM-CSF receptor ß is required and essential for signal transduction.


Assuntos
Transdiferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Subunidade beta Comum dos Receptores de Citocinas/metabolismo , Endocitose/fisiologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Animais , Cavéolas/efeitos dos fármacos , Cavéolas/metabolismo , Subunidade beta Comum dos Receptores de Citocinas/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hidrazonas/farmacologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Janus Quinase 2/metabolismo , Macrófagos/citologia , Masculino , Fosforilação , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Fator de Transcrição STAT5/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo
19.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2019: 6408352, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31217840

RESUMO

Cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) are a critical cell population responsible for myocardial extracellular matrix homeostasis. After stimulation by myocardial infarction (MI), CFs transdifferentiate into cardiac myofibroblasts (CMFs) and play a fundamental role in the fibrotic healing response. Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channels are cationic ion channels with a high fractional Ca2+ current, and they are known to influence cardiac function after MI injury; however, the molecular mechanisms regulating CMF transdifferentiation remain poorly understood. TRPA1 knockout mice, their wild-type littermates, and mice pretreated with the TRPA1 agonist cinnamaldehyde (CA) were subjected to MI injury and monitored for survival, cardiac function, and fibrotic remodeling. TRPA1 can drive myofibroblast transdifferentiation initiated 1 week after MI injury. In addition, we explored the underlying mechanisms via in vitro experiments through gene transfection alone or in combination with inhibitor treatment. TRPA1 overexpression fully activated CMF transformation, while CFs lacking TRPA1 were refractory to transforming growth factor ß- (TGF-ß-) induced transdifferentiation. TGF-ß enhanced TRPA1 expression, which promoted the Ca2+-responsive activation of calcineurin (CaN). Moreover, dual-specificity tyrosine-regulated kinase-1a (DYRK1A) regulated CaN-mediated NFAT nuclear translocation and TRPA1-dependent transdifferentiation. These findings suggest a potential therapeutic role for TRPA1 in the regulation of CMF transdifferentiation in response to MI injury and indicate a comprehensive pathway driving CMF formation in conjunction with TGF-ß, Ca2+ influx, CaN, NFATc3, and DYRK1A.


Assuntos
Calcineurina/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Infarto do Miocárdio/genética , Miofibroblastos/metabolismo , Animais , Transdiferenciação Celular , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Camundongos , Infarto do Miocárdio/patologia , Transdução de Sinais , Transfecção
20.
Gastroenterology ; 157(2): 349-364.e1, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31082367

RESUMO

In patients with Barrett's esophagus (BE), metaplastic columnar mucosa containing epithelial cells with gastric and intestinal features replaces esophageal squamous mucosa damaged by gastroesophageal reflux disease. This condition is estimated to affect 5.6% of adults in the United States, and is a major risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma. Despite the prevalence and importance of BE, its pathogenesis is incompletely understood and there are disagreements over the cells of origin. We review mechanisms of BE pathogenesis, including transdifferentiation and transcommitment, and discuss potential cells of origin, including basal cells of the squamous epithelium, cells of esophageal submucosal glands and their ducts, cells of the proximal stomach, and specialized populations of cells at the esophagogastric junction (residual embryonic cells and transitional basal cells). We discuss the concept of metaplasia as a wound-healing response, and how cardiac mucosa might be the precursor of the intestinal metaplasia of BE. Finally, we discuss shortcomings in current diagnostic criteria for BE that have important clinical implications.


Assuntos
Esôfago de Barrett/patologia , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Mucosa Esofágica/patologia , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adenocarcinoma/prevenção & controle , Esôfago de Barrett/diagnóstico , Esôfago de Barrett/epidemiologia , Cárdia/citologia , Cárdia/patologia , Transdiferenciação Celular , Progressão da Doença , Mucosa Esofágica/citologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/prevenção & controle , Junção Esofagogástrica/citologia , Junção Esofagogástrica/patologia , Mucosa Gástrica/citologia , Mucosa Gástrica/patologia , Humanos , Metaplasia/patologia , Estados Unidos , Cicatrização/fisiologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA